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Eco. 391 Online Discussion/Quiz 20-1-2023 (Scientific and non-scientific Research)

Eco. 391 Online Discussion/Quiz 20-1-2023 (Scientific and non-scientific Research)

  1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
  2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

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  1. Avatar Omeje sharon Amarachi says:

    Omeje Sharon Amarachi
    2019/244241
    Eco/pol (css)
    1. Non scientific research is the inquiring of knowledge and understanding about a particular topic or issues in the world by making use of techniques that do not follow the scientific method.
    Nonscientific and scientific research vary in their definitions and methods. through an explanation of how nonscientific research is conducted through tradition, personal experience, intuition, logic, and authority while scientific research relies on the scientific method.
    Difference between non scientific research and scientific research
    Non-scientific research is based on:
    Speculation or guess work: this is based on what the research thinks or feel
    Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective.
    2. characteristics of scientific research
    Objectivity
    Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices. If you are afraid that your work will not be objective enough, then you can ask us to “write my paper” or order proofreading.

    2. Verifiable
    Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.

    Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    3. Ethical neutrality
    Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war.

    Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research proposal. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.

    4. Systematic exploration
    A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.

    5. Reliable or reliable
    Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.

    6. Accuracy
    Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague as some literary writings. Tennyson wrote: “Every moment a man dies; Every moment that one is born, it is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every tenth, on average, a man dies; every fourth second, on average, a baby is born «. Accuracy requires giving the exact number or measure. Instead of saying “most people are against marriages for love,” says a scientific researcher, “ninety percent of people are against marriages for love.”

    7. Abstraction
    Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. He is not interested in giving a realistic image.

    8. Predictability
    Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc.

  2. Avatar Nnaji Lovelyn Chinwe. 2019/247502 says:

    A scientific research is a systematic process of investigation or inquiry carried out in accordance with known laid down specific procedures for the purpose of finding answers or solutions to a perplexing issues.
    Non-scientific research are researches made on speculation and guess work, Intuition and premonition, ideas without proof and Divine revelations.
    Scientific research and non-scientific research differs in the sense that scientific research pursues a step by step logical,organized and rigorous method to identify problems and collect data while non-scientific research is based on what the researcher feels, and thinks and it is without proof that is guess work.
    2. PURPOSEFUL: Scientific research is directed towards the solution of a problem. Its aim is clear and purposeful.
    CONTROLLED: It explored the relationship between two variables and finds a way to minimize the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship.
    RIGOROUS: Scientific research is based on good theoritical base and sound methodology.
    CRITICAL: The process and procedures of investigation and research must be critically scrutinized and free from draw backs.
    VALID AND VERIFIABLE : The conclusions of research must be correct, verifiable and replicable anytime and anywhere.
    EMPIRICAL: Conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information and data collected from real life experience. The work does not have the presence of personal opinion.
    LOGICAL: Every step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure looks and conclusions.
    SYSTEMATIC: means that it follows clearly stipulated procedures and some procedures must follow others. Steps cannot be taken in haphazard ways

  3. Avatar EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM 2019/245390 ECONOMICS MAJOR says:

    QUESTION ONE

    Scientific research is a systematic and objective process that involves the use of the scientific method to test hypotheses and establish facts. It involves following a set of procedures to collect and analyze data in a way that is reliable, verifiable, and repeatable. Scientific research is characterized by the use of empirical evidence and the application of logical and rational thinking to reach valid conclusions.

    Non-scientific research, on the other hand, refers to research that does not follow the scientific method or that relies on methods that are not reliable, verifiable, or repeatable. Non-scientific research may be based on personal experience, anecdotal evidence, intuition, or belief. Non-scientific research may also be biased, subjective, and influenced by personal opinions or interests.

    There are several differences between scientific and non-scientific research. Firstly, scientific research follows a set of systematic procedures, whereas non-scientific research does not. Secondly, scientific research is based on empirical evidence, whereas non-scientific research may rely on anecdotal evidence or personal experience. Thirdly, scientific research is objective and unbiased, while non-scientific research may be subjective and biased. Finally, scientific research is designed to be replicable and verifiable, while non-scientific research may not be.

    In summary, scientific research is a systematic, objective, and reliable process that uses the scientific method to establish facts, while non-scientific research is based on methods that may be unreliable, subjective, and biased. Scientific research is the foundation of modern knowledge and is essential for progress in many fields.

    QUESTION TWO

    Characteristics of Scientific Research

    Scientific research is a systematic and structured approach to solving problems, investigating phenomena, and acquiring new knowledge. It involves the use of scientific methods and principles to design and conduct experiments, analyze data, and draw conclusions. The following are the main characteristics of scientific research:

    Objectivity: Scientific research is based on objectivity, which means that researchers strive to eliminate personal bias and subjectivity from their investigations. Objectivity is achieved through the use of standardized research methods, and the collection and analysis of data using reliable and valid measures.

    SYSTEMATIC APPROACH: Scientific research follows a systematic approach that involves a series of steps from problem identification to data analysis and interpretation. The process of research design, data collection, and analysis is carefully planned and executed to ensure that the results are valid, reliable, and replicable.

    EMPIRICISM: Scientific research is empirical, which means that it is based on evidence gathered through direct observation and measurement. Empirical evidence is essential to verify or refute hypotheses and theories.

    REPLICABILITY: Scientific research is replicable, which means that other researchers can replicate the study using the same methods and procedures to verify the results. Replicability is important because it enhances the reliability and validity of the research findings.

    PRECISION and ACCURACY: Scientific research requires precision and accuracy in measurement, data collection, and analysis. Researchers must use valid and reliable instruments to collect data and employ appropriate statistical methods to analyze the data.

    THEORY TESTING: Scientific research is used to test and refine theories. Theories are developed through observation and experience and are subjected to scientific scrutiny through empirical research. Research findings are used to support or refute theories, and new theories are developed based on the results of research.

    GENERALIZATION: Scientific research aims to generalize findings from a sample to a larger population. The sample is chosen to represent the population, and statistical methods are used to infer population parameters from sample data.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Scientific research is conducted in an ethical manner. Researchers must respect the rights of participants and ensure that their research is not harmful or exploitative. They must obtain informed consent from participants and maintain confidentiality and privacy.

    In summary, scientific research is characterized by objectivity, a systematic approach, empiricism, replicability, precision and accuracy, theory testing, generalization, and ethical considerations. These characteristics ensure that scientific research produces valid and reliable knowledge that can be used to advance understanding and solve practical problems.

  4. Avatar Ogbaga stella chinwendu 2019/241733 says:

    Ogbaga Stella chinwedu
    Economics department
    2019/241733
    Assignment 391(Research method)

    Question 1

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    A research approach is the procedure selected by the researcher to collect, analyze, and interpret data. There are three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods.

    Different research techniques are used to collect data depending upon the researcher’s choice to conduct quantitative research or qualitative research.

    When conducting quantitative research, surveys can be conducted. Survey research is a quantitative research methodology technique that involves collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions about the status of the subject in the study.

    Question 2

    Research process consists of a series of steps or actions required for effectively conducting research while formulating the research problem, extensive literature survey, developing hypothesis, preparing the research design, determining sample design, collecting data, execution of the project, analysis of data, hypothesis testing, generalization and interpretation, and preparation of the report or presentation of the results. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. According to Clifford woody, research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions; to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

    Question 3

    The three common approaches to conducting research are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. The
    researcher anticipates the type of data needed to respond to the research question. For instance, is numerical, textural,
    or both numerical and textural data needed? Based on this assessment, the researcher selects one of the three
    aforementioned approaches to conduct research. Researchers typically select the quantitative approach to respond to
    research questions requiring numerical data, the qualitative approach for research questions requiring textural data,
    and the mixed methods approach for research questions requiring both numerical and textural data.

    This various notions could be stated as criteria, also there are 3 basic steps to follow when considering a research program.

    Three Purposes of Research

    Social research can serve a variety of purposes. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description and explanation.

    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.

    Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.

    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same. Given these statistics, you could start to develop an explanation for attitudes toward marijuana legalization. In addition, further study of gender and political orientation could lead to a deeper explanation of this issue.

    Question 4

    Research is at times mistaken for gathering information, documenting facts, and rummaging for information
    (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to understand
    a phenomenon (Leedy & Ormrod). The research process is systematic in that defining the objective, managing the
    data, and communicating the findings occur within established frameworks and in accordance with existing
    guidelines. The frameworks and guidelines provide researchers with an indication of what to include in the research,
    how to perform the research, and what types of inferences are probable based on the data collected.
    Research originates with at least one question about one phenomenon of interest.

    Quantitative research has dominated the western cultural as the research method to create meaning
    and new knowledge. What constitutes a quantitative research method involves a numeric or statistical approach to
    research design. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) alleged that quantitative research is specific in its surveying and
    experimentation, as it builds upon existing theories. The methodology of a quantitative research maintains the
    assumption of an empiricist paradigm (Creswell, 2003). The research itself is independent of the researcher. As a
    result, data is used to objectively measure reality. Quantitative research creates meaning through objectivity
    uncovered in the collected data.
    Quantitative research can be used in response to relational questions of variables within the research.
    “Quantitative researchers seek explanations and predictions that will generate to other persons and places. The intent
    is to establish, confirm, or validate relationships and to develop generalizations that contribute to theory” (Leedy and
    Ormrod, 2001, p. 102). Quantitative research begins with a problem statement and involves the formation of a
    hypothesis, a literature review, and a quantitative data analysis. Creswell (2003) states, quantitative research “employ
    strategies of inquiry such as experimental and surveys, and collect data on predetermined instruments that yield
    statistical data” (p. 18). The findings from quantitative research can be predictive, explanatory, and confirming. The
    next section focuses on quantitative research methodology.

    Qualitative research is a holistic approach that involves discovery. Qualitative research is also
    described as an unfolding model that occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail
    from high involvement in the actual experiences (Creswell, 1994). One identifier of a qualitative research is the social
    phenomenon being investigated from the participant‟s viewpoint. There are different types of research designs that use
    qualitative research techniques to frame the research approach. As a result, the different techniques have a dramatic
    effect on the research strategies explored.
    What constitutes qualitative research involves purposeful use for describing, explaining, and
    interpreting collected data. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) alleged that qualitative research is less structured in description
    because it formulates and builds new theories. Qualitative research can also be described as an effective model that
    occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail from being highly involved in the
    actual experiences (Creswell, 2003).
    Qualitative research is conducted within a poststructuralist paradigm. There are five areas of
    qualitative research: case study, ethnography study, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, and content
    analysis. These five areas are representative of research that is built upon inductive reasoning and associated
    methodologies.
    Qualitative research builds its premises on inductive, rather than deductive reasoning. It is from the
    observational elements that pose questions that the researcher attempts to explain. The strong correlation between the
    observer and the data is a marked difference from quantitative research, where the researcher is strictly outside of the
    phenomena being investigated. There is no beginning point of truth or any established assumptions from which the researcher can begin (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001).

    There are several different methods for conducting a qualitative research; however, Leedy and Ormrod
    (2001) recommend the following five: Case studies, grounded theory, ethnography, content analysis, and
    phenomenological. Creswell (2003) describes how these methods meet different needs. For instance, case studies and
    the grounded theory research explore processes, activities, and events while ethnographic research analyses broad
    cultural-sharing behaviors of individuals or groups. Case studies as well as phenomenology can be used to study
    individuals.

    Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) discussed the mixed methods approach to research, which emerged in the
    mid-to-late 1900s (Tashakkori & Teddlie). Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) hoped that the mixed methods approach
    to research provided researchers with an alternative to believing that the quantitative and qualitative research
    approaches are incompatible and, in turn, their associated methods “cannot and should not be mixed” (p. 14)

    The mixed methods approach to research is an extension of rather than a replacement for the quantitative and
    qualitative approaches to research, as the latter two research approaches will continue to be useful and important
    (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). The goal for researchers using the mixed methods approach to research is to draw
    from the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative research approaches (Johnson &
    Onwuegbuzie). Of course, the strengths and weaknesses associated with the various research approaches are not
    absolute but rather relative to the context and the manner in which researchers aspire to address the phenomenon
    under study. For example, if the researcher purports to provide in-depth insight into a phenomenon, the researcher
    might view selecting a small but informative sample, which is typical of qualitative research. The researcher might use
    inferential statistics to quantify the results, which is typical of quantitative research, as strengths worthy of combining
    into a single research study.
    By having the ability to design research studies that combine data collection or data analysis methods from
    the quantitative and qualitative research approaches, researchers are now able to test and build theories. Researchers
    are also able to employ deductive and inductive analysis in the same research study. The mixed methods approach to
    research provides researchers with the ability to design a single research study that answers questions about both the
    complex nature of phenomenon from the participants‟ point of view and the relationship between measurable
    variables. Proponents of the mixed methods approach to research advocate doing „what works‟ within the precepts of
    research to investigate, to predict, to explore, to describe, to understand the phenomenon (Carr, 1994; Creswell, 2003;
    Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Mingers, 2001; Sale, Lohfeld, & Brazil, 2002; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). That is,
    in relation to the mixed methods approach to research, pragmatic assumptions govern claims about what is knowledge
    (Creswell; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). The fact that the quantitative and the qualitative
    research approaches are not only compatible but also complimentary underpins calls for additional research studies
    that use the mixed methods research approach (Carr; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie; Mingers; Sale, Lohfeld, & Brazil;
    Tashakkori & Teddlie).

    Question 5

    Some researcher find it hard to begin research and formulate a research topic. A good research topic is a big step towards a successful research. But sometimes it is not that easy because you need a research topic that is workable for you, narrowed down to the best possible, and clear and precise. But, of course not everyone encounters similar problems in formulating a topic for their research. Some people find the best topic as a result of some discussion with the research supervisor, friends, research partners etc. Sometimes brainstorming helps or a topic suddenly comes into your mind that is most suitable for your situation.

    Another difficulty arises when you have to find the sources of information for your research. You need plenty of sources directly and indirectly related to your research topic. Sometimes the topic is one that is less researched in the past. Otherwise, most of the information s lost and you need to find sources but they are few. Similarly, sometimes the books and journals you need are not available in your library database. All or any of these situations bring a new difficulty in the research writing. But there is always a solution the librarian in your institute or public library can help you find the best possible sources. You can request your librarian to get the required material from another library.

    Question 6

    ~Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    ~Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    ~Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    ~Correlational research is a study into the relationship between two variables. Inspecting precisely two variables, this type of research seeks to discover and render the relationship between variables suspected of relating in some way.

    This research seeks to make sense out of the variables identified in earlier stages of research. Although correlational research is not sufficient to conclude on cause and effect relationships, it is necessary to conduct to find whether a relationship between variables exists to begin with.

    An observational form of research, it is non-experimental; there is no controlling or manipulation of the variables involved.

    The relationship between the variables can be either positive, negative or zero (nonexisten)

    ~Causal research is founded on the undertaking of determining cause and effect relationships. As such, it involves conducting experiments and testing markets in a controlled setting. It is more scientific than any of the previous types of research.

    This kind of research uses the findings from correlational and explanatory research in an attempt to unearth causal relationships. Since correlation does not equal causation, causal research studies whether the variables with a negative or positive correlation have any effect on the other variable(s) in the study.

    Causal research has two objectives: finding which variable forms the cause and which makes up the effect, and understanding the relationship of the causal variables after the effect occurs.

    ~Experimental research vigorously follows a scientific research design. It is entirely scientific, more so than causal research, as it nearly, if not fully implements the scientific method towards finding a solution.

    The final stage of the research process, this kind of research uses all the information from the previous stages to conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis. It can also follow causal research; causal research itself is a kind of experimental research.

    Researchers can conduct further experiments on the variables they found causal relationships for, in that they can test how to reverse an unwanted correlation, or minimize it to some degree. Or, further experiments can show a business how to reap more benefits from a desired correlation.

    Question 7

    The establishment of social science research in developing countries has not been an easy process because problems and challenges related with social science research continues even till date. One of the main reasons for the variable research quality is the lack of proper institutional support.
    Although a number of third world social scientists have achieved eminence in the international social science community, a majority of the institutions are yet to make a mark in the international academic community. Research organisations recruit university graduates, but do not invest in
    further research capacity building and training. Applied research organisations and consulting firms are increasingly becoming attractive career options but there is a preference in these organisations to
    produce policy papers or briefs with no incentives to publish academic articles in refereed journals.
    While the bulk of social science research is undertaken in universities and public-funded research organizations, the university administration is not research friendly and there are no incentive structures – either financial or professional – to encourage teachers to undertake research. Some
    NGOs and policy research initiatives such as think tanks have also produced specific development focused research products but generally do not have longer term interest in research and the quality of their research is not yet established. Thus, the future of Social Science Research depends on how
    we overcome these challenges.

  5. Name: Arinze,ebuka kelvin
    Reg no: 2019/246530
    Department: Economics department
    course: Eco 391(Research method)

    Question 1
    Research is made to know the cause of a particular problem and how the solve it. It is a systematic way of finding solutions to problems or getting more information concerning issues that needs attention. (Encyclopedia) Research is the organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions.  It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organized because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion.  Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. Development research is focussed on relevant, useful and important questions. If there are no questions, there can be no research.
    For example if we want to make a research on the causes of unemployment in a particular geographical entity, we must ask questions like why are few persons employed and many are unemployed. when such question gets an answer it will lead to another question which will draw us closer to a solution.

    Question 2
    Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge and also a movement from the known to unknown (encyclopedia). Research is made by asking questions and through a close look into a cause of a problem.
    Researchers are driven by a desire to solve personal, professional, and societal problems. These problems may be simple everyday problems like the best school in Nigeria or they may be major problems that require vast teams of researchers working in well funded labs.
    Research is done by making inquries. For example, imagine you just wrote WAEC and you are preparing to write Jamb to study Economics in a particular university. As a researcher you begin to make inquries of the best university to study Economics, the cutoff mark, the price of school fees etc. Inquiry and research has somehow morphed into synonyms.

    Question 3
    Creswell states – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: 
    1. Pose a question
    2. collect data to answer the question and
    3.present an answer to the question.
    creswell in his words above is saying that, the first thing to do while making a research is to first of all ask questions. For example if you are making a research on the causes of COVID-19, you first of all ask or write down questions like who first got the disease, where is that person from (country), the occupation of that person, where he or she goes to every day etc. After that, you start collecting data to answer the question. After getting answers to the questions then you summarize by answering what is the actual cause of COVID-19.

    Question 4)

    I study developmental economics because development economics focuses on how people in a society can escape poverty and enjoy a better standard of living.
    Development economic studies can be divided into economic and social aspects.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans, even though we tend to find our self in a rigmarole country.

    (Question 5)

    Third World” is an outdated and derogatory phrase that has been used historically to describe a class of economically developing nations. It is part of a four-part segmentation that was used to describe the world’s economies by economic status. Third World falls behind First World and Second World but was ahead of Fourth World, though Fourth-World countries were hardly recognized at all. Today, the preferred terminology is a developing nation, an underdeveloped country, or a low- and middle-income country (LMIC).
    There can be a few ways to divide up the world for purposes of economic segmentation. Classifying countries as First, Second, Third, and Fourth World was a concept created during and after the Cold War, which ran from approximately 1945 to the 1990s.

  6. Avatar Udeh Mgbechi Mary/ 2019/251473 says:

    Name: Udeh Mgbechi Mary
    Reg. No.: 2019/251473
    Department: Economics
    1. Non-scientific research typically refers to research that is not based on the scientific method, which involves using empirical evidence to test hypotheses and theories. This type of research can include surveys, case studies, and qualitative research methods. Non-scientific research can be valuable in fields such as sociology, psychology, and anthropology where it is often used to explore subjective experiences and opinions.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is based on the scientific method and involves the systematic collection and analysis of empirical evidence to test hypotheses and theories. This type of research typically involves experiments, statistical analysis, and rigorous controls to ensure the reliability and validity of the results. Scientific research is essential in fields such as medicine, physics, and chemistry, where accuracy and reproducibility are crucial.
    While non-scientific research can provide valuable insights into human behavior and social phenomena, it is often criticized for lacking objectivity and the ability to draw causal conclusions. Scientific research, on the other hand, is widely accepted as the gold standard for rigorous and reliable research.
    In summary, non-scientific research can be useful in certain fields to explore subjective experiences and opinions, but scientific research is essential for advancing knowledge and understanding in fields such as medicine and the natural sciences.

    1b. Scientific research and non-scientific research differ in several ways. Here are a few key differences:
    i) Methodology: Scientific research follows a systematic and rigorous process that is guided by the scientific method, which involves formulating a hypothesis, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence. Non-scientific research may use different methods or lack a structured approach to inquiry.
    ii) Objectivity: Scientific research aims to be objective and unbiased in its approach, focusing on empirical evidence rather than personal beliefs or opinions. Non-scientific research may be more subjective, relying on personal experiences or opinions.
    iii) Replicability: Scientific research aims to produce results that can be replicated or tested by other researchers. Non-scientific research may not prioritize replicability as a goal.
    iv) Peer Review: Scientific research undergoes peer review, in which experts in the field evaluate the methodology, results, and conclusions of a study. Non-scientific research may not undergo this kind of rigorous evaluation.
    v) Use of Theory: Scientific research is often grounded in established theories and seeks to build upon or challenge those theories. Non-scientific research may not be based on any particular theoretical framework.
    In summary, scientific research is more systematic, objective, and rigorous in its approach, while non-scientific research may be more subjective and less structured.

    2. Scientific research is a systematic and methodical process of investigating and acquiring knowledge about the natural world through empirical and verifiable methods. The characteristics of scientific research include:
    a) Empirical: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence obtained through direct observation, experimentation, or measurement. It relies on data and facts rather than opinions or beliefs.
    b) Systematic: Scientific research follows a logical and structured approach, where a hypothesis is formulated, and a series of experiments are conducted to test the hypothesis.
    c) Objective: Scientific research aims to be unbiased and impartial in its approach, and researchers strive to eliminate personal bias and preconceived notions that could influence the outcome of the research.
    d) Replicable: Scientific research must be replicable, meaning that the results obtained can be reproduced by other researchers using the same methods and procedures.
    e) Verifiable: Scientific research must be based on verifiable evidence that can be independently confirmed by others.
    f) Falsifiable: Scientific research must be capable of being disproven or falsified, meaning that the research hypothesis can be tested and potentially proven false.
    g) Cumulative: Scientific research builds upon existing knowledge and adds to a collective body of understanding, contributing to the progress of science over time.
    In summary, scientific research is characterized by a rigorous and objective approach that relies on empirical evidence, systematic processes, and the ability to be replicated and verified by others.

  7. Avatar Alozie Daniel says:

    ALOZIE UCHE DANIEL
    2019/245679
    ECO MAJOR
    danzyalozie@gmail.com

    1.
    Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research: a researcher is the one who conducts this research. The results obtained from a small group through scientific studies are socialised, and new information is revealed with respect to diagnosis, treatment and reliability of applications. The purpose of this review is to provide information about the definition, classification and methodology of scientific research.

    1. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    2. Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    3. Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology.Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.

    4. Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.

    2.
    1. Empirical Observation
    The scientific method is empirical. That is, it relies on direct observation of the world, and disdains hypotheses that run counter to observable fact. This contrasts with methods that rely on pure reason (including that proposed by Plato) and with methods that rely on emotional or other subjective factors.

    2. Replicable Experiments
    Scientific experiments are replicable. That is, if another person duplicates the experiment, he or she will get the same results. Scientists are supposed to publish enough of their method so that another person, with appropriate training, could replicate the results. This contrasts with methods that rely on experiences that are unique to a particular individual or a small group of individuals.

    3. Provisional Results
    Results obtained through the scientific method are provisional; they are (or ought to be) open to question and debate. If new data arise that contradict a theory, that theory must be modified. For example, the phlogiston theory of fire and combustion was rejected when evidence against it arose.

    4. Objective Approach
    The scientific method is objective. It relies on facts and on the world as it is, rather than on beliefs, wishes or desires. Scientists attempt (with varying degrees of success) to remove their biases when making observations.

    5. Systematic Observation
    Strictly speaking, the scientific method is systematic; that is, it relies on carefully planned studies rather than on random or haphazard observation. Nevertheless, science can begin from some random observation. Isaac Asimov said that the most exciting phrase to hear in science is not “Eureka!” but “That’s funny.” After the scientist notices something funny, he or she proceeds to investigate it systematically.

  8. Avatar hezekiah joy says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    CSS – ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com

    1.
    A Scientific Research is the application of scientific methods and scientific principles in the quest of investigating a phenomena, and it involves identifying a problem, collection, presentation, analyses and interpretation of facts obtained.
    There are several characteristics that defines a scientific research. One is that it must have anObjective, must be empirical, follow a rigorous process, verifiable, must be replicable, must be systematicand generalizable, having a wide scope of applicability.
    Its importance is thata phenomenoncan be objectively known through rigorous, logical and critical procedures. Not everyone can come up with a body of knowledge that will accepted without undergoing the rigor of Scientific Research, this is to ensure that whatsoever kind of knowledge brought to the society is capable of bringing Development, not just in one society but across societies. Replicability being a necessaryfactor, hence the need for Scientific Research.
    A Non-Scientific research however, is such that does not undergo the rigors of the application of scientific methods and principles. It is not based on empirical validity and cannot be replicated by another, as there are no either any laid down procedures or access to such procedures are denied.
    Examples of this type of research includes: Speculation or Guess Work, here conclusions are made on the premise of what the researcher feels or thinks; Experience, as a result of what such has observed over some time; Hunches, intuition, Premonition,knowledge is acquired from one’s inner feelings; Mysticism, knowledge is obtained through dark magic, they plunge into mental and spiritual isolation to obtain knowledge from the ethereal world from any spiritual entity; and Theology/Divine Revelation, also knowledge is also obtained from the ethereal world, from the archives of the spirit world, from a source who is GOD. Faith is the tool by which knowledge is obtained and accepted.
    Although, Non-Scientific research is highly subjective rather than objective, another way it differs from Scientific Research, it is still considered important as there are some knowledge that even Scientific Research may not provide, this is prevalent in African setting especially when it comes to health. Also, science may also find it difficult to understand the dynamics of human behavior which isconsequent on their religion, history,e.t.c.
    Having discussed Scientific and Non-Scientific research, their differences lie in the fact that Scientific Research goes through the basic process of:
    • Observation
    Here, the researcher would observe a prevailing phenomenon that has plagued a particular society, for the causes, the effect, the behaviors, the trends.
    • Forming an hypothesis
    The researcher would have identified the variables being dealt with after conducting an extensive study on the phenomenon. This is to set a focus on what is to be researched.
    • Making a prediction
    Now, on the basis of the hypothesis is a prediction made.
    • Conducting an experiment
    As such an experiment is carried in line with the variables captured within such prediction.
    • Analyzing the result obtained
    An analysis is carried out to explain what was found in the experiment with terms that are friendly to the layman. For instance with the use of graphs, tables, charts.
    Non-Scientific Research do not undergo all these except observation. Also, it cannot be replicated as Scientific Research.

    2.
    Sincescientific researchis an inquiry conducted based on empirical validity which can be replicated when such is extended to more complicated situations, it is founded on some peculiarities that qualifies it to be what it is – Scientific Research. And these peculiarities are as follows:
    • Objective
    There must be a clear purpose for any research conducted, whether it be Pure research, applied research or evaluation research. There has to be a focus, a goal for which a research work is conducted. It is contained in the abstract of an article. For instance, if the goal is to make some new innovations or to advance the frontiers of knowledge as in the case of Pure research, then it should be captured as the goal of conducting such research.
    • Controlled
    Scientific research is usually conducted under a controlled environment. Such that there is no room for fluctuations in the variables. Hence, Scientific Research has a control system whereby, a variable can be worked upon or undergo an experiment while others are held constant to observe a particular phenomenon. In other words, the concept of controlallows for establishing a causal relationship amongst variables.
    Notwithstanding it allows for the easy manipulation for the researcher toconduct his experimentation.
    • Rigorous
    This is about the tenacity and intensity with which research is carried out. Research must be done rigorously so as to make relevant and justifiable contributions to the body of knowledge. Research is rigorously done to ensure that its methodology is sound, and its findings are accurate. Research should be done rigorously so that one’s research work will be reliable and authentic.
    • Systematic
    This implies that a well mapped-out procedure must be followed in conducting research. Research is not carried out haphazardly. It ensures coherence and consistency in the progress of thoughts. And hence allows for repeatability and verifiability by another researcher
    • Empirical
    An empirical research is one that can be verified with credible evidence, observations. and tested its validity.Conclusions are drawn from concrete evidences drawn from real life experiences.
    • Logical and Objective
    The idea of a research work being logical entails that such work is analytical. Every step must be done in accordance with the underlying principles and procedures so as to be valid. Objectivity implies observations being unaffected by the researcher’s beliefs, ideologies, values such that the facts obtained for experimentation are dealt with as it should be and not interpreted according to his beliefs.
    • Replicability
    Research work should be such that another can conduct given the systematic procedures laid by the originator of the research work. This allows for acceptability by others

  9. Avatar Nkeonye Oluchi Praise says:

    Name: Nkeonye Oluchi Praise
    Reg No: 2019/250120

    Answers

    Question 1
    Non-scientific research refers to the investigation or inquiry that is not guided by the scientific method. It is often subjective and lacks empirical evidence. Non-scientific research can include anecdotal evidence, opinions, beliefs, personal experiences, and speculation. The findings of non-scientific research cannot be verified or replicated by other researchers, and they do not follow a systematic approach to testing hypotheses or theories.

    On the other hand, scientific research follows a systematic approach to investigate phenomena, test hypotheses, and establish facts through experimentation and observation. It is guided by the scientific method, which involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment, and analyzing the results. Scientific research is empirical and objective, and the findings can be verified and replicated by other researchers.

    The main difference between non-scientific and scientific research is the methodology used to investigate phenomena. Scientific research follows a rigorous and systematic approach, whereas non-scientific research is often subjective and lacks empirical evidence. Scientific research also relies on empirical evidence, whereas non-scientific research is often based on personal beliefs, opinions, and experiences.

    Furthermore, scientific research is subject to peer review, where other experts in the field critically evaluate the research methods, results, and conclusions. This process ensures that the research is valid and reliable. In contrast, non-scientific research is often not subject to peer review, making it difficult to assess the quality of the research.

    In conclusion, scientific research follows a systematic approach to investigate phenomena, test hypotheses, and establish facts through experimentation and observation. Non-scientific research lacks a systematic approach, is often subjective, and relies on personal beliefs, opinions, and experiences. The methodology used in scientific research ensures that the findings are valid, reliable, and can be verified and replicated by other researchers, whereas the findings of non-scientific research cannot be verified or replicated.

    Question 2
    Scientific research is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing empirical data to test theories and hypotheses, and to generate new knowledge in a particular field of study. Scientific research is characterized by several features, which are essential for ensuring the quality and reliability of the research findings. In this response, I will discuss some of the key characteristics of scientific research.

    a) Systematic and objective approach: Scientific research is characterized by a systematic and objective approach, where data is collected and analyzed in a methodical and organized manner. The research process follows a predetermined methodology, which includes the formulation of research questions, the selection of appropriate methods and techniques for data collection, and the analysis and interpretation of the data. This systematic and objective approach ensures that the research findings are reliable and valid.

    b) Empirical evidence: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which is obtained through observation and measurement of phenomena in the real world. Empirical evidence is collected using various methods, such as experiments, surveys, case studies, and observations. The data collected through these methods is analyzed to test hypotheses and theories, and to generate new knowledge.

    c) Replicable and verifiable: Scientific research is replicable and verifiable, which means that the findings can be tested and verified by other researchers. The research methodology is documented in detail, and the data collected is made available to other researchers for replication and verification. Replication of research findings is essential for ensuring the reliability and validity of the research.

    d) Objectivity and impartiality: Scientific research is characterized by objectivity and impartiality, which means that the research is conducted without bias or personal opinions. Researchers are expected to maintain a neutral stance and avoid any personal biases or prejudices that may influence the research findings. This ensures that the research is unbiased and the findings are based on objective evidence.

    e) Logical and systematic reasoning: Scientific research is based on logical and systematic reasoning, where the research questions are formulated based on existing theories and hypotheses. The data collected is analyzed using appropriate statistical methods, and the findings are interpreted based on logical and systematic reasoning. This ensures that the research findings are based on sound scientific principles.

    f) Generalizable and applicable: Scientific research is characterized by generalizability and applicability, which means that the findings can be applied to other contexts and situations beyond the specific research setting. The research findings are expected to have broader implications and applicability to other settings and populations.

    In summary, scientific research is a systematic, objective, and empirical process that is based on replicable, verifiable, and unbiased findings. It is characterized by logical and systematic reasoning, objectivity and impartiality, and generalizability and applicability. These characteristics ensure that the research findings are reliable, valid, and have broader implications for the advancement of knowledge in a particular field of study.

  10. Avatar Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette says:

    Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette

    2019/245486

    Combined Social Science
    Economics/Political Science

    chikaodililovette@gmail.com

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific bases. It is focused on speculation or guess work and here, conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or thinks. Drawing conclusions in non-scientific research, is based on intuition and premonition that is, ideas are based on inner feelings without proof or assumptions. In non-scientific research, knowledge is acquired through magic or occult powers. Here,the inquirer gets information from higher spiritual powers to solve existing problems and such a knowledge cannot be replicated by those outside such sects.
    Scientific research is a systematic method of inquiry which focusses on solving problems and, pursues a step-by-step logical, organized and rigorous method to identify the problems, collect data, analyze data draw valid conclusions. In scientific research, the research should be purposeful, rigorous,controlled, valid, critical, empirical, logical and objective.
    Having discuss non-scientific research and scientific research, we would now discuss the differences between non-scientific research and scientific research in the subsequent paragraphs;
    Firstly, in non-scientific research, there exist what is called hunches, intuition and premonition which simply implies that conclusions are being drawn from an idea that is based on inner feelings without proof or assumptions meanwhile, in scientific research there exist what is known as empiricism which implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis.
    Secondly, in non-scientific research there exist speculation or guess work. Here, conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or thinks meanwhile, in scientific research there exist validity and replicability which means your conclusions must be correct and verifiable and also, the same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters. For instance, if another researcher in another part of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact results will be obtained.
    The key difference between non-scientific and scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Purposeful (Aim): The purpose of scientific research is clear and it is directed towards the solution of a problem. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose.
    Controlled: The concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between two variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables in their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they derive and also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    Rigorous: It must be based on good theoretical base and sound methodology. You must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    Critical: Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The process and procedures of investigation must be free from drawbacks.
    Valid and verifiable (replicability): Your conclusions must be correct and verifiable. This also implies replicability which means the same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another part of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This helps guide against fraud in research.
    Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/ data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion, biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here we test theoretical model by simulation or experiment.
    Logical and Objective: Logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure,tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity here entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective and proven from trend in data and supported by theoretical model.
    Systematic: Systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures and this implies that the procedure adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence.
    Generalizability: Scope of applicability, the wider the better

  11. Avatar Metu Sandra Chiamaka says:

    Metu Sandra Chiamaka
    2017/249526
    sandratouch21@gmail.com
    Eco major

    1. Scientific Research focuses on solving problems and pursues a step by step, logical, organized and rigorous method to;
    • identify problems
    • collect data
    • analyze &
    • draw valid conclusions.
    While, Non-Scientific Research is an unorganized and accumulations of facts and information drawn not from logical processes but rather random experiences, ideas and various conditions.
    The differences between scientific and non-scientific research are;
    • Conclusions drawn from Scientific research and experiments are valid and verifiable; that is, these results can be replicated and repeated under the same design parameters and will yield same results unlike the non-scientific research which procedures are random and unexperimental.
    • The non-scientific research are without proof or assumptions while the scientific research is objective; supported by theoretical models and proven from trends in data.
    • The scientific research is based on logical procedures and principles, and every step taken is reasonable to ensure validity of procedures, tools and conclusions; whereas the non-scientific research is based on feelings, thoughts,intuition, hunched and premonitions which are not tools to making logical experiments.

    2.Characteristics of Scientific Research.
    • Purposeful: The purpose of scientific research is clear. Its aim is gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose directed towards the solution.
    • Controlled: The concept of control implies that in exploring the relationships between two variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Also, a researcher can add or remove variables depending on the study.
    • Rigorous: Research must be based on good theoretical base and sound methodology. One must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    • Critical: Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The process and procedures of investigations must be free from drawbacks.
    • Logical and Objectives: Every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures, tools and conclusions. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be proven from data trends and supported by theoretical model.

  12. Avatar Adigwe Chibuikem Anthony says:

    1)
    The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology.

    Steps of the scientific method
    The scientific method uses a series of steps to establish facts or create knowledge. The overall process is well established, but the specifics of each step may change depending on what is being examined and who is performing it. The scientific method can only answer questions that can be proven or disproven through testing.

    Make an observation or ask a question. The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask a question that you would like answered. These can be specific or general. Some examples would be “I observe that our total available network bandwidth drops at noon every weekday” or “How can we increase our website registration numbers?” Taking the time to establish a well-defined question will help you in later steps.

    Gather background information. This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked the same question.

    Create a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an explanation for the observation or question. If proven later, it can become a fact. Some examples would be “Our employees watching online videos during lunch is using our internet bandwidth” or “Our website visitors don’t see our registration form.”

    Create a prediction and perform a test. Create a testable prediction based on the hypothesis. The test should establish a noticeable change that can be measured or observed using empirical analysis. It is also important to control for other variables during the test. Some examples would be “If we block video-sharing sites, our available bandwidth will not go down significantly during lunch” or “If we make our registration box bigger, a greater percentage of visitors will register for our website than before the change.”

    Analyze the results and draw a conclusion. Use the metrics established before the test see if the results match the prediction. For example, “After blocking video-sharing sites, our bandwidth utilization only went down by 10% from before; this is not enough of a change to be the primary cause of the network congestion” or “After increasing the size of the registration box, the percent of sign-ups went from 2% of total page views to 5%, showing that making the box larger results in more registrations.”

    Share the conclusion or decide what question to ask next: Document the results of your experiment. By sharing the results with others, you also increase the total body of knowledge available. Your experiment may have also led to other questions, or if your hypothesis is disproven you may need to create a new one and test that. For example, “Because user activity is not the cause of excessive bandwidth use, we now suspect that an automated process is running at noon every day.”

    2)
    10 Major Characteristics of Scientific Research

    1. Empirical:
    A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.

    Objectivity:
    All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    Ethical:
    Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    Systematic Exploration:
    Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.

    Reliable:
    It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    Accuracy:
    All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.

    Replicated:
    A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

    Controlled:
    All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

    Objective/ Goal:
    Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  13. Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette
    2019/245486
    Combined Social science
    Economics/Political Science
    chikaodililovette@gmail.com

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific bases. It is focused on speculation or guess work and here, conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or thinks. Drawing conclusions in non-scientific research, is based on intuition and premonition that is, ideas are based on inner feelings without proof or assumptions. In non-scientific research, knowledge is acquired through magic or occult powers. Here,the inquirer gets information from higher spiritual powers to solve existing problems and such a knowledge cannot be replicated by those outside such sects.
    Scientific research is a systematic method of inquiry which focusses on solving problems and, pursues a step-by-step logical, organized and rigorous method to identify the problems, collect data, analyze data draw valid conclusions. In scientific research, the research should be purposeful, rigorous,controlled, valid, critical, empirical, logical and objective.
    Having discuss non-scientific research and scientific research, we would now discuss the differences between non-scientific research and scientific research in the subsequent paragraphs;
    Firstly, in non-scientific research, there exist what is called hunches, intuition and premonition which simply implies that conclusions are being drawn from an idea that is based on inner feelings without proof or assumptions meanwhile, in scientific research there exist what is known as empiricism which implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis.
    Secondly, in non-scientific research there exist speculation or guess work. Here, conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or thinks meanwhile, in scientific research there exist validity and replicability which means your conclusions must be correct and verifiable and also, the same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters. For instance, if another researcher in another part of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact results will be obtained.
    The key difference between non-scientific and scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Purposeful (Aim): The purpose of scientific research is clear and it is directed towards the solution of a problem. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose.
    Controlled: The concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between two variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables in their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they derive and also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    Rigorous: It must be based on good theoretical base and sound methodology. You must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    Critical: Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The process and procedures of investigation must be free from drawbacks.
    Valid and verifiable (replicability): Your conclusions must be correct and verifiable. This also implies replicability which means the same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another part of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This helps guide against fraud in research.
    Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/ data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion, biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here we test theoretical model by simulation or experiment.
    Logical and Objective: Logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure,tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity here entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective and proven from trend in data and supported by theoretical model.
    Systematic: Systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures and this implies that the procedure adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence.
    Generalizability: Scope of applicability, the wider the better

  14. Avatar OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA says:

    OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA 3 months ago
    REG NO:2019/243578
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    EMAIL: alexmmesoma4@gmail.com
    1.What is Scientific Research?
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.
    What is Non-Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.
    What is the Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research?
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective. Scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research and formulating the conclusion, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that are not based on the scientific method in acquiring knowledge and arriving at a conclusion. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    This exercise could give further practices in differenting scientific research and different types of non- scientific research
    # Daniel decided to test one of his hypotheses about how temperature is affecting the growth of his new plants. In order to do so, he performed experiments where he stored the plants at different temperatures and observed how they reacted. Daniel recorded his observations and determined that a mild temperature was best for this specific plant. Did Daniel use scientific methodology or nonscientific methodology? Now daniel used scientific methodology as he tested his hypothesis by performing an experiment. He recorded his observations and formed a conclusion based on the results of his experiment. In this instance, he was following the scientific method.
    # In the past, Deborah has taken many vacations to Florida. During her last trip, she was bitten by many mosquitoes. When Deborah’s family decided to take an impromptu trip to Florida during spring break, she insisted that her husband stop to get bug spray on the way because she believed she would get bitten again. What type of non-scientific research is this related to: intuition, personal experience, or logic?This scenario represents personal experience. Deborah may not be bitten by a mosquito during this trip, so it isn’t necessarily a fact, or guaranteed, to happen. However, since she has previously been bitten by mosquitoes, she bases her decisions on these experiences.
    # Taylor was hiking with his friends in a remote area of Colorado. He was getting ready to cross a small hanging bridge over a ravine when he got the feeling that something wasn’t right. He decided to return to the beginning of the hike instead of continuing across the bridge. Hours later the bridge snapped and a hiker plummeted into the river below. What type of nonscientific research is this related to: intuition, personal experience, or logic?This scenario represents intuition. John had a “gut feeling” that the bridge was not safe and decided to turn back. There was no reason or scientific support for him turning around, but rather his instincts, that is non-scientific!

    2 .The characteristics of scientific research are:
    *Purposeful (Aim)
    *Controlled
    *Rigorous
    *Critical
    *Validity
    *Empirical
    *Logical and Objective
    *Systematic
    2. Empirical
    A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work. It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    @ Objectivity
    All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem. This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    @ Controlled
    All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    @ Objective: all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

    @ Generalizability: Being able to bring data together to show a comprehensive conclusion for a study is the purpose of generalization in research. The generalizability definition also includes being able to provide an understanding of the population specific to which the study has been prepared. Sampling and representativeness influences generalization because if they do not fit the specified population, the results will be skewed and impractical for the study. To effectively use generalization in research, at the very least, the sample must be representative of the diversity of the population and include the variables that the researcher means to test. Generalizability should take into account the population, the characteristics and length of the study, incentives and compliance that were put in place for research participation and completion, and the specific settings involved in the study. When the research is completed, there should be a link or similarity between the study and the population in terms of the characteristics of the sample and current or potential community or treatment settings.
    @ Purposeful
    Research must be purposeful,it means research must be conducted with a certain and definite aim, objective and purpose, moving forward in any research should be guided by stated objectives purposes only the research having a certain purpose and objective will leads towards Certain conclusions and destinations. The purpose of research always determines where the researcher should be according to purpose and objective.it means the research without a certain purposes may lead a researcher in the wrong direction and creates many errors in the entire voyage.
    @ Rigorous
    The process or procedure of research must be rigorous. It means the researcher must ensure that the procedure followed is relevant, appropriate,and-justified. There should be conflict and doubt with regard to the relevance of research taken by the researcher. The degree of rigor may differ from one research to another and from one field of study to another. But there should be an acceptable degree of rigor in the method of study to call it research.
    @ Critical
    Critical in research refers to the state of method, finding, and conclusions of research. The process of research undertaking and its finding should have full proof of critical reviews so that result will be justice worthy.if the research is containing any drawbacks it would not be called good research. Critical appraisal of research means an act of carefully and systematical examing research and it’s all findings to judge its reliability, validity, trustworthiness,value and relevances if result are applied in a particular field or context.it is the last condition of finding evidence reliable and efficient.
    @ Valid and Verifiable
    The research technique and process should be valid and verifiable,it means the conclusions drawn by research should be correct and should be duplicated while applying a similar procedure again and angina over time. It is assumed reliable and having quality when it duplicates the results when the procedures is followed again and again. Validity measures the applicability of research. Only valid research ensures reliability.validity is more important than reliability.
    @ Systematic
    The study or research process should follow a sequence that logically terminates in the result. The process of research has to be sequential and it has to follow certain predetermined and verified patterns and pathways. It is necessary because the customary procedure would mislead the result and waste resource.

    Reference:
    Cheprasov, Adam. “What is Scientific Research?” Study.com
    Gerandielle, Kumari. “Research” Difference.com

  15. Name: Edwin Chinedu Augustine
    Reg no:2019/249508
    Department: Economics Major
    Course code: Eco 361
    Research

    1)
    The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology.

    Steps of the scientific method
    The scientific method uses a series of steps to establish facts or create knowledge. The overall process is well established, but the specifics of each step may change depending on what is being examined and who is performing it. The scientific method can only answer questions that can be proven or disproven through testing.

    Make an observation or ask a question. The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask a question that you would like answered. These can be specific or general. Some examples would be “I observe that our total available network bandwidth drops at noon every weekday” or “How can we increase our website registration numbers?” Taking the time to establish a well-defined question will help you in later steps.

    Gather background information. This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked the same question.

    Create a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an explanation for the observation or question. If proven later, it can become a fact. Some examples would be “Our employees watching online videos during lunch is using our internet bandwidth” or “Our website visitors don’t see our registration form.”

    Create a prediction and perform a test. Create a testable prediction based on the hypothesis. The test should establish a noticeable change that can be measured or observed using empirical analysis. It is also important to control for other variables during the test. Some examples would be “If we block video-sharing sites, our available bandwidth will not go down significantly during lunch” or “If we make our registration box bigger, a greater percentage of visitors will register for our website than before the change.”

    Analyze the results and draw a conclusion. Use the metrics established before the test see if the results match the prediction. For example, “After blocking video-sharing sites, our bandwidth utilization only went down by 10% from before; this is not enough of a change to be the primary cause of the network congestion” or “After increasing the size of the registration box, the percent of sign-ups went from 2% of total page views to 5%, showing that making the box larger results in more registrations.”

    Share the conclusion or decide what question to ask next: Document the results of your experiment. By sharing the results with others, you also increase the total body of knowledge available. Your experiment may have also led to other questions, or if your hypothesis is disproven you may need to create a new one and test that. For example, “Because user activity is not the cause of excessive bandwidth use, we now suspect that an automated process is running at noon every day.”

    2)
    10 Major Characteristics of Scientific Research

    1. Empirical:
    A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.

    Objectivity:
    All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    Ethical:
    Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    Systematic Exploration:
    Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.

    Reliable:
    It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    Accuracy:
    All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.

    Replicated:
    A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

    Controlled:
    All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

    Objective/ Goal:
    Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  16. Avatar OKEKE DANIEL AYOMIDE says:

    Name: OKEKE DANIEL AYOMIDE
    Reg No: 10574211FD
    Department: Economics
    Course: ECO121(Introduction to Accounting)
    Answers to the assignment:
    1. The Categories of Accounting
    Answer:Cost accounting only deals with costs. Management accounting analyzes every aspect of the business, including costs. Since management accounting encompasses all aspects of the business’s financials, cost accounting is actually a subset of management accounting. The Financial accounting records transactions related to personal accounts, income, revenue and so more. Management accounting uses cash flows, fund flows statements, ratio analysis and so more. Cost accounting uses tools like standard costing, variable costing, break even analysis etcetera.the objective of cost accounting is to keep a record of costs of products and services of a business, management accounting aims at providing managerial information regarding the activities of business (planning and coordination) to the management. Financial accounting, on the other hand, helps measure business income and deliver relevant information to multiple groups such as suppliers, investors, bankers and so more.

    Question 2 Answer: the Qualitative attributes of Accounting
    comparability, verifiability, timeliness understandability and objectivity

    Question 3: The fundamental principle of Accounting
    Accrual principle
    Conservatism principle
    Consistency principle
    Cost principle
    Economic entity principle
    Full disclosure principle
    Going concern principle
    Matching principle
    Materiality principle
    Monetary unit principle
    Reliability principle
    Revenue recognition principle
    Time period principle

  17. Avatar Amaechi Emmanuella Athanasius says:

    1. Scientific research aims to obtain knowledge in the form of testable explanations that scientists can use to predict the results of future experiments. This allows scientists to gain a better understanding of the topic under study, and later to use that understanding to intervene in its causal mechanisms. The better an explanation is at making predictions, the more useful it frequently can be, and the more likely it will continue to explain a body of evidence better than its alternatives. The most successful explanations – those which explain and make accurate predictions in a wide range of circumstances – are often called scientific theories.Most experimental results do not produce large changes in human understanding; improvements in theoretical scientific understanding typically result from a gradual process of development over time, sometimes across different domains of science.Scientific models are different in the extent to which they have been experimentally tested and for how long, and in their acceptance in the scientific community. In general, explanations become accepted over time as evidence accumulates on a given topic, and the explanation in question proves more powerful than its alternatives at explaining the evidence. Often subsequent researchers re-formulate the explanations over time, or combined explanations to produce new explanations.
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well.non scientific research, is not logically stepped process that used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.Non scientific acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques without follow the scientific method. Non scientific research does not follow systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity.Non scientific research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon without being systematic.
    2.Empirical-Scientific method is deals with the realities that are observable through “sensory experiences.” It generates knowledge which is verifiable by experience or observation. Some of the realities could be directly observed, like the number of students present in the class and how many of them are male and how many female. The same students have attitudes, values, motivations, aspirations, and commitments. These are also realities which cannot be observed directly, but the researchers have designed ways to observe these indirectly. Any reality that cannot be put to “sensory experience” directly or indirectly (existence of heaven, the Day of Judgment, life hereafter, God’s rewards for good deeds) does not fall within the domain of scientific method.
    Replicable Experiments-Scientific experiments are replicable. That is, if another person duplicates the experiment, he or she will get the same results. Scientists are supposed to publish enough of their method so that another person, with appropriate training, could replicate the results. This contrasts with methods that rely on experiences that are unique to a particularindividual or a small group of individuals.
    Provisional Results-Results obtained through the scientific method are provisional; they are (or ought to be) open to question and debate. If new data arise that contradict a theory, that theory must be modified. For example, the phlogiston theory of fire and combustion was rejected when evidence against it arose.
    Objective Approach-The scientific method is objective. It relies on facts and on the world as it is, rather than on beliefs, wishes or desires. Scientists attempt (with varying degrees of success) to remove their biases when making observations.

  18. Avatar Ngana Thaddeus Ifeanyi says:

    Name: NGANA THADDEUS IFEANYI
    Reg no: 2019/246750
    Dept: ECONOMICS
    Email: nganathaddeus@gmail.com
    Course number: Eco 391
    1.
    According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, non scientific research is the one which does not use scientific methods to collect information and form opinion
    Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis.Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be used in fields such as the humanities, social sciences, and business, and is often used to gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon or to develop new theories.

    Scientific research is a logical stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding Scientific research, it is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions. Scientific research is characterized by its emphasis on objectivity, replication, and the use of statistical methods to test hypotheses. It is used in fields such as the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is often used to discover new knowledge and to develop new technologies.

    In scientific research Data collection involves observation, experimentation, formulation and testing hypothesis while in non scientific research involves observation and presume relations among natural phenomenon. Non scientific research under this factor, it observes the data while taking them for granted (assuming them) to be true without proof. Example in non-scientific research when one claim (through a divine inspiration) he/she presume it with no and evidences to prove the information. Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis, while non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence. Additionally, scientific research is typically peer-reviewed and subject to replication, while non-scientific research may not undergo the same level of scrutiny. Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.

    2.
    Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key characteristics, including:

    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means/implies that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.

    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means/implies that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.

    Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.

    Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, a process in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research before it is published. This helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of the research.

    Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.

    Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.

    Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.

    Generalizability: Scientific research is generalizable, which means that the results of the research can be applied to other populations or contexts.

    All of these properties are essential in order to ensure that scientific research is conducted in a rigorous and unbiased manner, and that the results generated are reliable and useful.

    Reference
    Academiasholaz.blogspot.com

  19. Avatar Odo Philomina Chinasa Reg 2020/244344 (2/3) says:

    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 391
    (RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS )
    NAME : ODO PHILOMINA CHINASA
    REG NO : 2020/244344 (2/3)
    1. Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies.
    According to Tuckman (1992) scientific research is a systematic, logical, reductive, replicable, emperical and transmitable activity.
    Scientific research is a systematic process of investigation or inquiry catered out in accordance with known laid down scientific procedures for the purpose of finding answers or solutions to a set of defined problems or perplexing issues ,Obikeze (1990).
    Before a scientific research is carried out, it must be well planned , purposeful and aimed at achieving well defined problems.
    Scientific research undergo certain steps or processes , therefore it is systematic. It is empirical in the sense that it’s conclusions are drawn from observation and experimentation.
    Non scientific research : Non scientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. Non scientific research lack objectivity and the collection of empirical data for experiment and conclusion which characterizes scientific research. In conducting non scientific research, the researcher used guess work. His research is based on personal experiences. For instance, he may research on the topic: The reason why some men beat their wives.
    Non scientific research is a research conducted without any scientific method and scientific basis. Personal experiences, intuition and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion in non-scientific research. This type of research does not use a logical or organized procedure to form a conclusion.
    THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    A. Scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data while non-scientific research cannot be repeated as far as it is personal experience and beliefs.
    B. Data are collected using different techniques, observations, formulation and testing hypothesis in scientific research while in non-scientific research, only data collection is used.
    C. Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at conclusions whereas non-scientific research only beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at conclusions
    .
    D. Scientific research is objective while non-scientific research is subjective.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    1. Systematic : Scientific research requires systematic plan in making investigation. The research is done in a sequential order, that is, step by step. It is neither done in random manner nor haphazard manner. For example, these steps can be taken in scientific research :
    a. Creating a problem topic
    b. Create hypothesis
    c. Research design
    d. Measurement
    e. Collection of data
    f. Data analysis
    G. Generalisations.
    2. It is empirical : This means that conclusions are drawn from observation and experimentation. The result gotten from the process of experiment will form the basis of the conclusion without the researcher’s own experience or bias.
    3. It is verifiable : This means that in scientific research , the results obtained from the experiment made here in Nigeria will be the same with the result in America as far as both undergone the same experiment. Therefore, scientific research is replicable.
    4. Theoretical : This means that scientific research has a principle of carryingout research. Research must be carried out within the stipulations, guidelines, principles or prescriptions of a theory. Any scientific research derived it’s framework from existing theory.
    5. It is cumulative : Scientific research is not purposely carried out only to discover new facts or acquire knowledge but also to extend such knowledge in various ways. The experiment can disapprove a known theory or it modify existing theories in order to show the current state of the art.

  20. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    6. Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    7. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    8. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field. Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

  21. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    6. Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    7. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    8. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field. Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

  22. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    6. Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    7. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    8. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field. Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

    8.Progress: New information and understanding are accumulated over time as a result of continuing scientific inquiry.

  23. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. EMPIRICISM: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. OBJECTIVITY: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. REPLICABILITY: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. TESTABILITY: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    6. SELF-CORRECTION: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    7. GENERALIZABILITY: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    8. EVALUATION: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field. Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

    8. PROGRESS: New information and understanding are accumulated over time as a result of continuing scientific inquiry.

  24. Avatar Oguzie Echezonachukwu Sixtus says:

    Name: Oguzie Echezonachukwu Sixtus
    Registration Number: 2019/249165
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391

    The scientific method involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences. Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis. Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs. In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation. Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective.
    Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Valid and verifiable (replicability) – your conclusions must be correct and verifiable. This also implies replicability – that means the same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another part of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact results will be obtained. This guides against fraud in research.
    Logical and objective – logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure, tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles.
    Empirical – empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion, feelings and idiosyncrasies.
    Systematic – this implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way.

  25. Avatar Ngwoke chidera Lillian says:

    woke chidera Lillian
    2019/245394
    Economic
    Research methods
    1:scientific research is defined as the systemic collection ,interpretation and evaluation of data in a planned manner, it also seen as a focus of solving problems and pursue a step by step logical, organized and rigorous methods to identify the problem by collecting data to drown. Valid conclusion
    Non scientific Research :is defined as the aquring knowledge and truth about the world using techniques that do not follow scientific orders it is also the use of intuition, personal experience and personal belief.
    DIFFERENCE
    Scientific research can be repeated severely using the same method and data while non scientific methods can’t be repeated it base on personal experience thinks and beliefs
    Scientific research uses logical process in conducting research while non scientific uses techniques and strategies that do not contain scientific base knowledge

    CHARACTER OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    1:Empirical
    2:objective
    3:systemic explorations
    4:Reliable
    5:Accuracy, critical, rigorous, control and purposeful
    EMPIRICAL: A feature of scientific research is that it is empirical which means that it can be verifiable, it means that conclusion are drawn from the collected data.
    OBJECTIVE: It means that all scientific knowledge drown from a given data must be OBJECTIVE not subjective, they are considered as general propertive not personal propertive and are proven and supported by theoretic models.
    SYSTEMIC EXPLORATION:It means that there are certain procedures to be taken to arrive to an answer which are planning collecting, analysis and reporting, it means that those steps are repeated by another to get the same answer.
    RELIABLE: That any other person can replicate similar results by following the systemic procedure and get the same results

  26. Avatar Nnamdi chukwunweike lucky 2019/247233 says:

    ASSIGNMENT
    Economics 391 Research

    Name: Chukwunweike Nnamdi Lucky
    Reg no: 2019/247233
    Department: Css economics/ sociology

    Question no 1
    What is Scientific Research?

    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology.
    What is Non Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion.
    Difference between Scientific and Non Scientific:
    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    Question no 2
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    3. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    4. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    5. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

  27. Avatar Iheanacho Emmanuel Chinedu Reg no: 2019/244463 Combined Social Science ( ECO/SOC) says:

    Answers:
    1.Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions. Scientific research is characterized by its emphasis on objectivity, replication, and the use of statistical methods to test hypotheses. It is used in fields such as the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is often used to discover new knowledge and to develop new technologies.
    Differences:
    Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis, while non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence. Additionally, scientific research is typically peer-reviewed and subject to replication, while non-scientific research may not undergo the same level of scrutiny.

    2.Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key features, including:
    -Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.
    -Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.
    -Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.
    -Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, a process in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research before it is published. This helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of the research.
    -Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.
    -Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.
    -Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.

  28. Avatar Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Reg no: 2019/246458 says:

    Name: Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka
    Reg no: 2019/246458
    Dept: Economics
    Course number: Eco 391
    chukwuemekaemma2019@gmail.com
    1.
    According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, non scientific research is the one which does not use scientific methods to collect information and form opinion
    Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be used in fields such as the humanities, social sciences, and business, and is often used to gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon or to develop new theories.

    Scientific research is a logical stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding Scientific research, it is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions. Scientific research is characterized by its emphasis on objectivity, replication, and the use of statistical methods to test hypotheses. It is used in fields such as the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is often used to discover new knowledge and to develop new technologies.

    In scientific research Data collection involves observation, experimentation, formulation and testing hypothesis while in non scientific research involves observation and presume relations among natural phenomenon. Non scientific research under this factor, it observes the data while taking them for granted (assuming them) to be true without proof. Example in non-scientific research when one claim (through a divine inspiration) he/she presume it with no and evidences to prove the information. Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis, while non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence. Additionally, scientific research is typically peer-reviewed and subject to replication, while non-scientific research may not undergo the same level of scrutiny.

    2.
    Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key characteristics, including:

    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means/implies that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.

    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means/implies that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.

    Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.

    Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, a process in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research before it is published. This helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of the research.

    Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.

    Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.

    Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.

    Generalizability: Scientific research is generalizable, which means that the results of the research can be applied to other populations or contexts.

    All of these properties are essential in order to ensure that scientific research is conducted in a rigorous and unbiased manner, and that the results generated are reliable and useful.

    Reference
    Academiasholaz.blogspot.com

  29. Avatar OZOH CHIEMERIE LILIAN 2019/242809 says:

    1
    . Non scientific research:
    a. Speculation of guesswork: conclusion are drawn based on what the researcher feels or thinks.
    b. Experience: conclusion drawn from past experience.
    c. mysticism: here knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism the inquirer get information from higher spiritual powers to solve existing problems.

    Scientific research:
    a. Controlled: researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.

    b. Rigorous: you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant appropriate and justified.

    c. Systematic: systematic and procedures of planning collection of data analysis and reporting.

    d. Logical: every possible step must be taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure tools and conclusion.

    e. Verifiable: every conclusions must be correct and verifiable

    2. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    1. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment.

    2. Objective/ Goal: A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations.

    3. Reliable: means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    4. Accuracy: All scientific research works must be accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent.

  30. Avatar Joseph Prosper Chizundu says:

    Joseph Prosper Chizundu
    2019/247776
    Economics

    1.Scientific research is a step by step logical and rigorous method of solving problems it involves identifying the problem, collecting data, analysis and drawing valid and unbiased conclusions. While a non scientific research is an unorganized, random, non logical, non rigorous way of solving problems.

    Differences between scientific and non scientific research

    1)Scientific research is organized while non scientific is unorganized.
    2)Scientific research is systematic while non scientific research is random.
    3)Scientific research is logical while non scientific research is illogical.
    4)Scientific research is rigorous while non scientific research is non rigorous.

    The characteristics of scientific research 1)Purpose: research is used for gathering new data for new purposes.
    2)Control: in research, you can step up you own study or research to minimize the effect of other factors that affect the relationship between two variables.
    3)Rigorous: in research, you must be careful in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to these research questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    4)Critical: the procedures used and the methods applied is critical a research inquiry.
    5)Valid and verification: you research result and conclusions must be reliability, your conclusion must be correct so that of another research does a research on the same study he/she’s conclusions will not be of a different result.
    6)Systematic: research follows clearly stipulated procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting.

  31. Avatar Omeje christopher obinna says:

    OMEJE CHRISTOPHER OBINNA
    2019/245701
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    Scientific Research is a systematic (step by step), rigorous, logical and organized way of solving problems in which we

    Identify the problems

    Collect data

    Analyze them

    -Draw valid conclusion

    While Non-Scientific Research is a random, unorganized, non rigorous, illogical way of solving problems

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    1) Scientific research is Systematic (step by step) while Non Scientific Research is random in

    that it doesn’t have a ‘family of methods employed

    2) Scientific Research is Organized while Non Scientific Research is unorganized and based on

    guess work.

    3) Scientific Research is Logical while Nort Scientific Research is illogical as it is usually based

    on speculation.

    4) Scientific Research is Rigorous while Non Scientific Research is not Rigorous in that it

    doesn’t go through a proper process to solve problems.

    2

    a) AIM

    The purpose of a scientific research is clear

    b) CONTROL

    This means that a researcher controls the variables in his research and can add to remove depending on the study

    c) RIGOROUS

    It must be based on sound methodology and a good theoretical base in that the procedure followed must be relevant as well as appropriate.

    d) CRITICAL

    It is crucial that there is a critical scrutiny of the method of Research.

    e) VALID/VERIFIABLE

    This means that your conclusions must be correct so it can be replicated.

    f) EMPIRICAL

    This means that conclusions must be from hard facts and evidence from real life experiences.

    g) LOGICAL AND OBJECTIVE

    This implies that every possible step must have been taken to ensure validity of the procedure

    and tools of such a Research

    h) SYSTEMATIC

    This means that the process must have followed a step by step approach to arrive at its conclusion

    i) GENERALIZABILITY

    This means that the conclusion can be used in a generalized manner in that ceteris paribus, the

    same result will be obtained

  32. Avatar Omitoogun Matteen Omidayo 2019/244704 says:

    (1). Scientific research is a research that involves the processes of observation, hypothesis testing before drawing conclusions. It is a research that goes through critical evaluation.
    Non-scientific research is a research that doesn’t involve the scientific processes. It is a research in which the conclusions are drawn based on guess works or opinions.
    The difference between these two types of research is that scientific research goes through critical evaluation processes to ensure that information found is valid while non-scientific research just concludes without critical findings. This is the main difference between the two researches.

    (2). The characteristics of scientific research are Validity, Criticality, Rigorousness, Generalizability, Objectivity and Logicality and Systemsticism.

  33. Avatar Name:Okoro Peter Ogoegbu Nnenna says:

    NAme:Okoro Peter Ogoegbu Nnenna
    Department: Combined social sciences (Eco/ pol)
    Reg no.2019/243013
    Course: Eco 391
    1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Answer
    Scientific research is a systematic enquiries following the scientific methodology or investigating for acquiring or expanding our understanding on a particular area of study Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. nonscientific research can also be seen as away of acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method.
    Difference between scientific and unscientific research

    A. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    B. Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.
    C.speculation or guess work is in non scientific research, conclusions are drawn base on what the researcher feels or think.while in scientific researchit in empirical, empirical implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information/date collected from real life situations or observation and subjected to experimentations.
    2).Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    A. Purposefull (aim) the purpose of any scientific research is always State,it must be directed in solving a problem.a scientific researcher much derive. All scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.
    B. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.his purpose of engaging in a research.
    C.. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    D. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    E.Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    F.Systematics
    The systematization of scientific research is linked to the need for it to be rigorous in procedures.This is not a random observation, but is the result of a well-structured plan, with specific objectives.The processes must be standardized, always be sought to execute the actions in the same way, so that the result can be reliable as a result of having always followed the same guidelines.The systematic plan that must guide a scientific investigation must consider all the aspects and moments of this research: from the objects of study and the variables to be taken into account, to the rhythm of work that must be followed in order to arrive at conclusions in time expected.
    G. Controlled
    Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results.Chance has no place in scientific research: all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher’s criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules.aValid and verifiable, your conclusions must be correct and verifiable.There is no sense in focusing scientific research on proven facts. A scientific investigation must treat new or little studied aspects, so that the result of the study implies a true contribution to the science and the humanity.If it is based on an existing research, the researcher should focus on a different area of ​​the problem, look for alternative results to those presented in the first place, or refute the research hypothesis as mistaken.In any case, it is essential that scientific research brings something new and useful for people.
    H. Rigorous.
    Scientific research needs rigorous planning so that it can yield true results. This planning must have a specific order, which responds to the interests of the study.In a scientific investigation it is necessary that the processes are designed and ordered in such a way that they reach secondary objectives that, in the last instance, can help to verify the main objectives raised by the researcher.In turn, the whole exploratory process of a scientific investigation must be based on an orderly structure that allows to develop a veracious, empirical and verifiable study.

  34. Avatar Anibodi Chiamaka Teska says:

    ANIBODI CHIAMAKA TESKA
    2019/243747
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    NO 1i
    1. Non-scientific Research: These are answers that are not based on empirical evidence, it is based on speculation or guess work.
    2. Scientific Research: focuses on solving problems and pursues a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    NO 1ii
    The difference is that non scientific research is not based on empirical evidence but scientific research is based on empirical evidence.

    NO 2
    A. Purpose (Aim): The purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose directed towards the solution of a problem.
    B. Controlled: The concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between two variables, you set up your own study on such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affects such a relationship.
    C. Rigorous: It must be based on good theoretical base and sound methodology.
    D. Critical: Critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the methods employed in crucial to a research enquiry.
    E. Valid and verifiable (replicability): Your conclusions must be correct and verifiable.
    F. Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting.

  35. Avatar ILAMI BENISON IBOH 2019/241788 says:

    ILAMI BENISON IBOH
    2019/241788
    ECONOMICS
    bilami35@gmail.com
    1.

    Scientific Research is a systematic (step by step), rigorous, logical and organized way of solving problems in which we
    -Identify the problems
    -Collect data
    -Analyze them
    -Draw valid conclusion
    While Non-Scientific Research is a random, unorganized, non rigorous, illogical way of solving problems.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    1) Scientific research is Systematic (step by step) while Non Scientific Research is random in that it doesn’t have a ‘family of methods’ employed.

    2) Scientific Research is Organized while Non Scientific Research is unorganized and based on guess work.

    3) Scientific Research is Logical while Non Scientific Research is Illogical as it is usually based on speculation.

    4) Scientific Research is Rigorous while Non Scientific Research is not Rigorous in that it doesn’t go through a proper process to solve problems.

    2.

    a) AIM
    The purpose of a scientific research is clear

    b) CONTROL
    This means that a researcher controls the variables in his research and can add to remove depending on the study

    c) RIGOROUS
    It must be based on sound methodology and a good theoretical base in that the procedure followed must be relevant as well as appropriate.

    d) CRITICAL
    It is crucial that there is a critical scrutiny of the method of Research.

    e) VALID/VERIFIABLE
    This means that your conclusions must be correct so it can be replicated.

    f) EMPIRICAL
    This means that conclusions must be from hard facts and evidence from real life experiences.

    g) LOGICAL AND OBJECTIVE
    This implies that every possible step must have been taken to ensure validity of the procedure and tools of such a Research.

    h) SYSTEMATIC
    This means that the process must have followed a step by step approach to arrive at its conclusion.

    i) GENERALIZABILITY
    This means that the conclusion can be used in a generalized manner in that, ceteris paribus, the same result will be obtained.

  36. Avatar IGBADI ODIYA DANLADI says:

    UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    Name: IGBADI ODIYA DANLADI
    REG NO: 2019/244347
    Email: odiyadanladi190@gmail.com

    Answers to question one
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there
    Tradition
    Tradition is knowledge and understanding that is believed to be true because it has been traditionally accepted. No one has stopped to say, ‘Hey, wait a minute. That’s not right.’ For instance, how much of your brain do you use? If you say ‘only 10%,’ then you have fallen victim to a common fallacy passed through tradition. We actually use 100% of our brain and nearly all the time.
    Personal Experience
    Personal experience is information or understanding derived from experiencing something firsthand. There doesn’t seem to be a problem with this at first, but it is actually incredibly flawed because experience is subjective and not reproducible.
    For instance, dreams seem to predict the future. Everyone has had the déjà vu experience of having dreamt something before, but does that mean you have prophetic dreams? Not really. Most likely, you had a dream that was similar to the event and your mind just filled in the blanks to make it seem like it all happened before.
    Intuition
    Intuitive knowledge comes from understanding and believing in an idea based on a gut instinct or through personal insight. This is the ‘I know it because I know it’ category of knowledge, where someone cannot offer a good reason for something, but they just know it to be true.

    For instance, eyewitnesses to a crime appear more accurate when they are more confident. This is false and has been found time and again by researchers. Confidence has nothing to do with a person’s accuracy when recalling something in the past. But, many people rely on what they feel is the right answer, and someone who is confident must be right!

    Logic
    Logic is the application of thought and reasoning to come to a conclusion. But, much like personal experience, the process is flawed by a person’s limited viewpoint. You cannot think about something you don’t already know.
    Difference between scientific research and non scientific research.

    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    Below is a summary of the difference between scientific and non-scientific research in tabular form for side by side comparison.

    Summary – Scientific vs Non-scientific Research
    Scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research and formulating the conclusion, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that are not based on the scientific method in acquiring knowledge and arriving at a conclusion. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    Answer to question two
    Major Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge/ Research
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.

    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.

    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    Also see: Qualities of a great researcher

    3. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result

    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    6. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.
    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.

    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed s

  37. Avatar NWAFOR EMMANUEL ONYEDIKACHI says:

    1]
    Non scientific research like the name implies is a kind of research that has no empirical process to problem solving so basically it involves speculations and not hard facts, this implies that how a research thinks or feels or even his personal experiences influences the research outcome, this could even extend to them inquiring from a higher spiritual power to solve an existing problem.
    It is noteworthy that the fact that a research is non-scientific does not mean it is not important, in fact on the contrary it is very important because of the fact that determining human behaviour encompasses indices which are sometimes difficult to capture and scientific research methods do not always provide answers to these questions hence the importance of non-scientific research
    Scientific research on the other end of this discussion involves making an observations, then it involves forming an hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results.
    The difference between non-scientific and scientific research as seen from the definition is that scientific research unlike non-scientific research involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results.

    2]
    The characteristics of scientific research are simply those distinguishing features that make a research a scientific one and below are the characteristics of a scientific research.
    The first is that a research must be Purposeful, this just basically means that the purpose of a research is made clear from the beginning, this leads to all efforts to be directed towards the solution we are currently seeking.
    Another characteristics of a research is that it is controlled, by control we mean external factors that could interfere with your research are either eradicated completely or are brought to the bearest minimum.
    For a research to be a scientific one, it must be rigorous, this basically means that it must have a good theoretical base and must have sound methodology and this also involves that you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that you adhere to the standard procedures when finding answers to questions.
    Another characteristics of a research to be a scientific one is that it must be critical, and this requires that we must critically scrutinise the procedures used as well as the methods employed.
    Futhermore a research must be valid and verifiable, this simply put is that your results must be replicable, this means that if any other researcher were to carry out the same research, ceteris paribus they should arrive at the similar or the exact same results.
    One important characteristics is that a scientific research must be empirical, this means that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence that can be validated, also there must be no trace of personal opinion, biases or feelings. Basically all theoretical models are tested through simulations and experimentation.
    A scientific research must be logical and objective, by logical it means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure tools and conclusions. And by objectivity this means that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data is supported by theoretical model.
    Any scientific research must be systematic all round from planning to collection of data to analysis and reporting. Hence the different steps cannot be interchanged, some procedures must follow the other.
    Finally any scientific research should be as generalised as possible. By this it means that the scope of applicability should be wide, the wider, the better.

  38. Avatar Idajor John Ayuochieyi says:

    NAME: IDAJOR, JOHN AYUOCHIEYI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG. NUMBER: 2019/248707
    1. Scientific research can be seen as the systematic collection, evaluation and interpretation of data in a planned manner. Scientific method of research do not believe in superstition but rather follows a logical method in order to arrive at the expected solution. Its method of research is carried out in such a way that it can be verified, and if after verification the proof is false, it can also be re conducted. For instance, in a scientific research, there would be no believe about the doctrinal believe about the trinitarian theology, this is so in the sense that, there is no way they can study the phenomenon surrounding the Trinity neither is there a way for them to see the three persons in one God with their necked eyes. With all these scientific research is looked at to be purposeful in nature and it seek to study a particular phenomenon closely, carefully and assuredly in order to know indeptly about such phenomenon. It brings out theories on how the phenomenon surrounding his research works.
    Non scientific research is the opposite of a scientific research. It does not have to do with critical and logical collection of data, analyzing and interpretation, but this has to do with intuition, believing without full proof, it has to do with mysteries and other ways of research other than the scientific research. This research can in an iota of words be done through the following ways:
    By speculation or guess work
    By experience
    By hunches, intuition and premonitions
    Through mysterism
    By theology or doctrinal believe or revelations, etc.
    The above mentioned ways are used in non scientific research and the two methods are all useful following the given situations surrounding them.
    Differences between scientific and non scientific research
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies, while non scientific research is the research conducted without any systematic or strategic method.
    Scientific research can be repeated many times using the same methods, while non scientific research cannot be repeated many times using the same methods.
    Data collection in scientific research uses different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing of hypothesis, while non scientific research collect data using only observation.
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving its conclusion, while non scientific research do not follow a logical and systematic conclusion before arriving its conclusion.
    Scientific research is objective in nature, while non scientific research is subjective in nature.
    2. As seen earlier, scientific research uses a systematic and strategic methods like observation, formulation and the test of hypothesis in carrying out its research. Some of the characteristics are as follows:
    It is purposeful: When we say something has a purpose, it means that there is a particular target that is being looked for. Scientific research is purposeful when it sets out a particular target in researching about a particular topic or situation. For example, scientific research can be directed towards the research on the total population of the inhabitants of Nsukka, that is to say the research is to know only the total number of persons living in Nsukka and it is not supposed to go beyond this.
    Control: Control in this aspect is the ability of the researcher to direct his or her research in a way and manner in which he would be able to get the correct and appropriate result or solution to his research. Before a researcher makes his research, he should be able to know the factors on ground that may not give him a correct result and also through that device a perfect method to use that will fit in for his or her research. In this situation, a researcher can manipulate the variables rationally provided it will give a correct result.
    Rigorous: The researcher must not use inaccurate techniques in his research, rahter, he is expected to use accurate data and a relevant and valid methods and variables in the research. This will bring forth a good and sound theories from the research.
    Critical: A good scientific research is critical in nature because it tends to do away with mistakes in the process of research, therefore, each research is expected to check and recheck all the processes taken together with the methods employed. The critical characteristics of scientific research their depicts the carefulness of researchers in order to arrive at the appropriate result.
    Valid and verifiable: Validity and verification as characteristics of a scientific research tends to show the usefulness and the worth of the research, also, it shows if the very research conducted, if re conducted would give the same result as the one at hand. For example, if a researcher brings up a result from his research and said that the highest boiling point of water is at 100 degree Celsius, for it to be accepted another researcher can also carryout the research and if he arrives at the same result, then, the theory and the result holds that at a high temperature, the boiling point of water is at 100 degree Celsius.
    Empirical: An other feature of a scientific research is that, it must be empirical in nature, meaning that, haven studied and observed all the different situations surrounding a particular topic or issue of study, the conclusion to be drawn about that study is not supposed to be drawn from another area of study or research but should come from that study made. This conclusion to be drawn is gotten from a hard evidence of studies about such phenomenon. The observations, changes and other experience gotten in the process of the research must be taken into consideration, analyzed and summarized.
    Logical and objective: To be logical entails sound reasoning, this depicts the sound reasoning of the researcher in his quest of study over a particular topic, and being objective shows no deviation of the researcher from the topic or situation of research into another topic of research. All that the researcher studies revolves around the topic or situation of research, therefore the researcher takes a logical reasoning in his research.
    Systematic: For anything to be systematic, it means it is a planned, orderly, and a good methodological procedures taken to carryout a study, action or plan. In scientific research, there are different methods used in carrying out research in order that if this one method fails, another method would be able to fit into that particular situation. In those methods are series of sub methods that would ensure a successful result from a research undertaken. Thus, there is observation, formulation and a test of hypothesis. All these methods follow sequentially from one step to the other in order to ensure an accurate result.
    Generalization: It is the formulation of general concepts from specific instances by abstracting common properties. Or it is the Inductive reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. Here, after all the studies and observation, a researcher generalize all he has observed and studied by forming a theory which becomes a principle for people to understand the result and summary of the study.

  39. Avatar Orih somtochukwu faithful says:

    Name: Orih somtochukwu faithful.
    Reg number:2021/242480. department:nursing
    *Differences between normative economics and positive economics*
    Positive and Normative Economics is rightly known as the two arms of Economics. Positive economics deals with various economic phenomena, while normative economics focuses on what economics should be, this branch of economics talks about the value of the company’s fairness. In lucid language, positive economics answers the ‘what’ factor, whereas normative economics mandates the ‘should be’ or ‘ought to be’ section of economics.
    The differences between positive and normative economics are explained in the points given below:
    1).Positive Economics refers to a science which is based on data and facts. Normative economics is described as a science based on opinions, values, and judgment.
    2).Positive economics is descriptive, but normative economics is prescriptive.
    3).Positive economics explains cause and effect relationship between variables. On the other hand, normative economics pass value judgments.
    4).The perspective of positive economics is objective while normative economics have a subjective perspective.
    5).Positive economics explains ‘what is’ whereas normative economics explains ‘what should be’.
    6).The statements of positive economics can be scientifically tested, proved or disproved, which cannot be done with statements of normative economics.
    7).positive economics clearly define economic issues. Unlike normative economics, in which the remedies are provided for the economic issues, on the basis of value judgment.
    * Lucidly discuss and analyse the concept of ceteris paribus in economics with example*
    Ceteris paribus a Latin phrase, meaning “other things equal”; some other English translations of the phrase are “all other things being equal”, “other things held constant”, “all else unchanged”, and “all else being equal”. A statement about a causal, empirical, or logical relation between two states of affairs is ceteris paribus if it is acknowledged that the statement, although usually accurate in expected conditions, can fail because of, or the relation can be abolished by, intervening factors.
    Economics’ ceteris paribus conditions include:
    1) .The number of consumers in the market
    2) .Consumer tastes or preferences
    3) .prices of substitute goods
    4) .consumer price expectations
    5). Personal income
    One of the disciplines in which ceteris paribus clauses are most widely used is economics, in which they are employed to simplify the formulation and description of economic outcomes. When using ceteris paribus in economics, one assumes that all other variables except those under immediate consideration are held constant. For example, it can be predicted that if the price of beef increases—ceteris paribus—the quantity of beef demanded by buyers will decrease. In this example, the clause is used to operationally describe everything surrounding the relationship between both the price and the quantity demanded of an ordinary good.
    This operational description intentionally ignores both known and unknown factors that may also influence the relationship between price and quantity demanded, and thus to assume ceteris paribus is to assume away any interference with the given example. Such factors that would be intentionally ignored include: a change in the price of substitute goods, (e.g., the price of pork or lamb); a change in the level of risk aversion among buyers (e.g., due to an increase in the fear of mad cow disease); and a change in the level of overall demand for a good regardless of its current price (e.g., a societal shift toward vegetarianism).
    example in economics is “If the price of milk falls, ceteris paribus, the demand for milk will rise.” This means that, if other factors, such as deflation, pricing objectives, utility, and marketing methods, do not change, the decrease in the price of milk will lead to an increase in demand for it.

  40. Avatar ANI VICTOR EMEKA REG.NO:2019/242774 ECONOMICS says:

    Answers:
    1.Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research.
    It can be used in fields such as the humanities, social sciences, and business, and is often used to gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon or to develop new theories.
    -Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions. Scientific research is characterized by its emphasis on objectivity, replication, and the use of statistical methods to test hypotheses. It is used in fields such as the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is often used to discover new knowledge and to develop new technologies.

    Difference:
    Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis,
    While non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence. Additionally, scientific research is typically peer-reviewed and subject to replication, while non-scientific research may not undergo the same level of scrutiny.

    2.
    Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key features, including:
    -Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.
    -Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.
    -Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.
    -Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, a process in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research before it is published. This helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of the research.
    -Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.
    -Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.
    -Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.

  41. Avatar Orih somtochukwu faithful says:

    Name: Orih somtochukwu faithful.
    Reg number:2021/242480
    *Differences between normative economics and positive economics*
    Positive and Normative Economics is rightly known as the two arms of Economics. Positive economics deals with various economic phenomena, while normative economics focuses on what economics should be, this branch of economics talks about the value of the company’s fairness. In lucid language, positive economics answers the ‘what’ factor, whereas normative economics mandates the ‘should be’ or ‘ought to be’ section of economics.
    The differences between positive and normative economics are explained in the points given below:
    1).Positive Economics refers to a science which is based on data and facts. Normative economics is described as a science based on opinions, values, and judgment.
    2).Positive economics is descriptive, but normative economics is prescriptive.
    3).Positive economics explains cause and effect relationship between variables. On the other hand, normative economics pass value judgments.
    4).The perspective of positive economics is objective while normative economics have a subjective perspective.
    5).Positive economics explains ‘what is’ whereas normative economics explains ‘what should be’.
    6).The statements of positive economics can be scientifically tested, proved or disproved, which cannot be done with statements of normative economics.
    7).positive economics clearly define economic issues. Unlike normative economics, in which the remedies are provided for the economic issues, on the basis of value judgment.
    * Lucidly discuss and analyse the concept of ceteris paribus in economics with example*
    Ceteris paribus a Latin phrase, meaning “other things equal”; some other English translations of the phrase are “all other things being equal”, “other things held constant”, “all else unchanged”, and “all else being equal”. A statement about a causal, empirical, or logical relation between two states of affairs is ceteris paribus if it is acknowledged that the statement, although usually accurate in expected conditions, can fail because of, or the relation can be abolished by, intervening factors.
    Economics’ ceteris paribus conditions include:
    1) .The number of consumers in the market
    2) .Consumer tastes or preferences
    3) .prices of substitute goods
    4) .consumer price expectations
    5). Personal income
    One of the disciplines in which ceteris paribus clauses are most widely used is economics, in which they are employed to simplify the formulation and description of economic outcomes. When using ceteris paribus in economics, one assumes that all other variables except those under immediate consideration are held constant. For example, it can be predicted that if the price of beef increases—ceteris paribus—the quantity of beef demanded by buyers will decrease. In this example, the clause is used to operationally describe everything surrounding the relationship between both the price and the quantity demanded of an ordinary good.
    This operational description intentionally ignores both known and unknown factors that may also influence the relationship between price and quantity demanded, and thus to assume ceteris paribus is to assume away any interference with the given example. Such factors that would be intentionally ignored include: a change in the price of substitute goods, (e.g., the price of pork or lamb); a change in the level of risk aversion among buyers (e.g., due to an increase in the fear of mad cow disease); and a change in the level of overall demand for a good regardless of its current price (e.g., a societal shift toward vegetarianism).
    example in economics is “If the price of milk falls, ceteris paribus, the demand for milk will rise.” This means that, if other factors, such as deflation, pricing objectives, utility, and marketing methods, do not change, the decrease in the price of milk will lead to an increase in demand for it.

  42. Name: Edwin Chinedu Augustine
    Reg no:2019/249508
    Department: Economics Major
    Course code: Eco 361
    Research

    1)
    The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology.

    Steps of the scientific method
    The scientific method uses a series of steps to establish facts or create knowledge. The overall process is well established, but the specifics of each step may change depending on what is being examined and who is performing it. The scientific method can only answer questions that can be proven or disproven through testing.

    Make an observation or ask a question. The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask a question that you would like answered. These can be specific or general. Some examples would be “I observe that our total available network bandwidth drops at noon every weekday” or “How can we increase our website registration numbers?” Taking the time to establish a well-defined question will help you in later steps.

    Gather background information. This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked the same question.

    Create a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an explanation for the observation or question. If proven later, it can become a fact. Some examples would be “Our employees watching online videos during lunch is using our internet bandwidth” or “Our website visitors don’t see our registration form.”

    Create a prediction and perform a test. Create a testable prediction based on the hypothesis. The test should establish a noticeable change that can be measured or observed using empirical analysis. It is also important to control for other variables during the test. Some examples would be “If we block video-sharing sites, our available bandwidth will not go down significantly during lunch” or “If we make our registration box bigger, a greater percentage of visitors will register for our website than before the change.”

    Analyze the results and draw a conclusion. Use the metrics established before the test see if the results match the prediction. For example, “After blocking video-sharing sites, our bandwidth utilization only went down by 10% from before; this is not enough of a change to be the primary cause of the network congestion” or “After increasing the size of the registration box, the percent of sign-ups went from 2% of total page views to 5%, showing that making the box larger results in more registrations.”

    Share the conclusion or decide what question to ask next: Document the results of your experiment. By sharing the results with others, you also increase the total body of knowledge available. Your experiment may have also led to other questions, or if your hypothesis is disproven you may need to create a new one and test that. For example, “Because user activity is not the cause of excessive bandwidth use, we now suspect that an automated process is running at noon every day.”

    2)
    10 Major Characteristics of Scientific Research

    1. Empirical: 
    A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.

    Objectivity: 
    All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    Ethical:
    Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    Systematic Exploration:
    Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.

    Reliable:
    It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    Accuracy:
    All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.

    Replicated:
    A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

    Controlled:
    All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

    Objective/ Goal:
    Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  43. Avatar Daniel Unique says:

    DANIEL UNIQUE AGBENU
    2019246710
    Eco 391 Assignment
    1)Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent, scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data. Scientific research can be classified in several ways. Classification can be made according to the data collection techniques based on causality, relationship with time and the medium through which they are applied.

    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    It is based on speculations or guess work, conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think, past experiences, from higher spiritual powers In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    QUESTION 2
    1)Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. This means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research. It is based on real life experience, no form of sentiments comes in between this type of research.
    2) Purposeful: A scientific research is always purposeful, it always has an aim and a goal, they have a target when they gather data, and it usually towards finding answers and bringing solutions to problem. In scientific research the researcher is always with an intent and is fully committed to carry out that goal without compromising.
    3) Controlled: Here, variables in their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire, the research direct and oversees the variables in question. All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    4) Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.
    5) Systematic: Scientific research is systematic in procedures, it is well ordered, well planned, it goes through the set up processes and procedures of planning, collation of data, analysis and reporting, it is well organized and methodic.

    6)Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.
    7) Critical: a thorough and critical scrutiny of the procedures is very important before a research and during the research, the procedures to be used must be exacting and analytical cause it is crucial and important to the researcher.
    8) Replicated (Valid and verifiable): A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.
    9) Rigorous: a scientific research has to be rigorous meaning that it must be meticulous and based on good theoretical base, it must be done careful and in a precise manner, ensuring that the procedures to findinganswers to questions are relevant , appropriate and justified. For a scientific research to be rigorous, it has to be done diligently.

  44. Avatar Asogwa Ijeoma says:

    Name : Asogwa Ijeoma Agatha
    Reg no: 2019/251105
    Department: Economics

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Answer
    Non-scientific research typically refers to research that is conducted outside of the scientific method, and may include qualitative research, such as interviews, mysticism, speculation or guess work, focus groups, ethnography is used in non scientific research to determine mine human behaviours which are sometimes difficult to capture.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. The scientific method typically involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. This type of research is often conducted in order to test specific hypotheses or theories and to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
    In summary, non-scientific research is a broad term that can refer to any type of research that is not conducted using the scientific method, whereas scientific research refers to research that is conducted using the scientific method and adheres to the principles of objectivity and replication.

    1a: Difference between scientific and non scientific research
    The main difference between scientific and non-scientific research is the method by which the research is conducted.
    Scientific research is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. The scientific method ensures that the research is objective, reliable, and replicable. It is also used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Scientific research is often conducted in laboratories, universities and research centers by scientists, researchers, and academics.

    Non-scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is not conducted using the scientific method. Non-scientific research can include qualitative research, such as interviews, focus groups, and ethnography, or quantitative research, such as surveys and polls. This type of research is often conducted to gain a better understanding of human behavior, attitudes, and beliefs, and is not necessarily objective, reliable, or replicable as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be conducted by anyone, including journalists, market researchers, and even individuals.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Answer
    Characteristics of scientific research
    Scientific research is characterized by several key features that distinguish it from non-scientific research:
    Objectivity: Scientific research is conducted in an unbiased and impartial manner, without personal or emotional involvement.
    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on evidence and data that is collected through observation and experimentation, rather than on personal beliefs or opinions.
    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicated by other researchers, in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings, it can also mean that when a research is conducted in another state or by another researcher using the same variables the results of the findings should be the same in both tests carried out.
    Hypothesis-driven: Scientific research begins with a specific hypothesis or question that is tested through experimentation and data collection. The aim of any research is to answer a question.
    Peer-review: Scientific research is subject to review by other experts in the field, in order to ensure that the research is of high quality and meets established standards.
    Theory testing: Scientific research is intended to test theories by using a set of methods and techniques that can be repeated.
    Transparency: Scientific research is conducted with transparency and openness, with results and methods being made available to the public.
    Validity and reliability: Scientific research is conducted in such a way as to minimize sources of error and bias, and to ensure that the data is accurate and reliable and to also ensure that if such a research is carried out somewhere else or by someone else using same variables the results will the same. The results gotten from the research should be useful to the researcher.
    Generalizability: Scientific research is intended to be generalizable to a larger population, meaning that the results can be applied to other cases or situations.
    Self-correcting: Scientific research is a self-correcting process, which means that theories and hypotheses are continuously tested and refined over time, based on new data and evidence.
    These are some of the main characteristics that define scientific research, and which help to ensure that the research is reliable, valid and of high quality.

  45. Avatar Nebo Casmir Chukwuemeka 2019/244263 ECONOMICS says:

    Answers:
    1.Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be used in fields such as the humanities, social sciences, and business, and is often used to gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon or to develop new theories.

    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions. Scientific research is characterized by its emphasis on objectivity, replication, and the use of statistical methods to test hypotheses. It is used in fields such as the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is often used to discover new knowledge and to develop new technologies.

    Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis, while non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence.

    2.
    Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key features, including:
    -Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.
    -Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.
    -Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.
    -Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, a process in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research before it is published. This helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of the research.
    -Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.
    -Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.
    -Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.
    -Generalizability: Scientific research is generalizable, which means that the results of the research can be applied to other populations or contexts.

  46. Avatar OFORISHE VICTORIA IRUWOGHENE .2019/247251 says:

    1. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.It often involves establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between different variables.There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology.
    NON_SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well.Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    2.
    a.Predictability
    Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc.
    b.Precision—
    Precision simply means truth or correction of a statement or description of things with exact words as they are without jumping to unjustified conclusions.
    c.Abstraction
    Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract.
    d.Objectivity
    Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices. If you are afraid that your work will not be objective enough, then you can ask us to “write my paper” or order proofreading.

    e. Verifiable
    Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.

    Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    f. Ethical neutrality
    Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war.

    Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research proposal. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.

    g. Systematic exploration
    A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.

    H.Reliable
    Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.

  47. Avatar Anyamadu Stephen Okechukwu 2019/249163 says:

    1. NON-SCIENTIFIC AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND THEIR DIFFERENCES.

    Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.Scientific research is a investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding whereas nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method.

    2.CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    1. Objectivity —
    Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are.

    2. Verifiable—
    Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.
    Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    3. Ethical neutrality
    Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.

    4. Systematic exploration
    A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.

    5. Reliable or reliable
    Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.

    6. Accuracy
    Scientific knowledge is precise and accurate with figure and percentage

    7. Precision—
    Precision simply means truth or correction of a statement or description of things with exact words as they are without jumping to unjustified conclusions.

    8. Abstraction
    Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract.

    9. Predictability
    Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc.

  48. Avatar EGWUONWU OLISAEMEKA ELOCHUKWU says:

    EGWUONWU OLISAEMEKA ELOCHUKWU
    2019/245027
    ECO 391
    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1)
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    (2)
    a)Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    b)Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    c)Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    d)Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    e)Objective/ Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  49. Avatar Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi says:

    Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi
    2019/246703
    Combined social sciences ( Eco/ Soc)

    1: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research: a researcher is the one who conducts this research. It often involves establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between different variables. For example, once researchers discover that a particular drug works, they can then conduct explanatory studies to understand exactly why it works.
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. A non-science is an area of study that is not scientific, especially one that is not a natural science or a social science that is an object of scientific inquiry.

    2: Empirical – based on observations and experimentation
    Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  50. Avatar Attama Lilian ogechukwu says:

    Attama Lilian Ogechukwu
    Department: Economics
    Reg no : 2019/243411
    Eco 391
    Question
    1) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the result. In view of this , clearly discuss non scientific and scientific research and their difference
    What is scientific Research This is process by which scientists study various phenomenon using systematic methods of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data .it is often referred to as creative process because it involves novel ways to test idea that can lead to new ideas and information scientific research is the systematic investigation of scientific theories and hypothesis. Scientific research follows a systematic approach .it aims to acquire new information that adds to the existing knowledge in the research field. The consensus of scientific research is that researchers should plan their investigation before executing it. This is important as it can help identify if research is observable . Empirical, valid and reliable.
    What is non scientific research: Non scientific research is acquiring knowledge and truth about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. Non scientific research is research conducted with out any systematic methods and scientific basis . In non scientific research intuition, personal experience and personal beliefs are used to techniques to reach a conclusion. This conclusion in non scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption. In non scientific research, logical and systematic methods are not used in analyzing data. Non scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It doesn’t focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it doesn’t use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.
    Difference between non scientific research and scientific research
    1) Non scientific research is conducted through tradition personal experience intuition and authority while scientific research relies on the scientific method.
    2) Scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data While Non scientific research can not be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience and personal beliefs.
    3) Scientific research uses logical process in conducting the research while Non scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.
    4) Scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formation, and testing hypothesis while Non scientific research data collection only uses observation.
    5) Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion while Non scientific research only beliefs and expectation of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.
    6) Scientific research is objective while Non scientific research is subjective.
    2) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research
    1) Systematic: The systematization need for it to be rigorous in procedures . This is not a random observation, but is the result of a well structured plan with specific objective. The process must be standardized, always be sought to execute the actions in the same way so that the result can be reliable as a result of having always followed the same guidelines. The systematic plan that guide a scientific investigation must considered all the aspects and moments of this research : from the objects of study and the variables to be taken into account to the rhythm of work that must be followed in order to arrive at conclusion in time expected.
    2) Controlled: scientific research must avoid chance and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results .chance has no place in scientific research all action and observations are controlled, according to the research criteria and according to the object investigated through well defined methods and rules
    3) Empirical : The results of a scientific investigation must deals with the aspects of reality related to the subject under investigation. The aspects that chareterterize a particular research must be observable in the real world scientific research refers to issues that can be measured and identified as facts. Is about experiment with evidence. In this way it is possible to test the research hypothesis and thus be able to affirm, deny or supplement it, as the case may be .
    4) Reproducible: The findings obtained through scientific research should be able to be reproduced under the same conditions established in the study .Given the systematized nature of scientific research, it must be variables that were part of the process, allows to be able to reproduce the results achieved.
    5) Objective: just as rationality and critical character must be emphasized in scientific research, It must also be objective . The goal of the investigator is not to justify own postures, but to expose the facts in the purest way possible. The explanation arising from scientific research must be legitimate for people with different inclinations of thought. The results of scientific research must be universal
    6) Original: There is no sense in focusing scientific research on proven facts. A scientific investigation must treat new or little studied aspects, so that the result of the study implies a true contribution to the science and the humanity. If it is base on an existing research, the researcher should focus on different area of the problem, look for alternative results to those presented in the first place or refile the research hypothesis as mistaken . In any case it is essential that scientific research bring something new and useful for people.
    7) Rational: science in general is characterized by being rational and logic . In a scientific investigation must emphasized the rationality on the subjectivity. It’s empirical characteristics makes it necessary to based on real and verifiable facts and demands from the researcher a critical attitude and a dispossession of his personal conceptions or judgements of value. Some scientists and philosopher maintain that it is precisely the rational and critical character of an investigation that generate progress in the intellectual field and an important development of knowledge.

  51. Avatar Chidiebere james says:

    Name: Chidiebere James Chiwendu
    Reg No: 2019/249120
    Dep: Combined social sciences (Economics/Sociology).
    Course: Eco 391

    1. Scientific and non-scientific research have different goals and methods. For instance, while scientific research aims to gather data that can be used to improve the quality of life, non-scientific research focuses on the subjective experiences of people. This type of research is commonly used in fields such as history, literature, and the arts.

    Scientific research is conducted through a systematic process that involves analyzing, testing, and observing natural phenomena. It aims to find out what causes and how these phenomena work.

    Scientific research is typically conducted in fields such as biology, physics, chemistry, and medicine, and it is focused on understanding the natural world.
    One of the main differences between non-scientific and scientific research is the level of objectivity. Non-scientific research is often subjective and based on personal opinions, whereas scientific research is objective and based on facts and evidence. Scientific research also seeks to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results.
    Another difference is that scientific research is usually quantitative, meaning that it deals with numbers and measurements, while non-scientific research is usually qualitative, meaning that it deals with descriptions and interpretations. Scientific research is also more critical and systematic than non-scientific research.
    In conclusion, non-scientific research and scientific research are two different types of research that have different methods, goals, and outcomes. Non-scientific research is typically based on personal experiences, opinions, and beliefs, and is focused on understanding the human experience and perspective. Scientific research is based on the scientific method, is objective and seeks facts, it is focused on understanding the natural world and is replicable, systematic and critical.

    2. Scientific research is characterized by several key features, including:

    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, meaning that it relies on observation and experimentation to test hypotheses and theories.

    Objectivity: Scientific research is conducted in a unbiased and impartial manner, with the goal of minimizing the influence of personal beliefs or preconceptions on the outcome of the research.

    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be repeatable, meaning that other researchers should be able to reproduce the results using the same methods and materials.

    Parsimony: In scientific research, the simplest explanation is often the most likely one. This means that researchers will often try to find the simplest explanation that fits the available data.

    Skepticism: Scientific research is characterized by a healthy dose of skepticism, with researchers questioning assumptions and looking for alternative explanations for their results.

    Self-correction: Scientific research is a self-correcting process, where errors and inaccuracies are corrected over time through the process of peer review and replication.

    Progress: Scientific research is a process of continual discovery and progress, with new data and findings building on previous knowledge.

  52. Avatar NNA OZIOMA VINE says:

    NNA OZIOMA VINE
    2019/247263
    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    ECO 391
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    Did you ever discover you could do a cool new trick? Or, have you ever asked a friend to double-check your essay for mistakes?
    Well, scientists love to discover cool new things, write about them, and then have their peers double-check their work for mistakes, too.
    That’s the nature of scientific research!

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH is the systematic investigation of scientific theories and hypotheses.
    In science, the people who create such hypotheses are researchers. Most researchers work for companies or academic institutions. Many of them, but not all, have a PhD in an appropriate field related to their research. For example, a person conducting research on a new drug may have a PhD in chemistry – a PhD in history probably wouldn’t do much good.

    Anyway, scientific researchers try to answer the many questions we have about how the world works. But a lot of their work doesn’t really have to do with the questions at the forefront of our minds.

    I mean, yes, we’re all fascinated with knowing whether or not there may be life on other planets, but for many reasons such research isn’t as common as finding out whether or not a drug you never heard of has a potentially dangerous side effect.

    We may not think about this kind of research very often, but it impacts us or people we know far more so than the search for life on other planets. Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.

    Scientific vs Non-Scientific Research in Tabular Form
    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.

    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    3. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.

    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.
    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.
    6. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.
    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.
    9. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    10. Objective/ Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

    This is a brief analysis of the major characteristics of a scientific research work. Any research that does not meet with these requirements cannot thus be rightly considered scientific.

  53. Avatar Nebechi Joshua Chinedu says:

    Name:Nebechi Chinedu Joshua
    Reg no: 2019/250115
    Department: Economics Department
    Course code: Eco 391
    Course title: Research method
    1. Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.
    Below is a summary of the difference between scientific and non-scientific research in tabular form for side by side comparison.

    2. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.

    II. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    III Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of its own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    Iv.Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    V. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    Vi. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.

  54. Avatar Ugwu Silas Chinazaekpere says:

    Ugwu Silas Chinazaekpere

    2019/244182

    Economics

    1. Non- scientific research has qualities and characteristics that differentiate it from scientific research . These qualities of non- scientific research is that it is not logical or follow a step by step process ( systematic ) which is core factor of scientific research, but it is base on speculation and guess work.
    Scientific research involves the following testing, analysing and also making prediction through observations and experiment, and it also follow a process which Non-scientific research doesn’t use this methodology but it base on what researcher feels or think. It also goes beyond the physical realm into the mata-physical like divine revelation and mysticism.
    Even after all this limitation of non-scientific research it is has a role to play in the body of research, in situation where scientific research can’t cover like culture, religion, child hood experience etc.

    2. i) purposeful: when embarking on on research work your research must have reason for conducting the research about a particular problem . It must be directed towards solutions of a particular problem.
    ii) controlled: A research should be able to explain and analyse the relationship between two variables. A researcher should be able to find out ways to manipulate the variable and control the factors that influence the relationship using the research findings.A researcher can remove or add variable depending on there studies and note not all variables can be manipulated like natural phenomena.
    iii) Rigorous : A research must follow the right and appropriate methodology. A research work must sure follow the due process to find the solution to a problem ( question) is adequate and justified. When conducting a research the researcher must make sure the right step by step process is followed and the final answer and how you acquired the solution must be justified.
    iv ) critical:. A research work must be analysed to make sure the method employed is crucial to research enquiry. The researcher must make sure that the method he follows is relevant in finding the answers and make sure every step , is important and useful for the research enquiry and your research work must be free from Draw Back ( avoid irrelevant methodologies).
    v)valid and verifiable { replicability} : After conducting a research your conclusion must be correct and valid.
    It must be replicable if it is conducted in another location as long it is the same design parameters, this is important to prevent research fraud.
    vi) logical and objectives: scientific research is logical means that it must have a clear pattern or step that goes from on point to another in a logical manner. This means you must follow the step according without skipping any step. Research must be objectives it means that it must have a goal an end goal which is usually is finding more information about a topic and providing solutions to problem( question ) using a system.
    vii) Empirical: Every scientific research must be empirical in it findings, this means that is not babse on assumption or feeling but on physical evidence that is obtained through observations and experiment, so when it comes to scientific research it must evidence to prove there research findings is genuine.
    VIII) Systematic: A scientific research is not random , it must have a particular system you must follow to conduct any research. These system includes planning , collection , analysis of data and presentation. Every scientific research must follow this system for the research work to be considered as scientific.
    xi)Generalisability : Any research that is scientific must be able to cover a large number of variables, and it should be able to be used for statistical reference. The conclusion of scientific research should have a large scope of applicability it should be able to applied in different Areas of knowledge or discipline included.

  55. Avatar Ekweke Deborah Onyinyechi (2019/243791) says:

    Name: Ekweke Deborah Onyinyechi
    Reg no: 2019/243791
    Eco 361 Assignment
    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    As a result of decolonization, the United Nations, at first numerically dominated by European countries and countries of European origin, was gradually transformed into a form like the third world.
    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Low per Capita income: the real per Capita income a of developing countries is quite low compared to that of developed countries. This results in low savings, low investment, and ultimately, increased poverty.
    Poverty: this is seen in terms of lack of fulfilment of basic needs like education, employment, socio-economic participation, etc.
    Uncontrolled population growth: in developing countries, there is high mortality rates compelling people to feel in secure and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning and education, lack of sexual education especially for teenagers and youths in order to avoid unwanted pregnancy, a belief that additional kids mean additional labour force and additional income and wealth, etc.
    Unemployment and underemployment problem: due to low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of resources, lack of workforce planning, and teeming increase in population, and ethnicity problems in getting jobs, unemployment levels continue to rise.
    Lack of infrastructures: infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Still the developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably.

    4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If no why?
    World Bank estimates that 1.29 billion people live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. Yes, poverty has a woman’s face due to these reasons:
    Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.
    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many. Although these problems are experienced mostly in very undeveloped rural lands, they were highly prevalent in Africa in 19th and early 20th century, for example, women were not allowed to go to school because there responsibilities only end in the kitchen. Therefore women attended primary schools and got married to become house wives. These conditions prevented women from taking up job opportunities that will supply them with income. And when the breadwinners die, their wives end up struggling to take care of their children. This is usually also the case in polygamous marriages.

  56. Avatar Okoro David Kosisochukwu 2019/241946 says:

    1. Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It is often conducted using methods such as surveys, interviews, and case studies, rather than through controlled experiments. Non-scientific research is often more qualitative in nature and can include fields such as history, sociology, and anthropology.

    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is based on the scientific method. It is often conducted using methods such as controlled experiments, statistical analysis, and observation. Scientific research is often more quantitative in nature and can include fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology.

    The main differences between non-scientific and scientific research are the methods used and the nature of the research. Non-scientific research is more qualitative and often relies on subjective methods such as surveys and interviews, while scientific research is more quantitative and relies on objective methods such as controlled experiments and statistical analysis. Additionally, non-scientific research may not have the same level of rigor and reproducibility as scientific research.

    2. Scientific research is a systematic and controlled process that is designed to objectively establish facts and test hypotheses through experimentation and observation. It is characterized by several key features, including:

    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on the principle of empiricism, which states that knowledge should be based on observable and measurable evidence. This means that scientific research relies on data that can be collected through observation, experimentation, and measurement, rather than on personal opinions or beliefs.

    Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, meaning that it is free from bias and personal opinions. Researchers strive to eliminate subjectivity by using controlled experiments and statistical analysis to ensure that their findings are not influenced by personal bias or preconceptions.

    Replicability: Scientific research is replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods. This allows for the validation of findings and helps to ensure that the results are reliable and accurate.

    Testability: Scientific research is testable, meaning that hypotheses can be tested through experimentation and observation. Scientists can make predictions based on their hypotheses, and these predictions can be tested through controlled experiments or observational studies.

    Peer review: Scientific research is subject to peer review, meaning that findings are evaluated and reviewed by other experts in the field. This helps to ensure that the research is of high quality and that the results are valid and reliable.

  57. Avatar Ugwu Chinaza Bridget says:

    NAME: UGWU CHINAZA BRIDGET
    REG NO: 2019/241712
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (ECONOMICS)
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    1: The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Scientific research is a logically sysyematic process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.
    Non-scientific research is acquiring knowledge,facts and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method or techniques.
    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:
    a) Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    b) Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    c) In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    d) Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    e) Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective.

    2: Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    The major characteristics of scientific research includes the following: Empirical, Objective, Accuracy systematic, Ethical consideration, Reliable, Predictable, Replicable, Controlled and have a definite objective.
    a) Verified:This means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work.
    b) Objectivity: This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    c) Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    d) Systematic Exploration:Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    e) Reliable: Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    f) Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end.
    g) Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables.
    h) Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works.
    I) Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work.
    j) Objective/ Aim: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product.

  58. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    Name: Odo Lovelyn Chioma
    Reg no: 2019:241246
    Department: Economics Education

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  59. Avatar Ugwu Chinaza Bridget says:

    NAME: UGWU CHINAZA BRIDGET
    REG NO: 2019/241712
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (ECONOMICS)
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    1: The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Scientific research is a logically sysyematic process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.
    Non-scientific research is acquiring knowledge,facts and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method or techniques.
    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:
    a) Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    b) Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    c) In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    d) Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    e) Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective.

    2: Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    The major characteristics of scientific research includes the following: Empirical, Objective, Accuracy systematic, Ethical consideration, Reliable, Predictable, Replicable, Controlled and have a definite objective.
    a) Verified:This means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work.
    b) Objectivity: This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    c) Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    d) Systematic Exploration:Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    e) Reliable: Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    f) Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end.
    g) Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables.
    h) Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works.
    I) Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work.
    j) Objective/ Aim: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  60. Avatar Ucheama+Calista+Ngozi says:

    UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: SCIENTIFIC AND NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (ECO 391)

    BY
    UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI
    2019/243039

    QUESTIONS:
    THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IS THE PROCESS OF OBJECTIVITY ESTABLISHING FACTS THROUGH TESTING AND EXPERIMENTATION. THE BASIC PROCESS INVOLVES MAKING AN OBSERVATION, FORMING A HYPOTHESIS, MAKING A PREDICTION, CONDUCTING AN EXPERIMENT AND FINALLY ANALYZING THE RESULTS. IN VIEW OF THIS, CLEARLY DISCUSS NON-SCIENTIFIC AD SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND THEIR DIFFERENCES

    DISCUSS AND DEEPLY EXPLAIN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

    LECTURER: DR. TONY ORJI

    JANUARY, 2023

    NO. 1
    Scientific Research
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental. Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    Non-Scientific Research
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption. In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    Differences Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research
    Some major differences between scientific and non-scientific research is clearly stated in the table below:
    S/N

    Scientific research
    Non-scientific research

    1.
    Definition
    Scientific Research refers to research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies
    Non-Scientific Research refers to research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis

    2.
    Nature
    Scientific Research can be repeated several times using the same method and data
    Non-Scientific Research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience and personal beliefs

    3.
    Data Collection
    Data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypotheses
    Data collection only uses observation

    4.
    Conclusion
    Scientific Research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion
    Non-Scientific Research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method

    5.
    Objective vs Subjective
    Scientific Research is objective
    While Non-Scientific Research is subjective

    NO. 2

    Some of the characteristics of scientific research are as follows:
    1. Objectivity: Scientific knowledge is objective. Objectivity simple means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish them to be. To be objective, one has to guard against his own biases, beliefs, wishes, values and preferences. Objectivity demands that one must set aside all sorts of the subjective considerations and prejudices.

    2. Verifiability: Science rests upon sense data, i.e., data gathered through our senses—eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete factual observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and check out observation for accuracy. Although, science does not have answers for everything. It deals with only those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    3. Ethical Neutrality: Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge is to be used, is determined by societal values. Knowledge can be put to differing uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage atomic warfare. Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist has no values. It here only means that he must not allow his values to distort the design and conduct of his research. Thus, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value- free.

    4. Systematic Exploration: A scientific research adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organised plan or design of research for collecting and analysis of facts about the problem under study. Generally, this plan includes a few scientific steps—formulation of hypothesis, collection of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and scientific generalisation and predication.

    5. Reliability: Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is reproducible under the circumstances stated anywhere and anytime. Conclusions based on casual recollections are not very reliable.

    6. Precision: Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague like some literary writing. Tennyson wrote, “Every moment dies a man; every moment one is born”, is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every 10th second, on the average, dies a man; every 4th second, on the average, an infant is born.” Precision requires giving exact number or measurement. Instead of saying “most of the people are against love marriages,” a scientific researcher says, “Ninety per cent people are against love marriages”.

    7. Accuracy: Scientific knowledge is accurate. Accuracy simply means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things in exact words as they are without jumping to unwarranted conclusions.

    8. Abstractness: Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. It is not interested in giving a realistic picture.

    9. Predictability: Scientists do not merely describe the phenomena being studied, but also attempt to explain and predict as well. It is typical of social sciences that they have a far lower predictability compared to natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject matter and inadequacy at control etc.

    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

    9. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

    10. Objective/Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

    This is a brief analysis of the major characteristics of a scientific research work. Any research that does not meet with these requirements cannot thus be rightly considered scientific.

  61. Avatar ONYISHI CYNTHIA CHETACHI says:

    NAME: ONYISHI, CYNTHIA CHETACHI
    REG NO: 2019/243107
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMIC

    Scientific research differs from non-scientific research in that the former focuses on solving problems and pursues a step-by-step logical, organized,and rigorous method. The scientific research also follows a systematic process in producing the results of the research. Non-Scientific research produces answers or results of a research without empirical evidence as in the case of scientific research. Non- scientific research is conducted through speculations, experience, magic or mysticism,divine revelations etc. These means of conducting non-scientific research are not valid,as the conclusion or results derived from them can not be empirically proved. Scientific research follows a systematic process in arriving at a valid and a verifiable conclusion. Some of the methods or process involved in scientific research includes:
    (i) Identifying the problem we are making research on
    (ii)Collecting data
    (iii) Analyzing and explaining the data and
    (iv) Drawing valid conclusions

    (2) The following are some of the characteristics of scientific research:
    (I) Purposeful: A scientific research is directed towards a clear and specific purpose. Data collected for the purpose of the research is used for new purpose which is directed towards finding a solution to a problem.
    (ii) Controlled: In a scientific research, researchers are able to manipulate and control the data used in analyzing the relationship between variables. They can do this by removing or adding a variable depending on there studies.
    (iii) Rigorous: A scientific research must be based on theoritical base and sound methodology. A researcher must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    (iv) Critical: There must be critical scrutiny of the process and procedures employed to a research enquiry. The process and procedures used must be free from irrelevant methodologies,to avoid draw backs.
    (v) Valid and Verifiable: All scientific research must be able to provide empirical evidence to prove the answers to questions in the research and to provide a valid and a verifiable results and conclusions. A valid research is the one that can be replicated or worked on to improve it by another researcher.
    (vi) Empirical: The conclusions or answers provided in every scientific research should entail objectivity and should be devoid of personal opinion, biases, idiosyncrasies etc. Conclusions should be drawn from hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experience or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis.
    (vii) Logical and Objective: Every step taken in a scientific research should be reasonable in order to ensure validity of steps or procedures,tools and conclusions. Objectivity of a scientific research entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective and supported by theoritical model.
    (vii) Systematic: There must be a systematic processes or steps in planning, collection of data , analysis and reporting. It must follow a clearly stipulated process.

  62. Avatar Name: Chima Faith Ucheoma Reg nos: 2019/243417 Department: Economics(3rd year) says:

    1. By Scientific Research, it means a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. It can be defined as a a process of acquiring knowledge and truths about data or information using techniques that follow the scientific methods such as Identification of a problem, formulation of hypothesis, data analysis, data recording, presentation and interpretation, testing hypothesis, recommendation and conclusion.
    The Scientific method encourages a rigorous, impersonal mode of procedure dictated by the demands of logic and objective procedure. Accordingly, scientific method implies an objective, logical and systematic method, that is, a method free from personal bias or prejudice, a method to ascertain demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon capable of being verified, a method wherein the researcher is guided by the rules of logical reasoning, a method wherein the investigation proceeds inane orderly manner and a method that implies internal consistency.

    By Non-Scientific research, it means research which is conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures.
    The Differences between them include:

    Firstly, scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Secondly, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.

    Thirdly, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that are not based on the scientific method in acquiring knowledge and arriving at a conclusion.

    Fourthly, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    Last but not least is that Scientific research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Whereas, non-scientific research does not follow systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity.

    2. Although the exact methods used in the different scientific methods vary (for instance, physicists and psychologists work in very different ways), they share some fundamental attributes that may be called characteristics of the scientific method.
    The Characteristics of Scientific research includes:

    (I) Empirical Observation:
    The scientific method is empirical. That is, it relies on direct observation of the world, and disdains hypotheses that run counter to observable fact. This contrasts with methods that rely on pure reason (including that proposed by Plato) and with methods that rely on emotional or other subjective factors.

    (II) Replicable Experiments:
    Scientific experiments are replicable. That is, if another person duplicates the experiment, he or she will get the same results. Scientists are supposed to publish enough of their method so that another person, with appropriate training, could replicate the results. This contrasts with methods that rely on experiences that are unique to a particular individual or a small group of individuals.

    (III) Provisional Results:
    Results obtained through the scientific method are provisional; they are (or ought to be) open to question and debate. If new data arise that contradict a theory, that theory must be modified. For example, the phlogiston theory of fire and combustion was rejected when evidence against it arose.

    (IV) Objective Approach:
    The scientific method is objective. It relies on facts and on the world as it is, rather than on beliefs, wishes or desires. Scientists attempt (with varying degrees of success) to remove their biases when making observations.

    (V) Reliable:
    Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.

    (VI) Systematic Observation:
    Strictly speaking, the scientific method is systematic; that is, it relies on carefully planned studies rather than on random or haphazard observation. However, science can begin from some random observation.

    (VII) Verifiable:
    Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy. For instance questions such as: Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything hence it deals only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    (VIII) Ethical neutrality:
    Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses., For instance, knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war.
    However, Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research proposal. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.

    (IX) Accuracy:
    Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague as some literary writings. Tennyson wrote: “Every moment a man dies; Every moment that one is born, it is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every tenth, on average, a man dies; every fourth second, on average, a baby is born «. Accuracy requires giving the exact number or measure. Instead of saying “most people are against marriages for love,” says a scientific researcher, “ninety percent of people are against marriages for love.”

    (X) Predictability:
    Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc. Hence, one of the characteristics of scientific research is predictability.

  63. Avatar OKHUEIGBE CHARITY OMONYE says:

    OKHUEIGBE CHARITY OMONYE
    2019/244711
    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Answer:
    ① Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent. While in non scientific research, the research it’s not logically stepped process that used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding

    ② Scientific research acquiring knowledge and truths about the data or information using techniques that follow the scientific methods such as identification of a problem, formulation of statement of a problem, formulation of hypothesis, data analysis data recording, presentation and interpretation, testing hypothesis and recommendation and conclusion. while Non scientific acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques without follow the scientific method.

    ③ Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. While non scientific research does not follow systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity

    ④ Scientific research is a systematic way of analyzing and interpreting new or existing material through experimentation and observation, While Non scientific research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon without systematic way.
    In general. Scientific research and non scientific research, both are used in collection of data, information and knowledge that can be added to the existing one. Can be used to solve different disputes such as political conflict economic issues and social conflict.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Answer:
    ① Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    ② Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem. This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    ③ Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavor.
    ④ Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained. This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.
    ⑤  Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.
    ⑥ Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works. Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.
    ⑦ Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    ⑧ Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.
    ⑨ Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    ⑩ Objective/ Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.
    Note: Any research that does not meet with these requirements cannot thus be rightly considered scientific.
    Reference:
    https://bscholarly.com/characteristics-of-scientific-knowledge/

  64. Avatar Chinedu chinedu Frank 2016/237287 eco/psy says:

    1. Non-scientific study
    Non-scientific research is that which does not have a systematic approach or a scientific basis. Conclusions are reached through non-scientific research using techniques including intuition, firsthand knowledge, and personal convictions. As a result, conclusions produced from non-scientific research sometimes rely on arbitrary presumptions.
    scientific versus non-scientific differences

    Both scientific and non-scientific research are used to collect data, however they do so in different ways and with different methods. The major distinction between scientific and non-scientific research is that the former relies on intuition, firsthand knowledge, and subjective judgments while the latter cannot be repeated using the same methods and information.

    Furthermore, information is obtained in scientific research through a range of techniques, such as observation, the development of hypotheses, and their testing. However, in non-scientific research, observation is the exclusive mode of data collection.

    In non-scientific research, logical and methodical approaches to data processing are not used. Non-scientific research merely offers a solution to a particular problem. It doesn’t focus on further programs or solutions for that particular problem. Furthermore, it lacks a logical structure and lacks a conclusion.

    2.Systematic Investigation: In order for scientific research to be validated, a repeatable, systematic exploration is required. This implies that adhering to predetermined processes and procedures is an essential element of scientific investigation, and the same outcome can be attained if similar actions and procedures are repeated by another person under the same circumstances.

    This is why scientific research frequently contains a lengthy introduction detailing the conditions under which it was done as well as processes with precise definitions. The outlined methodical exploration techniques provide a complete and accurate repetition of the study activity, which allows for the formation of a similar outcome.
    Reliableness is a crucial component of any research project that aspires to be classified as scientific. ReliableThis suggests that by adhering to the established methodical techniques, anyone else may achieve similar outcomes. A study project cannot be considered scientific if it cannot be relied upon by others and a comparable outcome cannot be duplicated.
    b.Accuracy: This crucial component of accuracy is a must for all scientific research projects. A research project typically outlines its objectives at the outset and the outcomes it hopes to attain at the conclusion. This final outcome must be completely attained. The accuracy of science enhances the dependability of scientific research findings.

  65. Avatar Ogbonna Chijioke Michael says:

    Name: Ogbonna Chijioke Michael
    Department: Economics
    Reg. No: 2019/244473

    1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Scientific Research: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research. Also, scientific research is also the use of a wide variety of scientific models, theories, and data collections to find explanations for why certain phenomena occur in the real world. Whether through experiments, case studies, or a focus group, scientific research can be executed in many different ways. The end goal of scientific research is to broaden human knowledge. Scientific research is important because it helps us understand how things work. In addition, it further develops various areas of study, such as biology, chemistry, psychology, medicine, and other fields. Moreover, scientific research helps solve pre-existing problems and new ones that might occur in the future, mere observations and theories can be transformed into practical learning and established facts. Scientific research follows a systematic approach. It aims to acquire new information that adds to the existing knowledge in the research field. The consensus of scientific research is that researchers should plan their investigation before executing it.
    Non-Scientific Research: This is the acquiring of knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. Non-scientific research uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs. Also, Non scientific research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon without systematic exploration. Moreover, non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.
    Differences between Scientific and Non- scientific Research
    1. Scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    2. Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.
    3. Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent. While in non scientific research, the research it’s not logically stepped process that used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding
    4. Scientific research acquiring knowledge and truths about the data or information using techniques that follow the scientific methods such as identification of a problem, formulation of statement of a problem, formulation of hypothesis, data analysis data recording, presentation and interpretation, testing hypothesis and recommendation and conclusion. while Non scientific acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques without follow the scientific method.
    5. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. While non scientific research does not follow systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity
    6. Scientific research is a systematic way of analyzing and interpreting new or existing material through experimentation and observation, While Non scientific research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon without systematic

    2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research
    1. Purpose (Aim): Scientific research works must be clear and not ambiguous. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.
    2. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    3. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.
    4. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society. Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.
    5. Replicability: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.
    6. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work. It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    7. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    8. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained. This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.
    9. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    10. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research. This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

  66. Avatar Okeke Michael Obinna says:

    Name: Okeke Michael Obinna
    Dept: Combined social science(Eco/pol)
    Reg no: 2019/250019
    Course: Eco 391

    1. Non-scientific research and scientific research differ in their methods, goals, and outcomes. Non-scientific research is typically based on subjective and personal experiences, opinions, and beliefs, rather than on objective and verifiable facts. This type of research is often used in fields such as literature, history, and the arts, and it is typically focused on understanding the human experience and perspective.
    On the other hand, scientific research is based on the scientific method, which is a systematic process of observing, testing, and analyzing natural phenomena. The goal of scientific research is to establish facts and understand the underlying causes and mechanisms of natural phenomena. Scientific research is typically conducted in fields such as biology, physics, chemistry, and medicine, and it is focused on understanding the natural world.
    One of the main differences between non-scientific and scientific research is the level of objectivity. Non-scientific research is often subjective and based on personal opinions, whereas scientific research is objective and based on facts and evidence. Scientific research also seeks to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results.
    Another difference is that scientific research is usually quantitative, meaning that it deals with numbers and measurements, while non-scientific research is usually qualitative, meaning that it deals with descriptions and interpretations. Scientific research is also more critical and systematic than non-scientific research.
    In conclusion, non-scientific research and scientific research are two different types of research that have different methods, goals, and outcomes. Non-scientific research is typically based on personal experiences, opinions, and beliefs, and is focused on understanding the human experience and perspective. Scientific research is based on the scientific method, is objective and seeks facts, it is focused on understanding the natural world and is replicable, systematic and critical.

    2. Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering how things in the natural world work. It is a process of objectively and independently verifying facts, testing hypotheses, and developing new theories. There are several key characteristics that distinguish scientific research from other forms of inquiry:
    1. Objectivity: Scientific research is based on objective facts and evidence, rather than subjective opinions and beliefs. Researchers strive to eliminate bias and personal opinions from the research process, and their work is subject to peer review to ensure that it meets rigorous standards of objectivity.
    2. Empiricism: Scientific research is based on observation and experimentation. Researchers use controlled experiments, measurements, and other forms of data collection to test hypotheses and gather evidence. Empirical research allows researchers to test predictions and theories by gathering data and testing it against theories.
    3. Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to repeat the study and obtain similar results. This allows for the verification of results and helps to build a cumulative body of knowledge.
    4. Testability: Scientific research is based on testable hypotheses and theories. Researchers are able to test their hypotheses and theories through experimentation and observation. This allows for the development of theories that can be proven or disproven, which is a critical component of the scientific method.
    5. skepticism: Scientific research is characterized by a healthy dose of skepticism. Researchers are always questioning their own assumptions and theories and are open to alternative explanations for the phenomena they are studying.
    6. Self-correction: Scientific research is self-correcting in nature. The process of scientific research is ongoing, and new findings may lead to the rejection or modification of previously accepted theories and hypotheses.
    7. Quantitative: Scientific research is usually quantitative in nature, meaning that it deals with numbers and measurements. It allows researchers to collect data, analyze it and make inferences about the population from a sample.
    8. Systematic: Scientific research is systematic, meaning that it follows a logical and organized process. Researchers use a systematic approach to gather data, analyze it, and draw conclusions.
    In conclusion, scientific research is characterized by its objectivity, empiricism, replicability, testability, skepticism, self-correction, quantitativeness, and systematic approach. These characteristics ensure that the research process is rigorous and that the findings are reliable and valid. The scientific method is the foundation of scientific research, providing a logical and systematic approach to understanding the natural world.

  67. Avatar Elekwachi John Udochukwu says:

    NAME: ELEKWACHI JOHN UDOCHUKWU
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY (CSS)
    REG NUMBER: 2019/241890
    COURSE: Eco. 391 Online Discussion/Quiz 20-1-2023 (Scientific and non-scientific Research)

    QUESTIONS (1)
    The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    ANSWER (1)
    Scientific Research: The scientific approach establishes facts objectively through testing and experimentation. The basic steps are to make an observation, formulate a hypothesis, make a prediction, conduct an experiment, and then assess the results. The concepts of the scientific method are applicable to numerous fields, including business, technology, and scientific inquiry.
    The main emphasis is on using logical, systematic, and rigorous ways to address problems by: obtaining, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data
    A non-scientific research approach is one that does not follow the scientific method in its pursuit of information and understanding of the world. It is hypothetical or speculative.
    The research’s feelings or assumptions regarding whether or not beauty is subjective are the foundation for the conclusions drawn here. This conclusion is supported by personal experience, instinct, religion, reason, comparison, and contrast, among other things.
    The distinctions between scientific and non-scientific research methods
    While non-scientific research relies on intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs, it cannot be replicated using the same techniques and data as scientific research. This is the main distinction between scientific and non-scientific research.
    Scientific and non-scientific research investigations employ different approaches. Scientific research essentially follows a logical procedure, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies without a scientific basis for knowledge acquisition.
    In scientific research methods, data are collected utilizing a range of strategies, such as the creation of hypotheses and observations, but in non-scientific methods, data are only collected through observations.
    In contrast to non-scientific approaches, research methodology that uses science comes to a result through a logical and thorough process.
    The scientific technique is objective, whereas the non-scientific approach is subjective.

    QUESTION (2)
    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research
    The process by which scientists examine data, produce and test hypotheses, create new theories, and accept or reject previous findings is known as the scientific method. Although the precise methods employed by the various sciences differ (physicists and psychologists, for instance, work in very different ways), they all share some basic traits that could be referred to as characteristics of the scientific method.

    •Systematic Observation
    The scientific method is strictly methodical, i.e., it focuses on planned investigations as opposed to unplanned or random observation. Nevertheless, an accidental observation can serve as the basis for research. The most thrilling phrase in science, in Isaac Asimov’s opinion, is “That’s amusing!” When a scientist sees something out of the ordinary, they extensively explore it.

    •Empirical Observation
    The scientific method is empirical. In other words, it rejects hypotheses that are inconsistent with what can be observed and is based on actual observations of the world. This contrasts with methods based on pure reason (such as those proposed by Plato) and methods based on feelings or other subjective components.

    •Replicable Experiments
    Scientific experiments can be repeated. In other words, if the experiment is run again, the outcomes will remain the same. Scientists are obligated to provide enough information about their research procedures so that another researcher with the right training could confirm the results. As opposed to methods that rely on unique experiences of a single person or a small group of people.
    •Objective Approach
    The scientific method is objective. It is based on facts and the world as it is, as opposed to beliefs, wishes, or desires. When conducting observations, scientists strive to reduce their biases (with varying degrees of success).

  68. Avatar Ugwunze Chukwuebuka Emmanuel, 2019/245483, says:

    (1). Non Scientific Research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. Some of these non scientific methods are; Traditional method, Logic, Personal experience, Intuition and others.

    Nonscientific and Scientific Research: Definitions and Difference
    Nonscientific and scientific research vary in their definitions and methods. Discover these differences through an explanation of how nonscientific research is conducted through tradition, personal experience, intuition, logic, and authority while scientific research relies on the scientific method. Updated: 09/18/2021
    Nonscientific and Scientific Research
    Those of you who are familiar with research might be scratching your heads right now, because the words ‘nonscientific research’ seem oxymoronic. But historically, this oxymoron has actually been used more than the scientific research model. Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.

    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Tradition
    Tradition is knowledge and understanding that is believed to be true because it has been traditionally accepted. No one has stopped to say, ‘Hey, wait a minute. That’s not right.’ For instance, how much of your brain do you use? If you say ‘only 10%,’ then you have fallen victim to a common fallacy passed through tradition. We actually use 100% of our brain and nearly all the time.
    Personal Experience
    Personal experience is information or understanding derived from experiencing something firsthand. There doesn’t seem to be a problem with this at first, but it is actually incredibly flawed because experience is subjective and not reproducible.For instance, dreams seem to predict the future. Everyone has had the déjà vu experience of having dreamt something before, but does that mean you have prophetic dreams? Not really. Most likely, you had a dream that was similar to the event and your mind just filled in the blanks to make it seem like it all happened before.
    Intuition
    Intuitive knowledge comes from understanding and believing in an idea based on a gut instinct or through personal insight. This is the ‘I know it because I know it’ category of knowledge, where someone cannot offer a good reason for something, but they just know it to be true. For instance, eyewitnesses to a crime appear more accurate when they are more confident. This is false and has been found time and again by researchers. Confidence has nothing to do with a person’s accuracy when recalling something in the past. But, many people rely on what they feel is the right answer, and someone who is confident must be right!
    Logic
    Logic is the application of thought and reasoning to come to a conclusion. But, much like personal experience, the process is flawed by a person’s limited viewpoint. You cannot think about something you don’t already know.
    Scientific Research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that follow the scientific method. Some of these scientific methods are;
    – Make an observation.
    -Ask a question.
    – Form a hypothesis, or testable explanation.
    -Make a prediction based on the hypothesis.
    -Test the prediction.
    -Iterate: use the results to make new hypotheses or predictions.
    The scientific method is used in all sciences—including chemistry, physics, geology, and psychology. The scientists in these fields ask different questions and perform different tests. However, they use the same core approach to find answers that are logical and supported by evidence.
    Differences between Scientific and non Scientific Research
    (1). Scientific research tends to align with the idea of scientific research as follows:
    a. start with a question that needs to be answered.
    b. find the current state of knowledge.
    c. pose a hypothesis (one or more).
    d. design the study and confirm or disprove the hypothesis.
    e. write the conclusion and publish the result.

    (2). By contrast, I think of non-scientific research in terms of journalism or perhaps in writing and teaching a course. In this kind of research one would start with points that need to be covered, perhaps asking a question; gather materials and resources; and outline and organize the facts to present to the intended audience.

    (2)
    For a research to be termed scientific it must possess the following characteristics;
    a. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation
    b.Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    c. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    d. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    e. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    F. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  69. Avatar Ugwoke Michael-Mary Ikechukwu 2019/248716 says:

    Ugwoke Michael-mary I
    2019/248716
    Economics
    Ugwokemichael109@gmail.com

    1. Non-scientific research differs from scientific research in terms of its qualities and traits. These characteristics of non-scientific research include the fact that it is based on conjecture and guesswork rather than being methodical or logical, which are key components of scientific study.
    Scientific research uses observations and experiments to test, analyze, and make predictions. It also adheres to a process, whereas non-scientific research relies solely on the feelings and opinions of the researcher. Additionally, it transcends the material world into the metaphysical, as in mysticism and heavenly revelation.
    Despite its limitations, non-scientific research still contributes to the body of knowledge in circumstances where it is not possible for scientific research to be conducted.

    2. I purposeful: Before beginning any research, you must have a specific problem in mind for which you want to find a solution. It must be focused on finding answers to a specific issue.
    ii) controlled: A study need to be able to describe and examine the connection between two variables. Using the results of the study, a researcher should be able to determine how to change the variable and manage the variables that affect the relationship. Depending on the study, a researcher may add or remove variables. However, not all variables can be controlled, such as those that arise naturally.
    iii) Rigorous : A research must follow the right and appropriate methodology. A research work must sure follow the due process to find the solution to a problem ( question) is adequate and justified. When conducting a research the researcher must make sure the right step by step process is followed and the final answer and how you acquired the solution must be justified.
    iv ) critical:. A research work must be analysed to make sure the method employed is crucial to research enquiry. The researcher must make sure that the method he follows is relevant in finding the answers and make sure every step , is important and useful for the research enquiry and your research work must be free from Draw Back ( avoid irrelevant methodologies).
    v)valid and verifiable { replicability} : After conducting a research your conclusion must be correct and valid.
    It must be replicable if it is conducted in another location as long it is the same design parameters, this is important to prevent research fraud.
    vi) logical and objectives: scientific research is logical means that it must have a clear pattern or step that goes from on point to another in a logical manner. This means you must follow the step according without skipping any step. Research must be objectives it means that it must have a goal an end goal which is usually is finding more information about a topic and providing solutions to problem( question ) using a system.
    vii) Empirical: Every scientific research must be empirical in it findings, this means that is not babse on assumption or feeling but on physical evidence that is obtained through observations and experiment, so when it comes to scientific research it must evidence to prove there research findings is genuine.
    VIII) Systematic: A scientific research is not random , it must have a particular system you must follow to conduct any research. These system includes planning , collection , analysis of data and presentation. Every scientific research must follow this system for the research work to be considered as scientific.
    xi) Generalisability : Any research that is scientific must be able to cover a large number of variables, and it should be able to be used for statistical reference. The conclusion of scientific research should have a large scope of applicability it should be able to applied in different Areas of knowledge or discipline.

  70. Avatar NNA OZIOMA VINE says:

    NNA OZIOMA VINE
    2019/247263
    ECO 391
    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1.)Scientific reasearch is a process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analysing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology.
    Non scientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. In all, tenacity, intuition, authority, rationalism, and empiricism are called the nonscientific methods of knowing .
    Differences Between Scientific Research And Non Scientific Reasearch .
    *Scientific research is a investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding whereas nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method.
    *Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent while in non scientific research is not a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.
    *Scientific research is a systematic way of analyzing and interpreting new or existing material through experimentation and observation while non systematic research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon wicannot Systematic.
    *Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering dara and harnessing curiosity .This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible while non scientific research does not follow a systematic way of gathering dara and harnessing curiosity.
    *Scientific research acquiring knowledge and truths about the data about the data or information using techniques that follow the scientific reaserach such as identification of a problem while non scientific acquiring knowledge and truths about the world use techniques without following the scientific method.

    2.)Characteristics of scientific research
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    3. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.
    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific scientific research can be verified is where there Is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.
    6. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot doeS qualify to be considered a Scientific research work.
    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

  71. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    Name: Odo Lovelyn Chioma
    Reg no: 2019:241246
    Department: Economics Education

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  72. Avatar Marcel ThankGod Tochukwu 2019/244773 says:

    1)Scientific research is the neutral, systematic, planned, and multiple-step process that uses previously discovered facts to advance knowledge that does not exist in the literature. It can be classified as observational or experimental with respect to data collection techniques, descriptive or analytical with respect to causality, and prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional with respect to time.
    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well.

    Difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:

    Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective

    2)Features of Research
    Empirical – based on observations and experimentation
    Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  73. Avatar Nwakanma Jesse Uchechi 2019/244384 says:

    Assignment
    What is the scientific method?
    The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. The principals of the scientific method can be applied in many areas, including scientific research, business and technology
    The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypothetical explanations), deriving predictions from the hypotheses as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions.
    Steps of Scientific Method
    1) Make an observation or ask a question. The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask a question that you would like answered. These can be specific or general
    2) Gather background information. This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked the same question.
    3) Analyze the results and draw a conclusion. Use the metrics established before the test see if the results match the prediction. For example, “After blocking video-sharing sites, our bandwidth utilization only went down by 10% from before; this is not enough of a change to be the primary cause of the network congestion” or “After increasing the size of the registration box, the percent of sign-ups went from 2% of total page views to 5%, showing that making the box larger results in more registrations.”
    Non-Scientific Research
    It is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well
    Examples are History,Art and Churches
    DIFFERENCE

    scientific knowledge involves any ideas about the world which are based on inductive reasoning and which are open to testing and change. Nonscience is the other sphere of human knowledge. It involves religions, ethical beliefs, moral precepts, and philosophical ideals.
    (2)
    Characteristics of Scientific Method
    a) • Empirical – based on observations and experimentation.
    * Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    * Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    * Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    *
    * Good research is replicable, reproducible, and transparent. Replicability, reproducibility, and transparency are some of the most important characteristics of research.

  74. Avatar EZEAMAMA IFECHUKWU EMMANUEL says:

    NAME: EZEAMAMA IFECHUKWU EMMANUEL
    REG.NUMBER: 2019/245102
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS MAJOR

    1–The scientific method is an empirical method for acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century (with notable practitioners in previous centuries; see the article history of scientific method for additional detail.) It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; the testability of hypotheses, experimental and the measurement-based statistical testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises. Types of Scientific Research * Fundamental or Basic Research. … * Applied Research. … * Quantitative research. … * Qualitative research. … * Mixed research. … * Exploratory Research. … * Descriptive research. … Non Scientific research is not of, relating to, or based on science : not scientific. nonscientific studies. nonscientific views. … it is beyond all doubt that the influence of the scientific mind extends to the solving of problems of a nonscientific nature.
    2–a-Objectivity Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices. b-Ethical neutrality Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war. Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research proposal. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free. c-Accuracy Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague as some literary writings. Tennyson wrote: “Every moment a man dies; Every moment that one is born, it is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every tenth, on average, a man dies; every fourth second, on average, a baby is born «. Accuracy requires giving the exact number or measure. Instead of saying “most people are against marriages for love,” says a scientific researcher, “ninety percent of people are against marriages for love.” d-Systematic exploration A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.

  75. Avatar Odo Lovelyn Chioma says:

    NAME:ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    DEPARTMENT:EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER:2019/241246

    1.Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    China and India played a major role in promoting the political emergence of third world countries and in changing the relations between the third world and the industrial countries. China, with its communist system, and India, with its democratic socialist system, both provided alternative models for third world countries looking to develop their own political and economic systems. Both nations also played important roles in shaping the global conversation about the relationship between developed and developing nations, and worked to promote the interests of the third world on the international stage.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    The traditional method of defining developing countries is by their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, other organizations such as the United Nations and World Bank have developed more comprehensive criteria and indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment. These criteria may include factors such as poverty, education levels, healthcare, infrastructure, and economic growth. Additionally, organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have developed the Human Development Index (HDI) which uses a combination of indicators such as life expectancy, education and standard of living to measure a country’s development status.

    3.Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations

    The countries in which the process of developmenthas started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index. Therefore, developing nations are those nations of the world, which have lower per capita income as compared to developed nations like the USA, Germany, China, Japan, etc. Here we will discuss the different characteristics of developing countries of the world.
    Developing countries have been suffering from common attributes like mass poverty, high population growth, lower living standards, illiteracy, unemployment and underemployment, underutilization of resources, socio-political variability, lack of good governance, uncertainty, and vulnerability, low access to finance, and so on.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.

    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries. 
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.   

    4.It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?
    Poverty has a female face and the global economic downturn will have a significant impact on women as more of them lose jobs and are forced to manage shrinking household incomes,” Ezekwesili said May 8 at the “Women and the Changing Global Outlook” conference organized by the British Embassy in Washington, and the National Geographic Society.
    “The face of poverty is female,” she said, sketching the portrait of the typical poor African youth.
    “She is 18.5 years old. She lives in a rural area. She has dropped out of school. She is single, but is about to be married or be given in marriage to a man approximately twice her age. She will be the mother of six or seven kids in another 20 years,” said Ezekwesili, citing the findings of the latest edition of the annual World Bank publication, Africa Development Indicators (ADI).
    The Global Crisis and its Impact on Women and Girls
    The global economic crisis, Ezekwesili explained, is likely to hit African women on two fronts. First, it will arrest capital accumulation by women, and second, it will drastically reduce women’s individual incomes as well as the budgets they manage on behalf of households. This would have damaging consequences notably on the girl child.
    With the education of boys largely sheltered from shocks and parents often more likely to pull out a girl from school than a boy when tuition becomes hard to find, the World Bank Vice President cited research findings on household income declines in Uganda and a fall in income from agriculture in Madagascar where girls were first to be pulled out of schools.
    The World Bank has warned that an additional 700,000 African infants are likely to die before their first birthday as a result of the crisis. The girl child will be hit hardest. Research has shown that “girls are five times more likely to be impacted by increases in infant mortality rate than boys.”
    Unlike in rich countries such as the United States, where more men have tended to lose their jobs compared to women, the crisis in Africa is leaving women with ever fewer job choices. In many export-oriented industries – for example, the cut-flower industry in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda and the textile industry in Kenya and Lesotho – it is women, not men, across Africa who are bleeding jobs because of the crisis.
    Declining remittances and a tightening of micro-finance lending would further restrict the funds available to women to run their households.
    Gender-focused Development Initiatives
    Conference participants reached consensus that development and poverty alleviation strategies that fail to target girls and women have little to no chance of success in Africa.
    Ms. Ezekwesili drew attention to the Gender Entrepreneurship Markets (GEM) initiative launched by the Bank’s private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), to enhance women’s access to finance and address gender barriers to the business environment. The $50 million GEM has benefited over 1,500 women in 18 sub-Saharan African countries and will be enhanced by a recent $120 million loan program that the IFC signed with EcoBank to benefit businesswomen in five countries.
    In addition, the Bank has adopted a Gender Action Plan and launched an $11 million, three-year Adolescent Girls Initiative to train, mentor, empower and facilitate the transition of young African women to work in Liberia, Southern Sudan and Rwanda. In addition, 83 Bank-funded projects totaling $4.4 billion have female economic empowerment components; the majority of them (33) in agriculture, education (34), infrastructure (11) and private sector development (5).
    Other speakers at the conference struck similar chords.
    Speaking on behalf of the British ambassador to Washington, Sir Nigel Sheinwald, the deputy head of mission, Dominick Chilcott, stressed the link between women’s empowerment and development. The road to sustainable development, he said, is only attainable if it is built on a gender inclusive agenda.
    “We must take the opportunities presented by the crisis to innovate and invest in women, whether it is proposals to introduce better social programs, finding ways of integrating women into the labor force, or reducing discrimination in financial markets,” he said, citing remarks by Sheinwald.
    In a video message, Ms. Sarah Brown, the spouse of British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, spoke of the need for world leaders to tackle “the many injustices that remain” against women.
    Ambassador Melanne Verveer, U.S. President Barack Obama’s Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues at the State Department, urged development agencies to “think women”.
    “You cannot beat poverty without putting women at the center of your development strategies,” she said.
    “Women’s equality is not just the right thing to do, it is also smart economics,” she added, paraphrasing the World Bank. She pointed out that women were key to food security and agriculture; essential players in the promotion of the rights of the child; major actors in health care provision; yet continued to suffer discrimination in powerful board rooms; and on higher rungs of corporate ladders.
    however, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman and we have seen this in many of our communities. Both man and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and fierce figure who you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elederly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equaly footing. l have had the priviledge of living in Sweden and lam realising that fathers are so involved in the family, and are so much involved in caring for the children too. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.

  76. Avatar Chukwudolue kamsi Edward ,2019/244066 economics/psychology says:

    Nonscientific and Scientific Research

    Those of you who are familiar with research might be scratching your heads right now, because the words ‘nonscientific research’ seem oxymoronic. But historically, this oxymoron has actually been used more than the scientific research model. Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.

    Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:
    Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective

    2) 1. Objectivity

    Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices.

    2. Verifiable

    Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.

    Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.

    3. Ethical neutrality

    Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war.

    Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research proposal. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.
    4. Systematic exploration

    A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.

    5. Reliable or reliable

    Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.
    6. Accuracy

    Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague as some literary writings. Tennyson wrote: “Every moment a man dies; Every moment that one is born, it is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every tenth, on average, a man dies; every fourth second, on average, a baby is born «. Accuracy requires giving the exact number or measure. Instead of saying “most people are against marriages for love,” says a scientific researcher, “ninety percent of people are against marriages for love.”

    7. Abstraction

    Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. He is not interested in giving a realistic image.

    8. Predictability

    Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc.

  77. Avatar Odo Lovelyn Chioma says:

    NAME:Odo Lovelyn Chioma
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    REG NUMBER:2019/241246

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  78. Avatar ALOZIE CHINEDU JOEL 2015/201977 ECONOMICS says:

    Answers:
    1.Non-scientific research is research that is not based on the scientific method. It may involve the collection and analysis of qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents, and may not be subject to the same rigorous standards of objectivity and replication as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be used in fields such as the humanities, social sciences, and business, and is often used to gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon or to develop new theories.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is based on the scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic approach to investigating phenomena that involves formulating hypotheses, designing experiments to test those hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions.
    Differences:
    Scientific research follows a systematic and structured approach to gather and analyze data, while non-scientific research may not have a specific methodology. Scientific research also involves the testing of hypotheses through experimentation and the use of statistical analysis, while non-scientific research may rely on personal opinions and anecdotal evidence. Additionally, scientific research is typically peer-reviewed and subject to replication, while non-scientific research may not undergo the same level of scrutiny.

    2.
    Scientific research is a systematic and logical approach to discovering new knowledge and understanding the world around us. It is characterized by several key features, including:
    -Empiricism: Scientific research is based on empirical evidence, which means that it relies on observations and measurements that can be verified through experimentation or other forms of data collection. This helps to ensure that the results of scientific research are objective and unbiased.
    -Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicable, which means that other researchers should be able to reproduce the same results using the same methods and data. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research.
    -Progression: Scientific research is a cumulative process, building on the knowledge generated by previous research. New research is based on previous findings, which are used to develop new hypotheses and theories.
    -Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be capable of being tested and potentially disproved. This is an important aspect of the scientific method, as it allows for the rejection of false or incorrect ideas.
    -Objectivity: Scientific research is objective, which means that it is not influenced by personal biases, emotions, or subjective interpretations. This is achieved by following a rigorous and systematic methodology, and by ensuring that the researcher is not involved in the data collection or analysis process.
    -Transparency: Scientific research is transparent, which means that the methods, data, and results of the research are made available to other researchers, so that they can evaluate and replicate the research.
    -Generalizability: Scientific research is generalizable, which means that the results of the research can be applied to other populations or contexts.

  79. Avatar Eze Queen Amarachi says:

    NAME:EZE QUEEN AMARACHI
    DEPARTMENT:SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (EDUCATION ECONOMICS)
    REG NUMBER: 2019/249427

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research is research that does not follow the scientific method and is not based on objective facts. This type of research may rely on personal opinions, subjective experiences, or other forms of anecdotal evidence. Examples of non-scientific research include personal anecdotes, philosophical arguments, and religious texts.

    On the other hand, scientific research is research that follows the scientific method and is based on objective facts. The scientific method is a systematic and logical approach to discovering how things in the natural world work. It is based on making observations, formulating hypotheses, making predictions, conducting experiments, and analyzing results. Examples of scientific research include experiments in physics, biology, and chemistry, as well as observational studies in fields such as astronomy and meteorology.

    The main difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research is based on objective facts and follows a systematic method, while non-scientific research does not. Scientific research is considered more reliable and accurate because it is based on evidence that can be tested and verified, while non-scientific research is often based on personal opinions or subjective experiences

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a systematic and logical process of investigation that is used to increase understanding and knowledge about a particular phenomenon or topic. There are several key characteristics of scientific research that distinguish it from other forms of inquiry:

    1. Empiricism: Scientific research is based on the observation and measurement of phenomena in the natural world. Data and evidence are collected through observation, experimentation, and measurement, and are used to generate hypotheses and theories.

    2. Objectivity: Scientific research is designed to minimize bias and personal opinion, and to produce objective, verifiable results. Researchers use rigorous methods to control for extraneous variables and to ensure that their results are not influenced by personal biases.

    3. Replicability: Scientific research is based on the principle of replication, which means that the results of a study should be able to be reproduced by other researchers using the same methods. This helps to ensure the validity and reliability of the research findings.

    4. Peer review: Scientific research is subject to a process of peer review, in which other experts in the field critically evaluate the research design, methods, and results. This helps to ensure that the research meets scientific standards and that the conclusions are valid and reliable.

    5. Theories and laws: Scientific research aims to generate general laws, theories and models which describe and explain natural phenomena. Theories are explanations of phenomena that are supported by a large body of evidence, and laws are statements that describe the behavior of phenomena in a quantitative and predictive way.

    6. Falsifiability: Scientific research is based on the principle of falsifiability, which means that hypotheses and theories must be able to be tested and potentially proven false. This is important because it allows for the rejection of incorrect hypotheses and theories, which can lead to the development of new and improved explanations.

    7. Progress and self-correction: Scientific research is a continuous process of self-correction, which means that new research findings are continuously integrated into existing knowledge and theories. This allows for progress in understanding and knowledge about a particular phenomenon or topic.

    8. Interdisciplinary: Scientific research often encompasses multiple disciplines and fields, and can be applied to various areas of study. This allows for a more holistic understanding and problem solving of different phenomena, as well as the integration of different perspectives and methodologies

  80. Ochinanwata Chidiuto Francisca
    2019/249884
    1) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Non-scientific research is the traditional method of gathering information and expanding our knowledge, it doesn’t require steps
    Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering, analyzing and interpreting new or existing material through experiment and observation. It requires step by step process.
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures.scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    Both scientific and non-scientific research studies differ from one another in its methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.
    In scientific research, data is collected using different techniques which includes observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.
    2) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    A. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation
    B. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    C. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    D. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    E. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    F. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    G. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  81. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA (2019/241246) ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: here, scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  82. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA (2019/241246) ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: here, scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  83. Avatar NNAJI LOVELYN CHINWE. 2019/247502 says:

    A scientific research is a systematic process of investigation or inquiry carried out in accordance with known laid down specific procedures for the purpose of finding answers or solutions to a perplexing issues.
    Non-scientific research are researches made on speculation and guess work, Intuition and premonition, ideas without proof and Divine revelations.
    Scientific research and non-scientific research differs in the sense that scientific research pursues a step by step logical,organized and rigorous method to identify problems and collect data while non-scientific research is based on what the researcher feels, and thinks and it is without proof that is guess work.
    2. PURPOSEFUL: Scientific research is directed towards the solution of a problem. Its aim is clear and purposeful.
    CONTROLLED: It explored the relationship between two variables and finds a way to minimize the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship.
    RIGOROUS: Scientific research is based on good theoritical base and sound methodology.
    CRITICAL: The process and procedures of investigation and research must be critically scrutinized and free from draw backs.
    VALID AND VERIFIABLE : The conclusions of research must be correct, verifiable and replicable anytime and anywhere.
    EMPIRICAL: Conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information and data collected from real life experience. The work does not have the presence of personal opinion.
    LOGICAL: Every step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedure looks and conclusions.
    SYSTEMATIC: means that it follows clearly stipulated procedures and some procedures must follow others. Steps cannot be taken in haphazard ways.

  84. Avatar Ugwu Chinaza Bridget says:

    NAME: UGWU CHINAZA BRIDGET
    REG NO: 2019/241712
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (ECONOMICS)
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    1: The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Scientific research is a logically sysyematic process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding.The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.
    Non-scientific research is acquiring knowledge,facts and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method or techniques.
    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:
    a) Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    b) Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    c) In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    d) Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    e) Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective.

    2: Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    The major characteristics of scientific research includes the following: Empirical, Objective, Accuracy systematic, Ethical consideration, Reliable, Predictable, Replicable, Controlled and have a definite objective.
    a) Verified:This means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work.
    b) Objectivity: This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    c) Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    d) Systematic Exploration:Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    e) Reliable: Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    f) Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end.
    g) Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables.
    h) Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works.
    I) Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work or projects
    j) Objective/ Aim: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or aim as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any Objective in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations.

  85. Avatar Odo Linda Amarachi says:

    Odo Linda Amarachi
    2019/244376
    Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent.

    Non scientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well.
    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    2. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation

    Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.

    Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.

    Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process

    Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation

    Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.

    Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  86. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  87. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  88. Avatar Aneke Chinaecherem Emmanuella says:

    NAME: Aneke Chinaecherem Emmanuella
    REGNOM: 2019/242940
    EMAIL: chinecheremaneke21@gmail.com

    1i. Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies.

    There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data.

    When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology.

    According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.

    Scientific research operates at two levels.

    One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level.

    At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena.

    At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    II) Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis.

    In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion.

    Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.

    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data.
    Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    III) The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    2i) Empirical: based on observations and experimentation
    Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.

    II) Controlled: all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.

    III) Employs hypothesis: guides the investigation process

    IV) Analytical: There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    Objective, Unbiased.

    V) Logical: all findings are logically based on empirical.

    Vi) Employs quantitative or statistical methods: data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  89. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  90. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  91. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  92. Avatar Name: EZEH CHIAMAKA FAVOUR says:

    EZEH CHIAMAKA FAVOUR
    2019/244443
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1. We have 2 types of research, we have the scientific and the non scientific research method.
    The scientific research method is the type of research conducted using laid down procedures and systematic methods to inquire into a given subject. If the procedures are not followed, it is no longer a scientific research.
    The procedures are
    I. Formulation of the problem to be inquired into
    II. Make hypothesis and predictions about the problem formulated
    III. Gather data to use in testing the hypothesis and predictions
    IV. Analyse the data collected. This is the most delicate part of the research project
    V. Finally draw conclusions from the analysed data

    Non scientific research does not use systematic methods to provide answers to questions rather it uses traditional methods like guess work, draws conclusions based on past events, uses personal beliefs to provide answers.

    2. The characteristics of scientific research includes the following:
    Objectivity
    Verifiable
    Systematic exploration
    Ethically neutrality
    Verifiable: A research concerning a problem that is conducted in Nigeria should be proven to be true when the same problem is researched upon in India. This proves that the conclusions drawn were not falsified or tampered with due to personal reasons.
    Objectivity. The data collected should be based on facts not on what the researcher desires it to be. Personal values should not affect the research project.

  93. Avatar Name: chukwuemeka chinenye Goodness. Reg no. 2019/245669. Department economics says:

    2019/245669
    CHUKWUEMEKA CHINENYE GOODNESS
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    1. Research is said to be the systematic inquiry into a given subject, topic or problem. But when considering the types of research we can see that only the scientific method of research uses systematic process of inquiry, the non- scientific does not follow laid down methods when providing solutions to problems.
    Scientific research is the type of research that uses carefully laid down procedures to answer questions. The procedures include:
    a). Formulation of the problem. Understand what questions you wish to find answers to. This requires observation.
    b). Make personal predictions about the problem to be inquired into.
    c). Gather data to use in testing hypothesis and predictions made.
    d). Analysing the data collected
    e). Draw conclusions.
    Only when these steps are followed can a researcher claim to have conducted scientific research.
    Non scientific research on the other hand does not use systematic methods to find answers, rather it uses personal experience, speculation, logic and reasoning.
    When using personal experience to draw conclusions to a given problem, past events are relied upon to provide solutions to present situations or predict future occurrences.
    Speculation also seen as guess work. Providing answers based on what we think is true.

    2. What makes a research scientific:
    I. Objectivity. The acceptance of facts as they appear, not as one wishes them to be. Prejudice, beliefs, personal values should not infer with the data collected. If any of the above mentioned cannot be set aside the research should be cancelled.
    II. Verifiable. The research should be conducted in a way that can it can be proven to be true in the future.
    Ethically neutral. The researcher should not allow his values and beliefs to interfere with the research being carried out. His job is the expansion of knowledge how the knowledge would be used should be of no concern to him.

  94. 1. Non-logical examination alludes to investigate that did not depend on the logical strategy. It might include the assortment and investigation of subjective information, like perceptions, meetings, and unconditional overviews. Non-logical examination frequently needs severe controls and isn’t commonly likely to peer survey. The consequences of non-logical examination may not be generalizable to a bigger populace and will be unable to be duplicated.

    Logical examination, then again, depends on the logical technique and includes the assortment and investigation of quantitative information. The logical technique is an orderly course of perception, speculation testing, trial and error, and replication. The aftereffects of logical examination are likely to peer survey and are by and large viewed as more dependable and legitimate than non-logical exploration. Logical examination is many times used to make forecasts and test speculations about how the world functions.

    In rundown, the principal contrast between non-logical and logical examination is that non-logical exploration did not depend on the logical technique and needs severe controls, while logical exploration depends on the logical strategy and includes severe controls to guarantee unwavering quality and legitimacy of results.

    2. Talk about and profoundly make sense of the attributes of logical exploration

    Logical examination is a precise and controlled process that utilizes logical techniques to assemble, break down, and decipher information to test speculations and gain new information. The primary attributes of logical examination include:

    Induction: Logical examination depends on exact proof, which is data assembled through perception and trial and error. This proof is utilized to help or invalidate speculations and hypotheses.

    Objectivity: Logical exploration is led in a nonpartisan and impartial way. Analysts utilize controlled strategies and procedures to dispense with individual inclination and limit the impact of unessential factors.

    Replicability: Logical exploration is intended to be repeatable and obvious. Different analysts ought to have the option to repeat the review involving similar strategies and procedures to affirm the outcomes.

    Testability: Logical exploration depends on testable speculations and hypotheses. The consequences of logical examination are utilized to test the legitimacy of speculations and hypotheses and to produce new ones.

    Peer survey: Logical examination is dependent upon a course of friend audit, in which different specialists in the field audit and assess the exploration. This interaction assists with guaranteeing the quality and legitimacy of the examination.

    Straightforwardness: Logical exploration is open and straightforward, with specialists making their strategies, information, and results accessible to others for survey and replication.

    Progress: Logical exploration is a dynamic and continuous cycle, with new revelations expanding on past information and prompting new inquiries and areas of examination.

    Interdisciplinary: Logical exploration is interdisciplinary, implying that it can include various fields of study and different techniques for request.

    Logical technique : Logical examination depends on logical strategy which is a precise course of social occasion and dissecting information, reaching determinations, and making deductions.

    Self-amending: Logical examination is self-revising, intending that after some time, mistakes and errors are recognized and adjusted through replication and further exploration.

  95. Avatar EZEH CHIAMAKA FAVOUR says:

    EZEH CHIAMAKA FAVOUR
    2019/244443
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1. We have 2 types of research, we have the scientific and the non scientific research method.
    The scientific research method is the type of research conducted using laid down procedures and systematic methods to inquire into a given subject. If the procedures are not followed, it is no longer a scientific research.
    The procedures are
    I. Formulation of the problem to be inquired into
    II. Make hypothesis and predictions about the problem formulated
    III. Gather data to use in testing the hypothesis and predictions
    IV. Analyse the data collected. This is the most delicate part of the research project
    V. Finally draw conclusions from the analysed data

    Non scientific research does not use systematic methods to provide answers to questions rather it uses traditional methods like guess work, draws conclusions based on past events, uses personal beliefs to provide answers.

    2. The characteristics of scientific research includes the following:
    Objectivity
    Verifiable
    Systematic exploration
    Ethically neutrality
    Verifiable: A research concerning a problem that is conducted in Nigeria should be proven to be true when the same problem is researched upon in India. This proves that the conclusions drawn were not falsified or tampered with due to personal reasons.
    Objectivity. The data collected should be based on facts not on what the researcher desires it to be. Personal values should not affect the research project.

  96. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    2019/241246
    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  97. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    chiomalovelyn10@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  98. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  99. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    1.The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NONSCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well. Let’s look at several of the more oft-used nonscientific methods to see what pitfalls are out there.
    Characteristics of nonscientific research
    a: Speculations or guess work: conclusions are drawn based on what the researcher feels or think. Eg: performance of students from private and public universities fees and performance.
    b: experience: conclusions drawn from past experiences.
    c.Hunches, intuition and promotion: Drawing conclusion from an idea that is based on inner feeling without proof,(hunch) or assumptions.
    d.Mysticism: here, knowledge is acquired through magic or occultism. The inquirer gets information.
    e.Theology or divine revelation: here, informations are obtained through divine revelations and inductions. The teachings of various religions set falls under this category. Here, faith is the medium of acceptance of truth not by experimental reality.
    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research conducted for the purpose of contributing towards science by the systematic collection, interpretation and evaluation of data and that, too, in a planned manner is called scientific research.
    It focuses on solving problems and pursuing a step by step logical organized and rigorous method to: identify the problems, collect data, analyze and draw valid conclusions.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
    1.Definition: Scientific research refers to the research that collects data using systematic methods and strategies. While,
    Non-scientific research refers to the research conducted without any systematic methods or scientific basis.
    2.Nature: scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods or data. While, Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, persona experience and personal beliefs.
    3.Data collected: under scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation and testing hypothesis. While, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observations.
    4.Conclusion: scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion. While, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific or systematic method.
    5.Objective vs Subjective: Scientific Research is objective. While, Non-scientific research is Subjective.

    2.Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Characteristics of scientific research
    a.Purposeful
    b.Controlled
    c.Rigorous
    d.Critical
    e.Valid and verifiable
    f.Empirical
    g.Logical and objective
    h.Systematic
    i.Generalizability

    a.Purposeful: the purpose of scientific research is clear. Gathering new data or using existing data for a new purpose. Directed towards the solution of a problem.
    b.Controlled: the concept of control implies that in exploring the relationship between tow variables, you set up your own study in such a way that minimizes the effect of other factors that affect such a relationship. Here, variables In their natural phenomena are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. Also, a researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    c.Rigorous: it must based e on good theoretical base and sound methodology, you must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to various questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    d.Critical: critical study to the procedures used and methods employed is crucial to a research enquiry. The purposes and procedures for investigating a must be free from draw backs. (Avoid irrelevant methodologies)
    e.Valid and verifiable (replicability): your conclusions must me collect and viable. This also implies replicability;that means the same relationship stand repeatedly under the same design parameters. If another researcher in another oat of the world repeats the same process of research and experimentation, similar or exact result will be obtained. This guide against fraud in research.
    f.Empirical: Empiricism implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information or data collected from real life experiences or observations and subjected to experimentations and analysis. This entails objectivity and absence of personal opinion ,biases, feelings and idiosyncrasies. Here. we test theoretical models by stimulation or experiment.
    g.Logical and objective: logical means that every possible step is taken reasonably to ensure validity of procedures tools and conclusions. Research is based on logical procedures and principles. Objectivity entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective ; proven from trend in data, supported by theoretical model.
    h.Systematic: systematic in procedures of planning, collection of data, analysis and reporting. It follows clearly stipulated procedures. This implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follows a certain logical sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way, some procedures must follow others.
    i.Generalizability: scope of applicability, the wider the better.

  100. Avatar Ugwueze Amarachi Emelda 2019/250928 says:

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion.
    Also, Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method. For instance, Plato was a large proponent of some of these, and Freud’s theories use several of them as well.
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested.
    There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    In scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.
    Non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    ● Controlled: Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results. Chance has no place in scientific research: all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher’s criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules.
    ● Ordered: Scientific research needs rigorous planning so that it can yield true results. This planning must have a specific order, which responds to the interests of the study. In a scientific investigation it is necessary that the processes are designed and ordered in such a way that they reach secondary objectives that, in the last instance, can help to verify the main objectives raised by the researcher. In turn, the whole exploratory process of a scientific investigation must be based on an orderly structure that allows to develop a veracious, empirical and verifiable study.
    ● Rigorous: it must be based on good theoretical base and sound methodology. You must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.
    ● Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.
    ● Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

  101. Avatar Hezekiah Joy Chiwonke says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    CSS – ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com

    1.
    A Scientific Research is the application of scientific methods and scientific principles in the quest of investigating a phenomena, and it involves identifying a problem, collection, presentation, analyses and interpretation of facts obtained.
    There are several characteristics that defines a scientific research. One is that it must have an Objective, must be empirical, follow a rigorous process, verifiable, must be replicable, must be systematic and generalizable, having a wide scope of applicability.
    Its importance is that a phenomenon can be objectively known through rigorous, logical and critical procedures. Not everyone can come up with a body of knowledge that will accepted without undergoing the rigor of Scientific Research, this is to ensure that whatsoever kind of knowledge brought to the society is capable of bringing Development, not just in one society but across societies. Replicability being a necessary factor, hence the need for Scientific Research.
    A Non-Scientific research however, is such that does not undergo the rigors of the application of scientific methods and principles. It is not based on empirical validity and cannot be replicated by another, as there are no either any laid down procedures or access to such procedures are denied.
    Examples of this type of research includes: Speculation or Guess Work, here conclusions are made on the premise of what the researcher feels or thinks; Experience, as a result of what such has observed over some time; Hunches, intuition, Premonition, knowledge is acquired from one’s inner feelings; Mysticism, knowledge is obtained through dark magic, they plunge into mental and spiritual isolation to obtain knowledge from the ethereal world from any spiritual entity; and Theology/Divine Revelation, also knowledge is also obtained from the ethereal world, from the archives of the spirit world, from a source who is GOD. Faith is the tool by which knowledge is obtained and accepted.
    Although, Non-Scientific research is highly subjective rather than objective, another way it differs from Scientific Research, it is still considered important as there are some knowledge that even Scientific Research may not provide, this is prevalent in African setting especially when it comes to health. Also, science may also find it difficult to understand the dynamics of human behavior which is consequent on their religion, history, e.t.c.
    Having discussed Scientific and Non-Scientific research, their differences lie in the fact that Scientific Research goes through the basic process of:
    Observation
    Here, the researcher would observe a prevailing phenomenon that has plagued a particular society, for the causes, the effect, the behaviors, the trends.
    Forming an hypothesis
    The researcher would have identified the variables being dealt with after conducting an extensive study on the phenomenon. This is to set a focus on what is to be researched.
    Making a prediction
    Now, on the basis of the hypothesis is a prediction made.
    Conducting an experiment
    As such an experiment is carried in line with the variables captured within such prediction.
    Analyzing the result obtained
    An analysis is carried out to explain what was found in the experiment with terms that are friendly to the layman. For instance with the use of graphs, tables, charts.
    Non-Scientific Research do not undergo all these except observation. Also, it cannot be replicated as Scientific Research.

    2.
    Since scientific research is an inquiry conducted based on empirical validity which can be replicated when such is extended to more complicated situations, it is founded on some peculiarities that qualifies it to be what it is – Scientific Research. And these peculiarities are as follows:
    Objective
    There must be a clear purpose for any research conducted, whether it be Pure research, applied research or evaluation research. There has to be a focus, a goal for which a research work is conducted. It is contained in the abstract of an article. For instance, if the goal is to make some new innovations or to advance the frontiers of knowledge as in the case of Pure research, then it should be captured as the goal of conducting such research.
    Controlled
    Scientific research is usually conducted under a controlled environment. Such that there is no room for fluctuations in the variables. Hence, Scientific Research has a control system whereby, a variable can be worked upon or undergo an experiment while others are held constant to observe a particular phenomenon. In other words, the concept of control allows for establishing a causal relationship amongst variables.
    Notwithstanding it allows for the easy manipulation for the researcher to conduct his experimentation.
    Rigorous
    This is about the tenacity and intensity with which research is carried out. Research must be done rigorously so as to make relevant and justifiable contributions to the body of knowledge. Research is rigorously done to ensure that its methodology is sound, and its findings are accurate. Research should be done rigorously so that one’s research work will be reliable and authentic.
    Systematic
    This implies that a well mapped-out procedure must be followed in conducting research. Research is not carried out haphazardly. It ensures coherence and consistency in the progress of thoughts. And hence allows for repeatability and verifiability by another researcher
    Empirical
    An empirical research is one that can be verified with credible evidence, observations. and tested its validity. Conclusions are drawn from concrete evidences drawn from real life experiences.
    Logical and Objective
    The idea of a research work being logical entails that such work is analytical. Every step must be done in accordance with the underlying principles and procedures so as to be valid. Objectivity implies observations being unaffected by the researcher’s beliefs, ideologies, values such that the facts obtained for experimentation are dealt with as it should be and not interpreted according to his beliefs.
    Replicability
    Research work should be such that another can conduct given the systematic procedures laid by the originator of the research work. This allows for acceptability by others.

  102. Avatar Ezeoha Nnenna Mercy says:

    Ezeoha Nnenna Mercy
    2019/249099
    Economics Education
    300l

    What is Scientific Research?
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    What is Non-Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.

    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion

    Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms
    What is the Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research

    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    What is Scientific Research?
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.

    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    What is Non-Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.

    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    What is the Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research?

    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    What is the Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research

    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Both scientific and non-scientific research studies vary from one another in their methods. Basically, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, whereas non-scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    What is Scientific Research?
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.

    Scientific research operates at two levels. One level is the theoretical level, and the other is the empirical level. At the theoretical level, concepts are developed, especially concepts related to social and natural phenomena. At the empirical level, theoretical concepts and relationships are tested. There are two forms of scientific research: inductive and deductive. This depends on the researcher’s training and interest. In inductive research, the researcher gathers theoretical concepts from observed data, while in deductive research, the researcher tests concepts and patterns of the theory using new empirical data.

    What is Non-Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.

    In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.

    What is the Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research?
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures. The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research in tabular form for side by side comparison moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion. Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:

    Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs
    In scientific research, data is collected using multiple techniques like observation, formulation, and testing of hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data is collected only on the basis of observation
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion, while non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective..

    The difference between scientific and non-scientific research is as follows:

    Scientific research is defined as the research that obtains data with the help of scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is the research conducted without the help of any scientific methods and/or scientific basis
    Scientific research can be repeated a number of times by making use of the same methods and data whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it makes use of intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    Distinguish or different between scientific research and non scientific research

    Scientific research is a logically stepped process used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding. The findings of scientific research can be reproduced and demonstrated to be consistent. While in non scientific research, the research it’s not logically stepped process that used for investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding

    Scientific research acquiring knowledge and truths about the data or information using techniques that follow the scientific methods such as identification of a problem, formulation of statement of a problem, formulation of hypothesis, data analysis data recording, presentation and interpretation, testing hypothesis and recommendation and conclusion. while Non scientific acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques without follow the scientific method.

    Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. While non scientific research does not follow systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity

    Scientific research is a systematic way of analyzing and interpreting new or existing material through experimentation and observation, While Non scientific research is based upon investigation of natural phenomenon without systematic

    In general. Scientific research and non scientific research, both are used in collection of data, information and knowledge that can be added to the existing one. Can be used to solve different disputes such as political conflict economic issues and social conflict.

    Major Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge:

    There are different types of researches and research methods that may be considered by a researcher. But no doubt, the results of a scientific research are more readily acceptable by the majority of the public. The major reason why this is the case is because of the features which scientific research works carry. The major characteristics of scientific knowledge includes the following: Empirical, Objective, Accuracy, Systematic, Ethical consideration, Reliable, Predictable, Replicable, Controlled and have a definite objective.

    QUESTION 2

    Major Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge/ Research
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.

    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.

    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.

    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    3. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.

    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.

    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    6. Accuracy: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.

    Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.

    Also see: Best science courses to study in the university

    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.

    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

    9. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

    10. Objective/ Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

    This is a brief analysis of the major characteristics of a scientific research work. Any research that does not meet with these requirements cannot thus be rightly considered scientific.

    Bscholarly LLC is an international education and legal blog that is focused on disseminating Legal tips/news, Court judgments, Case Summaries, Admission News and school tips for scholars all over the world.

  103. 1 discuss on non-scientific and scientific research
    Basically we have two types of research
    1. Non scientific research: is the type of research that is not based on any empirical evaluation of evidence, it’s based on the sphere of human knowledge; it involves religious, ethical beliefs, moral precepts and philosophical ideals.
    Non scientific research can come from different forms which are,
    I. Speculations
    II. Experience
    III. Hunches, intuition and premonition
    IV. Mysticism
    V. Theology or divine revelations
    Scientific research is the scientific knowledge involving any ideas about the world which are based on inductive reasoning and which are open to testing and change

    1b difference between scientific and non-scientific research

    Definition:
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies.
    Non-scientific research refers to research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis

    Nature:
    Scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data
    Non scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience and personal beliefs.

    Data collection:
    Scientific research data collected is using different techniques such as observation,
    Formulation and testing hypotheses.
    Non scientific research Data collection only uses observation

    Conclusion :
    Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion
    Non scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method
    Scientific research has Objective purpose
    Non scientific research possesses a subjective purpose.
    2 characteristics of scientific research
    I. Scientific research has a purpose for conducting it, either to gather new data or provide solution to an existing problem
    II. Controlled: difference between dependent and independent variables are stated clearly. A researcher can remove or add variables depending on the study.
    III. Rigorous: sound methods are used in conducting scientific research, the questions and answers must be relevant, accurate and justified.
    IV. Critical: scientific research is carefully done, free from mere assumptions.
    V. Valid and verifiable: scientific research is unique and can stand the test of time and technology.
    VI. Empirical: this implies that conclusion is drawn from hard evidence.
    VII. Logical and objective:
    VIII. Systematic: this implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical sequence.

  104. Avatar Ebuka Manasseh Ihechukwu says:

    1. Non-scientific Research
    When I was about 5 years old my mother told me that whenever you are in the middle of a green grass area and the wind starts to blow hard just know that a snake is coming towards you. Of course, I believed her and never liked crossing a bushy path till today. Also, there is this popular sacrifice that traditionalists perform in Lagos called “Ebo”, where they put some eggs with red oil on a plate and place it in the middle of the road with the belief that a certain spirit would come to eat it. This bothered me so much until one day one was placed by the side of a major road close to my Mum’s kiosk. In my mind, I concluded that I must see when these eggs inside the plate vanish. I was in my Mum’s kiosk watching and waiting until a customer came, only for me to finish attending to the customer, and then saw Ijebu, a popular madman in the area eating the “Ebo” that was supposed to be for the spirit.
    These among many other myths are what constitutes fear among the populace on this side of the globe. They have not undergone any proper research as such to prove that they are true, yet people live their lives by it.

    The instances given above are clear examples of what dogma is. Dogma is a set of beliefs that a people are supposed to accept without proper reasoning or scrutiny. However, a dogma is non-scientific in nature. It entails acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method.

    Although, we can’t blame the men of the orient for propounding such beliefs for it was a way they knew best to protect their values and culture. But yet there is now an unintended consequence it has on us today, and that is ‘Rigidity in thinking’. Rigidity in thinking often results in maladaptive emotional and behavioral consequences which now prevail in our society today. If I had known that what my Mum said was a lie earlier I could have been working freely in a bush path 15 years ago, even at night.

    Aside from dogmatism, there are other forms of non-scientific research which include; speculation/guesswork, theology/divine revelation, experience, intuition, etc. Sometimes I’m tempted to ask how a prophet knows that it would rain tomorrow or how he knows that a certain disaster would come upon a person at a particular future time.

    Nonetheless, I’ve come to understand that despite the faults of non-scientific research it still has its relevance in the social sciences, based on the fact that human behaviors are sometimes rigorous to understand due to their dynamic nature of feelings, fears, insecurities, and other like conditions. So, scientific research in this case may not accurately decode behavioral patterns better than our intuitions, speculations, etc. would.

    Scientific Research
    There is this spring water in my village community. It has been serving the entire community for centuries, although some say it was discovered during the Biafra war. Of the three water supplies we have in the community, it is the purest. It is located remotely in the forest, with narrowly carved steps to reach about 30 fits downhill before you can now see the water coming from a pipe into a wall.
    It used to be believed that the gods of the land were the ones who answered the people’s prayers and provided them with drinkable water. Obviously, it was my orientation as a child until I came across the information below;
    Water in springs seeps, and wells generally originate as rainfall that has soaked into the soil and percolated into underlying rocks. Permeable rocks (those containing interconnected pore spaces through which water can migrate), such as limestone and sandstone, store and transmit water and are called aquifers. Sometimes the water in an aquifer becomes confined between two impermeable rock layers, such as clay or shale. When these strata are tilted or folded into a structural trap, the water in the lower part of the aquifer is stored under pressure. If the pressure is sufficiently high and a well is sunk through the capping layer, the water will rise to the surface without pumping. This is called an artesian well. Spring | water | Britannica.

    I was actually amazed to discover this type of knowledge that is verifiable, replicable, empirical, and understandable. This is what scientific research is. If certain research can not prove to be replicable or verifiable, it cannot be termed scientific as such.

    Differences Between Scientific and Non-scientific Research
     Scientific research is defined as research that collects data using scientific methods and strategies. Non-scientific research is research that is conducted without the use of scientific methods or a scientific foundation.
     Data in scientific research is collected using a variety of techniques such as observation, hypothesis formulation, and testing. Non-scientific research, on the other hand, gathers data solely through observation.
     Scientific research employs a logical and systematic approach to reaching a conclusion, whereas non-scientific research employs no logical, scientific, or systematic approach.
     Scientific research is objective, whereas non-scientific research is subjective

    2. Characteristics of Scientific Research
     Empirical – This involves the collection of data at first hand, which means having concrete evidence of the data that you want to analyze. This is what the branch of economics called econometrics tries to help us do in research. It provides empirical support for theories. We can understand that a theory is just a mere statement or hypothesis that is mostly qualitative in nature, however, they do not provide a numerical explanation of a proposed idea as such. A vivid example would be the popular law of demand. An econometrist would say that it is not enough to state that “The higher the price, the lower the quantity demanded and vice versa”, instead he would go as far to provide empirical evidence in the form of numerical data to prove the theory and now call it scientific research as we have it.

     Generalizability – Generalizability is the extent to which one can apply the results of your study to a broader context. In scientific research there is no such thing as ‘it only applies to Chike, because he is rich’. Consider this example; It is normal science that if a person is looking to grow healthy body-muscle he or she must take in enough protein to replace the calories already burned-out during a workout session. So, we already know that foods that contain the required amount of protein are usually expensive and low-income earners can ill afford it. With this background it would now be fallacious to say that the theory only applies to Chike, because he is rich. However, it can no longer be called science if the theory doesn’t apply to Ebuka as well. In essence, for the theory to be termed scientific Ebuka, should be able to grow healthy muscle only if he takes in the right amount of protein. So, research results are considered generalizable when the findings can be applied to most contexts, most people, most of the time.

     Purposeful – Scientific research must have a specific purpose for conducting the research, and the different variable gathered must be geared towards achieving that purpose otherwise, the researcher would be overwhelmed by the research process. This is the reason why it is good practice to pose a research question first before going into findings about the topic. Not that the research question is the purpose but it helps you remain geared to the purpose. For example, the researchers that discovered the secrete of muscle growth must have posed a question like; ‘What is the correlation between the daily intake of food and level of muscle growth?’ and then the purpose that the researchers should focus on could now be ‘what particular nutrient has the highest correlation’.

     Systematic – For a particular research work to be termed scientific it must have followed a systematic process of planning, data collection, analysis and reporting. In the planning phase is where you take your time to map out how you really want the entire process to be; starting with a clearly defined goal – where you decide on the actual purpose of conducting the research, or What is expected to be found out, Method – What will be the steps to be followed to collect the data, and Deadline – set deadlines for every objective. The second is to collect data. Here you get to decide the source of data – is it primary or secondary, and the type of data – is it quantitative or qualitative. Thirdly, Analysis of data. Here you get to critically analyze the data that you’ve gotten to unearth important findings that is relevant to your goal. And lastly, reporting. Here is where you get to showcase and interpret all your findings either technically or using visuals for better understanding, depending on your type of audience.

     Controlled – Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results. Controlled research is so important because if you don’t limit the influences on your research work, you won’t be able to determine why you got the results you did. For example, let’s assume our research goal is to know the effect of protein diet on muscle growth, and we want to conduct the experiment on Ebuka, from our earlier example. For this research to be termed scientific, the researcher must make sure that Ebuka doesn’t eat any food that doesn’t contain protein over a period of time to avoid being biased. Chance has no place in scientific research: all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher’s criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules.

     Rigorous – Rigor in research means quality control, there is no science without rigor. Rigor is also called control and this word is used in science as well as in our day-to-day life. You need rigor to make your research valid, reliable, generalizable, and authentic. So, in a sense rigor comes first, and then you can say that your research has all other characteristics. While rigor improves validity, reliability, and reproducibility of research but of course, it is not the absolute criterion.
     Valid and verifiable – Reliability and validity are concepts used to assess the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique, or test measures something. The consistency of a measure is referred to as its reliability, while the accuracy of a measure is referred to as its validity. It is critical to consider reliability and validity when developing your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your findings, especially in quantitative research. Failure to do so may result in various types of research bias and have a negative impact on your work.
     Logical and objective – Research must be logical and objective in order to be used for anything scientific. The characteristic is that the person doing the research wants the truth and does not bias the research with feelings.

  105. Avatar Udeh Chinenyenwa Rita says:

    1.Non scientific research is an ongoing process based on many accumulated understandings and explanations that when taken together leads to generalizations about problems and the development of theories without proof or experiment.
    Non scientific research is based on speculations, guess work, experiences from past, divine revelations or injunctions and conclusions from an inner feeling without proof .
    Scientific research is a research that focuses on solving problems and pursues a step by step logical, organized and rigorous method to identify the problems , collect data, analyse and draw valid conclusions .
    Difference between Scientific research and Non scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, where as non scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience and personal beliefs.
    Also, scientific research uses a logical process in conducting the research, where as non scientific research uses techniques and strategies that do not contain a scientific base in acquiring knowledge.

    2. Characteristics of Scientific research
    a. Purposeful: scientific research has a purpose of gathering existing data and new data to solve problems
    b. Controlled: scientific research can be controlled in a way that you set your research to suit the aim of your investigation or new findings.
    c. Rigorous: a scientific research is a careful and thorough investigations and findings. It do not have mistakes, it relevant and justifiable.
    d. Critical: a scientific research is free from any irrelevance. it is approved and do not have faults.
    e. Valid and verifiable ( Replicability) : scientific research is correct and verifiable. It can be repeated and still get the same answer. Someone who is from another part of the world can repeat a research and get the same results.
    f. Empirical: scientific research is based on observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. It is unbiased , it is not from personal opinion or feeling.
    g. Logical and objective: scientific research is based on sound reasoning and validity to draw conclusions.
    h. Systematic: scientific research has procedures, it takes these procedures step by step beginning from the collection of data, analysis to results.
    I. Generalizability: scientific research gives generalizations on problems and is applicable anywhere around the world.

  106. Avatar UKAEGBU NNEOMA ROSELINE says:

    Name:Ukaegbu Nneoma Roseline
    Reg number:2019/245510
    Department:Economics

    1.Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data,while Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Having known the meaning of the two research method ,it is important to note their diffrences;
    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs( ie in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses,rather for non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation. It is also important to note scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but,for non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a iconclusion. In addition this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.

    2. Characteristic Of scientific research method

    *Point/Goal: All scientific research works have a specific why or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any main reason or the why in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

    *Controlled: Chance has no place in scientific research all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher’s criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules. the concept of control implies that in exploring relationship between two variable ,you sent your own study it minimize the effect of other factors that affect such relationship. Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results.

    * Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.

    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

  107. Avatar Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka says:

    Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka.
    2019/244559
    Education economics.

    1. Non scientific research— This is a type of research by which we acquire knowledge and truth about the world using methods that are not in line with the scientific method. Some of the ways that non scientific researchers get their information is through, speculation/guess work, personal experience, intuition/hunch, mysticism, theology/divine revelation etc.
    Scientific research— This is a systematic/step by step way of collecting data, verifying information and finding solutions to a given problem. It can also be used to validate an already exiting theory/hypothesis.
    There are three steps that one need to conduct a scientific research,1. pose a question, 2. Collect data to answer the question, 3. Present an answer to the question.
    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research is that in scientific research, the researcher follow a step by step procedure to carry out the research and arrive at a solution, and that research when carried out by another researcher following the same steps will arrive at the same solution but in non scientific research, the researcher did not follow any steps or guidelines, and when another researcher carry out research on that same problem or topic, they will not arrive at the same answer because non scientific research is not repeatable.
    2. ★Empirical— This means that in scientific research, conclusions are drawn after experimentation/observation.
    ★Systematic— Scientific research follows an orderly/sequential procedure.
    ★ Controlled— All veritable except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    ★ Objective— In scientific research all the findings are based on the experiment conducted so the researcher is not allowed to add or remove anything from his findings, he should state it as it is without bias.
    ★ Theoritical — Scientific research is guided by a theory/ hypothesis that the researcher is trying to find answers to.
    ★ Analytical— Here the researcher analysis the information/ data they are using to avoid any error or miscalculation.
    ★ Quantitative or statistical methods — Data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  108. Avatar Mbah Juliet Ezinne says:

    NAME: MBAH JULIET EZINNE
    REG NO: 2019/241713
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS

    1) What is Scientific Research?
    Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    What is Non-Scientific Research?
    Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption.
    Difference Between Scientific and Non-Scientific Research
    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that;
    1) Scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas Non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    2) Scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, Non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.
    3) Scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in Non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.
    4) Non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.
    2) CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    1- Systematics
    The systematization of scientific research is linked to the need for it to be rigorous in procedures.This is not a random observation, but is the result of a well-structured plan, with specific objectives.The systematic plan that must guide a scientific investigation must consider all the aspects and moments of this research: from the objects of study and the variables to be taken into account, to the rhythm of work that must be followed in order to arrive at conclusions in time expected.
    2- Controlled
    Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by control mechanisms that allow it to obtain truthful results.Chance has no place in scientific research: all actions and observations are controlled, according to the researcher’s criteria and according to the object investigated, through well-defined methods and rules.
    3- Empirical
    The results of a scientific investigation must deal with the aspects of reality related to the subject under investigation. The aspects that characterize a particular research must be observable in the real world.Scientific research refers to issues that can be measured and identified as facts.
    4- Rational
    Science in general is characterized by being rational and logical. In a scientific investigation must emphasize the rationality on the subjectivity.
    Its empirical characteristic makes it necessary to be based on real and verifiable facts, and demands from the researcher a critical attitude and a dispossession of his personal conceptions or judgments of value
    5) Reproducible
    The findings obtained through scientific research should be able to be reproduced under the same conditions established in the study.Given the systematized nature of scientific research, it must be verifiable. The fact of having controlled the variables that were part of the process, allows to be able to reproduce the results achieved.
    6)- Objective
    Just as rationality and critical character must be emphasized in scientific research, it must also be objective.The goal of the investigator is not to justify own postures, but to expose the facts in the purest way possible.The explanation arising from scientific research must be legitimate for people with different inclinations of thought. The results of scientific research must be universal.

  109. Avatar Asogwa Ijeoma says:

    Name : Asogwa Ijeoma Agatha
    Reg no: 2019/251105
    Department: Economics

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.
    Answer
    Non-scientific research typically refers to research that is conducted outside of the scientific method, and may include qualitative research, such as interviews, mysticism, speculation or guess work, focus groups, ethnography is used in non scientific research to determine mine human behaviours which are sometimes difficult to capture.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. The scientific method typically involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. This type of research is often conducted in order to test specific hypotheses or theories and to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
    In summary, non-scientific research is a broad term that can refer to any type of research that is not conducted using the scientific method, whereas scientific research refers to research that is conducted using the scientific method and adheres to the principles of objectivity and replication.

    1a: Difference between scientific and non scientific research
    The main difference between scientific and non-scientific research is the method by which the research is conducted.
    Scientific research is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. The scientific method ensures that the research is objective, reliable, and replicable. It is also used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Scientific research is often conducted in laboratories, universities and research centers by scientists, researchers, and academics.

    Non-scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is not conducted using the scientific method. Non-scientific research can include qualitative research, such as interviews, focus groups, and ethnography, or quantitative research, such as surveys and polls. This type of research is often conducted to gain a better understanding of human behavior, attitudes, and beliefs, and is not necessarily objective, reliable, or replicable as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be conducted by anyone, including journalists, market researchers, and even individuals.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.
    Answer
    Characteristics of scientific research
    Scientific research is characterized by several key features that distinguish it from non-scientific research:
    Objectivity: Scientific research is conducted in an unbiased and impartial manner, without personal or emotional involvement.
    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on evidence and data that is collected through observation and experimentation, rather than on personal beliefs or opinions.
    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicated by other researchers, in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings, it can also mean that when a research is conducted in another state or by another researcher using the same variables the results of the findings should be the same in both tests carried out.
    Hypothesis-driven: Scientific research begins with a specific hypothesis or question that is tested through experimentation and data collection. The aim of any research is to answer a question.
    Peer-review: Scientific research is subject to review by other experts in the field, in order to ensure that the research is of high quality and meets established standards.
    Theory testing: Scientific research is intended to test theories by using a set of methods and techniques that can be repeated.
    Transparency: Scientific research is conducted with transparency and openness, with results and methods being made available to the public.
    Validity and reliability: Scientific research is conducted in such a way as to minimize sources of error and bias, and to ensure that the data is accurate and reliable and to also ensure that if such a research is carried out somewhere else or by someone else using same variables the results will the same. The results gotten from the research should be useful to the researcher.
    Generalizability: Scientific research is intended to be generalizable to a larger population, meaning that the results can be applied to other cases or situations.
    Self-correcting: Scientific research is a self-correcting process, which means that theories and hypotheses are continuously tested and refined over time, based on new data and evidence.
    These are some of the main characteristics that define scientific research, and which help to ensure that the research is reliable, valid and of high quality.

  110. Avatar IROEGBU BLESSING ONYINYECHI says:

    NAME: IROEGBU BLESSING ONYINYECHI

    REG NO: 2017/249518

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Scientific research differs from non-scientific research in that the former focuses on solving problems and pursues a step-by-step logical, organized,and rigorous method. The scientific research also follows a systematic process in producing the results of the research. Non-Scientific research produces answers or results of a research without empirical evidence as in the case of scientific research. Non- scientific research is conducted through speculations, experience, magic or mysticism,divine revelations etc. These means of conducting non-scientific research are not valid,as the conclusion or results derived from them can not be empirically proved. Scientific research follows a systematic process in arriving at a valid and a verifiable conclusion. Some of the methods or process involved in scientific research includes:

    (i) Identifying the problem we are making research on

    (ii)Collecting data

    (iii) Analyzing and explaining the data and

    (iv) Drawing valid conclusions

    (2) The following are some of the characteristics of scientific research:

    (I) Purposeful: A scientific research is directed towards a clear and specific purpose. Data collected for the purpose of the research is used for new purpose which is directed towards finding a solution to a problem.

    (ii) Controlled: In a scientific research, researchers are able to manipulate and control the data used in analyzing the relationship between variables. They can do this by removing or adding a variable depending on there studies.

    (iii) Rigorous: A scientific research must be based on theoritical base and sound methodology. A researcher must be careful and scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed in finding answers to questions are relevant, appropriate and justified.

    (iv) Critical: There must be critical scrutiny of the process and procedures employed to a research enquiry. The process and procedures used must be free from irrelevant methodologies,to avoid draw backs.

    (v) Valid and Verifiable: All scientific research must be able to provide empirical evidence to prove the answers to questions in the research and to provide a valid and a verifiable results and conclusions. A valid research is the one that can be replicated or worked on to improve it by another researcher.

    (vi) Empirical: The conclusions or answers provided in every scientific research should entail objectivity and should be devoid of personal opinion, biases, idiosyncrasies etc. Conclusions should be drawn from hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experience or observations and subjected to experimentation and analysis.

    (vii) Logical and Objective: Every step taken in a scientific research should be reasonable in order to ensure validity of steps or procedures,tools and conclusions. Objectivity of a scientific research entails that conclusions drawn from the analysis of data must be objective and supported by theoritical model.

    (viii) Systematic: There must be a systematic processes or steps in planning, collection of data , analysis and reporting. It must follow a clearly stipulated process.

  111. Avatar Asogwa Ijeoma Agatha 2019/ 251105 says:

    Name : Asogwa Ijeoma Agatha
    Reg no: 2019/251105
    Department: Economics

    1. The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Answer
    Non-scientific research typically refers to research that is conducted outside of the scientific method, and may include qualitative research, such as interviews, mysticism, speculation or guess work, focus groups, ethnography is used in non scientific research to determine mine human behaviours which are sometimes difficult to capture.
    Scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. The scientific method typically involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. This type of research is often conducted in order to test specific hypotheses or theories and to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
    In summary, non-scientific research is a broad term that can refer to any type of research that is not conducted using the scientific method, whereas scientific research refers to research that is conducted using the scientific method and adheres to the principles of objectivity and replication.

    1a: Difference between scientific and non scientific research
    Answer
    The main difference between scientific and non-scientific research is the method by which the research is conducted.
    Scientific research is conducted using the scientific method, which is a systematic and objective process for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It involves the following steps: observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. The scientific method ensures that the research is objective, reliable, and replicable. It is also used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Scientific research is often conducted in laboratories, universities and research centers by scientists, researchers, and academics.

    Non-scientific research, on the other hand, is research that is not conducted using the scientific method. Non-scientific research can include qualitative research, such as interviews, focus groups, and ethnography, or quantitative research, such as surveys and polls. This type of research is often conducted to gain a better understanding of human behavior, attitudes, and beliefs, and is not necessarily objective, reliable, or replicable as scientific research. Non-scientific research can be conducted by anyone, including journalists, market researchers, and even individuals.

    2. Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Answer
    Characteristics of scientific research
    Scientific research is characterized by several key features that distinguish it from non-scientific research:
    Objectivity: Scientific research is conducted in an unbiased and impartial manner, without personal or emotional involvement.
    Empiricism: Scientific research is based on evidence and data that is collected through observation and experimentation, rather than on personal beliefs or opinions.
    Replicability: Scientific research is designed to be replicated by other researchers, in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings, it can also mean that when a research is conducted in another state or by another researcher using the same variables the results of the findings should be the same in both tests carried out.
    Hypothesis-driven: Scientific research begins with a specific hypothesis or question that is tested through experimentation and data collection. The aim of any research is to answer a question.
    Peer-review: Scientific research is subject to review by other experts in the field, in order to ensure that the research is of high quality and meets established standards.
    Theory testing: Scientific research is intended to test theories by using a set of methods and techniques that can be repeated.
    Transparency: Scientific research is conducted with transparency and openness, with results and methods being made available to the public.
    Validity and reliability: Scientific research is conducted in such a way as to minimize sources of error and bias, and to ensure that the data is accurate and reliable and to also ensure that if such a research is carried out somewhere else or by someone else using same variables the results will the same. The results gotten from the research should be useful to the researcher.
    Generalizability: Scientific research is intended to be generalizable to a larger population, meaning that the results can be applied to other cases or situations.
    Self-correcting: Scientific research is a self-correcting process, which means that theories and hypotheses are continuously tested and refined over time, based on new data and evidence.
    These are some of the main characteristics that define scientific research, and which help to ensure that the research is reliable, valid and of high quality.

  112. Avatar Alozie Uche Daniel. says:

    NAME: ALOZIE UCHE DANIEL
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2019/245679

    1.
    Scientific research is a investigating and acquiring or expanding our understanding whereas nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method.

    The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.

    in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, in non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.

    scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, in non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.

    2.
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.

    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.

    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    3. Ethical: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.

    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.

    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out.

    5. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.

  113. Avatar Okoye Stella ogochukwu 2019/250026 says:

    Non scientific research is usually pusedo written by people who don’t have any claims or back up .it lacks critical thinking and logical reasoning written to clearly impress naive people . In some rare cases it could lead to exposure of some vices between the author and the overly enthusiastic reader.non scientific research also includes research influenced by underlying goal or a compelled work for the purpose of funding .
    Scientific research has a huge difference from unscientific research, it requires logical reasoning, critical thinking, mind consciousness,it requires inventing new or improving existing scientific method of solving problems.
    It’s focused on developing falsifiable statement or models that Can be tested through experiment and observations.

    2. Systematic: the systemization of a scientific research is linked to the need for it to rigirous in nature,the systematic plan that must guide scientific research must consider all the aspects and moments of the research from the object of study and the variables to be taken into account.

    Controlled. Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by fully control mechanisms that allow it to obtain clean and truthful results.

    Original. A scientific research must be original to it’s core

    Reproducible. The findings obtained through a scientific research should be able to be reproduced under same circumstances.

    Objective: the goal of a scientific research must be objective not just to justify his own posture but to expose the correct facts in the purest way possible

  114. Avatar Okoye Stella ogochukwu 2019/250026 says:

    Non scientific research is usually pusedo written by people who don’t have any claims or back up .it lacks critical thinking and logical reasoning written to clearly impress naive people . In some rare cases it could lead to exposure of some vices between the author and the overly enthusiastic reader.non scientific research also includes research influenced by underlying goal or a compelled work for the purpose of funding .
    Scientific research has a huge difference from unscientific research, it requires logical reasoning, critical thinking, mind consciousness,it requires inventing new or improving existing scientific method of solving problems.
    It’s focused on developing falsifiable statement or models that Can be tested through experiment and observations.

    2. Systematic: the systemization of a scientific research is linked to the need for it to rigirous in nature,the systematic plan that must guide scientific research must consider all the aspects and moments of the research from the object of study and the variables to be taken into account.

    Controlled. Scientific research must avoid chance, and the process must be supported by fully control mechanisms that allow it to obtain clean and truthful results.

    Empirical.the results of a scientific investigation must deal with the aspects of reality related to the subject under investigation. The aspects that characterize a particular research must be observable in the real world.

    Reproducible. The findings obtained through a scientific research should be able to be reproduced under same circumstances.

    Objective: the goal of a scientific research must be objective not just to justify his own posture but to expose the correct facts in the purest way possible

  115. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    6. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    7. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field.

    Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

    8.Progress: New information and understanding are accumulated over time as a result of continuing scientific inquiry.

  116. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    Non-scientific research
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    6. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    7. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field.

    Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.
    8.Progress: New information and understanding are accumulated over time as a result of continuing scientific inquiry.

  117. Avatar MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE says:

    NAME: MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE
    REG NO: 2019/248922
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMIC

    ANSWERS
    • NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Non-scientific research is research conducted without any systematic methods and scientific basis. In non-scientific research, intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs are used as techniques to reach a conclusion. Thus, conclusions in non-scientific research are basically based on personal thinking and presumption. In non-scientific research, logical and systematics methods are not used in analyzing data. Non-scientific research simply gives a solution for a certain problem. It does not focus on other activities or recommendations for that particular problem. Moreover, it does not use a logical or organized procedure to form the conclusion.
    (ii) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Scientific research refers to research that collects data using systemic methods and strategies. There is a scientific and systemic basis in the collection of data, interpretation, and evaluation of data. When conducting scientific research, the researcher should plan the research and specify the methodology. According to the techniques used in data collection, scientific research can be classified into different categories as observational and experimental.
    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NONSCIENTIFIC AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Although both scientific and non-scientific research are used in collecting data, they follow different methods and procedures.
    1) The key difference between scientific and non-scientific research is that scientific research can be repeated several times using the same methods and data, whereas non-scientific research cannot be repeated since it uses intuition, personal experience, and personal beliefs.
    2) Moreover, in scientific research, data is collected using different techniques such as observation, formulation, and testing hypotheses. On the other hand, In non-scientific research, data collection only uses observation.
    3) Besides, scientific research follows a logical and systematic process in arriving at a conclusion but, In non-scientific research, only the beliefs and expectations of people are considered in arriving at a conclusion.
    4) Furthermore, non-scientific research does not follow any logical, scientific, or systematic method. Thus, this is another major difference between scientific and non-scientific research. In addition, scientific research is objective, while non-scientific research is subjective.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work. It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific research.
    2. Objectivity: Scientific knowledge is objective. Objectivity simple means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish them to be. To be objective, one has to guard against his own biases, beliefs, wishes, values and preferences. Objectivity demands that one must set aside all sorts of the subjective considerations and prejudices.
    3. Ethical Neutrality: Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge is to be used, is determined by societal values. Knowledge can be put to differing uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage atomic warfare. Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist has no values. It here only means that he must not allow his values to distort the design and conduct of his research. Thus, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value- free.
    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained. This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.
    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research. This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.
    6. Accuracy: Scientific knowledge is accurate. A physician, like a common man, will not say that the patient has slight temperature or having very high temperature but after measuring with the help of thermometer, he will pronounce that the patient is having 101.2 F temperature. Accuracy simply means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things in exact words as they are without jumping to unwarranted conclusions.
    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.
    8. Replicated: A scientific work will be of little to no relevance of it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator. The possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes for the general acceptability of scientific works. The fact that a research conducted in a lab in Europe can be replicated in Africa and a similar result attained qualifies such research as being scientific. If after the due procedures and steps are followed, a similar result cannot be attained, then the research work cannot be termed scientific.
    9. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    10. Objective/ Goal: Lastly, all scientific research works have a specific objective or goal as the end result in the mind of the researcher. Research are not just carried out without any objective or goal in mind. A research work is usually carried out with the aim of solving some world problems or making some new innovations. Thus, all scientific research must have a goal as the end product. This goal serves as the driving force for such research work.

  118. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: research methods I (Eco 391)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) The scientific method is the process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results. In view of this, clearly discuss non-scientific and scientific research and their differences.

    NON-SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Non-scientific research is defined as study that is not carried out in accordance with the scientific method. Research in the humanities, social sciences, and arts are examples of this, which may employ techniques including interviewing, surveying, and historical analysis. Non-scientific research is frequently qualitative in character and might not yield numbers or outcomes that are easily quantifiable. Non-scientific research also lacks the impartiality, reproducibility, and generalizability that are characteristics of scientific research.

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    systematic study of natural events via experimentation and observation is known as scientific research. The purpose of scientific research is to increase our knowledge of the world and to create new tools and cures. Using the scientific process, which entails developing a hypothesis, testing it through observation and experimentation, and then interpreting the findings to reach conclusions, is how scientists do their research. Physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and psychology are just a few of the numerous domains in which scientific study is carried out

    The difference between scientific research and non scientific research

    1. Scientific inquiry is a methodical and logical technique to learning new information and developing fresh insights into a certain subject or event. It is based on the scientific process, which entails making observations, forming hypotheses, creating experiments or studies to test those hypotheses, and then evaluating data to develop conclusions. Rigid methodology, meticulous observation and measurement, and a focus on empirical facts and proof are all characteristics of scientific inquiry.
    Contrarily, non-scientific research does not rely on empirical data or the scientific method. Instead of being based on factual data and measurements, it can be based on intuition, personal experience, or personal judgments. Non-scientific research sometimes lacks a systematic and logical methodology, and its results may not be as dependable as those of scientific study.

    2. Non-scientific research may not be peer-reviewed, whereas scientific research is, meaning that it is examined by experts in the area to verify its validity and trustworthiness.

    3. In contrast to non-scientific research, which may not be repeatable, scientific research may be repeated by other researchers with comparable findings.

    4. Non-scientific research may be published in popular publications or internet sources, whereas scientific research is often published in scholarly journals.

    5. Scientific research is published in scholarly journals, while non-scientific research may be published in popular magazines or online sources.

    6. Non-scientific research employs methods and tactics that are not based on the scientific method in order to gather information and reach a result, whereas scientific research follows a logical procedure in doing the study and producing the conclusion.

    (2.) Discuss and deeply explain the characteristics of scientific research.

    Scientific research is a methodical and rational approach to learning new things, finding solutions to issues, and comprehending the natural world. The following are some crucial aspects of scientific research:

    1. Empiricism: Empiricism is a philosophical belief that states your knowledge of the world is based on your experiences, particularly your sensory experiences. Scientific inquiry is based on quantifiable facts gathered by experiments, observations, or other types of empirical evidence.

    2. Objectivity: This refers to the capability of making a fair judgment or choice that is unaffected by one’s own sentiments or opinions. When gathering and analyzing data, scientific research works to reduce subjectivity and prejudice.

    3. Replicability: This refers to an experiment’s or trial’s capacity to be repeated in order to provide a reliable result in science.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the idea that other researchers may duplicate and replicate tests and investigations to confirm the findings.

    4. The concept of parsimony, used in scientific study, states that the simplest explanation for a phenomena should be used.

    5. Testability: The capacity to quantify and “test” empirical research data adequately to establish whether or not the hypothesis being tested can be reliably classified as true or untrue is known as testability.The foundation of scientific inquiry is the notion that ideas and hypotheses may be put to the test through observation and experiment.

    6. Self-correction: Scientific inquiry is a process that can modify or reject prior ideas and hypotheses as a result of fresh information and data.

    7. Generalizability: Generalisability is the degree to which you can apply the results of your study to a broader context. Scientific study seeks to identify overarching principles that hold true in a variety of contexts and occurrences.

    8. Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic determination and assessment of a subject’s merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. To assure the quality and validity of the study, scientific studies are submitted to examination and criticism from other authorities in the field. Scientific research is carried out in an open and transparent manner, with methods and conclusions described in enough detail to enable replication and validation of the findings.

    9. Progress: New information and understanding are accumulated over time as a result of continuing scientific inquiry.

  119. Avatar Appolos sopuruchukwu Bethel says:

    Appolos sopuruchukwu bethel
    Economics
    300l
    2019/244006

    1. What are the differences between scientific research and non-scientific research?

    science: the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

    research: the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

    Scientific research: this focuses on solving problems and pursuing solutions through a step by step logical, organized, rigorous and scientific way of identifying problems, collecting data, analysing data, and drawing conclusions

    Non-scientific research: this has to do with any process used in solving and finding solutions to problems Which does not exhibit any of the scientific features in research.

    2
    Characteristics of Scientific Research
    1. Empirical: A cardinal feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. Simply put, this means that it can be verifiable. Thus for a work to qualify as a scientific work, persons should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work.
    It is only when such research work is verified and the results are seen to confirm with the original objectives and statements of the researcher that it may be correctly termed as a scientific research. Where a work cannot be verified with credible facts, evidence or materials, it cannot be said to qualify as a scientific
    2. Objectivity: All scientific knowledge are objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective. The purpose of a research work is usually to solve a problem or give explanation to a problem.
    This makes it very important for such work to be conducted from an objective point of view. Also, a work will get easily verified and serve the general public more easily when it is conducted objectively. A research work bearing and carrying the personal positions, feelings, untested ideas and idiosyncrasies of a researcher cannot thus qualify as a scientific research.

    3. Generalizability: Science does not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Thus true and acceptable science must in some ways, put into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society.
    Any research work that gravely objects to key and fundamental tenets and beliefs of the society is greatly objected to and as such loses general acceptance. For instance, the sacred nature of life is a core value in the society, thus a research work that threatens this core principle will be stiffly objected to and would ordinarily lose its scientific flavour.

    4. Systematic Exploration: Scientific research require verification and the only way a scientific research can be verified is where there is a systematic exploration which can be repeated. This means that a key feature of a scientific research is that it follows some particular steps and procedures and if these steps and procedures are repeated by any other person within a specific condition, the same result can be attained.
    This is why scientific research normally involves well laid out steps and detailed introductory explanation on the conditions within which the research has been carried out. This systematic exploration mechanisms laid down allows for a detailed and accurate repetition of the research work and the materialization of a similar result.

    5. Reliable: It is a key feature of a research work qualified as scientific to be reliable. Reliable in this sense means that any other person may replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it cannot be qualified as a scientific research.
    This is why there is a need for a systematic exploration in scientific research works so that these laid down steps can be easily followed and a similar result attained. It is only when this is present that such research work my be considered as being reliable by the majority of the public and also readily accepted.

    6. Purposeful: All scientific research works must have this all-important feature of being accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. This end result must be attained a 100 percent. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    Science does not leave room for speculations and doubts as these may prove to be really costly in the long run. Any research work that does not show precision and exactitude cannot does qualify to be considered a scientific research work.

    7. Predictability: A good scientific research work should be predictable. This simply means that at the very early stages of the research work, a researcher should be able to predict the outcome. Due to the precise nature of science and scientific works, they are very easily predictable. Science does not allow for huge uncertainties and unknown variables. All unknown variables and uncertainties must therefore be eliminated so as to allow for a more predictable and reliable result.

    8. Controlled: All scientific research works are usually examined under a controlled environment. This allows for specific variables to be known as the knowledge of these variables allow for ease of repeating the said research work. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.

  120. Avatar Benjamin Izuagba . C 2018/245945 says:

    NAME: BENJAMIN IZUAGBA C.
    Reg:2018/245945
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    (1) Scientific research can be described as the type of research by which scientists study various phenomenon using systematic methods of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data. It involves the use of scientific tools, methods and techniques in gathering data, It is often referred to as a creative process because it involves novel ways to test ideas that can lead to new ideas and information. It involves innovation, which can lead to discovery and vigorous explanation of new ideas to enhance and edify both the intellect of the reader and the researcher.
    Nonscientific research refers to acquiring of knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method or non scientific methods, it deals more on guess work, intuition, and the likes, it does not have a valid and empirical facts to draw conlusions from. Its a research drawn from what the researcher thinks or feels.
    Scientific research is about investigating, acquiring or expanding our understanding through valid, logical, systematic and empirical methods whereas Nonscientific research is acquiring knowledge and truths about the world using techniques that do not follow the scientific method, but follows the researchers own feeling or ideas, it involves theology’s, divine revelations, experience, mysticism and so on.

    (2) Empirical: A key feature of a scientific research work is that it is empirical. this means that it can be verifiable. Therefore for a work to qualify as a scientific work, people should be able to verify the truth or otherwise of the said research work. Thus with a knowledge of the materials and tools used by the original research and an understanding of the research procedure, any third party with the requisite knowledge should be able to verify the said research work. This also implies that conclusions are drawn from hard evidence gathered from information from real life experiences which are subject to experimentation.
    Objectivity: All scientific knowledge must be objective as opposed to being subjective. This simply means that they are considered from the general perspective as opposed to being considered from the personal perspective or supported by theoretical model. The purpose of a research work is mainly to solve a problem or give detailed explanation to a problem.
    Ethical: Science can not exist on an island of it’s own, but exists within the framework of the human environment. Therefore true and acceptable science must in some ways, input into consideration the values, morals, and ethical considerations of the society it exits in

    Reliable: A research must be very reliable. Reliable simplynmeans that any other person may be able to replicate similar results by following the systematic procedures laid down by the previous researcher. If a research work cannot be relied upon by others and a similar result replicated, then it can’t be qualified as a scientific research.
    Accuracy: All scientific research must be accurate. A research work usually lays down the goals at the beginning stage and the results aimed to achieve at the end. The end result be be completely accurate. The precise nature of science increases the reliability of scientific research works.
    Replicated: A scientific work will be of no relevance if it cannot be replicated following a systematic exploration/ procedure laid down by the originator or previous researcher. The ability and possibility of replicating a particular research work and attaining a result which is exact with the original research is what makes the research to be generally acceptable as a scientific work. For instance what was researched or created in America can easily be replicated in Nigeria.
    Controlled: All scientific research works must be examined under a controlled environment. Here variables are not allowed to move in any direction they desire. All of the controlled variables must be made known so that a person who wishes to carry on the research can do so and attain a very similar result.
    Rigorous: research must follow or be based off a good theoritical bbase and sound mythology. The researcher must be careful in ensuring that the procedures followed in obtaining the answers to the questions are relevant, appropriate and justifiable.
    Critical: this implies that the methods and procedures employed in investigation or carrying out research must be free from any draw backs and avoid irrelevant methodologists.
    Systematic: this is the process of collecting data, analysing and reporting. Each procedure adopted to undergo the investigation must follow a logical sequence.