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ECO. 361 Online Quiz/Discussion-20/1/2023 (Developing Country Issues)

ECO. 361 Online Quiz/Discussion-20/1/2023 (Developing Country Issues)

1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.

2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

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Comments 282

  1. Avatar Metu Sandra Chiamaka says:

    Metu Sandra chiamaka
    2017/249526
    Eco major

    1.China and India whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed played a major role in promoting the Bandung Conference, Indonesia in 1955 by having advanced in the technological know how.

    2.
    The World Bank assigns the world economies into 4 groups and each year these classifications are updated each year on July 1 and are based on the GNI per capita of the previous years. These groups are;
    • low income countries.
    • lower-middle income countries.
    • upper-middle income countries.
    • high income countries.

    3.Common characteristics of developing nations.
    • Low levels of productivity
    • Widespread poverty
    • Dependence and Vulnerability
    • Traditional, rural and social structures

    4.I bluntly disagree that poverty has the face of a woman because the high rate of poverty was not largely caused the women but rather generalized due to unemployment and unwillingness to work by both genders.

  2. Avatar ODOH GLORY CHIDERA says:

    NAME: ODOH GLORY CHIDERA
    REG NO: 2019/244719
    DEPARTMENT: COMBINE SOCIAL SCIENCES ( ECONOMICS/ SOCIOLOGY)
    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    EMAIL ADDRESS: Chideragloryodoh@gmail.com

    1. The concurrent rise of China and India represents a geopolitical event of historic propor- tions. Rarely has the global system witnessed the reemergence of two major powers simulta- neously—states that possess large populations, have ancient and storied histories, abut each other spatially and politically, and dominate the geographic environs within which they are located. Their return to center stage after several centuries of imperial domination thus presages the reincarnation of an earlier era in Asian geopolitics when China and India were among the most important concentrations of political power in the international system since the fall of Rome. The parallel revival of these two nations also dramatically exemplifies Asia’s resurgence in the global system. Although there has been a steady shift in the concentration of capabilities from West to East ever since the end of World War II, this transformation took a decisive turn when the smaller, early-industrializing nations of Asia—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore—were joined by the large, continental-sized states of China and India. The recent renaissance of China and India is owed in large measure to their productive integration into the liberal economic order built and sustained by American hegemony in the postwar period. As a result of that integration, both of these giants have experienced dramatic levels of economic growth in recent decades. China’s economic performance, for example, has been simply meteoric, exceeding even the impressive record set by the first generation of Asian tigers between 1960 and 1990. During the last thirty or so years, China has demonstrated average real growth in excess of 9 percent annually, with growth rates touching 13–14 percent in peak years.
    The two countries also share a common interest in ensuring that the international environment is peaceful to guarantee their continued economic consolidation and domestic political stability. But if the history of previous rising powers is any indication, as China and India contin- ue to grow they will want to progressively reshape the international system to advance their own interests—interests that may differ from those of the United States, the established he- gemon that sustains the current global order. This does not imply, however, that Beijing and New Delhi invariably share common objectives in opposition to Washington. To be sure, the two countries are united by certain acknowledged aims: recovering the preeminence they once enjoyed as international entities of consequence; establishing a multipolar world with themselves as constituent poles; avoiding the costs of contributing to global public goods on the grounds that their vast developmental challenges are not yet overcome; and protecting their hard-won sovereignty in the face of new principles justifying foreign intervention in the internal affairs of states.
    Despite these convergent objectives, China and India are also divided by deep differ- ences in the conduct of their political affairs. Beijing’s and New Delhi’s divergent behaviors are shaped by the unique histories governing their formation as modern states, the stark contrasts in their respective political regimes, and their ongoing territorial disputes and geopolitical rivalries, which are exacerbated by their growing prominence in international politics. As one analysis concluded, “The relation[ship] between Asia’s two great powers can best be characterized as one of global cooperation on transnational issues especially vis-à- vis the ‘West,’ geostrategic rivalry at the regional level in the form of growing commercial exchange and in some cases bilateral competition.”1 This statement captures, in many ways, the conventional wisdom about the dichotomy in Sino-Indian ties: a broad convergence on transnational issues complemented by a deep bilateral rivalry that persists despite the two countries’ mutual and growing economic interdependence. Whether the agreement on issues of global order, especially vis-à-vis the West, is real or whether it merely obscures important differences between the two rising powers is a critical question because it bears on the character and the extent of change that might be desired of the international system as it evolves. Accordingly, there is a pressing need to understand how these two emerging powers conceive of various issues relating to the global order. Such an understanding would reveal the extent of their comfort with the existing system while simultaneously providing clues about how they might seek to reshape it if they acquire the ability to do so in the future.
    This volume is an attempt to understand how China and India think about various dimensions of the emerging global order. It brings together a series of paired papers by distinguished Chinese and Indian scholars who address a common set of questions (listed at the beginning of each chapter) relating to four broad areas of concern: the evolving global order, the challenges of regional security, key problems of the global commons, and emerg- ing nontraditional security concerns.

    2. The standard criteria for evaluating a country’s level of development are income per capita or per capita gross domestic product,the level of industrialization,the general standard of living,the amount of technological infrastructure.
    The main social indicators of development includes: education, health, employment rate and gender equality. Some examples of social indicators of development includes; education levels. For example, how many years of schooling children have. Health often measured by life expectancy.
    Indicators of underdevelopment includes: high birth rate,high infant mortality,under nourishment,a large agricultural and small industrial sector,low per capita GDP, high level of illiteracy,and low life expectancy.
    3. Developing countries also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries e.t.c.. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources.
    However,they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop. The following below are some of the common characteristics of developing nations.
    The major characteristics of developing country or nation is low per capita real income.
    A.The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means that the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore,low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty.
    B. Rapid population growth: Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a large size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. This high or rapid population growth is caused by lack of family planning, education, lack of sex education and beliefs that additional kids means additional labor force which inturn means additional income and wealth e.t.c. and lastly the belief that God gives children.
    C. Unemployment and underemployment: Unemployment and underemployment are also another big problem for developing countries. These emerged due to excessive dependence on agriculture,low industrial development e.t.c.
    In developing countries,the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are made to do or engage themselves in inferior jobs because of lack of alternative sources of job.
    4. I strongly agree that poverty has a woman’s face because in our societies today, women are disregarded especially in families. We have this mentality that is only men that are breadwinners in various homes or family.
    Women are the ones giving birth, and you and i know that giving birth is not a child’s play at all, women also take care of the children especially when they are sick because they are the ones that worry about the health condition of the children unlike the men that will be in beer parlor drinking and having funs with their friends, women also take care of the men by cooking and washing their clothes.
    In our societies today there is a strong inequality because men are the superior begins compared to women. Also women are majority of the poor due to cultural norms, and values,gendered division of assets, and power dynamics between women and men.
    In our societies today, women and girls bear an unequal burden of unpaid domestic responsibility and overrepresented in informal and precarious jobs..
    Women posses inherent agency and knowledge that is overlooked by policy makers as they form and implement poverty reduction plans.
    In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home,as mothers and caretakers and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home.
    Women also in some societies cope with food crisis created by drought. World wide,women are driven further into poverty by inflated food prices. Women’s experience of poverty. Girls and women in poor household bear a disproportionate share of the work and responsibility of feeding and caring for family members through unpaid household work. For instance,In poor rural households, women’s work is dominated by activities such as firewood,water, and fodder collection,care of livestock and subsistence agriculture.

  3. Avatar Nnemelu Ifeomachukwu Shalon says:

    1)It is true that China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the world, played significant roles in the political emergence of third world countries and in changing the relations between the third world and the industrial countries, both capitalist and communist.

    China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, pursued a policy of supporting revolutionary movements in third world countries, particularly in Africa and Asia, by providing military and ideological assistance. This policy was known as “the Three Worlds Theory,” which categorized countries into three groups: the first world (the United States and its allies), the second world (the Soviet Union and its allies), and the third world (all other countries). China supported the third world countries in their struggles against imperialism, colonialism, and neocolonialism.

    India, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, pursued a policy of non-alignment, which aimed to maintain neutrality and independence from both the capitalist and communist blocs during the Cold War. India also supported the decolonization of third world countries and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement, a group of countries that advocated for peaceful coexistence, disarmament, and economic cooperation.

    Together, China and India provided alternative models of development and international relations for third world countries to follow, which challenged the dominance of the industrial countries in the global arena. Their influence helped to shape the political and economic landscape of the third world and contributed to the emergence of a more multipolar world order.

    2) Indicators to measure development, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account not only income but also measures of health and education.
    The term “third world” originally referred to countries that did not align with either the capitalist West or the Communist East during the Cold War. However, the term has since evolved to refer to countries that are generally less developed than the industrialized nations of the first world and the former Communist countries of the second world.
    The political emergence of third world countries has been shaped by a variety of factors, including decolonization movements, the non-aligned movement, and the rise of nationalist and socialist movements. China and India, with their large populations and strategic locations, played a significant role in these developments.
    The relationship between the third world and the industrial countries has been characterized by a history of exploitation and unequal trade relations. Many third world countries have been locked into a pattern of producing and exporting raw materials while importing manufactured goods, leading to a cycle of dependency and underdevelopment.
    Efforts to address these issues have included initiatives such as the New International Economic Order (NIEO), which sought to establish a more equitable global economic system, as well as various forms of foreign aid and development assistance. However, progress has been slow and uneven, and many third world countries continue to face significant challenges in achieving sustainable development and reducing poverty.

    3. Common Characteristics of Developing Nations:
    Developing nations are countries that are in the process of industrialization and growth. They are characterized by certain common features, including:

    a. Low Per Capita Income: Developing nations have a low per capita income, which means that the average income of their citizens is relatively low.

    b. High Population Growth Rate: Developing nations tend to have high population growth rates, which can lead to strain on resources and social services.

    c. Limited Infrastructure: Developing nations often have limited infrastructure, including poor transportation networks, inadequate healthcare facilities, and insufficient electricity supply.

    d. Low Levels of Education: Developing nations often have low levels of education, with many citizens lacking basic literacy and numeracy skills.

    e. Dependence on Primary Sector: Developing nations often rely heavily on their primary sector, including agriculture and natural resource extraction, for economic growth.

    f. Political Instability: Developing nations may experience political instability, including corruption, civil unrest, and weak governance.

    g. High Levels of Poverty: Developing nations typically have high levels of poverty, with significant portions of the population living below the poverty line.

    4. The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” suggests that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. There is evidence to support this claim, as women are more likely to be poor than men in many developing nations.

    Several factors contribute to this gender gap in poverty. For example, women may have limited access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities, which can make it difficult to escape poverty. Additionally, women often bear the burden of caring for children and elderly relatives, which can limit their ability to work outside the home.

    As an economist, I agree with the statement that poverty has the face of a woman. However, it is important to note that poverty affects different groups in different ways, and that poverty reduction strategies should be tailored to address the specific needs of different populations. For example, policies that promote gender equality and increase access to education and healthcare can help to address the gender gap in poverty.

  4. Avatar Okpe Valentina Chioma. 2019/242325 says:

    Name: Okpe Valentina Chioma
    Reg no: 2019/242325
    Dept: Library and information science

    It is true that China and India, as two of the most populous countries in the world with vastly different social and economic systems, played significant roles in promoting the political emergence of third world countries and changing the relations between the third world and industrial countries, both capitalist and communist.

    China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, promoted a socialist model of development that emphasized self-reliance, rural development, and a rejection of Western-style capitalism. China’s model of socialism attracted the attention of many third world countries, particularly after the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949. China provided material and ideological support to many third world liberation movements, including those in Africa and Latin America, and also played a key role in the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought to promote the interests of developing countries in the face of Cold War superpower rivalry.

    India, on the other hand, pursued a more mixed economy model, combining elements of socialism and capitalism. India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, promoted a vision of non-alignment and cooperation among developing countries, and India played a key role in the Bandung Conference of 1955, which brought together leaders from Asian and African countries to discuss the challenges facing the developing world. India also provided material and political support to various liberation movements, particularly in Africa.

    Together, China and India’s influence helped to shift the balance of power in international politics, particularly in the context of the Cold War. Third world countries began to assert more independence and demand greater recognition of their interests, and the traditional power structures dominated by Western capitalist and communist countries began to erode. The legacy of China and India’s involvement in the third world continues to be felt today, as many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America continue to seek ways to promote their own development and assert their interests in the face of ongoing global challenges.
    Yes, that is correct. Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year is one of the most commonly used measures for classifying countries as either “developed” or “developing”. However, there are many other criteria and indicators that are also used to measure development, such as:

    1. Human Development Index (HDI): The HDI measures a country’s progress in terms of three key dimensions of human development – health, education, and standard of living.

    2. Poverty rates: The percentage of the population living below the poverty line is a commonly used indicator of underdevelopment.

    3. Access to basic services: Access to basic services such as health care, education, and clean water are considered important indicators of development.

    4. Economic diversification: A diverse range of industries and economic activities can indicate a more developed economy.

    5. Political stability: A stable political environment is often considered a prerequisite for development.

    6. Technological advancement: The level of technological advancement in a country can indicate its level of development.

    7. Infrastructure: A country’s infrastructure, including transportation, communication, and energy systems, can be an important indicator of development.

    These indicators are often used in combination to provide a more comprehensive picture of a country’s level of development or underdevelopment.
    Developing nations, also known as less-developed countries (LDCs), are countries that are in the process of improving their economic, social, and political conditions. While the specific characteristics of developing nations can vary depending on the country in question, there are several common characteristics that are often associated with these nations.

    1. Low levels of economic development: Developing nations often have low levels of economic development, which means they have lower per capita income, lower levels of industrialization, and less developed infrastructure compared to developed nations.

    2. High levels of poverty: Poverty is a common characteristic of developing nations. This is often due to a lack of economic development, limited access to education and healthcare, and inadequate social safety nets.

    3. Dependence on primary sector exports: Many developing nations depend on the export of primary commodities such as agricultural products, minerals, and oil to generate income. This makes these economies vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices and can hinder economic growth and development.

    4. Limited access to education and healthcare: Developing nations often have limited access to education and healthcare, which can contribute to a cycle of poverty and poor health outcomes. This can also limit opportunities for economic growth and development.

    5. Political instability: Political instability is often a characteristic of developing nations, with frequent changes in government, civil unrest, and conflict. This can make it difficult to implement policies and initiatives that promote economic growth and development.

    6. Weak institutions: Developing nations often have weak institutions, including ineffective legal systems, corrupt bureaucracies, and inadequate infrastructure. This can hinder economic growth and development and limit the effectiveness of government policies.

    7. Rapid population growth: Many developing nations have high rates of population growth, which can put pressure on limited resources and exacerbate poverty and social inequality.

    Overall, the common characteristics of developing nations reflect the challenges these countries face in achieving economic and social development. Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach that includes policies to promote economic growth, improve access to education and healthcare, strengthen institutions, and address political instability and social inequality.
    The statement that “poverty has the face of a woman” is a commonly used phrase that reflects the reality that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. This is particularly true in developing countries, where women are more likely to be poor than men due to a variety of factors such as gender discrimination, limited access to education and economic opportunities, and unequal distribution of resources.

    There are several reasons why women are more likely to experience poverty than men. Firstly, women often have limited access to education, which limits their ability to acquire the skills needed to secure well-paying jobs. Secondly, women are often employed in low-paid and informal sectors of the economy, which offer limited job security and benefits. Thirdly, women are more likely to be responsible for unpaid care work, such as caring for children or elderly relatives, which limits their ability to participate in paid work.

    Furthermore, women are more vulnerable to poverty due to their reproductive role. Women are more likely to be single parents, and they often have to provide for their children on their own. Women also have higher healthcare costs due to their reproductive needs, which can lead to financial strain.

    In conclusion, it is clear that poverty has the face of a woman. While poverty affects both men and women, women are disproportionately affected due to a range of social, cultural and economic factors. Therefore, policymakers must address gender inequality to reduce poverty and promote economic development. This can be done by improving access to education and training for women, promoting gender equality in the workplace, and reducing the burden of unpaid care work.
    Professor Dudley Seers’ argument is that development is about outcomes, specifically the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality, and unemployment within a growing economy. This argument suggests that development is not just about economic growth, but also about improving people’s lives by addressing social and economic challenges.

    Reducing poverty is essential for development as it allows individuals to access basic needs such as food, shelter, education, and healthcare. When people are lifted out of poverty, they are more likely to participate in economic and social activities, which can lead to further economic growth.

    Inequalities, such as income and wealth disparities, can create social tensions and limit opportunities for some individuals and groups. Addressing inequality can help to ensure that everyone has access to education, healthcare, and other opportunities, regardless of their background or economic status. This can also contribute to economic growth by increasing productivity and innovation.

    Unemployment can also be a significant obstacle to development, as it can limit individuals’ ability to access opportunities and contribute to economic growth. Addressing unemployment can involve investing in education and training programs, creating job opportunities, and supporting entrepreneurship.

    However, it is worth noting that development is a complex and multidimensional concept that encompasses more than just poverty, inequality, and unemployment. Other factors, such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights, also play a crucial role in development.

    Overall, Professor Dudley Seers’ argument highlights the importance of focusing on outcomes that improve people’s lives and promote sustainable economic growth. By addressing poverty, inequality, and unemployment, policymakers and stakeholders can work towards a more equitable and prosperous future

    In his statement, Amartya Sen argues that development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, which includes both poverty and tyranny. Poverty refers to the lack of basic necessities needed for survival such as food, shelter, and healthcare, while tyranny refers to the abuse of power by those in authority, which can lead to the suppression of individual freedoms.

    Sen also points out that development requires the removal of other sources of unfreedom, such as poor economic opportunities and systematic social deprivation. Poor economic opportunities can lead to a lack of employment opportunities, which can result in persistent poverty. Systematic social deprivation refers to the exclusion of certain groups from accessing social and economic opportunities, which can lead to significant disparities in society.

    Furthermore, Sen argues that development requires addressing the neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states. Neglect of public facilities, such as inadequate healthcare, education, and infrastructure, can limit opportunities for people to improve their lives. Intolerance or overactivity of repressive states can lead to the violation of human rights and the suppression of freedom of expression, which can hinder development.

    In his statement, Sen emphasizes the importance of addressing a wide range of issues that contribute to unfreedom in order to achieve development. He recognizes that development is a complex process that requires the removal of multiple sources of unfreedom, including poverty, tyranny, poor economic opportunities, systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities, and intolerance or overactivity of repressive states.

    In conclusion, Amartya Sen’s statement highlights the need to address the root causes of unfreedom in order to achieve development. By removing these sources of unfreedom, individuals can have greater access to economic and social opportunities, which can lead to improved living standards and greater individual freedoms.
    Entrepreneurship is important in a variety of contexts, including:

    1. Economic growth: Entrepreneurship is often seen as an engine of economic growth, as new businesses and innovations can create jobs, increase productivity, and drive economic development.

    2. Innovation: Entrepreneurs are often responsible for developing new products, services, and technologies that can lead to significant advancements and improvements in various industries.

    3. Social impact: Entrepreneurship can also have a positive social impact, as businesses can address societal needs and problems, create social value, and contribute to the betterment of communities.

    4. Job creation: Entrepreneurship can create new job opportunities and provide individuals with a means of earning a living and achieving economic independence.

    5. Personal fulfillment: Entrepreneurship can also provide individuals with a sense of purpose and fulfillment, as they are able to pursue their passions and create something of their own.

    6. Competitive advantage: Entrepreneurship can provide a competitive advantage for businesses, as innovative and unique products and services can differentiate them from competitors and help them succeed in the marketplace.

    Overall, entrepreneurship is important in many different contexts and can have significant economic, social, and personal benefits. It is often seen as a key driver of innovation, economic growth, and job creation, and can provide individuals with a means of pursuing their passions and achieving personal and financial success.
    1. Central Role of Women in National Development:
    The central role of women in national development cannot be overemphasized. Women make up half of the population and are responsible for raising the other half. They are major players in the development of any society, as they are involved in various roles such as caregivers, producers, and consumers. Women’s contributions to national development can be seen in areas such as education, health, agriculture, and entrepreneurship. When women are empowered, they can contribute to the economic growth of a nation, and their families and communities benefit from their increased income and improved standard of living. However, women’s empowerment is still a challenge in many parts of the world, where gender inequality persists.

    2. Beings and Doings in Capability to Function:
    The capability to function refers to an individual’s ability to achieve their goals and live a fulfilling life. Beings refer to the individual’s physical and mental capabilities, while doings refer to the actual activities they engage in. For example, an individual’s being may include their intelligence, physical health, and emotional well-being, while their doings may include their education, employment, and participation in social activities. Both beings and doings are important in the capability to function, as individuals need both the physical and mental capacity to engage in activities that lead to a fulfilling life.

    3. Core Values of Development:
    The three core values of development are equity, sustainability, and human rights. Equity refers to the fair distribution of resources and opportunities, regardless of factors such as gender, race, or economic status. Sustainability refers to the responsible use of resources to ensure that future generations can also benefit from them. Human rights refer to the protection of basic human rights, including freedom of speech, religion, and the right to a fair trial. For example, a development project that prioritizes equity would ensure that marginalized groups have access to the resources and opportunities that they need to thrive.

    4. Happiness and Income:
    The relationship between happiness and income is a complex and debated topic. While some scholars argue that higher income leads to greater happiness, others disagree, pointing to factors such as social relationships, health, and personal values as more important determinants of happiness. It is important to note that happiness is a subjective experience and can vary greatly among individuals and cultures.

    5. Economic Growth vs. Economic Development:
    Economic growth refers to an increase in a nation’s output of goods and services, usually measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP). Economic development, on the other hand, refers to the process by which a nation improves its standard of living, reduces poverty, and increases economic and social well-being. Economic growth can be a component of economic development, but it is not sufficient on its own. A nation can experience economic growth without achieving sustainable economic development. Currently, as a nation, the level of economic growth in a country can be measured by its GDP growth rate, while development can be assessed by indicators such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which includes factors such as life expectancy, education, and income.

  5. Avatar Udeh Mgbechi Mary/2019/251473 says:

    Name: Udeh Mgbechi Mary
    Reg. No.: 2019/251473
    Department: Economics
    3. Developing nations, also known as less-developed countries or emerging markets, share some common characteristics that differentiate them from developed nations. Some of these characteristics include:
    A) Low levels of economic development: Developing nations generally have low levels of economic development, which can be seen in their low per capita income, high levels of poverty, and limited access to basic amenities like healthcare, education, and sanitation.
    B) Dependence on primary industries: Developing nations often rely heavily on primary industries such as agriculture, forestry, and mining for their economic growth. This can make them vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices and weather patterns.
    C) High population growth: Developing nations typically have high population growth rates due to factors like high birth rates, lower mortality rates, and increased life expectancy. This can put pressure on resources and infrastructure, making it difficult to maintain economic growth.
    D) Limited technological advancement: Developing nations often lack the resources and infrastructure necessary to develop and adopt advanced technologies, which can lead to lower productivity and competitiveness in global markets.
    E) Political instability: Developing nations often experience political instability due to factors such as corruption, ethnic and religious tensions, and weak governance structures. This can create uncertainty and hinder economic development.
    F) Limited access to capital: Developing nations often face limited access to capital due to factors such as weak financial systems, limited foreign investment, and high levels of debt. This can make it difficult for businesses to grow and expand.
    G) Inadequate infrastructure: Developing nations often lack basic infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and power grids, which can limit economic growth and hinder social development.
    In conclusion, these characteristics highlight the challenges that developing nations face in achieving sustainable economic and social development. However, with the right policies and investments, these countries can overcome these challenges and make significant progress towards achieving their development goals.
    2. The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” is a powerful and often-used phrase in discussions around poverty and inequality. It highlights the fact that women are disproportionately affected by poverty and are more likely to live in poverty than men.
    There are several reasons why poverty has a gendered face. Firstly, women tend to have lower levels of education and access to job opportunities, particularly in developing countries. This can limit their ability to earn a decent income and contribute to their economic vulnerability.
    Secondly, women also tend to be concentrated in low-paid, insecure and informal work. This type of work is often temporary and lacks social protections such as paid leave, health insurance, and retirement benefits. Women in these jobs often face discrimination in terms of wages and working conditions, and their work is undervalued.
    Thirdly, women are often responsible for unpaid care work, such as childcare, eldercare, and household chores. This can limit their ability to participate in paid work and earn an income. Women’s caregiving responsibilities can also limit their access to education and training, making it difficult for them to acquire the skills needed for better-paying jobs.
    Lastly, women also face discrimination in terms of their access to financial services and credit. Banks and other financial institutions are often biased towards men, making it difficult for women to access the credit they need to start or expand a business.
    In conclusion, the statement “poverty has the face of a woman” highlights the reality that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. To address this, policies and programs need to be implemented that address the root causes of gender inequality, including improving access to education and training, increasing access to good quality jobs, promoting gender equality in the workplace, and reducing the burden of unpaid care work.

  6. Avatar Udeh Mgbechi Mary/2019/251473 says:

    Name:Udeh Mgbechi Mary
    Reg:2019/251473
    Dep:Economics
    1..China, under Mao Zedong, saw itself as a champion of the oppressed peoples of the world, including those in the developing countries. China provided military and economic aid to various national liberation movements, including those in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as part of its support for anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism. China also encouraged the formation of the Bandung Conference in 1955, which brought together leaders of newly independent countries to discuss common issues and promote solidarity among developing nations.
    India, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, also played a significant role in promoting the political emergence of third world countries. Nehru advocated for a policy of non-alignment, which sought to maintain equidistance from both the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. India provided military and economic aid to countries like Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan, and supported the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa.
    Both China and India provided a powerful example to other developing nations seeking to assert their political independence and pursue their own economic development. They also offered an alternative model of development based on self-reliance, anti-colonialism, and anti-imperialism. Their contributions to the political emergence of third world countries helped shape the global political landscape during the Cold War era and beyond.
    2. There are several criteria commonly used to measure the level of development in a country. Some of the most commonly used ones include:
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: This measures the economic output of a country divided by its population. This gives an idea of the average income and economic activity of each person in the country.
    Human Development Index (HDI): This index takes into account a variety of factors including life expectancy, education, and per capita income. It is used to compare levels of development across countries.
    Poverty rate: This measures the percentage of the population living below a certain poverty line. This is a measure of the extent to which people have access to basic needs like food, shelter, and healthcare.
    Education level: This measures the level of literacy and the number of years of schooling for the population.
    Infrastructure: This measures the extent of development of physical infrastructure such as transportation, electricity, and water supply.
    Health indicators: This measures the overall health status of the population including infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, and incidence of communicable diseases.
    Political stability: This measures the degree of stability and predictability in a country’s political system. This is important for attracting foreign investment and promoting economic growth.

  7. Avatar hezekiah joy says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com
    1.
    There has been so many misconceptions of theconcept of the Third World and hence there has been no clear-cut definition of the third world. However, in the light of its origins, this term arose during the cold war to identify countries that were not aligned with the First world, the US, Western European and their allies, not with the Second World, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and their allies. Another name the Third World countries were known for was NAM ,i.e. countries in the Non-Aligned Movement.
    The First World were known as the Capitalist Bloc, while the Second World were known as the Communist Bloc. These blocs arose with respect to those who commanded authority Socially,Economically, Politically in the global sphere.These two blocs were involved in a war which was known as The Cold War. It was a term associated with the period of tension between these two worlds on economic and political platform with their recourse to open up fire, this was just after the Second World war. These two worlds had colonies who were subjected to colonization and imperialism. And these colonies whohadrecently gained independencewere passive players in the two world powers game. So the colonies took a stand of Non-Alignment with these two world powers. So they called for the Badung Conference in 1955.
    The Badung Conference of 1955 hosted by Indonesia was the first large scale Afro-Asian conference held to discuss peace and the role of the third world in the Cold War, Economic Development and decolonization.They sought to attain political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference with internal affairs, and equality. Most countries opposed the invitation of China to theConference because they saw China as a Communist State and that China export the Communist ideologies to other nations. The Republic of China’s representative, Zhou Enlai, brought a Five-Principles of Peaceful Co-existence to serve as a basis for establishing a relationship of friendship, co-operation and good neighborliness.
    2.
    The UN, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions developed many indicators for measuring Development and underdevelopment.
    The World Bank assigned the world’s economies into four classifications, which are:
    • Low income 13,205
    These classifications are based on the GNI per capita of the previous year written as let’s say July 1, 2022 for Fiscal year 2023 (FY23). It is an indicator that is closely correlated with non-monetary measures of the quality of life such as mortality rate, rate of enrollment in school.
    The UN uses an Index called the Human Development Index(HDI) which measures a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions such as:
    • Life Expectancy
    • Educational attainment
    • Adjusted Real income ($PPP/person).
    3.
    There are certain indices that outstandingly characterize the Developing Nations, and they are:
    • High Income Inequality
    The disparity between income earners in the developing countries ishigher than what obtains in the Developed countries.
    Inequality is a critical factor in understanding the severity of poverty. As it is not just about income inequality but also encapsulates inequalities of power, status, prestige, job satisfaction, degree of participation and even freedom of choice.Inequality does not only result from distorted growth, which in this case is when a minute fraction of a population is considered when critical decisions that binds the entire nation are made. And since the interest of the poor majority are not captured, there tends to be distorted growth in such economy. And as such the rich minority keep enriching themselves at the expense of the poor majority, thus expanding the inequality gap. Nigeria as a case study, down to employment the rich still secure job positions by their influence, secure job promotions by their influence. High income inequality defy our democratic administration.
    Inequality can as well necessitate distorted growth in the sense that as this rich minority experience growth on their part, because the growth is not experienced by a major fraction of the nation, the growth of the economy as a whole will be distorted. As the nature of their growth is not capable of having impact on the entire economy. But if where the poor majority were experiencing growth, such growth would spread and push up the entire economy.
    • Widespread Poverty
    Smith, 1776 once said that, no society can surely be flourishing and happy of which by far greater part of the numbers are poor and miserable.Many in the developing nations are plagued with widespread poverty.
    Now, poverty in a weak sense, is seen as when there is lack of food – hunger. However, poverty has a broader scope, in that it also captures powerlessness, dependency, lack of access to basic infrastructure, lack of access to education, poor health conditions, living in environmentally degraded area, trying to earn a living from marginal farms i.e. working as day laborers, have little or no socio-political voice.Putting aside the World Bank’s index for measuring Development, poverty is down right to our doorsteps, there are people who live in places that outsiders find difficult to access even to provide the basic infrastructure.
    • Substantial dependence on Agricultural production and primary-product exportation
    Developing nations have only succeeded in discovering their natural resources and in exporting them in their raw or natural state without any improvements. The Northerners of this our country are majorly farmers food crops and cash crops like groundnuts, cowpea and sorghum but they are still of the poorest.
    Thesituation of resource trap prevails in our society, whereby we have a lot of natural resources that are not efficiently explored. And this will require that our industries are functional. However they’re not, that is why we rely heavily on exporting our raw resources to import expensive Industrialized products. Indirectly we have been successful only in creating markets for the Industrialized countries at the expense of our own pioneer-companies. Having no sense of National Competitive Advantage, this is a degree to which developing nations are called third world countries.
    • Traditional, Rural and Social Infrastructures
    Most of our infrastructure are unsophisticated and in states of decadence. Irregularities of power supply, unhealthy water, polluted environment, bad road networks, no good drainage systems to mention but a few. If they were in place, historians would have no audacity to give an accolade to Mungo Park for discovering River Niger when they were locals who lived around that area.
    4.
    “Poverty has a woman face” is a metaphorical statement to explain how the female gender are more affected by poverty than their male counterpart.This was coined by Dr. Diana Pearce a social worker, in 1978.
    Poverty having a woman’s face implies that women in all societies feel the impact of poverty more than men in aspects of Economic, social, political, psychological situations.
    Women do not have equal Economic opportunities with the men, and so it is held that they shouldn’t own fixed properties such as land, investments, insurance, houses and so on since they are under a man, their husband. Ownership of property should be written under a Man’s name. If this is held when there is economic prosperity, how much more when poverty prevails. Women are seen as housewives of no economic importance and as such no Economic empowerment is given to them which makes them suffer more on the face of poverty.
    They are given limited access to Education. Education which is key for empowerment, for enlightenment is withheld from the female gender. How then, do they survive in periods of Economic hardships.
    They are majorly faced with health and nutrition challenges. It was because a large cry went out against genital mutilation, if not a lot of societies would still practice this, as there are still some that do. Thus leaving the women in states of psychological trauma and misbalance.
    In the aspect of political representation, women are seen to be ineffective, incapable of taking up leadership positions.
    These are what necessitated the concept of “Poverty has a Woman’s face”.

  8. Avatar EKWEKE DEBORAH ONYINYECHI says:

    Name: Ekweke Deborah Onyinyechi
    Reg no: 2019/243791
    Eco 361 Assignment
    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    As a result of decolonization, the United Nations, at first numerically dominated by European countries and countries of European origin, was gradually transformed into a form like the third world.
    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Low per Capita income: the real per Capita income a of developing countries is quite low compared to that of developed countries. This results in low savings, low investment, and ultimately, increased poverty.
    Poverty: this is seen in terms of lack of fulfilment of basic needs like education, employment, socio-economic participation, etc.
    Uncontrolled population growth: in developing countries, there is high mortality rates compelling people to feel in secure and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning and education, lack of sexual education especially for teenagers and youths in order to avoid unwanted pregnancy, a belief that additional kids mean additional labour force and additional income and wealth, etc.
    Unemployment and underemployment problem: due to low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of resources, lack of workforce planning, and teeming increase in population, and ethnicity problems in getting jobs, unemployment levels continue to rise.
    Lack of infrastructures: infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Still the developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably.

    4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If no why?
    World Bank estimates that 1.29 billion people live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. Yes, poverty has a woman’s face due to these reasons:
    Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.
    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many. Although these problems are experienced mostly in very undeveloped rural lands, they were highly prevalent in Africa in 19th and early 20th century, for example, women were not allowed to go to school because there responsibilities only end in the kitchen. Therefore women attended primary schools and got married to become house wives. These conditions prevented women from taking up job opportunities that will supply them with income. And when the breadwinners die, their wives end up struggling to take care of their children. This is usually also the case in polygamous marriages.

  9. Avatar Mgboh Chidera Martins says:

    Name: Mgboh Chidera Martins
    Reg No: 2019/242146
    Dept: Economics

    1. The Third World, or developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are typically seen as being impoverished and having economies that are distorted due to their reliance on exporting raw materials to wealthier nations in exchange for completed goods. Along with having unstable administrations, these countries frequently have high rates of sickness, illiteracy, and population growth. When nonaligned countries gained independence from colonial domination following World War II, the term “third world” was initially used to set them apart from Western countries and former Eastern Bloc members, and sometimes more particularly from the United States and the former Soviet Union (the first and second worlds, respectively)

    2. (i) Human Development Index (HDI)
    The HDI is a composite statistic calculated from the:
    • Life expectancy index
    • Education index
    • Adjusted income index(purchasing power parity)
    (ii) Gross domestic income (GDP)
    (iii) Gross national income (GNI)
    (iv) Infant mortality rate
    (v) Gender empowerment index

    3. (i) low standard of living: a developing nation have a low standard of living, because the resources are not available to meet their basic human need. Needs such as shelter, clothing, food etc are not meet due to low per capital income or other factor in the nation can lead to these.
    (ii) High rate of population: a developing nations have a high rate of population growth due to high population growth and scarce resources in the nation, it lead to many negative effect in the nation such as, lack of job and opportunities, high rate of crime in the society.
    (iii) Increase in the level of unemployment: Due to the fact that resource in developing nation are not fully utilized this lead to increase in unemployment as a result of no labour forces in the nation and low standard of economy.
    (iv) low level of productivity: developing nation have a problem of low productivity due to lack of man power to manage the resources, and corrupt leaders that will embezzled the resources all to their selfs.
    (v) Dependence on Exports of Primary Commodities: Since a significant portion of output originates from the primary sector, a large portion of exports is also from the primary sector.

    4. Yes poverty has the face of a woman. The statement poverty has the face of woman try to explain how woman in many countries are disadvantage of having lower profile level of education, lower ownership and control over assets, and lower social indicators than men.
    Improving female education, and thus the earning potential of women, improves the standard of living for their own children, as women invest more of their income in their families than men do. Women’s education is important for women’s health as well, increasing contraceptive use while lowering sexually transmitted infections, and increasing the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence. Education also improves women’s communication with partners and employers and their rates of civic participation. We could see that improving in female education is a good indicator of rich growth rate among women in many countries of the world.

  10. Avatar Amankwe victor ubachukwu says:

    Amankwe victor ubachukwu
    2019/242928
    Library and information science.

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    That is correct. China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the world, played a significant role in promoting the political emergence of the Third World countries and in shaping the relations between the Third World and the industrial countries, both capitalist and communist.
    During the Cold War period, China and India, along with other newly independent Third World countries, adopted a non-aligned stance and sought to promote a new international economic order that would be more favorable to their development needs. They challenged the dominance of the Western industrial countries and the Soviet Union, and called for greater political and economic autonomy for Third World countries.
    China, in particular, played a leading role in promoting a socialist model of development and provided economic and military assistance to many Third World countries, including Vietnam, Cuba, and Angola. India, on the other hand, promoted a more democratic and market-oriented model of development and advocated for greater South-South cooperation among Third World countries.
    Together, China and India, along with other Third World countries, helped to create a new global political and economic landscape that was more multipolar and less dominated by the West and the Soviet Union. This paved the way for a more balanced and equitable international order, and helped to promote the development aspirations of many Third World countries.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    While Gross National Income per capita is a commonly used indicator for defining and classifying countries as developed or developing, there are many other criteria and indicators that are used to measure development and underdevelopment.
    For example, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) uses the Human Development Index (HDI) to measure a country’s development. The HDI takes into account not only income, but also other factors such as life expectancy, education, and access to basic amenities like clean water and sanitation.

    The World Bank also uses a range of indicators to measure development, including per capita income, poverty rates, access to healthcare and education, infrastructure and technology, and governance and political stability.
    Other organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), also use a range of indicators to measure development and underdevelopment, including economic growth rates, inequality, environmental sustainability, and social cohesion.
    Ultimately, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to measuring development or underdevelopment, and different organizations and countries may use different criteria and indicators depending on their specific contexts and priorities.

    3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Developing countries often have lower levels of economic development and infrastructure, lower per capita income, and higher poverty rates compared to developed countries. They also tend to have less developed industrial bases, less access to technology, and less educated populations. Additionally, many developing countries have higher rates of disease and lower life expectancies. Political instability and corruption may also be more prevalent in developing countries.
    Developing countries, also known as less developed countries or emerging economies, typically have lower levels of economic development and standard of living compared to developed countries. Some common characteristics of developing countries include:
    High poverty rates: this is caused by high rate of unemployment, all the factors of production are idle and production is low causing a manufacturer to produce less there by rendering some production factors idle.
    Dependence on agriculture and natural resources: developing nations relies on subsistence agriculture production, whereby they produce for their personal consumption and any left over from their produce is been sold to the members of their village or neighboring villages.
    Limited access to education, healthcare, and basic infrastructure: most developing countries live in rural areas where there is limited access to basic amenities and the structures available in such areas are depleted.
    High population growth and urbanization: developing countries are experiencing increasing population growth without an increasing in production in rural areas making people to live the rural areas in search of green pastures.
    Limited industrialization and technological development
    Political and economic instability: developing countries are facing on stable governance and economic instability, because they population is growing at a geometric rate while the food supply is growing at an arithmetic rate, and with this many people are not working prices of goods are constantly rising leading to inflation or sometimes the countries experience recession.
    High external debt: the government of developing nations tends to borrow too much from international organization or from developed countries by so doing the external debts increases.
    Greater vulnerability to natural disasters and climate change: developing nations are at greater risks of experiencing natural disasters because we lack technologies and technical know how on how to manage our environment. Using oil mining in Nigeria as a case study, areas around bayelsa were oil is gotten from are at great risks of experiencing disasters and are currently facing some environment hazard.
    Low per capital income

    4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?.
    YES
     Poverty has the face of a woman; women are the majority of the poor due to cultural norms and values, gendered division of assets, and power dynamics between men and women. Indeed, women and girls bear an unequal burden of unpaid domestic responsibilities and are overrepresented in informal and precarious jobs. Women also possess inherent agency and knowledge that is overlooked by policy-makers as they form and implement poverty reduction plans. Development interventions continue to be based on the idea that men are breadwinners and women are dependents.
     Women constitute a majority of the poor and are often the poorest of the poor. The societal disadvantage and inequality they face because they are women shapes their experience of poverty differently from that of men, increases their vulnerability, and makes it more challenging for them to climb out of poverty. In other words, poverty is a gendered experience; addressing it requires a gender analysis of norms and values, the division of assets, work and responsibility, and the dynamics of power and control between women and men in poor households.
     In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home, as mother and caretaker, and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home. These norms influence institutional policies and laws that define women’s and men’s access to productive resources such as education, employment, land and credit. There is overwhelming evidence from around the world to show that girls and women are more disadvantaged than boys and men in their access to these valued productive resources. There is also ample evidence to show that the responsibilities of women and the challenges they face within poor households and communities are different from those of men. Persistent gender inequality and differences in women’s and men’s roles greatly influence the causes, experiences and consequences of women’s poverty. Policies and programs to alleviate poverty must, therefore, take account of gender inequality and gender differences to effectively address the needs and constraints of both poor women and men.
     Girls and women in poor households bear a disproportionate share of the work and responsibility of feeding and caring for family members through unpaid household work. In poor rural households, for example, women’s work is dominated by activities such as firewood, water and fodder collection, care of livestock and subsistence agriculture. The drudgery of women’s work and its time-intensive demands contribute to women’s “time poverty” and greatly limit poor women’s choice of other, more productive income-earning opportunities.
     Faced with difficult time-allocation choices, women in poor households will often sacrifice their own health and nutrition, or the education of their daughters, by recruiting them to take care of siblings or share in other household tasks. This is just one piece of a pattern of gendered discrimination in the allocation of resources in poor households. Evidence shows that the gender gaps in nutrition, education and health are greater in poorer households. This lack of investment in the human capital of girls perpetuates a vicious, intergenerational cycle of poverty and disadvantage that is partly responsible for the intractable nature of poverty.

  11. Avatar Chidobelu Yonna Raluchukwu says:

    Name: Chidobelu Yonna Raluchukwu
    Reg No: 2019/244261
    Department: Economics (Major)

    Question 1
    Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    THE “third world” of the developing and, for the most part, newly independent nations is, for Communists of all brands and allegiances, both a crucial arena of political competition against the “imperialists” and the center of their hopes for new victories.* Yet there are important differences in the way Moscow and Peking view these opportunities. The Soviet leadership be- lieves that the many poor and ambitious countries will, later if not sooner, decide that Communism offers them the best prospects for raising their status in the world. Chinese Communist propaganda, on the other hand, calls for an ever more militant struggle of “national liberation” to expel the “imperialists” from Asia, Africa, and Latin America and to unite the developing countries under Peking’s leadership. Thus, in addition to being a principal focus of Communist hopes and efforts, the question of the “correct” policy toward the third world has unleashed deep-set rivalries and antagonisms between and within ruling and nonruling Communist parties alike.
    In just over a decade the Communist regimes have accumulated a wide range of practical experience in cultivating the favor and seeking the potential allegiance of former colonial countries andother less developed areas. As a result of that experience, some Soviet analysts and spokesmen are now beginning to dilute the massive certainties of dogma with somewhat larger doses of empiri cal confusion and guesswork. Because the Soviet Union is the longest established, most powerful, and most widely active of the
    Communist regimes, in this brief review special attention will be focussed on Soviet perceptions and policies, with only summary reference to the differing or opposing policies pursued by Communist China, Yugoslavia, and Cuba.

    Question 2:
    Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    A. Quality of Life Index
    The Quality of Life Index (IKH) or Physical Quality of life Index (PQLI) is used to measure people’s welfare and prosperity. Macroeconomic indexes cannot provide a picture of people’s welfare in measuring economic success. For example, the national income of a nation can continue to grow, but without increasing social welfare.

    The quality of life index is calculated based on:
    (a) the average life expectancy at the age of one year,
    (b) infant mortality rate, and
    (c) numerical literacy.
    In the quality of life index, the average life expectancy and infant mortality rate can simultaneously describe the nutritional status of children and mothers, health status, and family environment which is directly related to family welfare. Education is measured by literacy rate, which can describe the number of people who have access to education as a result of development. This variable describes the welfare of the community, because the high economic status of the family will affect the educational status of its members. By the makers, this index is considered as the best way to measure the quality of human beings as a result of development, in addition to per capita income as a measure of human quantity.

    B. Human Development Index ( Human Development Index )
    The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has developed other development indicators, in addition to several existing indicators. The basic idea underlying this index is the importance of paying attention to the quality of human resources. According to UNDP, development should be aimed at developing human resources. In this understanding, development can be defined as a process that aims to develop options that can be made by humans. This is based on the assumption that improving the quality of human resources will be followed by the opening of various options and opportunities to determine the path of human life freely.
    Economic growth is considered an important factor in human life, but it will not automatically affect the improvement of human dignity and dignity. In this connection, there are three components that are considered most decisive in development, long and healthy life, the acquisition and development of knowledge, and the improvement of access to a better life. This index is created by combining three components. The three components are:

    (a). average life expectancy at birth,
    (b). average educational attainment at the elementary, junior high and high school levels,
    (c). per capita income calculated based on Purchasing Power Parity .

    Human development is closely related to increasing human capabilities which can be summarized in increasing knowledge, attitude and skills , in addition to the health status of all family members and their environment.

    Question 3:
    Major Characteristics of Developing Countries

    A. Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    B. Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    C. Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    D. The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    E. Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    F. Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    G. Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    H. Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    I. Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    J. High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    Question 4:
    Almost 25 years ago, a UN Human Development Report claimed that ­“poverty has a woman’s face”. ­Gender inequality is a major cause and effect of poverty. An estimated one in three women experience gender-based violence in their lifetime and women are statistically more likely to live in extreme poverty than men. It is ­simply not right that ­millions of women are disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and violence.Women constitute a majority of the poor and are often the poorest of the poor. The societal disadvantage and inequality they face because they are women shapes their experience of poverty differently from that of men, increases their vulnerability, and makes it more challenging for them to climb out of poverty. In other words, poverty is a gendered experience — addressing it requires a gender analysis of norms and values, the division of assets, work and responsibility, and the dynamics of power and control between women and men in poor households.
    In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home, as mother and caretaker, and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home. These norms influence institutional policies and laws that define women’s and men’s access to productive resources such as education, employment, land and credit. There is overwhelming evidence from around the world to show that girls and women are more disadvantaged than boys and men in their access to these valued productive resources. There is also ample evidence to show that the responsibilities of women and the challenges they face within poor households and communities are different from those of men. Persistent gender inequality and differences in women’s and men’s roles greatly influence the causes, experiences and consequences of women’s poverty. Policies and programs to alleviate poverty must, therefore, take account of gender inequality and gender differences to effectively address the needs and constraints of both poor women and men.

  12. Avatar Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette says:

    Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette
    2019/245486
    Combined Social Science
    Economics/Political Science
    chikaodililovette@gmail.com

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    As a result of decolonization, the united nations at first numerically dominated by European countries and countries of European origin ,was gradually transformed into something if a third world forum
    With increasing urgency, the problem of underdevelopment then became the focus of a permanent, although essentially academic debate. Despite the debate, the unity of the third world remains hypothetical, expressed mainly from the platforms of international conferences.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    Rise in Real per Capita Income: One of the factors that measure the economic development of a nation is the rise in real per capita income.There’s a perception that whenever the income of individual increases than it’s real income increases.And when this happens the person is happy and prosperous. But there are some limitations to this.These limitations through per capita income do not determine whether the rise is due to equal distribution or unequal distribution.Same is the case with the quality of goods and services being provided and consumed. Further, the quality of public goods also affects economic welfare.
    Quality of Life and Expectancy: When the basic facilities like water, electricity, and housing are available to anyone that the quality of life is considered as good in that nation.Here the measuring factor is the needs of the people. These needs are basic needs like access to health, sanitation, education, nutrition, etc. For this, the main factor is the infant mortality rate. This is the death rate of a child who is less than a year old. While life expectancy is the average life of the population that lives.Real Gross National Product: As mentioned above, GNP, as well as GDP, are the measuring factors for economic development of a nation. Increase in both of these ensures that the larger availability of the good and services in that country. If this supports the standard of living of the people than it increases the economic conditions of the nation.But there are some limitations to this as well. Like the increase in the size of GDP does not directly means the more availability of services and goods. Whenever the GDP is calculated for the current prices, there may be an increase due to price rise. This does not mean the availability of goods and services have increased.
    Human Development Index: It includes several factors like long and healthy living, the welfare of the people, etc. This index also includes the standard of living of people, literacy rate, and purchasing power parity in terms of real income.
    Gender-related development index: This is popularly known as GDI. This is used to measure gender inequalities by measuring three basic dimensions of human development. They are education, health, and economic resources. They measure education by calculating expectancy years for schooling for males and females. While health measures the male and female life expectancy during the time of birth.
    Poverty Index: The poverty index which is otherwise called multidimensional poverty index aka MPI helps in identifying various factors. These various factors are health, the standard of living, and education.

    3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    1. Low Per Capita Real Income: Low per capita real income is one of the most defining characteristics of developing economies. They suffer from low per capita real income level, which results in low savings and low investments. It means the average person doesn’t earn enough money to invest or save money. They spend whatever they make. Thus, it creates a cycle of poverty that most of the population struggles to escape. The percentage of people in absolute poverty (the minimum income level) is high in developing countries.
    2. High Population Growth Rate: Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care.
    3. High Rates of Unemployment: In rural areas, unemployment suffers from large seasonal variations. However, unemployment is a more complex problem requiring policies beyond traditional fixes.
    4. Dependence on Primary Sector: Almost 75% of the population of low-income countries is rurally based. As income levels rise, the structure of demand changes, which leads to a rise in the manufacturing sector and then the services sector.
    5. Dependence on Exports of Primary Commodities: Since a significant portion of output originates from the primary sector, a large portion of exports is also from the primary sector. For example, copper accounts for two-thirds of Zambia’s exports.

    4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?
    In my own opinion,I would agree with the fact that poverty has the face of a woman. This is because the female gender looks weaker than their male counterparts. Women face the responsibilities of child bearing and taking care of their children and making sacrifices for them to get quality education, living comfortably and providing basic needs for her children at her own expense therefore looking tattered and stressed.
    Men are always not bothered babysitting their children, they go out leaving the woman alone the sole responsibility of taking care of children. This is why in most cases, you would always see pictures of women and their malnourished children looking for aid.
    In some parts of Africa, women are being denied the right to education because the community see it as a waste of resources since she would still end up in her husband’s house and therefore become a complete housewife. In areas of education, the girls has always been suffering more than boys because we get to see situations whereby parents drop out their female daughters from school and allow the males to continue due to lack of funds/finances.
    Poverty wears the face of a woman because women don’t have say and are alway forced into early marriages with little or no knowledge about marriage and end up giving birth to 10 children after 10 years of marriage.
    In conclusion, poverty has a female face and the global economic downturn will have a significant impact on women as more of them lose jobs, and are forced to manage shrinking households.

  13. Avatar Nnaji Lovelyn Chinwe. 2019/247502 says:

    2. Other criteria created by the world Bank for measuring development and underdevelopment are:
    (A). Population Growth.
    (B). Occupational Structure of the Labor Force.
    (C). Consumption per capita.
    (D). GNP per capita.
    (E). Level of Infrastructure.
    (F). Level of urbanization
    (G). Social Conditions.
    (F). literacy rate.
    (G). life expectancy.
    (H). Health care availability.
    (I). Infant mortality.
    3. (a). Low levels of productivity: This is a situation whereby a developing country is unable to produce enough goods and services for its citizens. This can be as a result of laziness among workers, negative attitude to work probably as result of low salary payment and no incentive to work. Low levels of productivity at a workplace can also affect the employee’s morale, hinder efficiency, and affect their profit margins.
    (b). Low levels of living: This is a situation whereby citizens of a developing country are not able to afford a level of standard of living. They live in poor environment because they’re not able to afford a better one.
    (c). High rate of population growth and dependency burdens: A developing nation often has the characteristics of high population growth because in most of this countries there are less to no educational enlightenment concerning family planning and child bearing. So in the absence of this educational enlightenment the citizens of this countries tend to have too many children and as a result become dependent on other people because they’re not able to feed all the children.
    (d). Traditional rural social structure: A developing nation is often characterized as traditional and rural. You cannot tell the difference between a town and a village because they all look the same. There is no industrial development in such countries and so they’re limited to the village life and village methods of living.
    (e). Widespread poverty: A developing nation is often characterized with poverty. Since there are no industrial development and high population, the citizens are not able to get a well paying job and so they live in poverty.
    (f). Substantial dependence on agricultural products and primary product export: Because there are no other methods of living in a developing nation, citizens depend on farming. Everything they eat are been cultivated and only little are been exported.
    4. Yes I do agree. Poverty has a woman’s face. Why?
    Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.
    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities.

    • Avatar Mgboh Chidera Martins says:

      Name: Mgboh Chidera Martins
      Reg No: 2019/242146
      Dept: Economics

      1. The Third World, or developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are typically seen as being impoverished and having economies that are distorted due to their reliance on exporting raw materials to wealthier nations in exchange for completed goods. Along with having unstable administrations, these countries frequently have high rates of sickness, illiteracy, and population growth. When nonaligned countries gained independence from colonial domination following World War II, the term “third world” was initially used to set them apart from Western countries and former Eastern Bloc members, and sometimes more particularly from the United States and the former Soviet Union (the first and second worlds, respectively)

      2. (i) Human Development Index (HDI)
      The HDI is a composite statistic calculated from the:
      • Life expectancy index
      • Education index
      • Adjusted income index(purchasing power parity)
      (ii)Gross domestic income (GDP)
      (iii) Gross national income (GNI)
      (iv) Infant mortality rate
      (v) Gender empowerment index

      3. (i) low standard of living: a developing nation have a low standard of living, because the resources are not available to meet their basic human need. Needs such as shelter, clothing, food etc are not meet due to low per capital income or other factor in the nation can lead to these.
      (ii) High rate of population: a developing nations have a high rate of population growth due to high population growth and scarce resources in the nation, it lead to many negative effect in the nation such as, lack of job and opportunities, high rate of crime in the society.
      (iii) Increase in the level of unemployment: Due to the fact that resource in developing nation are not fully utilized this lead to increase in unemployment as a result of no labour forces in the nation and low standard of economy.
      (iv) low level of productivity: developing nation have a problem of low productivity due to lack of man power to manage the resources, and corrupt leaders that will embezzled the resources all to their selfs.
      (v) Dependence on Exports of Primary Commodities: Since a significant portion of output originates from the primary sector, a large portion of exports is also from the primary sector.

      4. Yes poverty has the face of a woman. The statement poverty has the face of woman try to explain how woman in many countries are disadvantage of having lower profile level of education, lower ownership and control over assets, and lower social indicators than men.
      Improving female education, and thus the earning potential of women, improves the standard of living for their own children, as women invest more of their income in their families than men do. Women’s education is important for women’s health as well, increasing contraceptive use while lowering sexually transmitted infections, and increasing the level of resources available to women who divorce or are in a situation of domestic violence. Education also improves women’s communication with partners and employers and their rates of civic participation. We could see that improving in female education is a good indicator of rich growth rate among women in many countries of the world.

  14. Avatar Sesugh Lucy Ngufan says:

    Sesugh Lucy Ngufan Ngufan
    2016/235894
    Economics/Philosophy
    Question 1
    A hypothetical war between India and China would be one of the largest and most destructive conflicts in Asia. A war between the two powers would rock the Indo-Pacific region, cause thousands of casualties on both sides and take a significant toll on the global economy. Geography and demographics would play a unique role, limiting the war’s scope and ultimately the conditions of victory.
    China has undergone an unprecedented transformation from third world country to global power. Much of the credit is given to Deng, who oversaw a new set of economic policies known as gaige kaifang (reform and opening), dismantling the agrarian commune system in favor of a household responsibility system and opening coastal cities to trade and investment.
    Capitalism
    System of government is democratic
    Property is privately owned
    Driven by free enterprise
    Wealth distributed unevenly
    Education and health care provided by private entities
    Freedom of the press Class distinctions: upper class,middle class and working class.
    Focus is on the individual and his/her own progress in life.
    System of government is totalitarian
    Property is owned by the state
    No free enterprise is allowed
    Wealth distributed equally
    Education and health care provided by the state
    Press controlled and owned by the state
    Classless society: all members of society are considered to be equal.
    The map above shows the two major geopolitical blocs, some ‘neutral,’ non-aligned countries, and countries of the Third World in the period between the end of the Second World War and the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991.
    The era known as the “Cold War” was a political constellation of countries with two different world-views. On one side were the industrialized capitalist nations aligned with the USA, called the Western Bloc, which likes to call itself the “Free World” or the “Western world.” On the other side were the Communist workers and peasants states of the Eastern Bloc, the socialist countries within the power fabric of the Soviet Union, and Mao’s China. In Europe, there were some neutral countries, and there was the rest of the world, the Third World.
    This discussion describes the ways in which China is both capitalist and communist as well as the economic challenges it faces.
    The Third World was all the other countries. The mainly underdeveloped agricultural states and nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the blessings of civilization benefited only a small ruling elite and the corporations and upper classes of the former colonial powers.
    In principle, the term Third World is outdated but still in use; today, the politically correct designation would be less developed countries.
    Nowadays, the term Third World is more often replaced by the terms Least Developed Countries (UN) or Low-Income Countries (World Bank.)
    Whatever term is used, it serves to designate countries that suffer from high poverty, high child mortality, low economic and educational development, and low self-consumption of their natural resources. Countries that are vulnerable to exploitation by large corporations and industrialized nations.
    These are the developing and technologically less advanced nations of Asia, Africa, Oceania, and Latin America. Third world nations tend to have economies dependent on the developed countries and are generally characterized as poor with unstable governments and having high fertility rates, high gender-related illiteracy and are prone to diseases. One of the critical factors is the lack of a middle class; there is a huge impoverished population and a small elite upper class that controls the country’s wealth and resources. Most Third World nations also have very high foreign debt levels.
    Third World Countries classified by various indices: their Political Rights and Civil Liberties, the Gross National Income (GNI) and Poverty of countries, the Human Development of countries (HDI), and the Freedom of Information within a country.
    So, after the enormous economic and social changes he unleashed can we best describe China as a Communist country with a veneer of market economics or is it a capitalist country with a nominally Communist government? Perhaps it is both: ‘state capitalism’ with a framework of Communist party rule.
    QUESTION TWO
    The Countries in which the process of development has started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index.
    Gross National Income (GNI) is the total amount of money earned by a nation’s people and businesses. It is used to measure and track a nation’s wealth from year to year. The number includes the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) plus the income it receives from overseas sources.
    The more widely-known term GDP is an estimate of the total value of all goods and services produced within a nation for a set period, usually a year. GNI is an alternative to gross domestic product (GDP) as a means of measuring and tracking a nation’s wealth and is considered a more accurate indicator for some nations. The U.S. Bureau of Economic Affairs (BEA) tracks the GDP to measure the health of the U.S. economy from year to year. The two numbers are not significantly different. Finally, there’s gross national product (GNP), which is a broad measure of all economic activity.
    Developing countries show, among other things, a significantly lower per capita national product, low labor productivity, a high illiteracy rate, and a high share of agricultural employment compared to industrialized countries.
    Also known as less developed countries or emerging markets. Developing countries Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Income (GNI) per capital income, literacy rate, level of technological development, industrialisation, infrastructure development and telecommunication connectivity besides other factors are lower than developed countries.
    The idea of economic growth stems from classical economics where growth in national income represents the growth in the wealth of a nation – the classical hallmark of success. The concept of economic growth gained popularity during the industrial revolution, when market economies flourished. In the 1930s, Nobel laureate, Simon Kuznets wrote extensively about national statistics and propagated the use of GDP as the measure of the national income of the US. However, Kuznets took this measure with a pinch of salt and wrote, “The national income total is thus an amalgam of relatively accurate and only approximate estimates rather than a unique, highly precise measurement” (Kuznets, 1934).
    QUESTION THREE
    The countries in which the process of development has started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index. Therefore, developing nations are those nations of the world, which have lower per capita income as compared to developed nations like the USA, Germany, China, Japan, etc. Here we will discuss the different characteristics of developing countries of the world.
    Developing countries have been suffering from common attributes like mass poverty, high population growth, lower living standards, illiteracy, unemployment and underemployment, underutilization of resources, socio-political variability, lack of good governance, uncertainty, and vulnerability, low access to finance, and so on.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.
    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity.
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving.
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.
    QUESTION FOUR
    Well I think poverty has a woman’s face around . And I think in my opinion it can be due to the following reasons :
    There is more women population in the world than man so when doing research is easier to sample women.
    As much as it’s known that a man is a provider , a woman has to be the one that provides for the kids in the interim while the man goes to “hunt”.
    I have noticed that on social media and TV when pictures are showed to potray or express poverty in most cases it is a picture of women and children.
    I do not think that one should put a face to the world’s disease, called poverty. Some people may argue about its sources, and on this point I would agree with Ruwadzano comment that “women are often on the forefront of poverty” where men are presented to be the main income creator, but still this does not mean that one can connect this phenomenon with gender. From the moment that we start to theorize about poverty’s gender, we are trapped because it does not help us in any case, in fact provokes many questions and in some way destroys the concept of gender equality. It is true that tha mass media expresses poverty by using the picture of women and children, but I think is created with an aim, to show us how important it is for this world to help the mothers in need, but it does not serve to show that poverty has a women’s face. Anyways, I am so glad you raised this question because there are various aspects that should be considered and analyzed.

  15. Avatar Odo Philomina chinasa Reg 2020/244344 (2/3) says:

    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    NAME : ODO PHILOMINA CHINASA
    REG NO : 2020/244344 (2/3)
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION.
    TOPIC : CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS.
    1. Wide spread poverty : In developing nations, there is wide spread poverty. The percentage of of people that are poor are more than the rich, reason, because some of them are unable to provide their basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.
    2. Low level of per capita income : In developing nations, per capita income of their citizens are very low when compared with those in developed nations. In developing countries, per capita income is very low, for that , citizens find it difficult to invest or save money when they have insufficient money that can sustain them. A situation where somebody cannot provide for his basic needs such as food, shelter clothing, he will find it difficult to invest or save for future use.
    3. Low productivity : There are low productivity in developing countries due to lack of factors responsible for production such as land, labour, capital and skilled manpower.
    4. High rate of population : Many developing countries has large size of population. Because their population is high , their standard of living is typically low. Hence, they suffer malnutrition.
    5. High level of unemployment : One of the major problems of developing countries is high level of unemployment. For instance , in Nigeria, graduates roam the streets in search of white collar jobs that are not available. Lack of employment is caused by poor leadership.
    6. Low industrial development : Developing countries lack investment. For this reason, there is lack of utilization of natural resources because the manpower is not skilled enough to harness or tap the natural resources available in the developing countries. Hence, graduate engage in menial jobs which is identical to a square peg in a round room. While others engage in crime such as yahoo, scamming and scheming.
    7. Dependency and vulnerability : One of the characteristics of developing is countries are dependency and vulnerability. They depend so much on foreign goods or foreign products thereby making their economy vulnerable. They develop taste for foreign products and aversed to local or home made products.
    8. Lack of infrastructure : In developing countries , there are lack of infrastructural development. There are lack of good roads, lack of stable financial institution, epileptic power supply, lack of communication network, lack of good transportation network, lack of standard education institutions, poor agricultural development to mention but a few.
    9. Traditional rural social structure : Most developing countries are characterised with traditional rural social structure. There are still wide gap in the status of men and women. For example, in most communities in Nigeria, women are still regarded as weaker sex and are assigned feminine role. 8
    10. Subsistence agricultura: In most developing countries, 65% of them engaged themselves in subsistence agriculture.

  16. Avatar Odo Philomina chinasa Reg. 2020/244344 (2/3) says:

    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    NAME : ODO PHILOMINA CHINASA
    REG NO : 2020/244344 (2/3)
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION.
    TOPIC : CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS.
    1. Wide spread poverty : In developing nations, there is wide spread poverty. The percentage of of people that are poor are more than the rich, reason, because some of them are unable to provide their basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.
    2. Low level of per capita income : In developing nations, per capita income of their citizens are very low when compared with those in developed nations. In developing countries, per capita income is very low, for that , citizens find it difficult to invest or save money when they have insufficient money that can sustain them. A situation where somebody cannot provide for his basic needs such as food, shelter clothing, he will find it difficult to invest or save for future use.
    3. Low productivity : There are low productivity in developing countries due to lack of factors responsible for production such as land, labour, capital and skilled manpower.
    4. High rate of population : Many developing countries has large size of population. Because their population is high , their standard of living is typically low. Hence, they suffer malnutrition.
    5. High level of unemployment : One of the major problems of developing countries is high level of unemployment. For instance , in Nigeria, graduates roam the streets in search of white collar jobs that are not available. Lack of employment is caused by poor leadership.
    6. Low industrial development : Developing countries lack investment. For this reason, there is lack of utilization of natural resources because the manpower is not skilled enough to harness or tap the natural resources available in the developing countries. Hence, graduate engage in menial jobs which is identical to a square peg in a round room. While others engage in crime such as yahoo, scamming and scheming.
    7. Dependency and vulnerability : One of the characteristics of developing is countries are dependency and vulnerability. They depend so much on foreign goods or foreign products thereby making their economy vulnerable. They develop taste for foreign products and aversed to local or home made products.
    8. Lack of infrastructure : In developing countries , there are lack of infrastructural development. There are lack of good roads, lack of stable financial institution, epileptic power supply, lack of communication network, lack of good transportation network, lack of standard education institutions, poor agricultural development to mention but a few.
    9. Traditional rural social structure : Most developing countries are characterised with traditional rural social structure. There are still wide gap in the status of men and women. For example, in most communities in Nigeria, women are still regarded as weaker sex and are assigned feminine role. 8
    10. Subsistence agricultura: In most developing countries, 65% of them engaged themselves in subsistence agriculture.

  17. Avatar OKECHI PASCHAL MAKUO. REG NO:2019/247596 says:

    Name: Okechi Paschal makuo
    dept: library and information science
    Reg no:2019/247596
    Email: makuookechi@gmail.com

    1:It is true that China and India, as two of the most populous countries in the world with vastly different social and economic systems, played significant roles in promoting the political emergence of third world countries and changing the relations between the third world and industrial countries, both capitalist and communist.

    China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, promoted a socialist model of development that emphasized self-reliance, rural development, and a rejection of Western-style capitalism. China’s model of socialism attracted the attention of many third world countries, particularly after the Chinese Communist Party came to power in 1949. China provided material and ideological support to many third world liberation movements, including those in Africa and Latin America, and also played a key role in the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought to promote the interests of developing countries in the face of Cold War superpower rivalry.

    India, on the other hand, pursued a more mixed economy model, combining elements of socialism and capitalism. India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, promoted a vision of non-alignment and cooperation among developing countries, and India played a key role in the Bandung Conference of 1955, which brought together leaders from Asian and African countries to discuss the challenges facing the developing world. India also provided material and political support to various liberation movements, particularly in Africa.

    Together, China and India’s influence helped to shift the balance of power in international politics, particularly in the context of the Cold War. Third world countries began to assert more independence and demand greater recognition of their interests, and the traditional power structures dominated by Western capitalist and communist countries began to erode. The legacy of China and India’s involvement in the third world continues to be felt today, as many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America continue to seek ways to promote their own development and assert their interests in the face of ongoing global challenges.

    2:Yes, that is correct. Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year is one of the most commonly used measures for classifying countries as either “developed” or “developing”. However, there are many other criteria and indicators that are also used to measure development, such as:

    1. Human Development Index (HDI): The HDI measures a country’s progress in terms of three key dimensions of human development – health, education, and standard of living.

    2. Poverty rates: The percentage of the population living below the poverty line is a commonly used indicator of underdevelopment.

    3. Access to basic services: Access to basic services such as health care, education, and clean water are considered important indicators of development.

    4. Economic diversification: A diverse range of industries and economic activities can indicate a more developed economy.

    5. Political stability: A stable political environment is often considered a prerequisite for development.

    6. Technological advancement: The level of technological advancement in a country can indicate its level of development.

    7. Infrastructure: A country’s infrastructure, including transportation, communication, and energy systems, can be an important indicator of development.

    These indicators are often used in combination to provide a more comprehensive picture of a country’s level of development or underdevelopment.

    3Developing nations, also known as less-developed countries (LDCs), are countries that are in the process of improving their economic, social, and political conditions. While the specific characteristics of developing nations can vary depending on the country in question, there are several common characteristics that are often associated with these nations.

    1. Low levels of economic development: Developing nations often have low levels of economic development, which means they have lower per capita income, lower levels of industrialization, and less developed infrastructure compared to developed nations.

    2. High levels of poverty: Poverty is a common characteristic of developing nations. This is often due to a lack of economic development, limited access to education and healthcare, and inadequate social safety nets.

    3. Dependence on primary sector exports: Many developing nations depend on the export of primary commodities such as agricultural products, minerals, and oil to generate income. This makes these economies vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices and can hinder economic growth and development.

    4. Limited access to education and healthcare: Developing nations often have limited access to education and healthcare, which can contribute to a cycle of poverty and poor health outcomes. This can also limit opportunities for economic growth and development.

    5. Political instability: Political instability is often a characteristic of developing nations, with frequent changes in government, civil unrest, and conflict. This can make it difficult to implement policies and initiatives that promote economic growth and development.

    6. Weak institutions: Developing nations often have weak institutions, including ineffective legal systems, corrupt bureaucracies, and inadequate infrastructure. This can hinder economic growth and development and limit the effectiveness of government policies.

    7. Rapid population growth: Many developing nations have high rates of population growth, which can put pressure on limited resources and exacerbate poverty and social inequality.

    Overall, the common characteristics of developing nations reflect the challenges these countries face in achieving economic and social development. Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach that includes policies to promote economic growth, improve access to education and healthcare, strengthen institutions, and address political instability and social inequality.

    4:The statement that “poverty has the face of a woman” is a commonly used phrase that reflects the reality that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. This is particularly true in developing countries, where women are more likely to be poor than men due to a variety of factors such as gender discrimination, limited access to education and economic opportunities, and unequal distribution of resources.

    There are several reasons why women are more likely to experience poverty than men. Firstly, women often have limited access to education, which limits their ability to acquire the skills needed to secure well-paying jobs. Secondly, women are often employed in low-paid and informal sectors of the economy, which offer limited job security and benefits. Thirdly, women are more likely to be responsible for unpaid care work, such as caring for children or elderly relatives, which limits their ability to participate in paid work.

    Furthermore, women are more vulnerable to poverty due to their reproductive role. Women are more likely to be single parents, and they often have to provide for their children on their own. Women also have higher healthcare costs due to their reproductive needs, which can lead to financial strain.

    In conclusion, it is clear that poverty has the face of a woman. While poverty affects both men and women, women are disproportionately affected due to a range of social, cultural and economic factors. Therefore, policymakers must address gender inequality to reduce poverty and promote economic development. This can be done by improving access to education and training for women, promoting gender equality in the workplace, and reducing the burden of unpaid care work.

  18. Avatar OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA says:

    OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA
    REG NO: 2019/243578
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    EMAIL: alexmmesoma4@gmail.com

    ANSWER TO QUESTION ONE (1)????
    Afro-African conference of 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia signaled the beginning of the influence of the third world (or non-aligned states) in international political matters – a meeting so pivotal that the west specifically the United States tried to thwart. In attendance were 29 countries asides from the Indonesian president representing nearly one quarter of the earth surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people. However among these countries, two (China and India) have been most instrumental to the emergence of the third world and the improvement of relations between them and the rest of the world.
    As to the international political rank of a country two major factors come to mind, the economic and the military might – some authors have even gone as far as comparing them to left and right arms respectively.
    With respect to the above we look at China. Economically we see a country that has arisen from the ashes with GDP growth rate according to the World Bank averaging 9% from 1978 till date with the country being known as the manufacturing hub of the world. A country that has risen so much that it became a threat to the west especially the United States as we can see from the trump trade bans. Militarily we see a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, ranking 3rd in military might behind only the US and Russia according to the global fire power’s power index.
    Following closely behind in all this is India. According to the economic times India’s GDP growth rate from 2000 till 2019 averaged 6 to7% annually. Militarily India ranked fourth behind china, with lots of talks circulating on its addition as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. In fact Ukrainian president Volodymr zelenskyy specifically called for India’s participation in the war in Ukraine – a sign that India is becoming influential in the international sphere. Also it recently took charge of the G-20.
    These countries have particularly helped to show that the third world will not be relegated to the backseat of international politics, yes they only just began getting treated as equals among nations(many of these countries are young relative to their developed counterparts), but they have a voice and they will be heard.
    As these countries are yet developing countries they have boosted the voice of the global south. I guess Alfred sauvy’s “they are nothing and they want to be something” should be extended, “… they will be something” as china and India have shown us.
    ANSWER TO QUESTION TWO (2)????
    The World bank and other Bretton woods institutions recently use two methods to compare and classify the economies of countries into low, lower middle, upper middle and high-income groups. This grouping help to serve as an indicator for development and underdevelopment across nations. The two methods postulated by these institutions are;
    # Telamon method: This is a method used by the world bank since 1993 to estimate the size of other countries economies in terms GNI in U.S. dollars, using various factors which affects the changes in the development in each country. To use this method, a country’s GNI using their local currency is first converted into dollars using the Atlas conversion factor, which uses a 3-year average of exchange rates to smoothen the effects of transitory exchange rate flunctuations, adjusted for the difference between the rate of inflation in the home country and that in a number of developed countries, the resulting GNI in dollars will then be divided by the home country’s mid year population to get the GNI per capita.
    # Another method is changing Income classification threshold by using special drawing rights deflator. This Special Drawing Right (SDR) is an interest bearing international reserve asset created by the IMF in 1969 to supplement other reserve assets of member countries. Therefore, SDR is not a currency rather it is based on a basket of International currencies that are adjusted annually for inflation so as to supplement the member country’s claim on the freely usable currencies, held only by IMF member countries, thereby providing liquidity for countries.
    ANSWER TO QUESTION THREE(3)????
    @ Low Per Capita Income: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    @ Agriculture-based Economies: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    @ Lack of infrastructure: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    @ High Degrees Of Corruption: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    @ Dependence On Foreign Aid: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    @ High Poverty Rank: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    @ Low Life Expectancy: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    @ High Rate Of Illiteracy: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    @ Environmental Impairment: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    @ The Productivity Of Factors Is Similarly Poor In Undeveloped Countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    @ High Consumption And Low Saving: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.
    ANSWER TO QUESTION FOUR (4)????
    Yes,I agree
    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed.

  19. Avatar EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM 2019/245390 says:

    EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM
    2019/245390
    ECO MAJOR
    1. China and India have now become global economic powers. Even at the market exchange rate, China overtook Japan in 2010 as the world’s second largest economy. China’s trade and financial activities, India’s emergence as a technology and innovation hub and both countries’ commerce and investment interactions with other developing nations have been covered extensively in all forms of media.China and India are now both regarded as economic and political drivers of the international economy, particularly in the trade arena and in regards to global governance. Their economic engagement with developing countries and regions entails interactions in the areas of labour, human rights, international relations, security and environmental sustainability. The potential threats are mostly associated with trade and financial flows and with the social and political implications of China’s financial outflows.Not with stand in, in the midst of the recent global economic crises, China and India’s demand for developing country goods proved to be a cushion to the declining flows of resources from advanced nations. China and India influence global economic and political dynamics and can provide alternative sources of development assistance for developing countries. They can also provide a number of potential lessons for other developing countries, three of which are highlighted in this article: absorption of surplus labour, raising of domestic and foreign investment and support for R&DLabour market resemblance are key in understanding how economic growth has led to taking in of surplus labour in these economies — particularly in China. Here surplus labour from the traditional agricultural sector has shifted to the progressive industrial sector, thus promoting industrialization.Characteristics of China’s labour market include an extensive rural-urban inequity, rapid rural-urban migration (despite various restrictions) and high and rising real wages in the formal sectors. In this respect, it has much in common with other emerging economies, such as South Africa. It is instructive however, to draw out the differences between China and South Africa, as this may hold some general lessons for the role of labour market dynamics in economic growth.China, a labour-surplus economy, is rapidly experiencing a scarcity of labour. In contrast, South Africa — which historically has featured worker shortages — is increasingly suffering from a labour surplus in the form of open unemployment. South Africa’s labour market structure is affected both by the rural-urban migration as well as from inflows of foreign workers.2. The traditional way of measuring development was brought forth by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) which measures a country’s development in three perspectives namely: Longevity, knowledge and the standard of living in the country. They use the range 0 to 1 to determine the level of development of any nation.The longevity aspect measures the life expectancy of individuals in a nation, this has to do with the health stature of the people and the diseases the takes life in the country and how it is being eradicated.The knowledge aspect looks at the literacy tendency of the people in a nation, both of the tender age, those in the university and the number of literates in the society. With this measure, they’ll be able to tell if the number of educated persons in the country is high or low.The last phase of measurement is on the standard of living of a nation, this checks on their GDP and how well it used in the country.Unfortunately, this traditional method of checking Human Development Index has so many set back that makes not to tell of the real development measure, in regards to this, the United Nations, coupled with World banks and other Bretton Woods institutions came up with a way of improvement and a better way to measure the socioeconomic development of a nation. The following are the changes made.The use of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a measure of a nation’s development was replaced with Gross National Income (GNI). This is because, GNI shows the income earn and spent by citizens of a nation who are both in and outside the country.Also, the education index used in measuring the rate at which knowledge is in a country has been improved. Two new compo￾nents have been added: the average actual educational attainment of the whole population and the expected attainment of today’s children. With this two added measures, there can be distinction between children who are still attending knowledge at a tender age and those who are at an upper stage.Expected educational attainment: This also was added because, most students in many countries do not complete the expected level of educational attainment. Most of such case is in Nigeria. With this means, they also check the development of a nation.Also, literacy has been replaced with the achievement of educated person. Why this came up is that, in most countries, especially in developing ones, the standard of education in such countries is very low, that is why a graduate cannot speak fluent and well constructed English. With this and many others factors surrounding this issue, it has been concluded that the literacy of individuals shows a lot in their achievements, both intellectually and in a creative manner.Instead of using the common logarithm (log) to reflect diminishing marginal benefit of income, the NHDI now uses the natural log (ln), this reflects a more usual construction of indexes.Lastly, the most consequential change is that the NHDI is computed with a geometric mean.All these changes made by the United nations, World Banks and the Brett on Woods institutions made it easy to appropriately compute and measure the socioeconomic development of a nation.3. The common characteristics of developing nations are as follows:Lower levels of human capitalLower levels of living and productivityHigher levels of inequality and absolute povertyHigher population growth rateGreater social fractionalizationLarge rural populations but rapid rural to urban migrationLower levels of industrialization and manufactured exportsAdverse geographyUnderdeveloped marketExport dependenceLower levels of human capital: It is clear that as human beings cannot do without the basic necessities of life such as food, shelter and clothing, so also it is for any nation to stay without the basic human capitals such as health, education and skills. Looking at them closely as follows:Health: It is the state of being free from physical or psychological disease, illness, or malfunction. For developing nations that are still under the verge of getting to know more about health like the developed nations, their health facilities are still very poor likewise the medical practitioners and operators. A point of reference can be the case of Nigeria whose medical facilities are not worthful as compared to other nations like India, America, China, etc. Most of our politicians in Nigeria, whenever they fall sick no matter the how small the illness may be are being flied abroad to receive treatment while the citizens are left to feed under the excretes of the low health facilities. Taking some analysis of past years, the under 5 mortality rate is 17 time higher in countries with low income due to health issue, therefore, nations that are still developing are to look into the area of health in order to save lives.Education: Another low level of human capital in developing countries is education. Most developing countries are not aware of the importance and the benefit of education and as such, it is being played with. In our country Nigeria, the value of education has been downtrodden by the present government, that is why there have been series of strikes from workers and still the response of the government is at a discouraging rate. For a country or nation to have a good level of education, the government should be able to plan and to put in place all the necessary things needed for good learning beginning from the low level of education up to the higher institution. Due to the lack of good education system in developing countries, there is likeliness of illiteracy in such nations and even those that claims to be graduates are not competent enough for the name they bear.Skills: Skill acquisition is one of the main goals of education. When there is a low level of education in a nation, the skills to be acquired by the youths are not there. In a country like China, every child born at the age of 18 is out of school and has something to do, at a tender age, each child is being taught how to do one thing or the other so that they can progress. If the developing nations would practical method of learning to the other methods, there would be change.2. Lower levels of living and productivity: The developing nations are characterized by lower level of living due to the situations they found themselves. In a nation where all the different economic sectors are not functioning well, then, there is possibility for a low standard of living and productivity. Looking at the various sector of production in a country like agriculture, if the nature of production in the country is subsistence farming where farmers produce only for consumption, then, there is always a low standard of living. Here, for them to progress, the government should provide them with the modern mechanized tools for farming whereby they can produce for but consumption and for sales which will generate income. If 70% of the country is into a mechanized system of farming, imagine for 5 years, what will be the income of the farmers, with this, the farmers after getting enough income can further get other processing machines that can process and package those primary products they have gotten and also sell them. Like the agricultural aspect, if such is applied to other aspects, there will be growth and development.3.Higher levels of inequality and absolute poverty: It is true that resources are not evenly distributed, the same way those resources are inequitably distributed, in like manner are the income gotten from there are unevenly distributed. This case of inequitable distribution of income happens even in the developed countries, but their case is different because they are rich and it is not at a high rate, looking at an undeveloped country where there is less income as compared to developed nations, the inequality in the distribution of income is very high because the income at first would not be able to go round and to satisfy all members of the country, also, there is lack of comprehensive method of distribution of such income, therefore, in such a nation, some part of the country may earn higher than others while other may not get anything at all, as a result of this inequitable distribution, there is reduction in production. Example is the case in Nigeria where the proceed from crude oil which is gotten from the south are all used to develop the North leaving the other parts of the country undeveloped.4. Higher population growth rate: The number of population in a developing countries is actually high due to some reasons. For example, people believe that the more you have children, the more you’ll have enough laborers to work in your farm and to make more gain. Also, there is this believe that having a large family is a pride to that family. This happens due to lack of knowledge and understanding of the new methods of work used in developed countries. Also, there is lack of family planning in developing countries, for example, in China, a family must not have more than two children, with this you can see that the rate at which birth is given is under control. Research has it that, from 1990 to 2008, the population in developing countries increased at 2.2% yearly while in developed countries, the rate at which the population increased was at 1.3%, with this over population, there is increase in dependency rate in the developing countries and this leads to more problems.5.Lower levels of industrialization and manufactured exports: The other deep rooted problem of developing countries is low level of industrialization and manufactured exports. In many developing countries, the number of industries found in such countries are quite discouraging, the reverse case is that, in most of these developing countries are found enough resources that can be processed into finished goods. A direct case is that of Nigeria. Nigeria is blessed with crude oil which up till date is the main source of its income in the country, but if asked, how many refineries are there in Nigeria? The answer would be a heart broken one. Nigeria extracts crude oil and sent it abroad to be refined after which they pay for it refining and then sell back to the people, if Nigeria can have up to even 5 refineries, it would make more gain and its good would have value than before, that is why naira is depreciating almost everyday. With the location of industries in a developing country, there will be less import of manufactured goods, rather they will export more goods to other countries.6. Underdeveloped markets: The market structure of the developing countries are always not developed because they are in the process of development, and being in a rural area, they lack some of the necessary things a developed market supposed to have such as: (1) a legal system that validates property rights and enforce contracts (2) a stable and trustworthy currency (3) a good infrastructure of roads and utilities that leads to low transport cost and communication cost which facilitate interregional trade (5) a developed banking system for keeping of money (6) social rules and regulations that facilitate successful long term business relationship. When all these are not in place in a developing countries, the need for a developed market is at stake.4. World widely, the World Bank made an estimate that 1.29 billion people are live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. A point of reference is in Pakistan, it is no different, but without a national census, it isn’t even possible to gauge the correct picture. Poverty is difficult to quantify: the methodology used by the government has been under a critical challenged by the World Bank and the UNDP, while independent organisations consider poverty to be above 28.3pc.Not withstanding, according to the Human Development Index, 2009, 60.3pc of Pakistan’s population lives on $2 per day. From the records regarding Unesco, 71pc of eligible girls did not attend secondary school in 2009. Gender discriminatory practices shape and made poverty real: as expected, more women are at the suffering end. They suffer poverty of opportunities far more than men do suffer it. Poverty gives rise to social powerlessness, debilitation, and political disenfranchisement, and these add to the vulnerability of the poor.The reasons for such high poverty levels are several: corruption, illicit capital flight, debt and loan conditionalities, high defence expenditures, and now, extremism. Those are the general ones.Borrowing from what Tahira Abdullah said, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.Their poverty is said to be multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many of the women.Poverty levels in the country have crept upwards and are considered to be among the highest in South Asia. Unfortunately, the Planning Commission does not reveal the exact data on female poverty. Women bear the brunt of appallingly high socio-economic disparities; their poverty extends from the small and large denials within the home to the wider denials they experience in the community. Often they’re not even recognised as heads of households; their labour in the agricultural sector is largely unremunerated; they remain exploited, deprived of income.The Economic Survey of Pakistan barely acknowledges their presence and their contribution — the female labour force participation rate is the lowest in the South Asian region. A survey by Yasir Amin (in Economistan, April 12, 2012) noted that women’s contribution to the labour force had actually shrunk from 33pc in 2000 to 21pc in 2011.The risks of increasing poverty grow in parallel with the number of women-headed households and this is appalling. Single mothers are at highest risk, as are their children, who are likely to be deprived of both adequate schooling and nutrition. Like most women, they have no alternative to poorly paid, informal employment.There is no new thing as surprise that women are over-represented among the country’s poor; discrimination against them exists at all levels, within the family, with its unequal gendered division of responsibilities and labour, inequality in access to healthcare, to schooling, to social protection. Tradition ordains that their mobility be restricted.Few poor women have hope of escaping this poverty as there are so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favour them, even richer women are regularly denied land inheritance by emotional coercion, forced marriage.If women are to progress and participate effectively in the economy, they must receive equal education, equal training, in rural and urban sectors and equal dignity and income. Pakistan cannot achieve progress on the efforts of less than half its population.With all these, I believe that poverty has a woman’s face.

  20. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    Name: UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI
    Reg no:2018/242416
    Department: Economics

    1: In the following decades, the current international order will likely be put to the test as China and India become major world powers. The current international system will change as the two powers develop, which will have significant effects on them, the United States, and the rest of the globe.And the future nature of the system will depend on whether they concur with the necessary adjustments, particularly with regard to their connection with the West.Sino-Indian disparities on numerous problems of both bilateral and global significance are apparent when one closely examines Chinese and Indian viewpoints on the tenets of the newly forming international order.China and India frequently concur on the significance of state sovereignty and the necessity of reforming international institutions of governance to take into account the changing power dynamics. They both have a strong belief in the open economic system that has helped both powers succeed in the global economy.Both China and India want an Asia-Pacific region that is peaceful so they can maintain their economic growth, but their perspectives on dangers and priorities are extremely different.Crucially, China views the United States as greatly complicating its pursuit of its regional aims and is concerned about American containment efforts, while India desires a resolute American presence in the region to protect against potential Chinese excesses.Beijing and New Delhi both support the current maritime security system since they rely largely on open sea routes of communication.Nonetheless, there have been times when their interpretations of its terms have disagreed. China has focused the military aspects of its program and has major advantages over India in space, whereas New Delhi has only lately started developing space-based military technology.While both nations are just getting started with the challenging work of developing cybersecurity regulations, they have already taken action to restrict offensive or illegal online behavior.India has faced more public disapproval than its counterpart in trying to strike a balance between online freedom and social stability.
    The ways that China and India address energy and the environment are generally similar.India and China heavily rely on foreign energy resource suppliers because of their countries’ expanding domestic energy consumption. This has driven both administrations to seek more efficient electricity sources and to secure their foothold in overseas energy markets. The two nations’ environmental policies generally center on immediate, regional issues that must be weighed against the need for economic expansion.A geopolitical event of historic proportions is being represented by the parallel emergence of China and India. Seldom has the world system seen the resurgence of two significant powers at the same time—states with sizable populations, long and illustrious histories, physical and political proximity, and dominance of the regions in which they are situated.The reemergence of an earlier era in Asian geopolitics when China and India were among the most significant concentrations of political power in the global system since the fall of Rome is thus heralded by their return to the fore after several centuries of imperial dominance.Modes:

    The parallel revival of these two nations also dramatically exemplifies Asia’s resurgence in the global system. Although there has been a steady shift in the concentration of capabilities from West to East ever since the end of World War II, this transformation took a decisive turn when the smaller, early-industrializing nations of Asia—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore—were joined by the large, continental-sized states of China and India. The recent renaissance of China and India is owed in large measure to their productive integration into the liberal economic order built and sustained by American hegemony in the postwar period.
    The simultaneous rebirth of these two countries also starkly highlights Asia’s resurgence in the international system. From the end of World War II, there has been a progressive shift in the concentration of capabilities from the West to the East, but this change took a decisive turn when China and India joined the smaller, early-industrializing Asian countries of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. The productive incorporation of China and India into the liberal economic order created and upheld by American hegemony in the postwar era is largely responsible for their current revival.Both of these giants have recently seen extraordinary amounts of economic development as a result of that integration. For instance, China’s economic growth has been nothing short of meteoric, surpassing the already excellent record set by the first generation of Asian tigers between 1960 and 1990. During the past thirty years or so, China has shown real growth that is consistently higher than 9 percent yearly, with peak years seeing growth rates of 13 to 14 percent.As a result, from 1978 to 2003, China’s per capita income increased by more than 6% year, four times faster than the global average, much faster than any other Asian nation and much better than the 1.8% annual growth rate in Western Europe and the United States. Due to this achievement, China’s economy now ranks second globally in terms of purchasing power parity, with a GDP of almost $10 trillion in 2010.Several academics predict that at some time in the first half of this century, China’s GDP will surpass that of the United States. India’s economic growth hasn’t yet reached the same intensity or longevity as China’s. Economic reforms in New Delhi, which are responsible for the recent growth surge in India, didn’t start until the early 1990s, over a decade after China’s.
    Due to the contestation that exists within India’s democratic politics, the complexity of the federal system there, the absence of elite agreement on important policy matters, and the persistence of significant rent-seeking entities within the national polity, these reforms have not yet been comprehensive or complete.

    2: We can examine several facets of domestic and international economic activity using the indicators found in the Economics section. Economic indicators track levels and changes in the size and structure of various economies and pinpoint expansions and contractions as countries produce goods and services and either consume them domestically or trade them globally.
    Economic indicators include measurements of macroeconomic stability and performance, such as gross domestic product (GDP), consumption, investment, and international trade (central government budgets, prices, the money supply, and the balance of payments). It also contains larger measurements of income and savings that have been adjusted for resource depletion, pollution, and depreciation. In order to monitor progress toward SDG Goal 2, which promotes sustainable consumption and production, and Goal 8, which promotes decent work and economic growth, numerous economic indicators from WDI are used.

    A country or region’s economic activity can be measured to have a better understanding of how well off its citizens are financially.
    The entire gross value added by all resident producers in the economy is referred to as the gross domestic product (GDP), a commonly used measure. GDP change at constant prices is used to gauge economic growth. To enable cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic and other data, many WDI indicators use GDP or GDP per capita as the denominator.
    Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, which is calculated by dividing the total domestic and international value added claimed by inhabitants by the country’s population, is another important metric for evaluating a nation’s wealth and ability to support its citizens. Additionally, countries are categorized for operational purposes, such as lending eligibility and payback terms, using GNI per capita in U.S. dollars, which is converted from local currency using the Atlas technique.
    For analytical purposes, it is also used to divide economies into the four primary income tiers of low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income. Here you may find more details on the operational and analytical classifications. Every year, GNI per capita figures are released in July for the preceding year; data for 2017 will be released as part of the WDI database update in July 2018. Certain national data, nevertheless, are not made public until much later in the year.

    3: characteristics of developing nation.
    They are:
    Low per capita real income:
    When compared to rich countries, the real per capita income of developing nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in developing nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. One of the biggest issues that undeveloped nations deal with is this.
    Mass poverty:
    The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in developing countries. Hence, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in underdeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.
    Rapid population growth
    larger size of population increase or a larger population. Many factors contribute to the faster population growth in emerging nations. People are compelled to feel insured and have more children because of the higher newborn and child death rates in these nations. People in underdeveloped nations are also influenced to have more children by a lack of family planning information and options, a lack of sex education, and beliefs that having more children will increase the work force, which will increase income and riches. The idea of conservatism existing in such countries is another argument in favor of this.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    In developing countries, especially in rural areas, the majority of people work in agriculture. In these countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides employment and revenue. Also, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    4:I disagree that poverty should be treated as a disease of the planet. Others may debate its origins, and on this point I would concur with the statement that “women are frequently at the forefront of poverty” while males are portrayed as being the main source of revenue, but this does not imply that one can link this occurrence with gender.We are trapped as soon as we begin to think about poverty’s gender since it does not aid us in any way, actually raises a lot of issues, and inadvertently undermines the idea of gender equality.It is true that the media often depicts poverty through images of women and children, but this, in my opinion, is done so to highlight how crucial it is for everyone to support needy moms rather than to depict the gendered nature of poverty. In any case, I am so delighted you asked this topic since there are many factors that need to be taken into account and examined.

  21. Avatar ekechukwu ifeanyi paul says:

    ECO 361
    EKECHUKWU IFEANYI PAUL
    2019227249
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist ->>>

    China and India, as two of the largest countries in the world and with vastly different political and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political and economic structure of the Third World. Both nations have been influential in promoting the emergence of Third World countries and in changing the relationship between these countries and the industrialized nations of the world. China, with its Communist government and planned economy, has been a strong advocate for Third World countries and has provided economic and military support to many of these nations. India, with its democratic government and mixed economy, has also been a significant player in the Third World, promoting economic development and democracy in these countries. Both nations have played a role in shaping the relationship between the Third World and the industrialized nations, capitalist and Communist.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.-:-

    In addition to Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, other indicators commonly used to measure development include;
    A.) Human Development Index (HDI)
    B.) The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI
    These indicators take into recognition some factors such as life expectancy, education, and standard of living, in addition to economic indicators like GDP and GNI. The United Nations, World Bank, and other international organizations use these indicators to classify countries as “developed,” “developing,” or “least developed” and to monitor progress towards sustainable development goals.

    3. The common characteristics of developing countries include;

    a.) Low level of living:- In a developing country the level of living is being classified as low and the cost of living is usually high. The most average persons find it difficult to get the basic amenities for living, like clothing, shelter, food e.t.c.

    b.) Dependence on agricultural production and primary products exports:- Most developing countries focus majorly on the production of agricultural and primary product instead of moving to industrialization and industrial goods. This makes them dependant on countries for other facilities, instruments, tools and amenities apart from food.

    c.) Traditional / Rural social structures:- You would notice in all developing countries a distinction between the urban areas and rural areas (villages). In developing countries there is presence of rural or traditional social structures around and less modern structures.

    d.) High level of insecurity:- Insecurity and terrorism is rampart in most developing countries as they don’t have enough resources to invest in highly sophisticated military system.

    e.) High and rising level of unemployment and underemployment:- Developing countries are characterised by a massive number of people who are unemployed or underemployed. There’s no system put in place to help the masses to be gainfully employed.

    4. Yes, I agree to the argument that poverty has the face of a woman.

    Why..

    The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” depicts that women are unequally affected by poverty. This is supported by data which shows that women often have fewer economic opportunities and face greater barriers to financial stability than men.
    One reason is that women that works are more likely to be paid low or lower than men for the same work.
    Additionally, women face the primary responsibility of taking care for children and other dependants, which can make it more difficult for them to be employed easily or advance their in career.
    Another reason is the gender inequalities that exists in many societies, which can limit women’s access to education, employment, and other opportunities that are necessary for escaping poverty.

  22. Avatar Ngwoke chidera Lillian says:

    woke chidera Lillian
    2019/245394
    Economic
    Development Economic
    1:china and India have played a major role in promoting conference and the gab between third world capitalist, industrial, communists by combining low income and low wages with innovation potential, they also associated with very different form of regional integration, china and India is part of the distributed regional network of production, reflecting wider competitiveness both china and india are heavily engaged in global institutions
    2:low
    Lower middle eg Nigeria
    Upper middle
    High income countries
    Classification of this above are updated every year on July and are based on the GHP PER CAPITAL of the previous year GNP are expressed in United states dollars
    3;low level of living
    Low level of productivity
    Dependence and VULNERABILITY
    Primary products exploit
    Substantial dependence on Agriculture production
    A:low level of LIVING, developing country has low level of LIVING because their economy is yet to develop, people has to live from hand to mouth
    B:dependence and VULNERABILITY: in this situation underdeveloped countries depend on the other countries resources to live and some of the products produced by the country can be harmful to them ,when they can’t produce in their own country.
    C:Develoing country depend ont the Agriculture for their survival.

    Yes poverty has the face of the woman, According to the research of the United nations that out of the million of people suffering from poverty wemon are up to 70% that woman constitute half the world production, performe teo third of the its works RECEIVE one tenth of the world’s income and own less than one hundred, they are also suffered malnutrition and lack adequate education.

  23. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. The poverty rate is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. Gender Development Index (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. Low per capita income: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. Agriculture-based economies: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. Lack of infrastructure: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. High degrees of corruption: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. Dependence on Foreign Aid: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. High poverty rate: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. Low life expectancy: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. High rate of illiteracy: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. Environmental deterioration: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. High Consumption and Low Saving: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.
    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: Development Economics I (Eco 361)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) PER CAPITA: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. THE POVERTY RATE is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. LOW PER CAPITA INCOME: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. AGRICULTURE-BASED ECONOMIES: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. HIGH DEGREES OF CORRUPTION: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN AID: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. HIGH POVERTY RATE: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. HIGH RATE OF ILLITERACY: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. HIGH CONSUMPTION AND LOW SAVING: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.
    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: Development Economics I (Eco 361)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) PER CAPITA: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. THE POVERTY RATE is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. LOW PER CAPITA INCOME: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. AGRICULTURE-BASED ECONOMIES: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. HIGH DEGREES OF CORRUPTION: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN AID: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. HIGH POVERTY RATE: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. HIGH RATE OF ILLITERACY: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. HIGH CONSUMPTION AND LOW SAVING: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.

  24. Avatar Oguzie Echezonachukwu Sixtus says:

    Name: Oguzie Echezonachukwu Sixtus
    Registration Number: 2019/249165
    Department: Economics
    Eco 361

    Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist. China and India have been among the fastest growing economies in the world. Since 1995, average income in China has increased almost tenfold, while in India it has nearly quadrupled. Despite very different political and economic systems, both countries have lifted millions from poverty, while income inequality and environmental degradation have worsened. Given the scale of these changes, the emergence of India and China has had profound implications for the rest of the world. But China and India have pursued very different development paths. China’s economic model has focused on gearing its manufacturing industries toward exports for the rest of the world. India has also become increasingly integrated with the rest of the world, though under its model, domestic demand and services have played a more important role. As this process has played out, China has become the workshop of the world. India’s growth has been less spectacular, but in many industries, from petrochemicals to software, India has achieved success on the global stage. Chinese goods—from T-shirts and air conditioners to iPod components and furniture—are for sale in almost every country on the planet.
    Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. UN’s Human Poverty Index (HPI) – measures deprivation using percentage of people expected to die before age 40, percentage of illiterate adults, percentage of people without access to health services and safe water and the percentage of underweight children under age 5. UN’s Human Development Index (HDI) – measures a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development: life expectancy, educational attainment and adjusted real income ($PPP per person).
    Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations. a) Low real per capita income: When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. One of the biggest issues that undeveloped nations deal with is this. b) Unemployment and underemployment: A Problem: Other significant issues and prevalent traits of emerging or undeveloped countries include unemployment and underemployment. The issue of underemployment and unemployment in emerging nations is brought on by factors such as an overreliance on agriculture, a lack of industrialization, an improper use of natural resources, a lack of workforce planning, and others. Underemployment is a more significant issue than unemployment in developing countries. c) Consumption is high and saving is low: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.
    It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you don’t? Yes I agree. Women suffer more than men from crisis-driven budget and social spending cuts, which must be offset by investing in job training and female entrepreneurship. Women are facing a silent crisis which worsens and weakens their condition. Before the economic crisis unemployment, precarious work, part-time work, low salaries and slow career paths already affected women more than men. The effects of sexism and racism on institutional structures and across society limit the employment opportunities available to women, availability of caregiving supports, access to public social assistance programs, and more, leading to higher rates of poverty among women, particularly women of color, compared with men. Unmarried mothers have higher rates of poverty than married women, with or without children, and unmarried women without children. Almost one-quarter of unmarried mothers live below the poverty line. In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home, as mother and caretaker, and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home. These norms influence institutional policies and laws that define women’s and men’s access to productive resources such as education, employment, land and credit. There is overwhelming evidence from around the world to show that girls and women are more disadvantaged than boys and men in their access to these valued productive resources. There is also ample evidence to show that the responsibilities of women and the challenges they face within poor households and communities are different from those of men. Persistent gender inequality and differences in women’s and men’s roles greatly influence the causes, experiences and consequences of women’s poverty.

  25. Avatar Chukwunweike Nnamdi Lucky 2019/247233 says:

    ASSIGNMENT
    Economics 361 Development Economics

    Name: Chukwunweike Nnamdi Lucky
    Reg no: 2019/247233
    Department: CSS ECONOMICS/ sociology

    Question no 1:
    Capitalism is an economic system in which businesses and industries that produce the goods and services for the purpose of profit are regulated by the private holders for profit rather than the state.
    Capitalism, also known as a capitalist economy, in India implies that it is an economic system in which private businesses control and govern the factors of production such as capital goods, labour, natural resources, and entrepreneurship. The production of all goods and services in a capitalist economy is reliant on the market’s demand and supply. It is different from the main planning system, also known as an authority or planned economy. Capitalism in India has the most important role to play.
    • Private ownership
    • Forces of market
    • Profit is the main motive for production
    The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system and model of economic development employed in the People’s Republic of China. The system is a market economy with the predominance of public ownership and state-owned enterprises.[1] The term “socialist market economy” was introduced by Jiang Zemin during the 14th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1992 to describe the goal of China’s economic reforms.

    Question no 2:
    The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is another way to measure a country development and under development.
    The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education (mean years of schooling completed and expected years of schooling upon entering the education system), and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher level of HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and was further used to measure a country’s development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)’s Human Development Report Office.

    Question no 3
    Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Question no 4
    Gender discriminatory practices shape poverty: as expected, more women are at the suffering end. They suffer poverty of opportunities far more than men. Poverty gives rise to social powerlessness and political disenfranchisement, and these add to the vulnerability of the poor.
    To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition. Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities

  26. Avatar Iheanacho Emmanuel Chinedu Reg no: 2019/244463 Combined Social Science ( ECO/SOC) says:

    Answers:
    1.China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the developing world, have had a significant impact on the political and economic developments of the Third World. China, with its communist system and centrally planned economy, has served as an inspiration and model for many socialist and communist movements in the Third World. India, with its democratic system and mixed economy, has been a leading advocate for non-aligned and developing countries in the international arena. Both nations have played a major role in promoting the political and economic empowerment of the Third World through their domestic policies demand.

    2.These include measures of human development such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account factors such as health, education, and standard of living, and the Gender Development Index (GDI), which measures gender inequality. Other indicators include measures of economic development such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and measures of social development such as access to clean water and sanitation, and infant mortality rates. Additionally, some organizations and scholars have called for a more holistic approach to measuring development that takes into account factors such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights.

    3.
    Developing nations, also referred to as less developed or emerging economies, share several common characteristics. Some of these include:
    1.Low per capita income: Developing nations tend to have a lower standard of living and a lower per capita income compared to developed nations.
    2.High poverty and unemployment rates: Developing nations often have high poverty and unemployment rates, which can be due to a lack of job opportunities and a lack of access to education and training.
    3..Low levels of industrialization: Developing nations tend to have a lower level of industrialization, which means that they have a smaller share of the workforce employed in manufacturing and other industries.
    4.Dependence on agriculture: Many developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture, which can limit their economic growth and development.
    5.Inadequate infrastructure: Developing nations tend to have less developed infrastructure, such as roads, ports, airports and communication networks. This can be a barrier to economic growth and development.
    6.Political instability: Developing nations are often characterized by political instability, which can make it difficult for governments to implement policies and programs that promote economic growth and development.
    These are some of the common characteristics of developing nations, however, it is important to note that every country is unique and there are variations among developing nations.

    4. I agree that poverty has the face of a woman. This is because there is a significant body of evidence that suggests that women are disproportionately affected by poverty, compared to men. This is due to a number of factors, such as the gender pay gap, lack of access to education and job training, and discrimination in the workplace. Additionally, women are often responsible for the care of children and other dependents, which can make it more difficult for them to access paid employment.

    Overall, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman, as the data and research clearly indicate that women are disproportionately affected by poverty and face unique challenges in breaking out of it

  27. Avatar Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka Reg no: 2019/246458 says:

    Name: Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka
    Reg no: 2019/246458
    Dept: Economics
    Course number: Eco 361
    chukwuemekaemma2019@gmail.com
    1.China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the developing world, have had a significant impact on the political and economic developments of the Third World. China, with its communist system and centrally planned economy, has served as an inspiration and model for many socialist and communist movements in the Third World. India, with its democratic system and mixed economy, has been a leading/forefront advocate for non-aligned and developing countries in the international arena. Both nations have played a major role in promoting the political and economic empowerment of the Third World through their domestic policies demand.
    2.These include measures of human development such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account factors such as health, education, standard of living, and the Gender Development Index (GDI), which measures gender inequality. Other indicators include measures of economic development such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and measures of social development such as access to clean water and sanitation, and infant mortality rates. Additionally, some organizations and scholars have called for a more holistic approach/way to measuring development that takes into account factors such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights.
    3.Clearly discuss the common characteristics of developing nations
    Developing nations, also referred to as less developed or emerging economies, share several common properties. Some of these include:

    Low per capita income: Developing nations tend to have a lower standard of living and a lower per capita income compared to developed nations.

    High poverty and unemployment rates: Developing nations often have high poverty and unemployment rates, which can be due to a lack of job opportunities and a lack of access to education and training.

    Low levels of industrialization: Developing nations tend to have a lower level of industrialization, which means that they have a smaller share of the workforce employed in manufacturing and other industries.

    Dependence on agriculture: Many developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture, which can limit their economic growth and development.

    Inadequate infrastructure/Social amenities: Developing nations tend to have less developed infrastructure, such as roads, ports, airports and communication networks. This can be a barrier to economic growth and development.

    Political instability: Developing nations are often characterized by political instability, which can make it difficult for governments to implement policies and programs that promote economic growth and development.

    High population growth: Developing nations tend to have higher population growth rates, which can put a strain on resources and limit economic growth.

    Lack of access to education and healthcare: Developing nations often have lower levels of access to education and healthcare, which can limit the potential for economic development and improvement in the quality of life.

    These are some of the common characteristics of developing nations, however, it is important to note that every country is perculiar and there are variations among developing nations.

    4.I agree that poverty has the face of a woman. This is because there is a significant body of evidence that suggests that women are disproportionately affected by poverty, compared to men. This is due to a number of factors, such as the gender pay gap, lack of access to education and job training, and discrimination in the workplace. Additionally, women are often responsible for the care of children and other dependents, which can make it more difficult for them to access paid employment. Furthermore, patriarchal societal norms tend to limit women’s participation in the labor force and limit the sectors they can access which in turn limit their economic opportunities and earning potentials.

    Additionally, women are also more likely to live in poverty in older age due to the lack of social security and pension schemes that cover for women.

    Overall, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman, as the data and research clearly indicate that women are disproportionately affected by poverty and face unique challenges in breaking out of it

  28. Avatar Nwafor Njideka Faustina. 2019/246670 economics says:

    3.
    Lower Levels of Human Capital ; Human capital—health, education, and skills—is vital to economic growth and human development. We have already noted the great disparities in hu￾man capital around the world while discussing the Human Development In￾dex. Compared with developed countries, much of the developing world has lagged in its average levels of nutrition, health (as measured, for example, by life expectancy or undernourishment), and education (measured by literacy). The insufficient amount of physical and human capital is so characteristic a feature in all undeveloped economies that they are often called simply ‘capital-poor’ economies. One indication of the capital deficiency is the low amount of capital per head of population. Not only is the capital stock extremely small, but the current rate of capital formation is also very low. In the early 1950s in most of developing countries investment was only 5 per cent to 8 per cent of the national income, whereas in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, it was generally from 15 per cent to 30 per cent.
    Higher Population Growth Rates: Global population has skyrocketed since the beginning of the industrial era, from just under 1 billion in 1800 to 1.65 billion in 1900 and to over 6 billion by 2000. The United Nations estimates that the “day of 7 billion” will occur in late 2011 or early 2012. Rapid population growth began in Europe and other now developed countries. But in recent decades, most population growth has been centered in the developing world. Compared with the developed countries, which often have birth rates near or even below replacement (zero population growth) levels, the low-income developing countries have very high birth rates. More than five￾sixths of all the people in the world now live in developing countries. One important consequence of this rapid rate of population growth is that it throws more and more people on land and into informal sector to eke out their living from agriculture, since alternative occupations do not simultaneously develop and thus are not there to absorb the increasing numbers seeking gainful employment. The resultant pressure of population on land and in informal sector thus gives rise to what has been called “disguised unemployment”.
    Underutilization of Natural Resources: The natural resources in an underdeveloped economy are either unutilised or underutilised. Generally speaking, under-developed countries are not deficient in land, water, mineral, forest or power resources, though they may be untapped. In other words, they constitute only potential resources. The main problem in their case is that such resources have not been fully and properly utilised due to various difficulties such as shortage of capital, primitive technology and the small size of the market.
    Higher Levels of Inequality and Absolute Poverty: Massive Poverty: The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even the most fundamental demands cannot be met by them. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access. Globally, the poorest 20% of people receive just 1.5% of world income. The lowest 20% now roughly corresponds to the approximately 1.4 billion people living in extreme poverty on less than $1.25 per day at purchasing power par￾ity.19 Bringing the incomes of those living on less than $1.25 per day up to this minimal poverty line would require less than 2% of the incomes of the world’s wealthiest 10%.20 Thus the scale of global inequality is immense. But the enormous gap in per capita incomes between rich and poor nations is not the only manifestation of the huge global economic disparities. To ap￾preciate the breadth and depth of deprivation in developing countries, it is also necessary to look at the gap between rich and poor within individual de￾veloping countries. Very high levels of inequality—extremes in the relative incomes of higher- and lower-income citizens—are found in many middle￾income countries, partly because Latin American countries historically tend to be both middle-income and highly unequal. Several African countries, includ￾ing Sierra Leone, Lesotho, and South Africa, also have among the highest levels of inequality in the world.21 Inequality is particularly high in many resource-rich developing countries, notably in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, in many of these cases, inequality is substantially higher than in most developed countries (where inequality has in many cases been rising). But inequality varies greatly among developing countries, with generally much lower inequality in Asia.

    4.
    Yes, I agree”Poverty has a female face and the global economic downturn will have a significant impact on women as more of them lose jobs and are forced to manage shrinking household incomes,” This was what Ezekwesili said May 8 at the “Women and the Changing Global Outlook” conference organized by the British Embassy in Washington, and the National Geographic Society.

    “The face of poverty is female,” she said, sketching the portrait of the typical poor African youth “She is 18.5 years old. She lives in a rural area. She has dropped out of school. She is single, but is about to be married or be given in marriage to a man approximately twice her age. She will be the mother of six or seven kids in another 20 years,” said Ezekwesili, citing the findings of the latest edition of the annual World Bank publication, Africa Development Indicators (ADI).

  29. Avatar Chukwubuikem Chinaza Joy says:

    Name: Chukwubuikem Chinaza Joy
    Reg. Number: 2019/242315
    Department: library and information science
    3. a. Low per Capita income:
    b. Low standard of living:
    c. High population rate
    d. Technological backwardness
    4. Yes, poverty has the face of a woman. Women make up a substantial majority of the world’s poor. If we compared
    the lives of the inhabitants of the poorest communities throughout the developing world, we would discover that virtually everywhere, women and children experience the harshest deprivation. They are more likely to be poor and
    malnourished and less likely to receive medical services, clean water, sanitation, and other benefits.The prevalence of female-headed households, the
    lower earning capacity of women, and their limited control over their spouses’
    income all contribute to this disturbing phenomenon. In addition, women
    have less access to education, formal-sector employment, social security, and
    government employment programs. These facts combine to ensure that poor
    women’s financial resources are meager and unstable relative to men’s.

  30. Avatar Chukwubuikem Chinaza Joy says:

    Reg. Number: 2019/242315
    Department: library and information science
    3. a. Low per Capita income:
    b. Low standard of living:
    c. High population rate
    d. Technological backwardness
    4. Yes, poverty has the face of a woman. Women make up a substantial majority of the world’s poor. If we compared
    the lives of the inhabitants of the poorest communities throughout the developing world, we would discover that virtually everywhere, women and children experience the harshest deprivation. They are more likely to be poor and
    malnourished and less likely to receive medical services, clean water, sanitation, and other benefits.The prevalence of female-headed households, the
    lower earning capacity of women, and their limited control over their spouses’
    income all contribute to this disturbing phenomenon. In addition, women
    have less access to education, formal-sector employment, social security, and
    government employment programs. These facts combine to ensure that poor
    women’s financial resources are meager and unstable relative to men’s.

  31. Avatar NGANA THADDEUS IFEANYI REG, NO: 2019/246750 ECONOMICS says:

    Answers:
    1.China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the developing world, have had a significant impact on the political and economic developments of the Third World. China, with its communist system and centrally planned economy, has served as an inspiration and model for many socialist and communist movements in the Third World. India, with its democratic system and mixed economy, has been a leading advocate for non-aligned and developing countries in the international arena. Both nations have played a major role in promoting the political and economic empowerment of the Third World through their domestic policies demand.

    2.These include measures of human development such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account factors such as health, education, and standard of living, and the Gender Development Index (GDI), which measures gender inequality. Other indicators include measures of economic development such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and measures of social development such as access to clean water and sanitation, and infant mortality rates. Additionally, some organizations and scholars have called for a more holistic approach to measuring development that takes into account factors such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights.

    3.
    Developing nations, also referred to as less developed or emerging economies, share several common characteristics. Some of these include:
    1.Low per capita income: Developing nations tend to have a lower standard of living and a lower per capita income compared to developed nations.
    2.High poverty and unemployment rates: Developing nations often have high poverty and unemployment rates, which can be due to a lack of job opportunities and a lack of access to education and training.
    3..Low levels of industrialization: Developing nations tend to have a lower level of industrialization, which means that they have a smaller share of the workforce employed in manufacturing and other industries.
    4.Dependence on agriculture: Many developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture, which can limit their economic growth and development.
    5.Inadequate infrastructure: Developing nations tend to have less developed infrastructure, such as roads, ports, airports and communication networks. This can be a barrier to economic growth and development.
    6.Political instability: Developing nations are often characterized by political instability, which can make it difficult for governments to implement policies and programs that promote economic growth and development.
    7.High population growth: Developing nations tend to have higher population growth rates, which can put a strain on resources and limit economic growth.
    These are some of the common characteristics of developing nations, however, it is important to note that every country is unique and there are variations among developing nations.

    4. I agree that poverty has the face of a woman. This is because there is a significant body of evidence that suggests that women are disproportionately affected by poverty, compared to men. This is due to a number of factors, such as the gender pay gap, lack of access to education and job training, and discrimination in the workplace. Additionally, women are often responsible for the care of children and other dependents, which can make it more difficult for them to access paid employment.

    Overall, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman, as the data and research clearly indicate that women are disproportionately affected by poverty and face unique challenges in breaking out of it

  32. Avatar 2019/250115Nebechi Chinedu Joshua says:

    1.)The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.The main thrust came from
    the Group of 77 (G77), which had been created at the first United Nations Conference on
    Trade and Development (UNCTAD) meeting held in 1964.

    2.
    The United Nations uses a metric called the Human Development Index (HDI) to determine whether a country is fully developed or still developing. The HDI considers a broad range of factors, including economic growth, life expectancy, health, education, and quality of life. The highest possible HDI score is a 1.0, and any country that scores less than .80 is considered developing. Of the 191 countries analyzed in the 2021/22 Human Development Report, 125 scored below .80 and were considered developing

    3..

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    4.”Poverty has a woman’s face. Extreme poverty perpetuates a cycle of violence and discrimination against women and girls, and gender based inequality and violence keeps millions of women and girls in poverty and social exclusion. In many parts of the world, women and girls are denied equal opportunity in every aspect of life. Conversely, women are strong contributors to the economy, and can do much more if they are given equal resources. For instance, if women farmers have the same access as men to agricultural resources, we could potentially reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 100 to 150 million people!”

    See more at https://english.pravda.ru/history/122505-poverty_woman/

  33. Avatar 2019/250115Nebechi Chinedu Joshua says:

    1.)The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.

    2.
    The United Nations uses a metric called the Human Development Index (HDI) to determine whether a country is fully developed or still developing. The HDI considers a broad range of factors, including economic growth, life expectancy, health, education, and quality of life. The highest possible HDI score is a 1.0, and any country that scores less than .80 is considered developing. Of the 191 countries analyzed in the 2021/22 Human Development Report, 125 scored below .80 and were considered developing

    3.Some developing countries have weak institutional structure such as lack of property rights, absence of the rule of law and political instability which affect incentives to invest. Besides, there are lot of differences with regard to levels of education, health, food production and availability of natural resources. However, despite this great diversity there are many common features of the developing economies. It is because of common characteristics that their developmental problems are studied within a common analytical framework of development economics.

    4.”Poverty has a woman’s face. Extreme poverty perpetuates a cycle of violence and discrimination against women and girls, and gender based inequality and violence keeps millions of women and girls in poverty and social exclusion. In many parts of the world, women and girls are denied equal opportunity in every aspect of life. Conversely, women are strong contributors to the economy, and can do much more if they are given equal resources. For instance, if women farmers have the same access as men to agricultural resources, we could potentially reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 100 to 150 million people!”

    See more at https://english.pravda.ru/history/122505-poverty_woman/

  34. Avatar Ugwu Sandra Amarachi. REG NO:2019/251531 says:

    2) Accordingly, countries have been grouped as high-income, upper middle income, lower middle income and low-income
    3) Low Per Capita Real Income
    Low per capita real income is one of the most defining characteristics of developing economies. They suffer from low per capita real income level, which results in low savings and low investments.
    High Population Growth Rate
    Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care.
    High Rates of Unemployment
    In rural areas, unemployment suffers from large seasonal variations. However, unemployment is a more complex problem requiring policies beyond traditional fixes.
    Dependence on Primary Sector
    Almost 75% of the population of low-income countries is rurally based. As income levels rise, the structure of demand changes, which leads to a rise in the manufacturing sector and then the services sector.
    Dependence on Exports of Primary Commodities
    Since a significant portion of output originates from the primary sector, a large portion of exports is also from the primary sector. For example, copper accounts
    4) YES it’s true because Lack of income deprives women of basic needs, such as food and shelter, and limits their opportunities for advancement. As women disproportionately earn less income than men, they are deprived of basic education and healthcare, which lowers their lifetime earning potential

  35. Avatar Omeje christopher obinna says:

    OMEJE CHRISTOPHER OBINNA
    2019/245701
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    3 – Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    – Low Per Capita Real Income: The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save.

    -Technological Backwardness: The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated.

    -Lack of Infrastructures: Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    – Lower Productivity: In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    4- Almost 25 years ago, a UN Human Development Report claimed that ­“poverty has a woman’s face”. ­Gender inequality is a major cause and effect of poverty. An estimated one in three women experience gender-based violence in their lifetime and women are statistically more likely to live in extreme poverty than men. It is ­simply not right that ­millions of women are disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and violence.

  36. Avatar Joseph Prosper Chizundu says:

    Joseph Prosper Chizundu
    2019/247776
    Economics

    3.
    1) Low per capital income: The real per capita income of developing countries as compared to developed countries is low. This means that average income per person of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save.
    2) Mass poverty: most individuals in developing nations suffer from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill their basic needs.
    3) Rapid population: Developing countries have a high population or a rapid population growth. There are several factors behind higher population growth in developing countries, example illiteracy.
    4) UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDER EMPLOYMENT: This is due to the inability of available jobs to be sufficient for the growing population.

    4.
    Poverty has the face of a woman, yes I agree. Why: I agree that poverty has the face of a woman as women are much more prone to poverty due to social norms which dictate that some jobs cannot be done by women as well as the structural a job or being promoted in her job. Further weathered the storm and climbed to the pinnacles of society but more, women face sexual harassment at work as well as domestic violence and this simply leads to poverty. Few women though, have the fact that these women stand out is a clear indication that they are the exception not the rule, therefore, poverty has the face of a woman.

  37. Avatar Omitoogun Matteen Omidayo 2019/244704 says:

    1. The Bandung conference in 1955 was the beginning of political emergence of the third world. As a result of decolonisation,the United Nations,at first was dominated by the European countries and countries of European origin was transformed into a third world forum. With increasing urgency, the problem of underdevelopment then became the focus of a permanent debate.
    2. Other indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment includes:
    i. The human development index
    ii. Life expectancy
    iii. Literacy rate
    iv. Birth and death rate
    v. The general standard of living.
    3.i. Low per capita income: The low per capita income of a developing country is very low as compared to the developed countries. This means the average income of per person income of developing countries is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save.
    ii. Mass poverty: most citizens of developing countries have been suffering from the problem of poverty They are not able to feel even their basic needs
    iii. Rapid population growth: developing countries have either a high population growth or large population size.
    iv. Excessive dependency on Agriculture: The majority of the population in developing countries is engaged in the agricultural sector. Most times it is the only sole source of income and employment in such nation.
    v. Lack of infrastructure: Infrastructural development like transportation, communication power etc is not well developed in developing countries even the developed infrastructure is also mismanaged and not distributed efficiently and equitably.
    4. YES
    I agree that ” Poverty has the face of a woman” because woman face the burden of childbearing, child rearing and domestic unpaid labour. By which they are denied the opportunity for growth without access to adequate health care, Education or income and also forced to live in the high bind of culture and traditions. Their vulnerability prevent them from advancing their innate capabilities

  38. Avatar Okafor Roseline Chugo 2019/248202 says:

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    The concurrent rise of China and India represents a geopolitical event of historic proportions. Rarely has the global system witnessed the reemergence of two major powers simultaneously—states that possess large populations, have ancient and storied histories, abut each other spatially and politically, and dominate the geographic environs within which they are located. Their return to center stage after several centuries of imperial domination thus presages the reincarnation of an earlier era in Asian geopolitics when China and India were among the most important concentrations of political power in the international system since the fall of Rome. The parallel revival of these two nations also dramatically exemplifies Asia’s resurgence in the global system. Although there has been a steady shift in the concentration of capabilities from West to East ever since the end of World War II, this transformation took a decisive turn when the smaller, early-industrializing nations of Asia—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore—were joined by the large, continental-sized states of China and India. The recent renaissance of China and India is owed in large measure to their productive integration into the liberal economic order built and sustained by American hegemony in the postwar period. As a result of that integration, both of these giants have experienced dramatic levels of economic growth in recent decades. China’s economic performance, for example, has been simply meteoric, exceeding even the impressive record set by the first generation of Asian tigers between 1960 and 1990. During the last thirty or so years, China has demonstrated average real growth in excess of 9 percent annually, with growth rates touching 13–14 percent in peak years. As a result, China’s per capita income rose by more than 6 percent every year from 1978 to 2003—much faster than that of any other Asian country, significantly better than the 1.8 percent per year in Western Europe and the United States, and four times as fast as the world average. This feat has made the Chinese economy—in purchasing-power-parity terms—the second largest in the world with a 2010 gross domestic product (GDP) of roughly $10 trillion. Many scholars believe that China will likely overtake the United States in GDP size at some point during the first half of this century. India’s economic performance has not yet matched China’s in either intensity or longevity. New Delhi’s economic reforms, which have produced India’s recent spurt in growth, began only in the early 1990s, over a decade after China’s. To date, these reforms have been neither comprehensive nor complete, and they have been hampered by the contestation inherent in India’s democratic politics, the complexity of the Indian federal system, the lack of elite consensus on critical policy issues, and the persistence of important rent-seeking entities within the national polity.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    Here are some of the Indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment
    1. GNP per capita: GNP per capita is calculated as GNP divided by population; it is usually expressed in US Dollars. It’s a common indicator used for measuring development, but is imperfect as the calculation doesn’t take into account certain forms of production, such as subsistence production.
    2. Birth and death rates: Crude Birth and Death rates (per 1000) can be used as an overall measure of the state of healthcare and education in a country, though these numbers do not give a full picture of a nation’s situation.
    The Human Development Index (HDI): The HDI is a composite statistic calculated from the:
    .Life expectancy index
    .Education index
    .Mean years of schooling index
    .Expected years of schooling index
    3. Income index: Countries are ranked based on their score and split into categories that suggest how well developed they are.
    .Infant mortality rate: Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
    .Literacy rate: The rate, or percentage, of people who are able to read is a useful indicator of the state of education within a country.
    .High female literacy rates generally correspond with an increase in the knowledge of contraception and a falling birth rate.
    .Life expectancy: This simple statistic can be used as an indicator of the:
    .healthcare quality in a country or province
    .level of sanitation
    .provision of care for the elderly
    It should not, of course, be used on its own to describe these things.

    3. Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Characteristics of Developing Countries are:
    1. Low Per Capita Real Income: The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    2. Mass Poverty: Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    3. Rapid Population Growth: Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    4. The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment: Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.
    5. Excessive Dependence on Agriculture: The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    6. Technological Backwardness: The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    7. Dualistic Economy: Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    8. Lack of Infrastructures: Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    9. Lower Productivity: In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    10. High Consumption and Low Saving: In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    4. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?
    Yes poverty has the face of a woman and have seen this in many of our society today. Both men and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure the children receive proper education, food, shelter etc. However women are always at the forefront where there is poverty. In many African communities, the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elderly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result, when a child is hungry, they go to the mother or grand mother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. This is what is called gender inequality. Gender inequality is a major cause and effect of poverty. An estimated one in three women experience gender-based violence in their lifetime and women are statistically more likely to live in extreme poverty than men. It is ­simply not right that millions of women are disproportionately affected by poverty, discrimination and violence.
    Although, poverty affects everyone negatively, women and children stand at the centre of that injustice. Poverty, unless the imbalance is redressed, is handed down with each new generation inheriting the challenges and burdens of an unjust system. Secondly I think the reason why poverty has the face of a woman is because there is more women population in the world than men so when carrying out a research it is easier to sample women.

  39. Avatar Nwokedi Samuel Chinenye 2019/241213 says:

    1.)The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.The main thrust came from
    the Group of 77 (G77), which had been created at the first United Nations Conference on
    Trade and Development (UNCTAD) meeting held in 1964.

    2.
    Some examples of social indicators of development include:

    Education levels – for example how many years of schooling children have.

    Health – often measured by life expectancy.

    Employment Rates

    Gender equality

    Peacefulness

    Democracy

    Corruption

    Media freedoms

    Civil Rights

    Crime/ social unrest

    Suicide Rates

    Composite indicators of all of the above

    3 Characteristics of Developing Countries
    Even though there is no clear-cut way to define development, developing countries are consistently united by a body of shared characteristics. These include economic, demographic, political, and cultural factors.

    Developing countries have been suffering from common attributes like mass poverty, high population growth, lower living standards, illiteracy, unemployment and underemployment, underutilization of resources, socio-political variability, lack of good governance, uncertainty, and vulnerability, low access to finance, and so on.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    Major Characteristics are:
    1) Low Per Capita Real Income
    2)Mass Poverty
    3)Rapid Population growth
    4)Underemployment and Unemployment
    5)Low level of Technology etc

    4 I agree and that is is because Women are more likely to live in poverty than men, and they need robust, targeted solutions to ensure their long-term economic security. Women experience higher rates of poverty than men. In 2018, 12.9 percent of women lived in poverty compared with 10.6 percent of men.*10 Nearly 10 million women lived in deep poverty, defined as falling below 50 percent of the federal poverty line.
    There is more women population in the world than man so when doing research is easier to sample women
    As much as it’s known that a man is a provider , a woman has to be the one that provides for the kids  in the interim while the man goes  to “hunt”.
    I have noticed that on social media and TV when pictures are showed to potray  or express poverty in most cases it is a picture of  women and children. 

  40. Avatar Anibodi Chiamaka Teska says:

    ANIBODI CHIAMAKA TESKA
    2019/243747
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    No 1:
    Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist. As a result of the decolonization, the United Nations at first numerically dominated by European countries and countries of European origin was gradually transformed into something of a third world forum. With increasing urgency, the problem of underdevelopment then became the focus of a permanent, although essentially academic debate resulting to China and India playing a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries.

    NO 2.
    Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development and they are classified under low, low middle, upper middle and high income countries.

    NO 3.

    Characteristics of developing countries.
    1. Low level of living
    2. Low level of productivity
    3. High rates of population growth and dependency burdens.
    4. High and rising levels of unemployment and under employment
    5. Traditional rural social structures
    6. Widespread poverty

    NO 4.
    Yes I do, this is because women tends to be the most intimidated in the society and due to this they suffer depression and it’s equivalent to poverty.

  41. Avatar NWAFOR EMMANUEL ONYEDIKACHI says:

    1]

    The beginning of the political emergence can be traced back to the bandung conference in 1955, China alongside India played a vital role in changing the relationship between the third world countries and the industrialised countries, capitalist and Communist. China alongside India played a very important role of promoting and poularizing the bandung conference hence leading to the third world countries being able to gain access to the UN(united nation). The United Nations which was once dominated by European countries was gradually transformed into something of a third world forum.

    2]

    The indicators for measuring development and under development is know as the human development index (HDI). This simply put is a measurement system used by the United Nations to evaluate the level of individual human development in each country. It was introduced by the U.N. in the year 1990.
    It is a statistic that was developed and compiled by the United Nations to measure various countries’ levels of social and economic development. This index is a tool used to follow changes in development levels over time and compare the development levels of different countries.
    The HDI places emphasis on individuals by focusing more precisely, on their opportunities to realize satisfying work and lives. Evaluating a country’s potential for individual human development provides a supplementary metric for evaluating a country’s level of development.

    3]

    Developing countries are otherwise known as underdeveloped countries or third-world countries, they have some common characteristics some of these characteristics are briefly explained below.

    The first is that they’re characterised by Low Per Capita Real Income, the real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. Income in these countries are little and as such not sufficient for majority of the population to invest or even save.
    Another characteristics is that they’re characterised by Mass Poverty hence majority of the people are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs,
    Another important characteristics is that there are high rates of Unemployment, Unemployment is a major problem and a common feature of developing or underdeveloped nations.
    Finally developing nations are Technological Backward, the fact that the development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology implies that the use of technology in developing countries is very low and even when technology is used such technologies are grossly outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations.

    4]

    I agree with the statement that poverty has a womans face, because studies have shown facts that corresponds with the statement that Women of nearly all races and ethnicities face higher rates of poverty than their male counterparts. For example In the United States, more women than men live in poverty. According to U.S. Census Bureau data, of the 38.1 million people living in poverty in 2018, 56 percent—or 21.4 million—were women.

  42. Avatar Name:Okoro Peter Ogoegbu Nnenna says:

    Name:Okoro Peter Ogoegbu Nnenna
    Department: combined social science (economics/political science)
    Reg.no 2019/243013
    1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.capitalism, also called free market economy or free enterprise economy, economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets.Capitalism is an economic ideology in which the means of production is controlled by private business. This means that individual citizens run the economy without the government interfering in production or pricing. Instead, pricing is set by the free market. This means that value is based on supply and demand and the relationship between producers and consumers.A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc, and the Warsaw Pact.[1] Marxism–Leninism currently still remains thhe ideology of a few parties around the world. After its peak when many communist states were established, the Revolutions of 1989 brought down most of the communist states, however, it is still the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam.[2] During most of the 20th century, before the Revolutions of 1989, around one-third of the world’s population lived under communist states.2.)Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.The measurement of economic development can be done through the human development index (the HDI)This is the most used index to measure economic development. It takes the following three factors into account:A. Health. The HDI measures the average life expectancy in a specific country and compares it to the global average. .Education. The HDI measures the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling in a country.C Standard of living. The HDI measures the gross national income (GNI) per head, using the principle of purchasing power parity, PPP.In determining the HDI, each component has an equal weighting of 33%. The closer the HDI is to 1, the more developed the country is.*There are a few developmental measures. They are: A. HDI – Human Development Index.B. HPI – Human Poverty Index.Multidimensional Poverty Index.C. GPI – Genuine Progress Indicator3.)Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.Major Characteristics of Developing CountriesLow Per Capita Real IncomeThe real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.Mass PovertyMost individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.Rapid Population GrowthDeveloping countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.The Problem of Unemployment and UnderemploymentUnemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries. Excessive Dependence on AgricultureThe majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.Technological BackwardnessThe development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.Dualistic EconomyDuality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.Lack of InfrastructuresInfrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.Lower ProductivityIn developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.High Consumption and Low SavingIn developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy. The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020. So, challenges to development for developing nations have been added furthermore. In a summary, the major characteristics of developing countries are presented in the following table. 1 Low Per Capita Real Income2 Mass Poverty3 Rapid Population Growth4 The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment5 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture6 Technological Backwardness7 Dualistic Economy8 Lack of Infrastructures9 Lower Productivity10 High Consumption and Low Saving4.)It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you noIn support the motion that poverty has a woman face,To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture …

  43. Avatar ILAMI BENISON IBOH 2019/241788 says:

    ILAMI BENISON IBOH
    2019/241788
    ECONOMICS
    bilami35@gmail.com

    3.
    Characteristics of Developing Nations include

    a) LOW PER CAPITA REAL INCOME
    This implies that the average income per person of a developing nation is little and insufficient to invest or save.

    b) MASS POVERTY
    Mass poverty is inherent in developing nations as savings and investments by poor people is low.

    c) RAPID POPULATION GROWTH
    Developing Nations have the problem of high population or high population growth rate caused by lower sex education, lack of family planning.

    d) UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT
    This is due to the inability of available jobs to be sufficient for the teeming population

    e)TECHNOLOGICAL BACKWARDNESS
    In developing nations, there is little or no Innovative technology and this leads to lower productivity.

    f) LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE
    There is a huge lack of infrastructure and the little infrastructure available is poorly managed.

    4.
    I agree that poverty has the face of a woman as women are much more prone to poverty due to social norms which dictate that some jobs cannot be done by women as well as the structural discrimination of women in work environments where women face lesser possibilities of getting a job or being promoted in her job.
    Furthermore, women face sexual harassment at work as well as domestic violence and this simply leads to poverty.
    Few women though, have weathered the storm and climbed to the pinnacles of society but the fact that these women stand out is a clear indication that they are the exception not the rule, therefore, poverty has the face of a woman.

  44. Avatar igbadi odiya danladi says:

    ECO 361
    IGBADI ODIYA DANLADI
    2019/244347
    ECONOMICS

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist ->>>

    China and India, as two of the largest countries in the world and with vastly different political and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political and economic structure of the Third World. Both nations have been influential in promoting the emergence of Third World countries and in changing the relationship between these countries and the industrialized nations of the world. China, with its Communist government and planned economy, has been a strong advocate for Third World countries and has provided economic and military support to many of these nations. India, with its democratic government and mixed economy, has also been a significant player in the Third World, promoting economic development and democracy in these countries. Both nations have played a role in shaping the relationship between the Third World and the industrialized nations, capitalist and Communist.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.-:-

    In addition to Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, other indicators commonly used to measure development include;
    A.) Human Development Index (HDI)
    B.) The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
    C.) Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality).
    These indicators take into recognition some factors such as life expectancy, education, and standard of living, in addition to economic indicators like GDP and GNI. The United Nations, World Bank, and other international organizations use these indicators to classify countries as “developed,” “developing,” or “least developed” and to monitor progress towards sustainable development goals.

    3. The common characteristics of developing countries include;

    a.) Low level of living:- In a developing country the level of living is being classified as low and the cost of living is usually high. The most average persons find it difficult to get the basic amenities for living, like clothing, shelter, food e.t.c.

    b.) Dependence on agricultural production and primary products exports:- Most developing countries focus majorly on the production of agricultural and primary product instead of moving to industrialization and industrial goods. This makes them dependant on countries for other facilities, instruments, tools and amenities apart from food.

    c.) Traditional / Rural social structures:- You would notice in all developing countries a distinction between the urban areas and rural areas (villages). In developing countries there is presence of rural or traditional social structures around and less modern structures.

    d.) High level of insecurity:- Insecurity and terrorism is rampart in most developing countries as they don’t have enough resources to invest in highly sophisticated military system.

    e.) High and rising level of unemployment and underemployment:- Developing countries are characterised by a massive number of people who are unemployed or underemployed. There’s no system put in place to help the masses to be gainfully employed.

    4. Yes, I agree to the argument that poverty has the face of a woman.

    Why..

    The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” depicts that women are unequally affected by poverty. This is supported by data which shows that women often have fewer economic opportunities and face greater barriers to financial stability than men.
    One reason is that women that works are more likely to be paid low or lower than men for the same work.
    Additionally, women face the primary responsibility of taking care for children and other dependants, which can make it more difficult for them to be employed easily or advance their in career.
    Another reason is the gender inequalities that exists in many societies, which can limit women’s access to education, employment, and other opportunities that are necessary for escaping poverty.
    In conclusion, I agree that poverty has a impact on women. Moreover, it is important to note that poverty affects people of all genders, races,

  45. Avatar igbadi odiya danladi says:

    ECO 361
    IGBADI ODIYA DANLADI
    2019/244347
    odiyadanladi190@gmail.com

    ECONOMICS

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist ->>>

    China and India, as two of the largest countries in the world and with vastly different political and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political and economic structure of the Third World. Both nations have been influential in promoting the emergence of Third World countries and in changing the relationship between these countries and the industrialized nations of the world. China, with its Communist government and planned economy, has been a strong advocate for Third World countries and has provided economic and military support to many of these nations. India, with its democratic government and mixed economy, has also been a significant player in the Third World, promoting economic development and democracy in these countries. Both nations have played a role in shaping the relationship between the Third World and the industrialized nations, capitalist and Communist.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.-:-

    In addition to Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, other indicators commonly used to measure development include;
    A.) Human Development Index (HDI)
    B.) The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
    C.) Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality).
    These indicators take into recognition some factors such as life expectancy, education, and standard of living, in addition to economic indicators like GDP and GNI. The United Nations, World Bank, and other international organizations use these indicators to classify countries as “developed,” “developing,” or “least developed” and to monitor progress towards sustainable development goals.

    3. The common characteristics of developing countries include;

    a.) Low level of living:- In a developing country the level of living is being classified as low and the cost of living is usually high. The most average persons find it difficult to get the basic amenities for living, like clothing, shelter, food e.t.c.

    b.) Dependence on agricultural production and primary products exports:- Most developing countries focus majorly on the production of agricultural and primary product instead of moving to industrialization and industrial goods. This makes them dependant on countries for other facilities, instruments, tools and amenities apart from food.

    c.) Traditional / Rural social structures:- You would notice in all developing countries a distinction between the urban areas and rural areas (villages). In developing countries there is presence of rural or traditional social structures around and less modern structures.

    d.) High level of insecurity:- Insecurity and terrorism is rampart in most developing countries as they don’t have enough resources to invest in highly sophisticated military system.

    e.) High and rising level of unemployment and underemployment:- Developing countries are characterised by a massive number of people who are unemployed or underemployed. There’s no system put in place to help the masses to be gainfully employed.

    4. Yes, I agree to the argument that poverty has the face of a woman.

    Why..

    The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” depicts that women are unequally affected by poverty. This is supported by data which shows that women often have fewer economic opportunities and face greater barriers to financial stability than men.
    One reason is that women that works are more likely to be paid low or lower than men for the same work.
    Additionally, women face the primary responsibility of taking care for children and other dependants, which can make it more difficult for them to be employed easily or advance their in career.
    Another reason is the gender inequalities that exists in many societies, which can limit women’s access to education, employment, and other opportunities that are necessary for escaping poverty.
    In conclusion, I agree that poverty has a impact on women. Moreover, it is important to note that poverty affects people of all genders, races,

  46. Avatar Attama Lilian ogechukwu says:

    Attama Lilian Ogechukwu
    Reg no 2019/243411
    Department: Economics
    1) The banding conference in 1957 was the beginning of the political emergency of the third world. As a result of decolonization, the united Nations at first have dominated by European countries and countries of European origin , was gradually formed into something of the third world forum with increase urgency, the problem of underdevelopment then became the focus of permanent although some academic debate. Despite that debate,the unity of the third world remains hypothetical, expressed on from platform of national conference .
    2) Although development can be measured through various ways, the united nations Human development index measure development through the following ways
    1) Education attainment
    2) Adjusted Real income
    3)life expectancy
    While that of UN Human poverty index is measured in
    1percentage of people expected to die before age 40.
    2)Percentage of illiterate adults .
    3) percentage of people without access to health services and safe water.
    Percentage of underweight children under 5.

    3) clear discuss and analyze the common characteristic of developing nation
    1) Low level of productivity: A developing nations are characterized with low productivity. They do not have the capacity in other to produce much. Productivity are usually at low level because of low adequate of founding and facilities in the developing nation.
    2 ) High and rising level of unemployment and underemployment. There are unemployment and underemployment in the developing nation. This is when person is eligible and able to work and are not able to find job. In the developing nation there are also under employment. This is where by people that are working are working below his capacity. For when an economist is working as a cleaner. So developing nation are soly characterized with all these.
    3) low level of living: Developing nation are living at low level, they are struggling to solved They live in poverty.
    4) Traditional rural structure : This is when there are traditional structure. In the developing nation infrastructure that is there are mainly traditional structure especially in rural areas.
    5) substantial dependence on agriculture product . Developing nation or countries they depends mainly on substantial because there are not enough funding to support them in such as a commercial agriculture.
    4) it has been that poverty has the face of women. As a budding, as economics clearly discuss and analyze this statement. Do you agree or disagree, if yes why if no why
    Yes I agree
    Women has the face of poverty. This is because woman are the caretaker of the family. In a situation where by the father or the uncle are not there it is the woman that will take care of the family. Women carry all the burden associated in the family or in society. Some times men fill less consign about what is happening but is women that will rise up and control any situation. There are believe that women stay longer than women and no matter how you treat women she will definitely come out from that situation with wisdom

  47. Avatar Idajor John Ayuochieyi says:

    MAME: IDAJOR JOHN AYUOCHIEYI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG. NUMBER: 2019/248707

    1. China and India have now become global economic powers. Even at the market exchange rate, China overtook Japan in 2010 as the world’s second largest economy. China’s trade and financial activities, India’s emergence as a technology and innovation hub and both countries’ commerce and investment interactions with other developing nations have been covered extensively in all forms of media.

    China and India are now both regarded as economic and political drivers of the international economy, particularly in the trade arena and in regards to global governance. Their economic engagement with developing countries and regions entails interactions in the areas of labour, human rights, international relations, security and environmental sustainability. The potential threats are mostly associated with trade and financial flows and with the social and political implications of China’s financial outflows.

    Not with stand in, in the midst of the recent global economic crises, China and India’s demand for developing country goods proved to be a cushion to the declining flows of resources from advanced nations. China and India influence global economic and political dynamics and can provide alternative sources of development assistance for developing countries. They can also provide a number of potential lessons for other developing countries, three of which are highlighted in this article: absorption of surplus labour, raising of domestic and foreign investment and support for R&D
    Labour market resemblance are key in understanding how economic growth has led to taking in of surplus labour in these economies — particularly in China. Here surplus labour from the traditional agricultural sector has shifted to the progressive industrial sector, thus promoting industrialization.

    Characteristics of China’s labour market include an extensive rural-urban inequity, rapid rural-urban migration (despite various restrictions) and high and rising real wages in the formal sectors. In this respect, it has much in common with other emerging economies, such as South Africa. It is instructive however, to draw out the differences between China and South Africa, as this may hold some general lessons for the role of labour market dynamics in economic growth.

    China, a labour-surplus economy, is rapidly experiencing a scarcity of labour. In contrast, South Africa — which historically has featured worker shortages — is increasingly suffering from a labour surplus in the form of open unemployment. South Africa’s labour market structure is affected both by the rural-urban migration as well as from inflows of foreign workers.
    2. The traditional way of measuring development was brought forth by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) which measures a country’s development in three perspectives namely: Longevity, knowledge and the standard of living in the country. They use the range 0 to 1 to determine the level of development of any nation.
    The longevity aspect measures the life expectancy of individuals in a nation, this has to do with the health stature of the people and the diseases the takes life in the country and how it is being eradicated.
    The knowledge aspect looks at the literacy tendency of the people in a nation, both of the tender age, those in the university and the number of literates in the society. With this measure, they’ll be able to tell if the number of educated persons in the country is high or low.
    The last phase of measurement is on the standard of living of a nation, this checks on their GDP and how well it used in the country.
    Unfortunately, this traditional method of checking Human Development Index has so many set back that makes not to tell of the real development measure, in regards to this, the United Nations, coupled with World banks and other Bretton Woods institutions came up with a way of improvement and a better way to measure the socioeconomic development of a nation. The following are the changes made.
    The use of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a measure of a nation’s development was replaced with Gross National Income (GNI). This is because, GNI shows the income earn and spent by citizens of a nation who are both in and outside the country.
    Also, the education index used in measuring the rate at which knowledge is in a country has been improved. Two new compo￾nents have been added: the average actual educational attainment of the whole population and the expected attainment of today’s children. With this two added measures, there can be distinction between children who are still attending knowledge at a tender age and those who are at an upper stage.
    Expected educational attainment: This also was added because, most students in many countries do not complete the expected level of educational attainment. Most of such case is in Nigeria. With this means, they also check the development of a nation.
    Also, literacy has been replaced with the achievement of educated person. Why this came up is that, in most countries, especially in developing ones, the standard of education in such countries is very low, that is why a graduate cannot speak fluent and well constructed English. With this and many others factors surrounding this issue, it has been concluded that the literacy of individuals shows a lot in their achievements, both intellectually and in a creative manner.
    Instead of using the common logarithm (log) to reflect diminishing marginal benefit of income, the NHDI now uses the natural log (ln), this reflects a more usual construction of indexes.
    Lastly, the most consequential change is that the NHDI is computed with a geometric mean.
    All these changes made by the United nations, World Banks and the Brett on Woods institutions made it easy to appropriately compute and measure the socioeconomic development of a nation.
    3. The common characteristics of developing nations are as follows:
    Lower levels of human capital
    Lower levels of living and productivity
    Higher levels of inequality and absolute poverty
    Higher population growth rate
    Greater social fractionalization
    Large rural populations but rapid rural to urban migration
    Lower levels of industrialization and manufactured exports
    Adverse geography
    Underdeveloped market
    Export dependence

    Lower levels of human capital: It is clear that as human beings cannot do without the basic necessities of life such as food, shelter and clothing, so also it is for any nation to stay without the basic human capitals such as health, education and skills. Looking at them closely as follows:
    Health: It is the state of being free from physical or psychological disease, illness, or malfunction. For developing nations that are still under the verge of getting to know more about health like the developed nations, their health facilities are still very poor likewise the medical practitioners and operators. A point of reference can be the case of Nigeria whose medical facilities are not worthful as compared to other nations like India, America, China, etc. Most of our politicians in Nigeria, whenever they fall sick no matter the how small the illness may be are being flied abroad to receive treatment while the citizens are left to feed under the excretes of the low health facilities.
    Taking some analysis of past years, the under 5 mortality rate is 17 time higher in countries with low income due to health issue, therefore, nations that are still developing are to look into the area of health in order to save lives.
    Education: Another low level of human capital in developing countries is education. Most developing countries are not aware of the importance and the benefit of education and as such, it is being played with. In our country Nigeria, the value of education has been downtrodden by the present government, that is why there have been series of strikes from workers and still the response of the government is at a discouraging rate. For a country or nation to have a good level of education, the government should be able to plan and to put in place all the necessary things needed for good learning beginning from the low level of education up to the higher institution. Due to the lack of good education system in developing countries, there is likeliness of illiteracy in such nations and even those that claims to be graduates are not competent enough for the name they bear.
    Skills: Skill acquisition is one of the main goals of education. When there is a low level of education in a nation, the skills to be acquired by the youths are not there. In a country like China, every child born at the age of 18 is out of school and has something to do, at a tender age, each child is being taught how to do one thing or the other so that they can progress. If the developing nations would practical method of learning to the other methods, there would be change.
    2. Lower levels of living and productivity: The developing nations are characterized by lower level of living due to the situations they found themselves. In a nation where all the different economic sectors are not functioning well, then, there is possibility for a low standard of living and productivity. Looking at the various sector of production in a country like agriculture, if the nature of production in the country is subsistence farming where farmers produce only for consumption, then, there is always a low standard of living. Here, for them to progress, the government should provide them with the modern mechanized tools for farming whereby they can produce for but consumption and for sales which will generate income. If 70% of the country is into a mechanized system of farming, imagine for 5 years, what will be the income of the farmers, with this, the farmers after getting enough income can further get other processing machines that can process and package those primary products they have gotten and also sell them. Like the agricultural aspect, if such is applied to other aspects, there will be growth and development.
    3.Higher levels of inequality and absolute poverty: It is true that resources are not evenly distributed, the same way those resources are inequitably distributed, in like manner are the income gotten from there are unevenly distributed. This case of inequitable distribution of income happens even in the developed countries, but their case is different because they are rich and it is not at a high rate, looking at an undeveloped country where there is less income as compared to developed nations, the inequality in the distribution of income is very high because the income at first would not be able to go round and to satisfy all members of the country, also, there is lack of comprehensive method of distribution of such income, therefore, in such a nation, some part of the country may earn higher than others while other may not get anything at all, as a result of this inequitable distribution, there is reduction in production. Example is the case in Nigeria where the proceed from crude oil which is gotten from the south are all used to develop the North leaving the other parts of the country undeveloped.
    4. Higher population growth rate: The number of population in a developing countries is actually high due to some reasons. For example, people believe that the more you have children, the more you’ll have enough laborers to work in your farm and to make more gain. Also, there is this believe that having a large family is a pride to that family. This happens due to lack of knowledge and understanding of the new methods of work used in developed countries. Also, there is lack of family planning in developing countries, for example, in China, a family must not have more than two children, with this you can see that the rate at which birth is given is under control.
    Research has it that, from 1990 to 2008, the population in developing countries increased at 2.2% yearly while in developed countries, the rate at which the population increased was at 1.3%, with this over population, there is increase in dependency rate in the developing countries and this leads to more problems.
    5.Lower levels of industrialization and manufactured exports: The other deep rooted problem of developing countries is low level of industrialization and manufactured exports. In many developing countries, the number of industries found in such countries are quite discouraging, the reverse case is that, in most of these developing countries are found enough resources that can be processed into finished goods. A direct case is that of Nigeria. Nigeria is blessed with crude oil which up till date is the main source of its income in the country, but if asked, how many refineries are there in Nigeria? The answer would be a heart broken one. Nigeria extracts crude oil and sent it abroad to be refined after which they pay for it refining and then sell back to the people, if Nigeria can have up to even 5 refineries, it would make more gain and its good would have value than before, that is why naira is depreciating almost everyday.
    With the location of industries in a developing country, there will be less import of manufactured goods, rather they will export more goods to other countries.
    6. Underdeveloped markets: The market structure of the developing countries are always not developed because they are in the process of development, and being in a rural area, they lack some of the necessary things a developed market supposed to have such as: (1) a legal system that validates property rights and enforce contracts (2) a stable and trustworthy currency (3) a good infrastructure of roads and utilities that leads to low transport cost and communication cost which facilitate interregional trade (5) a developed banking system for keeping of money (6) social rules and regulations that facilitate successful long term business relationship.
    When all these are not in place in a developing countries, the need for a developed market is at stake.
    4.
    World widely, the World Bank made an estimate that 1.29 billion people are live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. A point of reference is in Pakistan, it is no different, but without a national census, it isn’t even possible to gauge the correct picture. Poverty is difficult to quantify: the methodology used by the government has been under a critical challenged by the World Bank and the UNDP, while independent organisations consider poverty to be above 28.3pc.

    Not withstanding, according to the Human Development Index, 2009, 60.3pc of Pakistan’s population lives on $2 per day. From the records regarding Unesco, 71pc of eligible girls did not attend secondary school in 2009. Gender discriminatory practices shape and made poverty real: as expected, more women are at the suffering end. They suffer poverty of opportunities far more than men do suffer it. Poverty gives rise to social powerlessness, debilitation, and political disenfranchisement, and these add to the vulnerability of the poor.

    The reasons for such high poverty levels are several: corruption, illicit capital flight, debt and loan conditionalities, high defence expenditures, and now, extremism. Those are the general ones.

    Borrowing from what Tahira Abdullah said, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.

    Their poverty is said to be multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many of the women.

    Poverty levels in the country have crept upwards and are considered to be among the highest in South Asia. Unfortunately, the Planning Commission does not reveal the exact data on female poverty. Women bear the brunt of appallingly high socio-economic disparities; their poverty extends from the small and large denials within the home to the wider denials they experience in the community. Often they’re not even recognised as heads of households; their labour in the agricultural sector is largely unremunerated; they remain exploited, deprived of income.

    The Economic Survey of Pakistan barely acknowledges their presence and their contribution — the female labour force participation rate is the lowest in the South Asian region. A survey by Yasir Amin (in Economistan, April 12, 2012) noted that women’s contribution to the labour force had actually shrunk from 33pc in 2000 to 21pc in 2011.

    The risks of increasing poverty grow in parallel with the number of women-headed households and this is appalling. Single mothers are at highest risk, as are their children, who are likely to be deprived of both adequate schooling and nutrition. Like most women, they have no alternative to poorly paid, informal employment.

    There is no new thing as surprise that women are over-represented among the country’s poor; discrimination against them exists at all levels, within the family, with its unequal gendered division of responsibilities and labour, inequality in access to healthcare, to schooling, to social protection. Tradition ordains that their mobility be restricted.

    Few poor women have hope of escaping this poverty as there are so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favour them, even richer women are regularly denied land inheritance by emotional coercion, forced marriage.

    If women are to progress and participate effectively in the economy, they must receive equal education, equal training, in rural and urban sectors and equal dignity and income. Pakistan cannot achieve progress on the efforts of less than half its population.
    With all these, I believe that poverty has a woman’s face.

  48. Avatar John Blessing Rosemary 2019/241898 says:

    Name: John Blessing Rosemary
    Reg: 2019/241898
    Dept: Economics Dept

    1. China’s national history is deeply affected by its struggle against imperialism and the
    Communist revolution that leads to state directed economic development. Even under the current globalist regime Chinese leaders have been careful to retain control of their economy. So far they have avoided the pitfalls of financial speculation and the loss of capital controls that put other countries under IMF dictated structural adjustments. Chinese leaders intend to insert themselves into the global economy as fully respected and integrated members of the transnationalized capitalist class, not as indebted junior partners. They have used their control of the government and their statist experience to remold local economic institutions and jettison their communist past without losing their power. In fact, the state-owned sector still produces 68% of the GDP and employs 729 million people. Unlike their Russian cousins who lost any sense of national purpose in a chaotic surrender to the new oligarchy, the Chinese Communist Party has transformed their socialist ideology into a new national project that defines modernization in globalist terms. But their heritage of national independence, shorn of its Maoist equalitarianism and radical impulse, helps to determine their insertion into the globalist structure. Although Newsweek complains that “lingering absurdities of Chinese communism continue to foil the multinational dream of huge profits,” many of these “absurdities” are realistic concerns over national development and uncover the contradictory process of Chinese globalization. (Schafer) This nationalist/globalist dialectic is revealed in an interview with Samsung’s CEO Yun Yong. When asked what it is like working with Beijing Yong replied, “Chinese officials are perhaps the most accommodating in the world to foreign investors, because their job performance is evaluated on the amount of foreign capital they attract. There are unions in China, but they don’t pose serious problems.” Yet Yong also explains “You cannot survive in China without becoming a Chinese company. That includes local technology development, product design, procurement, manufacturing and sales.” (Lee) For Chinese capitalism the road to national development runs parallel to globalization.

    For decades India followed a statist developmental model established by Jawaharlal Nehru and the Congress Party. This resulted in a large civil service employment base, state sponsored industries with a strategy of import substitution, backed by a non-aligned foreign policy. In addition to the Congress Party this policy was generally support by two large electoral reformist Marxist organizations, the Communist Party of India and the Communist Party of India (Marxist). To encourage national cohesion Indian identity was cultivated as a composite of many faiths co-existing under a secular state. This nationalist model of development was challenged by the rise of the Bharativa Janata Party (BJP) under the leadership of Atal Behari Vajpayee. BJP combines Hindu ethnic nationalism with neo-liberal economics. This mixture of narrow nationalism with a globalist economic outlook is particular to India. The BJP arose out of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) an extremist Hindu organization modeled on the Italian fascist movement. It was a member of the RSS who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi, an act celebrated in the streets by Hindu nationalists. Vajapyee has urged BJP towards less extremist policies but nevertheless under his government
    there were widespread and violent attacks against Muslim and Christian communities carried out by BJP members. Yet on the international stage Vajapyee moved to relax tensions with Pakistan, deepen economic ties to China and joined Brazil in a robust promotion of Third World economic concerns in the WTO. At home the BJP set out to privatize India’s large state owned
    industries and cut the federal bureaucracy in typical neo- liberal fashion. But the BJP’s global strategy undercut some of its nationalist appeal. With a focus on the advanced urban economy and the small emerging IT middle class, agricultural reforms that would benefit India’s great rural poor majority were ignored.
    The results were millions of poor and working class Indians giving a surprise victory to the Congress Party in the 2004 elections. But the Congress Party is also committed to bringing India into the transnational economy. As noted by Wipro Vice Chairman Vivek Paul, “Let’s remember that Congress was the architect of reforms a decade ago and the first to turn away from the old centralist system. That is a great comfort.” (Luce, Marcelo) The appointment of Manmohan Singh to prime minister and Palaniappan Chidambaram as finance minister has reassured transnational capitalists that India will continue on its path towards global integration. As finance minister in the previous Congress government the Oxford educated Singh was the first to push neo- libreral reforms. Chidambaram is also a Western educated economist from Harvard who as a
    lawyer represented some of the largest transnational corporations operating in India.
    But the Congress Party has positioned itself as neo-Keynesian globalists rather than neo- liberals. This has committed the party to a more cautious approach to privatization while promising to help the rural economy by building new roads and irrigation projects. This would bring India closer to the “Beijing Consensus,” particularly with the strong electoral showing for the CPI (M) and other Marxist parties who are critical of the IMF and the selling of profitable state owned companies. Singh has already abolished the ministry of privatization and has ruled out the sale of some major state owned companies in the oil, gas and energy sector. The central government still owns 240 state companies and foreign direct investment only accounts for 0.7% of the GDP compared to 4.2% for China and 3.2% for Brazil.
    Communist influence worries global investors who complain India’s labor laws are too restrictive and fear the new government will fail to make it easier to fire workers and hire temporary labor. In 2003 transnationals contributed only $4 billion dollars in foreign direct investment compared to $50 billion in China. “We can forget labour reform for the time being”
    says Subir Gokarn chief economist of Crisil, India’s largest domestic credit rating agency. But global capitalists shouldn’t be overly worried. The CPI (M) has governed West Bengal for over 20 years where IBM is one of the state’s largest investors. As Jon Thorn, manager of the India Capital Fund of Hong Kong says, “If Bengal is good enough for IBM then the rest of India should be okay for equivocating foreign investors (researchgate).

    2. Other criteria and indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment as instituted by the united nation, world bank and other bretton wood.

    a. Birth and death rates
    Crude Birth and Death rates (per 1000) can be used as an overall measure of the state of healthcare and education in a country, though these numbers do not give a full picture of a nation’s situation.

    b. The human development index (HDI):
    The HDI is a composite statistic calculated from the:Life expectancy index, Education index, Mean years of schooling index, expected years of schooling index, Income index.Countries are ranked based on their score and split into categories that suggest how well developed they are.

    c. Infant mortality rate:
    Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.

    d. Literacy rate:
    The rate, or percentage, of people who are able to read is a useful indicator of the state of education within a country.
    High female literacy rates generally correspond with an increase in the knowledge of contraception and a falling birth rate.

    3a. Low Per Capita Real Income:The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    b. Mass Poverty: Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    c. Rapid Population Growth: Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    d. The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment: Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    e. Excessive Dependence on Agriculture: The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    f. Technological Backwardness:The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    g. Dualistic Economy: Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    h. Lack of Infrastructures: Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    i. Lower Productivity: In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    4. (According Africannews)The 68-year-old former African Union Commission chairperson, said as the backbone of any society, women play a crucial role and yet are the most marginalized politically, something that needed to stop. ‘‘Since we are the majority of the population and we produce the rest of the population why can’t we lead? If we lead our families and communities why can’t we lead South Africa,’‘ she rhetorically asked. ‘If we elect a female President we can look to her to empower women and fast track women’s emancipation,’‘ a former health minister and leading member of the ANC said. She is also a former wife of President Zuma – who has endorsed her candidature during the December congress.She was addressing a Catholic Women’s Union in the town of Marrainhill on Saturday when she made the pronouncement. According to her, poverty in the Rainbow nation had assumed a gender, it was feminine thanks to what she described as the triple oppression. ‘‘The face of poverty is feminine especially in South Africa because women suffer triple oppression. We are oppressed because we are poor, black and female. The triple and persistent challenges of poverty, inequality and unemployment affect women more than they do men,’‘ she said.She stressed the importance of education as a leveler in issues of gender discrimination and the need for women to support one another in efforts aimed at economic emancipation and in order to benefit from the radical economic transformation.
    yes i agreement with the term that poverty has a woman’s face because women work harder at home more than in their various places of work where they are been paid for working. They get pregnant for 9months, nurse their babies, prepare food and other domestic choice yet all they get is thank you after all the hard work. Definitely if they use the time used for domestic chores for business purposes they will earn more income and more richer. so the reason why poverty has a woman’s face is because despite the fact that women work harder they still do not earn more income from working very hard than the men.

  49. Avatar Nebo Casmir Chukwuemeka 2019/244263 ECONOMICS says:

    Anwers:
    1.China and India, as two of the largest and most populous countries in the developing world, have had a significant impact on the political and economic developments of the Third World. China, with its communist system and centrally planned economy, has served as an inspiration and model for many socialist and communist movements in the Third World. India, with its democratic system and mixed economy, has been a leading advocate for non-aligned and developing countries in the international arena. Both nations have played a major role in promoting the political and economic empowerment of the Third World through their domestic policies demand.

    2.These include measures of human development such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which takes into account factors such as health, education, and standard of living, and the Gender Development Index (GDI), which measures gender inequality. Other indicators include measures of economic development such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and measures of social development such as access to clean water and sanitation, and infant mortality rates. Additionally, some organizations and scholars have called for a more holistic approach to measuring development that takes into account factors such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights.

    3.
    1.Developing nations, also referred to as less developed or emerging economies, share several common characteristics. Some of these include:
    2.Low per capita income: Developing nations tend to have a lower standard of living and a lower per capita income compared to developed nations.
    3.High poverty and unemployment rates: Developing nations often have high poverty and unemployment rates, which can be due to a lack of job opportunities and a lack of access to education and training.
    4.Low levels of industrialization: Developing nations tend to have a lower level of industrialization, which means that they have a smaller share of the workforce employed in manufacturing and other industries.
    5.Dependence on agriculture: Many developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture, which can limit their economic growth and development.
    6.Inadequate infrastructure: Developing nations tend to have less developed infrastructure, such as roads, ports, airports and communication networks. This can be a barrier to economic growth and development..
    These are some of the common characteristics of developing nations, however, it is important to note that every country is unique and there are variations among developing nations.

    4. I agree that poverty has the face of a woman. This is because there is a significant body of evidence that suggests that women are disproportionately affected by poverty, compared to men. This is due to a number of factors, such as the gender pay gap, lack of access to education and job training, and discrimination in the workplace. Additionally, women are often responsible for the care of children and other dependents, which can make it more difficult for them to access paid employment. Furthermore, patriarchal societal norms tend to limit women’s participation in the labor force and limit the sectors they can access which in turn limit their economic opportunities and earning potentials.

    Additionally, women are also more likely to live in poverty in older age due to the lack of social security and pension schemes that cover for women.

  50. Avatar OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS says:

    Name:OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS
    REG NO:2019/244686
    ECO 361
    DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    DEPT:ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.

    The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.The main thrust came from
    the Group of 77 (G77), which had been created at the first United Nations Conference on
    Trade and Development (UNCTAD) meeting held in 1964.

    2.) Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    UNDP uses the Human Development Index (HDI) as the main criterion for measuring development. This criterion takes into consideration other development indicators like literacy level, life expectancy, besides per capita income. Whereas, the World Bank compares the different countries only on the basis of the income criterion.

    (ii) The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measurement system used by the United Nations to evaluate the level of individual human development in each country.
    It was introduced by the U.N. in 1990. No
    The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
    The HDI uses components such as average annual income and educational expectations to rank and compare countries.
    The HDI has been criticized by social advocates for not representing a broad-enough measure of quality of life and by economists for providing little additional useful information beyond simpler measures of the economic standard of living.
    (iii) Infant mortality rate
    Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
    (iv) Literacy rate
    The rate, or percentage, of people who are able to read is a useful indicator of the state of education within a country.
    (v) High female literacy rates generally correspond with an increase in the knowledge of contraception and a falling birth rate.
    (vi) Life expectancy
    This simple statistic can be used as an indicator of the:
    (vii) healthcare quality in a country or province
    level of sanitation
    provision of care for the elderly
    It should not, of course, be used on its own to describe these things

    (3) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1 Low Per Capita Real Income
    2 Mass Poverty
    3 Rapid Population Growth
    4 The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    5 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    6 Technological Backwardness
    7 Dualistic Economy
    8 Lack of Infrastructures
    9 Lower Productivity
    10 High Consumption and Low Saving.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Technological Backwardness

    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    Dualistic Economy

    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    Lack of Infrastructures

    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    Lower Productivity

    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    High Consumption and Low Saving

    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020.

    (4) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    Both man and women have the responsibiity to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and firece figure hwo you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elederly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equaly footing. l have had the priviledge of living in Sweden and lam realising that fathers are so involved in the family, and are so much involved in caring for the children too. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.

    Well I think poverty has a woman’s face around . And I think in my opinion it can be due to the following reasons :
    There is more women population in the world than man so when doing research is easier to sample women

    As much as it’s known that a man is a provider , a woman has to be the one that provides for the kids in the interim while the man goes to “hunt”.
    I have noticed that on social media and TV when pictures are showed to potray or express poverty in most cases it is a picture of women and children.

  51. Avatar Anusionwu Otuodichukwumma Falicitas says:

    Name: Anusionwu Otuodichukwumma Falicitas
    Reg no: 2019/245869
    Dept Economics
    Common characteristics of developing countries
    1.Low levels of living:
    Some developing countries, their standard of living is low.
    There is no equal distribution of income and those who earn income are small while those that are not earning are high.
    2. Low level of productivity: some developing countries, the production of goods and services are inadequate because they don’t have the equipment and money to fund the production of goods and services.
    3. High and rising levels of unemployment and under- employment.
    There is high level of unemployment. Most of the developing countries they don’t industries for them to be able to employ people who need the work.
    4. Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary product exports.
    5. Dependence and vulnerability: expose to the possibility of being attacked or harrased, either physically or emotionally.
    Question four
    Poverty can increase violence. Particular groups of women, including women and girls living in poverty, face multiple forms of discrimination, and face increased risks of violence as a result. Studies show that poor girls are 2.5 times more likely to marry in childhood than those living in the wealthiest quintile.

    Women and girls living in poverty are more vulnerable to sexual exploitation, including trafficking. And those who experience domestic or intimate partner violence have fewer options to leave violent relationships, due to their lack of income and resources.

    To address such issues, UN Women runs programmes to empower women economically and lift them out of poverty, as well as strengthen social services for survivors and increase awareness of their rights.
    Common characteristics of developing countries
    1.Low levels of living:
    Some developing countries, their standard of living is low.
    There is no equal distribution of income and those who earn income are small while those that are not earning are high.
    2. Low level of productivity: some developing countries, the production of goods and services are inadequate because they don’t have the equipment and money to fund the production of goods and services.
    3. High and rising levels of unemployment and under- employment.
    There is high level of unemployment. Most of the developing countries they don’t industries for them to be able to employ people who need the work.
    4. Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary product exports.
    5. Dependence and vulnerability: expose to the possibility of being attacked or harrased, either physically or emotionally.
    Question four
    Poverty can increase violence. Particular groups of women, including women and girls living in poverty, face multiple forms of discrimination, and face increased risks of violence as a result. Studies show that poor girls are 2.5 times more likely to marry in childhood than those living in the wealthiest quintile.

    Women and girls living in poverty are more vulnerable to sexual exploitation, including trafficking. And those who experience domestic or intimate partner violence have fewer options to leave violent relationships, due to their lack of income and resources.

    To address such issues, UN Women runs programmes to empower women economically and lift them out of poverty, as well as strengthen social services for survivors and increase awareness of their rights.

  52. Avatar Ogaeme Onyedikachi Lovedey says:

    Eco 361
    Ogaeme Onyedikachi Lovedey
    2019/251298
    Economics department

    1. Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist ->>>

    China and India, as two of the largest countries in the world and with vastly different political and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political and economic structure of the Third World. Both nations have been influential in promoting the emergence of Third World countries and in changing the relationship between these countries and the industrialized nations of the world. China, with its Communist government and planned economy, has been a strong advocate for Third World countries and has provided economic and military support to many of these nations. India, with its democratic government and mixed economy, has also been a significant player in the Third World, promoting economic development and democracy in these countries. Both nations have played a role in shaping the relationship between the Third World and the industrialized nations, capitalist and Communist.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.-:-

    In addition to Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, other indicators commonly used to measure development include;
    A.) Human Development Index (HDI)
    B.) The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
    C.) Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality).
    These indicators take into recognition some factors such as life expectancy, education, and standard of living, in addition to economic indicators like GDP and GNI. The United Nations, World Bank, and other international organizations use these indicators to classify countries as “developed,” “developing,” or “least developed” and to monitor progress towards sustainable development goals.

    3. The common characteristics of developing countries include;

    a.) Low level of living:- In a developing country the level of living is being classified as low and the cost of living is usually high. The most average persons find it difficult to get the basic amenities for living, like clothing, shelter, food e.t.c.

    b.) Dependence on agricultural production and primary products exports:- Most developing countries focus majorly on the production of agricultural and primary product instead of moving to industrialization and industrial goods. This makes them dependant on countries for other facilities, instruments, tools and amenities apart from food.

    c.) Traditional / Rural social structures:- You would notice in all developing countries a distinction between the urban areas and rural areas (villages). In developing countries there is presence of rural or traditional social structures around and less modern structures.

    d.) High level of insecurity:- Insecurity and terrorism is rampart in most developing countries as they don’t have enough resources to invest in highly sophisticated military system.

    e.) High and rising level of unemployment and underemployment:- Developing countries are characterised by a massive number of people who are unemployed or underemployed. There’s no system put in place to help the masses to be gainfully employed.

    4. Yes, I agree to the argument that poverty has the face of a woman.

    Why..

    The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” depicts that women are unequally affected by poverty. This is supported by data which shows that women often have fewer economic opportunities and face greater barriers to financial stability than men.
    One reason is that women that works are more likely to be paid low or lower than men for the same work.
    Additionally, women face the primary responsibility of taking care for children and other dependants, which can make it more difficult for them to be employed easily or advance their in career.
    Another reason is the gender inequalities that exists in many societies, which can limit women’s access to education, employment, and other opportunities that are necessary for escaping poverty.
    In conclusion, I agree that poverty has a impact on women. Moreover, it is important to note that poverty affects people of all genders, races, and backgrounds.

  53. Avatar Chidiebere james says:

    Name: Chidiebere James Chiwendu
    Reg No: 2019/249120
    Dep: Combined Social Sciences (Economics/Sociology)
    Course: Eco 361

    1. Both China and India, as large and populous nations with distinct social and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of the Third World and influencing the relationships between Third World countries and industrialized nations. China, as a communist country, has promoted socialist ideologies and supported socialist movements in other countries, while India, with its mixed economy and democratic government, has advocated for non-aligned and independent policies. These contrasting approaches have had a significant impact on the political and economic development of Third World countries.

    2. Traditionally, developing countries have been defined based on their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. The World Bank uses a threshold of $1,026 per capita to determine which countries are considered “developing” and which are considered “developed.” However, the United Nations and other Bretton Woods institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have developed a wide range of other criteria and indicators to measure development and underdevelopment. These include measures of poverty, health, education, gender equality, and access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation. Additionally, these organizations also use indicators that measure economic growth, infrastructure, and governance to determine the level of development. The Human Development Index (HDI) is an example of the composite index which measures a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.

    3. Developing nations, also known as less developed or underdeveloped countries, share a number of common characteristics. These include:
    1. Low income: Developing nations typically have lower per capita income compared to developed countries. This is often reflected in a higher poverty rate and lower standard of living for the majority of the population.
    2. Weak economic infrastructure: Developing nations often have weak economic infrastructure, including inadequate transportation and communication systems, which can impede economic growth and development.
    3. Dependence on primary products: Developing nations are often heavily dependent on the export of primary products such as agricultural goods or raw materials, which can make their economies vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.
    4. High population growth: Developing nations often have high population growth rates, which can place strain on resources and make it more difficult to achieve sustainable economic growth.
    5. Low level of human development: Developing nations often have lower levels of human development, as measured by indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, and access to basic services such as healthcare and education.
    6. Political instability: Developing nations are often characterized by political instability, with a weak rule of law and a lack of democratic institutions. This can make it difficult to implement policies necessary for sustainable economic development.
    7. Income inequality: Developing nations are often characterized by high levels of income inequality, which can perpetuate poverty and impede economic growth.
    8. Environmental degradation: Developing nations are often at a greater risk of environmental degradation, with weak or absent regulations to protect natural resources and poor infrastructure to manage pollution

    4. The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” refers to the idea that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. This is generally true, as women tend to have lower incomes, less access to education and job opportunities, and greater responsibilities for caregiving and household work. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty and can also lead to a perpetuation of poverty within families and communities.
    I agree that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. There are various reasons for this. One is that women tend to have lower levels of education and job skills, which can limit their employment opportunities and earning potential. Women also tend to be concentrated in lower-paying and less secure jobs, such as domestic work and caregiving, which can make it difficult for them to support themselves and their families. Additionally, women often have primary responsibility for caregiving within families, which can limit their ability to work and earn an income.
    Discrimination and discrimination also play a significant role in exacerbating poverty among women. In many countries, women have limited legal rights and face discrimination in the workplace, which can make it difficult for them to find and keep jobs. In addition, cultural and societal norms can lead to discrimination against women in education and in access to credit and other financial resources.
    In conclusion, while poverty affects both men and women, women are disproportionately affected by poverty due to a combination of factors including discrimination, lack of education and job skills, limited access to financial resources and societal norms. To address poverty among women, it is important to focus on increasing access to education, job training, and financial resources for women, as well as working to change discriminatory cultural norms.

  54. Avatar Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi says:

    Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi
    2019/246703
    Combined social sciences(Eco/Soc)

    1. Shigeo Kobayashi, Jia Baobo and Junya Sano
    Introduction

    The Chinese Economy since the Start of the Reform and Open-door Policy

    The reform and open-door policy of China began with the adoption of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political arena after his three previous defeats, the Chinese government began to pursue an open-door policy, in which it adopted a stance to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining its commitment to socialism.

    The obvious aim of this policy shift was to rebuild its economy and society that were devastated by the Cultural Revolution. The policy shift also appears to have been prompted by recognition that the incomes of ordinary Chinese were so low, in comparison with incomes in other Asian economies, that the future of the Chinese state and the communist regime would be in jeopardy unless something was done to raise living standards of its people through economic growth.

    The government subsequently established a number of areas for foreign investment, including the special economic zones, open coastal cities, the economic and technology development zones, the delta open zones, the peninsula open zones, the open border citiees, and the high-tech industry development zones. The establishment of these zones provided the trigger for massive inflows of foreign investment, primarily from companies in Hong Kong and Taiwan. At the same time, China promoted its socialist market economy concept. The changes brought an entrepreneurial boom that resulted in the emergence of huge numbers of entrepreneurs and venture businesses within China.

    Inflows of foreign capital, technology, and management knowhow enabled China to turn its vast labor resources and space to rapid economic growth. The shift to an open-door economic policy ushered in a period of high economic growth in the first half of the 1980s. The economy stagnated around the time of the Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989, but in the first half of the 1990s, China was again boasting high growth rates. Rapid economic growth was accompanied by a rise in per capita GDP (Fig. 1). In 1998, per capita income, though still only about US$770, was 14 times higher than in 1980. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that Deng Xiaoping’s first goal, which was to improve the economic status of the people, has been accomplished.

    2. Three criteria are used to decide whether or not a country is a Low Developing Country(LDC): A measure for per capita income, a human assets index and an economic and environmental vulnerability index. Countries with less than $1,035 GNI per capita are classified as low income countries, those with between $1,036 and $4,085 as lower middle income countries, those with between $4,086 and $12,615 as upper middle income countries, and those with incomes of more than $12,615 as high income countries. At the end of 2021, there were 46 countries on the UN list.

    3a.) Low Per Capita Real Income
    Low per capita real income is one of the most defining characteristics of developing economies. They suffer from low per capita real income level, which results in low savings and low investments.

    It means the average person doesn’t earn enough money to invest or save money. They spend whatever they make. Thus, it creates a cycle of poverty that most of the population struggles to escape. The percentage of people in absolute poverty (the minimum income level) is high in developing countries.

    b.) High Population Growth Rate
    Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care.

    c.) High Rates of Unemployment
    In rural areas, unemployment suffers from large seasonal variations. However, unemployment is a more complex problem requiring policies beyond traditional fixes.

    d.) Dependence on Primary Sector
    Almost 75% of the population of low-income countries is rurally based. As income levels rise, the structure of demand changes, which leads to a rise in the manufacturing sector and then the services sector.

    e.) Dependence on Exports of Primary Commodities
    Since a significant portion of output originates from the primary sector, a large portion of exports is also from the primary sector. For example, copper accounts for two-thirds of Zambia’s exports.

    4. I AGREE;

    Women suffer more than men from crisis-driven budget and social spending cuts, which must be offset by investing in job training and female entrepreneurship, say MEPs in a non binding resolution adopted on Tuesday. Two other resolutions look at measures to combat gender stereotyping in the EU and to protect women’s rights in North Africa.

    The global economic crisis will have a major impact on women.

    Girls, more than boys, will suffer in areas such as education and infant mortality

    – The plight of women must be incorporated in any economic development strategy

    WASHINGTON, May 15, 2009 – The global economic crisis will drastically reduce African women’s individual incomes as well as the budgets they manage on behalf of their households, with particularly damaging consequences for girls, said Obiageli Ezekwesili, World Bank Vice President for the Africa Region, at a recent conference on the impact of the global economic crisis on women in Africa.

  55. Avatar Name: Chima Faith Ucheoma Reg nos: 2019/243417 Department: Economics(3rd year) says:

    1. China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries.
    How did they realize this? Research shows that two countries were freed from colonial control thanks to their cooperation. Even though their social and economic systems were different, this distinction altered how the capitalist and communist societies interacted. The decolonization was a result of this collaboration. As a result, the United Nation, which is dominated by European nations, began to deteriorate into a third-world country. This sparked a significant policy discussion on underdevelopment and the development of new theories, mostly on the stage of an international conference.

    2. The United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    This includes an index that took into account population growth, exchange rates, inflation, and economic growth. This index can be used to gauge a country’s development on a wider scale than GNI per capita because infrastructure changes, income distribution, and ownership of the factors of production must all change for growth to take place.

    3. Common Characteristics of Developing Nations include:

    (a) Low living standards: The standard of living is extremely low in all developing countries. Many people in underdeveloped countries struggle to meet their most basic requirements, including food, housing, and clothing.
    They have a low standard of living because they must find a way to exist without access to all of these essential daily necessities.

    (b) Widespread poverty: Developing countries lack the resources necessary to support their expanding populations.

    (c) High level of population increase and dependency burdens: Developing countries experience rapid economic development.

    (d) Dependence and vulnerability: Due to the fact that so many people in developing countries don’t have jobs, there is a high rate of dependency in these countries.

    (e) Traditional, rural social structure: Rural areas in developing countries tend to have a lot of shoddy infrastructure. Rural areas in underdeveloped countries have little to no modern infrastructure and social structure.

    (f) Low productivity: The majority of emerging countries are experiencing a downturn or recession. wherein there is no maximal production use of the available resources. As a result, emerging countries have poor productivity and low output; often, input exceeds output.

    (g) Significant reliance on agricultural output: Developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture. due to a lack of cutting-edge machinery and technologies that may enhance the agricultural industry. With the help of this technology, the agricultural sector might develop to the point where it can sufficiently feed the country, import goods, and serve as a source of raw materials for other sectors.

    (h) Primary product exports: The majority of developing countries sell their primary production goods at a discount to developed countries. and pay more for manufactured goods imported from developed countries. This would lead to a deficit in those developing countries’ balance of payments.

    (I) High and rising levels of unemployment and underemployment: Developing countries experience high levels of unemployment and underemployment because there are fewer job possibilities there than there are people who can work ( labour market ). Because of this, a sizable portion of the population is unable to find work, and some are dissatisfied with the current unemployment rate and low employment rate. creating underemployment and unemployment, which causes social insecurity.

    4. I agree with the statement “ poverty has the face of a woman “. My reason is that in developing nations, they hardly invest into the population of women, by this, I mean that a low rate of women attend school and acquire the skill they need to be productive in society, thereby causing a large number of population of women to be in poverty and have high dependency on their male counterparts.

  56. Avatar Ugwu Silas Chinazaekpere says:

    Ugwu Silas Chinazaekpere

    2019/244182

    Economics

    1. It will be worthy to note that the two countries were freed from colonial control thanks to their cooperation. Even though their social and economic systems were different, this distinction altered how the capitalist and communist societies interacted. The decolonization was a result of this collaboration. As a result, the United Nation, which is dominated by European nations, began to deteriorate into a third-world country. This sparked a significant policy discussion on underdevelopment and the development of new theories, mostly on the stage of an international conference.

    2. conventional speech Underdevelopment has traditionally been measured in terms of GNI per capita. However, measuring progress via a GNI is a more limited concept than development itself. Therefore, the United Nations, World Bank, and Bretton Woods organizations used an index that took into account population growth, exchange rates, inflation, and economic growth. This index can be used to gauge a country’s development on a wider scale than GNI per capita because infrastructure changes, income distribution, and ownership of the factors of production must all change for growth to take place.

    3. a) Low living standards: The standard of living is extremely low in all developing countries. Many people in underdeveloped countries struggle to meet their most basic requirements, including food, housing, and clothing.
    They have a low standard of living because they must find a way to exist without access to all of these essential daily necessities.
    b) Low productivity: The majority of emerging countries are experiencing a downturn or recession. wherein there is no maximal production use of the available resources. As a result, emerging countries have poor productivity and low output; often, input exceeds output.
    c) High pace of population increase and dependency burdens: Developing countries experience rapid economic development.
    d) High and rising levels of unemployment and underemployment: Developing countries experience high levels of unemployment and underemployment because there are fewer job possibilities there than there are people who can work ( labour market ). Because of this, a sizable portion of the population is unable to find work, and some are dissatisfied with the current unemployment rate and low employment rate. creating underemployment and unemployment, which causes social insecurity and other vices.
    e) Traditional, rural social structure: Rural areas in developing countries tend to have a lot of shoddy infrastructure. Rural areas in underdeveloped countries have little to no modern infrastructure and social structure.
    f) Widespread of poverty: Developing countries lack the resources necessary to support their expanding populations.
    g) Significant reliance on agricultural output: Developing nations are heavily dependent on agriculture. due to a lack of cutting-edge machinery and technologies that may enhance the agricultural industry. With the help of this technology, the agricultural sector might develop to the point where it can sufficiently feed the country, import goods, and serve as a source of raw materials for other sectors.
    h) Primary product exports: The majority of developing countries sell their primary production goods at a discount to developed countries. and pay more for manufactured goods imported from developed countries. This would lead to a deficit in those developing countries’ balance of payments. Dependence and vulnerability: Because so many people in developing countries don’t have jobs, there is a high rate of dependency in these countries.

    4. I will agree with the statement “ poverty has the face of a woman ” in a developing nations they hardly invest into the population of women, like a low rate of women attend school and acquire the skill they need to be productive in society cause a large number of population women to be in poverty and have high dependency on there male counterparts.

  57. Avatar Anyamadu Stephen Okechukwu 2019/249163 says:

    1.A.Economic engagement: Both countries have been active in investing and trading with other countries, particularly in the Third World, which has helped to promote economic growth and development in these countries.
    b. Technical assistance and aid: Both countries have also provided technical assistance and aid to other developing countries, particularly in areas such as infrastructure development, agriculture, and healthcare.
    It’s worth noting that both China and India have had a complex relationship with the West and have had different approach in their foreign policy. For example, China has been criticized for its human rights record and lack of political freedoms, while India has been praised for its democratic system and commitment to human rights.

    2.Democracy Index : A measure of the state of democracy in countries around the world.
    B. Ease of Doing Business Index: A measure of the ease of doing business in different countries.

    3.
    Environmental degradation: Developing nations are often characterized by environmental degradation, which can be due to a lack of regulation, a lack of awareness, or a lack of resources to address environmental issues.
    It’s worth noting that these characteristics are not universally true for all developing nations and that there are many variations in the level of development and characteristics within and among countries. Additionally, some of these characteristics can be interrelated and mutually reinforcing.

    4.
    a.Disproportionate impact of economic shocks: Economic shocks such as recessions and natural disasters disproportionately impact women and girls, as they often have limited access to resources and opportunities to mitigate the effects of these shocks.
    b. Vulnerability to violence: Women and girls are disproportionately affected by violence, which can have long-lasting economic and social effects, making it more difficult for them to escape poverty.

  58. Avatar OFORISHE VICTORIA IRUWOGHENE .2019/247251 says:

    1. Two nations, china and India whose Economic and Social systems were sharply and greatly opposed happened to have played Promoting a major more in the of the political Emergence of the third wond Countries and they also changed the relation between the third word and the Industri Countries, Capitalist and Communist.It was the Bandung Conference of 1955 tedd that led to the Emergence of the third wond. India played a major role in raising the Voice of newry Independent Countries.The third world is used to classify Countries that are poor or developing. They are characterized by high poverty rates, Economic and political Instability.
    2. GNI PER CAPITA :
    GNI per capita provides information on the overall level of resources available to a country. GNI in local currency is recorded in the national accounts in accordance with the relevant international standards. It is then converted into the United States dollar, using the World Bank Atlas method to calculate conversion factors. The Atlas method is based on market exchange rates, but aims to reduce the impact of short-term exchange rate fluctuations on GNI in US dollars. GNI in US dollars is then divided by the annual population of a country to determine GNI per capita. The threshold for inclusion is set at the three-year average of the level of GNI per capita, which the World Bank defines for identifying low-income countries. For instance, in the latest review in 2018, the threshold for inclusion in the LDC category was $1,025. The threshold for graduation was $1,230 which is set at 20 percent above the inclusion threshold.
    b) THE HUMAN ASSETS INDEX (HAI):The HAI is a measure of the level of human capital. Good health is a critical part of human well-being, and improving the health status of the population leads to the increase in the productivity, educational attainment and poverty reduction. Education is another major element of human well-being itself, and a low level of education implies a low productivity, and limited capacity to absorb technological advances. The HAI consists of five indicators, three on health and nutrition and two on education, with each one having an equal weight in the overall HAI. A higher HAI index represents a higher development of human capital.
    c) THE ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY INDEX :The EVI measures the structural vulnerability of countries to economic and environmental shocks. High vulnerability is a major impediment to sustainable development in view of heightened exposure to shocks and their long lasting negative impacts. Vulnerability depends mainly on the magnitude and frequency of such shocks, and on the structural characteristics of the country concerned. The EVI covers two types of shocks: external trade shocks and environmental or natural shocks. The latter include natural disasters, weather shocks unfavourable for agriculture production and permanent shocks caused by climate change. Accordingly, EVI is composed of eight indicators, grouped into two main components: an exposure index and a shock index .As these indicators are expressed in different measurement units, indicator values are first converted into index scores between 0 and 100, using the maxmin procedure. A lower EVI index indicates lower economic vulnerability
    3.
    LOW LEVELS OF LIVING AND PRODUCTIVITY:This indicates that resources are not utilizing their skills and competencies to their maximum potential which increases company’s resourcing costs.
    HIGH RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT:A high unemployment rate means that the economy is not able to generate enough jobs for people seeking work.And Underemployment is a measure of the total number of people in an economy who are unwillingly working in low-skill and low-paying jobs or only part-time because they cannot get full-time jobs that use their skills.
    HIGH RATE OF POPULATION,GROWTH AND DEPENDENCY BURDEN:A high dependency ratio indicates that the economically active population and the overall economy face a greater burden to support and provide the social services needed by children and by older persons who are often economically dependent.
    4. The statement “Poverty has the face of a woman”is a statement I choose to agree on.This is because in many African countries using Nigeria particularly as a case study has a lot of women who struggle to make ends meet.A good number of Nigerian women are always seen on the streets engaging in different different kinds of jobs just to help the family.Some of them get to struggle and suffer a lot during the process of doing this.So I believe that Making a Statement that women has the face of poverty is clearly because of the struggles most of them pass through.

  59. No. 1

    China and India are business rivals at heart. The former’s remarkable economic rise threatens India, which trails its neighbor on almost every conventional socioeconomic indicator. China may be strong in manufacturing and infrastructure and India in services and information technology, but the latter’s manufacturing industry is becoming globally competitive, while China’s technology sector threatens to match India’s in a decade. Both have a growing appetite for natural resources such as oil, coal, and iron ore, for which they compete fiercely. They also fight for capital, especially for investments by multi-national companies from North America, Europe, and Japan. All this makes it difficult to believe that China and India can ever cooperate. Few people think to ask, “Can China and India work together?” Instead, a big question debated in boardrooms is whether India can catch up with China.

    This perspective is incomplete. China is home to 1.3 billion people; India has a population of 1.1 billion. In the next decade, they will become the largest and third-largest economies in terms of purchasing power. By 2016 they will account for around 40% of world trade, compared with 15% in 2006. That’s roughly the position they occupied about 200 years ago. Economist Angus Maddison has calculated that in the 1800s, China and India together accounted for 50% of global trade. It is impossible to make predictions about the integration of these countries into the global economy, because past events, such as Germany’s reunification and the fall of the Iron Curtain, don’t compare. After those occurrences in 1990, a large number of people entered the global economy, but the numbers pale in significance when compared with the China–India double whammy. Like it or not, the world’s future is tied to China and India.

    No. 2

    The criteria and indicator for measuring development and underdevelopment includes:

    Life expectancy index: this measures the quality of healthcare available in a country, levels of sanitation, provisions for the the aged
    This is a good way to measure whether a country is development or not

    Education index: the quality of education in countries can also be used an indicator for develop or underdeveloped countries.

    Infant mortality rate: this is the number of infants dying before reaching one year per 1000 live birth in a given year.

    Literacy rate: the percentage of people who are able to read and write is also a good indicator to measure the level of education in a country.

    No. 3

    Clearly discuss and analyse the common characteristic of developing nations

    The major characteristic of developing countries include:

    A. Low per Capita income

    The real per Capita income of developing countries is low compared to developed countries.
    This means that the individual income in developing countries are low and is not enough to save or invest . This leads to low savings and low investment.

    B. High rate of poverty.

    This high rate of poverty in developing countries as a result of low income, unemployment or underemployment, lack of technology.
    This make life difficult in that part of the world.

    C. Over dependence on agriculture.

    Using Nigeria as a case study. Majority of the people in rural areas engage in agricultural practices and subsistence farming.
    Agriculture is their major source of income.

    D. Poor infrastructural facilities.

    The developing countries little or no infrastructure, they lack the basic amenities of life such as, good health facilities, electricity, good road networks.
    The available ones are not well managed.

    E. Low level of technology.

    The level of technology in developing countries are very low and outdated. This leads to low productivity and

    No. 4

    Poverty has the face of a woman.
    I agree that poverty has the face of a woman, because woman are mostly affected by economic, social and various problem encountered in an economy.

    Unequal economic opportunities, gender pay gap, limited access to quality education are some of the problem faced by woman. All these are the major reasons why poverty is associated to a woman

    Women are the forefront of poverty.

    The media uses the face of women and children to express poverty, this is to show that they are the ones mostly affected by poverty.
    To my own understanding i think this shows us that it is very important to help mothers in need.

  60. Avatar Hezekiah Joy Chiwonke says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com
    1.
    There has been so many misconceptions of the concept of the Third World and hence there has been no clear-cut definition of the third world. However, in the light of its origins, this term arose during the cold war to identify countries that were not aligned with the First world, the US, Western European and their allies, not with the Second World, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and their allies. Another name the Third World countries were known for was NAM ,i.e. countries in the Non-Aligned Movement.
    The First World were known as the Capitalist Bloc, while the Second World were known as the Communist Bloc. These blocs arose with respect to those who commanded authority Socially, Economically, Politically in the global sphere. These two blocs were involved in a war which was known as The Cold War. It was a term associated with the period of tension between these two worlds on economic and political platform with their recourse to open up fire, this was just after the Second World war. These two worlds had colonies who were subjected to colonization and imperialism. And these colonies who had recently gained independence were passive players in the two world powers game. So the colonies took a stand of Non-Alignment with these two world powers. So they called for the Badung Conference in 1955.
    The Badung Conference of 1955 hosted by Indonesia was the first large scale Afro-Asian conference held to discuss peace and the role of the third world in the Cold War, Economic Development and decolonization. They sought to attain political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference with internal affairs, and equality. Most countries opposed the invitation of China to the Conference because they saw China as a Communist State and that China export the Communist ideologies to other nations. The Republic of China’s representative, Zhou Enlai, brought a Five-Principles of Peaceful Co-existence to serve as a basis for establishing a relationship of friendship, co-operation and good neighborliness.
    2.
    The UN, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions developed many indicators for measuring Development and underdevelopment.
    The World Bank assigned the world’s economies into four classifications, which are:
    Low income 13,205
    These classifications are based on the GNI per capita of the previous year written as let’s say July 1, 2022 for Fiscal year 2023 (FY23). It is an indicator that is closely correlated with non-monetary measures of the quality of life such as mortality rate, rate of enrollment in school.
    The UN uses an Index called the Human Development Index(HDI) which measures a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions such as:
    Life Expectancy
    Educational attainment
    Adjusted Real income ($PPP/person).
    3.
    There are certain indices that outstandingly characterize the Developing Nations, and they are:
    High Income Inequality
    The disparity between income earners in the developing countries is higher than what obtains in the Developed countries.
    Inequality is a critical factor in understanding the severity of poverty. As it is not just about income inequality but also encapsulates inequalities of power, status, prestige, job satisfaction, degree of participation and even freedom of choice. Inequality does not only result from distorted growth, which in this case is when a minute fraction of a population is considered when critical decisions that binds the entire nation are made. And since the interest of the poor majority are not captured, there tends to be distorted growth in such economy. And as such the rich minority keep enriching themselves at the expense of the poor majority, thus expanding the inequality gap. Nigeria as a case study, down to employment the rich still secure job positions by their influence, secure job promotions by their influence. High income inequality defy our democratic administration.
    Inequality can as well necessitate distorted growth in the sense that as this rich minority experience growth on their part, because the growth is not experienced by a major fraction of the nation, the growth of the economy as a whole will be distorted. As the nature of their growth is not capable of having impact on the entire economy. But if where the poor majority were experiencing growth, such growth would spread and push up the entire economy.
    Widespread Poverty
    Smith, 1776 once said that, no society can surely be flourishing and happy of which by far greater part of the numbers are poor and miserable. Many in the developing nations are plagued with widespread poverty.
    Now, poverty in a weak sense, is seen as when there is lack of food – hunger. However, poverty has a broader scope, in that it also captures powerlessness, dependency, lack of access to basic infrastructure, lack of access to education, poor health conditions, living in environmentally degraded area, trying to earn a living from marginal farms i.e. working as day laborers, have little or no socio-political voice. Putting aside the World Bank’s index for measuring Development, poverty is down right to our doorsteps, there are people who live in places that outsiders find difficult to access even to provide the basic infrastructure.
    Substantial dependence on Agricultural production and primary-product exportation
    Developing nations have only succeeded in discovering their natural resources and in exporting them in their raw or natural state without any improvements. The Northerners of this our country are majorly farmers food crops and cash crops like groundnuts, cowpea and sorghum but they are still of the poorest.
    The situation of resource trap prevails in our society, whereby we have a lot of natural resources that are not efficiently explored. And this will require that our industries are functional. However they’re not, that is why we rely heavily on exporting our raw resources to import expensive Industrialized products. Indirectly we have been successful only in creating markets for the Industrialized countries at the expense of our own pioneer-companies. Having no sense of National Competitive Advantage, this is a degree to which developing nations are called third world countries.
    Traditional, Rural and Social Infrastructures
    Most of our infrastructure are unsophisticated and in states of decadence. Irregularities of power supply, unhealthy water, polluted environment, bad road networks, no good drainage systems to mention but a few. If they were in place, historians would have no audacity to give an accolade to Mungo Park for discovering River Niger when they were locals who lived around that area.
    4.
    “Poverty has a woman face” is a metaphorical statement to explain how the female gender are more affected by poverty than their male counterpart. This was coined by Dr. Diana Pearce a social worker, in 1978.
    Poverty having a woman’s face implies that women in all societies feel the impact of poverty more than men in aspects of Economic, social, political, psychological situations.
    Women do not have equal Economic opportunities with the men, and so it is held that they shouldn’t own fixed properties such as land, investments, insurance, houses and so on since they are under a man, their husband. Ownership of property should be written under a Man’s name. If this is held when there is economic prosperity, how much more when poverty prevails. Women are seen as housewives of no economic importance and as such no Economic empowerment is given to them which makes them suffer more on the face of poverty.
    They are given limited access to Education. Education which is key for empowerment, for enlightenment is withheld from the female gender. How then, do they survive in periods of Economic hardships.
    They are majorly faced with health and nutrition challenges. It was because a large cry went out against genital mutilation, if not a lot of societies would still practice this, as there are still some that do. Thus leaving the women in states of psychological trauma and misbalance.
    In the aspect of political representation, women are seen to be ineffective, incapable of taking up leadership positions.
    These are what necessitated the concept of “Poverty has a Woman’s face”.

  61. Avatar Marcel ThankGod Tochukwu 2019/244773 says:

    1.)The reform and open-door policy of China began with the adoption of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political arena after his three previous defeats, the Chinese government began to pursue an open-door policy, in which it adopted a stance to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining its commitment to socialism.

    The obvious aim of this policy shift was to rebuild its economy and society that were devastated by the Cultural Revolution. The policy shift also appears to have been prompted by recognition that the incomes of ordinary Chinese were so low, in comparison with incomes in other Asian economies, that the future of the Chinese state and the communist regime would be in jeopardy unless something was done to raise living standards of its people through economic growth.

    The government subsequently established a number of areas for foreign investment, including the special economic zones, open coastal cities, the economic and technology development zones, the delta open zones, the peninsula open zones, the open border citiees, and the high-tech industry development zones. The establishment of these zones provided the trigger for massive inflows of foreign investment, primarily from companies in Hong Kong and Taiwan. At the same time, China promoted its socialist market economy concept. The changes brought an entrepreneurial boom that resulted in the emergence of huge numbers of entrepreneurs and venture businesses within China.

    2.) Three criteria are used to decide whether or not a country is a Low Developing Country(LDC): A measure for per capita income, a human assets index and an economic and environmental vulnerability index. Countries with less than $1,035 GNI per capita are classified as low income countries, those with between $1,036 and $4,085 as lower middle income countries, those with between $4,086 and $12,615 as upper middle income countries, and those with incomes of more than $12,615 as high income countries. At the end of 2021, there were 46 countries on the UN list.

    3.) Major Characteristics of Developing Countries
    Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Technological Backwardness

    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    Dualistic Economy

    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    Lack of Infrastructures

    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    Lower Productivity

    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    High Consumption and Low Saving

    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    4.) Yes, Women are at greater risk of poverty because they have relatively limited material assets and also more limited social assets (access to income, goods and services through social connections) and cultural assets (formal education and cultural knowledge).

  62. Avatar EGWUONWU OLISAEMEKA ELOCHUKWU says:

    EGWUONWU OLISAEMEKA ELOCHUKWU
    2019/245027
    ECONOMICS
    ECO 361
    DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

    1) Classifying countries as First, Second, Third, and Fourth World was a concept created during and after the Cold War, which ran from approximately 1945 to the 1990s.
    Third World” is an outdated and derogatory phrase that has been used historically to describe a class of economically developing nations. It is part of a four-part segmentation that was used to describe the world’s economies by economic status. Third World falls behind First World and Second World but was ahead of Fourth World, though Fourth-World countries were hardly recognized at all. Today, the preferred terminology is a developing nation, an underdeveloped country, or a low- and middle-income country.
    In 1947, after gaining independence from Britain, India formed a centrally-planned economy (also known as a command economy). With a centrally planned economy, the government makes the majority of economic decisions regarding the manufacturing and the distribution of products.India is currently one of the fastest-growing economies in the world since 2000.It is also the world’s fifth-largest economy in nominal GDP terms.The government focused on developing its heavy industry sector, but this emphasis was eventually deemed unsustainable. In 1991, India began to loosen its economic restrictions and an increased level of liberalization led to growth in the country’s private sector. Today, India is considered a mixed economy: the private and public sectors co-exist and the country leverages international trade.
    Prior to the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization nearly 40 years ago, China maintained policies that kept the economy very poor, stagnant, centrally controlled, vastly inefficient, and relatively isolated from the global economy. Since opening up to foreign trade and investment and implementing free-market reforms in 1979, China has been among the world’s fastest-growing economies, with real annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaging 9.5% through 2018, a pace described by the World Bank as “the fastest sustained expansion by a major economy in history.” Such growth has enabled China, on average, to double its GDP every eight years and helped raise an estimated 800 million people out of poverty. China has become the world’s largest economy (on a purchasing power parity basis), manufacturer, merchandise trader, and holder of foreign exchange reserves. This in turn has made China a major commercial partner of the United States. China is the largest U.S. merchandise trading partner, biggest source of imports, and third-largest U.S. export market. China is also the largest foreign holder of U.S. Treasury securities, which help fund the federal debt and keep U.S. interest rates low.
    2)
    a) The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measurement system used by the United Nations to evaluate the level of individual human development in each country.
    It was introduced by the U.N. in 1990. No
    The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
    The HDI uses components such as average annual income and educational expectations to rank and compare countries.
    The HDI has been criticized by social advocates for not representing a broad-enough measure of quality of life and by economists for providing little additional useful information beyond simpler measures of the economic standard of living.
    (b) Infant mortality rate
    Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
    (c)Literacy rate
    The rate, or percentage, of people who are able to read is a useful indicator of the state of education within a country.
    (d) High female literacy rates generally correspond with an increase in the knowledge of contraception and a falling birth rate.
    (e) Life expectancy
    This simple statistic can be used as an indicator of the:
    (f) healthcare quality in a country or province
    level of sanitation
    provision of care for the elderly
    It should not, of course, be used on its own to describe these things.
    3)Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    4)
    Women are facing a silent crisis which worsens and weakens their condition. Before the economic crisis unemployment, precarious work, part-time work, low salaries and slow career paths already affected women more then men. Today, with the effects of austerity policies, they are suffering a double punishment,” said rapporteur Elisabeth Morin-Chartier (EPP, FR) in Monday’s debate marking International Women’s Day.
    Parliament points out that cuts in education, childcare and care services have pushed women to work shorter hours or part-time, thereby reducing not only their income but their pensions as well.

    Invest in women:
    MEPs say that to restore growth and to reverse the effects of the crisis, member states must invest in lifelong training, re-skilling policies, teleworking and new jobs, promote female entrepreneurship and develop child-care facilities. They must also include women in decision-making and promote gender balance on company boards.
    The resolution on the impact of the crisis on gender equality and women’s rights was passed by 495 votes to 96, with 69 abstentions.

    Fighting gender stereotypes:
    Gender stereotypes also contribute to the feminisation of poverty, say MEPs. They persist in the labour market in sectors such as engineering and childcare, leading to occupational segregation and the gender pay gap.
    “Stereotypes and lower pay increase the risk for women to fall into poverty, particularly for older women, also due to low pensions,” said rapporteur Katrika Tamara Liotard (GUE/NGL, NL). She added: “the media can contribute to reducing female stereotypes.”

  63. Avatar OFFOR UGOCHUKWU IKENNA says:

    3). The idea of the Third World, which is usually traced to the late 1940s or early 1950s, was increasingly used to try and generate unity and support among an emergent group of nation-states whose governments were reluctant to take sides in the Cold War. These leaders and governments sought to displace the ‘East-West’ conflict with the ‘North-South’ conflict. The rise of Third Worldism in the 1950s and 1960s was closely connected to a range of national liberation projects and specific forms of regionalism in the erstwhile colonies of Asia and Africa, as well as the former mandates and new nation-states of the Middle East, and the ‘older’ nation-states of Latin America. Exponents of Third Worldism in this period linked it to national liberation and various forms of Pan-Asianism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism and Pan-Americanism. The weakening or demise of the first generation of Third Worldist regimes in the 1960s and 1970s coincided with or was followed by the emergence of a second generation of Third Worldist regimes that articulated a more radical, explicitly socialist, vision. A moderate form of Third Worldism also became significant at the United Nations in the 1970s: it was centred on the call for a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the 1980s, however, Third Worldism had entered into a period of dramatic decline. With the end of the Cold War, some movements, governments and commentators have sought to reorient and revitalise the idea of a Third World, while others have argued that it has lost its relevance. This introductory article provides a critical overview of the history of Third Worldism, while clarifying both its constraints and its appeal. As a world-historical movement, Third Worldism (in both its first and second generation modalities) emerged out of the activities and ideas of anti-colonial nationalists and their efforts to mesh highly romanticised interpretations of pre-colonial traditions and cultures with the utopianism embodied by Marxism and socialism specifically, and ‘Western’ visions of modernisation and development more generally. ApThe idea of the Third World, which is usually traced to the late 1940s or early 1950s, was increasingly used to try and generate unity and support among an emergent group of nation-states whose governments were reluctant to take sides in the Cold War. These leaders and governments sought to displace the ‘East-West’ conflict with the ‘North-South’ conflict. The rise of Third Worldism in the 1950s and 1960s was closely connected to a range of national liberation projects and specific forms of regionalism in the erstwhile colonies of Asia and Africa, as well as the former mandates and new nation-states of the Middle East, and the ‘older’ nation-states of Latin America. Exponents of Third Worldism in this period linked it to national liberation and various forms of Pan-Asianism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism and Pan-Americanism. The weakening or demise of the first generation of Third Worldist regimes in the 1960s and 1970s coincided with or was followed by the emergence of a second generation of Third Worldist regimes that articulated a more radical, explicitly socialist, vision. A moderate form of Third Worldism also became significant at the United Nations in the 1970s: it was centred on the call for a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the 1980s, however, Third Worldism had entered into a period of dramatic decline. With the end of the Cold War, some movements, governments and commentators have sought to reorient and revitalise the idea of a Third World, while others have argued that it has lost its relevance. As a world-historical movement, Third Worldism (in both its first and second generation modalities) emerged out of the activities and ideas of anti-colonial nationalists and their efforts to mesh highly romanticised interpretations of pre-colonial traditions and cultures with the utopianism embodied by Marxism and socialism specifically, and ‘Western’ visions of modernisation and development more generally.

  64. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    Odo Lovelyn Chioma
    2019/241246
    Economics education

    1.Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    China and India played a major role in promoting the political emergence of third world countries and in changing the relations between the third world and the industrial countries. China, with its communist system, and India, with its democratic socialist system, both provided alternative models for third world countries looking to develop their own political and economic systems. Both nations also played important roles in shaping the global conversation about the relationship between developed and developing nations, and worked to promote the interests of the third world on the international stage.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    The traditional method of defining developing countries is by their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, other organizations such as the United Nations and World Bank have developed more comprehensive criteria and indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment. These criteria may include factors such as poverty, education levels, healthcare, infrastructure, and economic growth. Additionally, organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have developed the Human Development Index (HDI) which uses a combination of indicators such as life expectancy, education and standard of living to measure a country’s development status.

    3.Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations

    The countries in which the process of developmenthas started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index. Therefore, developing nations are those nations of the world, which have lower per capita income as compared to developed nations like the USA, Germany, China, Japan, etc. Here we will discuss the different characteristics of developing countries of the world.
    Developing countries have been suffering from common attributes like mass poverty, high population growth, lower living standards, illiteracy, unemployment and underemployment, underutilization of resources, socio-political variability, lack of good governance, uncertainty, and vulnerability, low access to finance, and so on.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.

    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries. 
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.   

    4.It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?
    Poverty has a female face and the global economic downturn will have a significant impact on women as more of them lose jobs and are forced to manage shrinking household incomes,” Ezekwesili said May 8 at the “Women and the Changing Global Outlook” conference organized by the British Embassy in Washington, and the National Geographic Society.
    “The face of poverty is female,” she said, sketching the portrait of the typical poor African youth.
    “She is 18.5 years old. She lives in a rural area. She has dropped out of school. She is single, but is about to be married or be given in marriage to a man approximately twice her age. She will be the mother of six or seven kids in another 20 years,” said Ezekwesili, citing the findings of the latest edition of the annual World Bank publication, Africa Development Indicators (ADI).
    The Global Crisis and its Impact on Women and Girls
    The global economic crisis, Ezekwesili explained, is likely to hit African women on two fronts. First, it will arrest capital accumulation by women, and second, it will drastically reduce women’s individual incomes as well as the budgets they manage on behalf of households. This would have damaging consequences notably on the girl child.
    With the education of boys largely sheltered from shocks and parents often more likely to pull out a girl from school than a boy when tuition becomes hard to find, the World Bank Vice President cited research findings on household income declines in Uganda and a fall in income from agriculture in Madagascar where girls were first to be pulled out of schools.
    The World Bank has warned that an additional 700,000 African infants are likely to die before their first birthday as a result of the crisis. The girl child will be hit hardest. Research has shown that “girls are five times more likely to be impacted by increases in infant mortality rate than boys.”
    Unlike in rich countries such as the United States, where more men have tended to lose their jobs compared to women, the crisis in Africa is leaving women with ever fewer job choices. In many export-oriented industries – for example, the cut-flower industry in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda and the textile industry in Kenya and Lesotho – it is women, not men, across Africa who are bleeding jobs because of the crisis.
    Declining remittances and a tightening of micro-finance lending would further restrict the funds available to women to run their households.
    Gender-focused Development Initiatives
    Conference participants reached consensus that development and poverty alleviation strategies that fail to target girls and women have little to no chance of success in Africa.
    Ms. Ezekwesili drew attention to the Gender Entrepreneurship Markets (GEM) initiative launched by the Bank’s private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), to enhance women’s access to finance and address gender barriers to the business environment. The $50 million GEM has benefited over 1,500 women in 18 sub-Saharan African countries and will be enhanced by a recent $120 million loan program that the IFC signed with EcoBank to benefit businesswomen in five countries.
    In addition, the Bank has adopted a Gender Action Plan and launched an $11 million, three-year Adolescent Girls Initiative to train, mentor, empower and facilitate the transition of young African women to work in Liberia, Southern Sudan and Rwanda. In addition, 83 Bank-funded projects totaling $4.4 billion have female economic empowerment components; the majority of them (33) in agriculture, education (34), infrastructure (11) and private sector development (5).
    Other speakers at the conference struck similar chords.
    Speaking on behalf of the British ambassador to Washington, Sir Nigel Sheinwald, the deputy head of mission, Dominick Chilcott, stressed the link between women’s empowerment and development. The road to sustainable development, he said, is only attainable if it is built on a gender inclusive agenda.
    “We must take the opportunities presented by the crisis to innovate and invest in women, whether it is proposals to introduce better social programs, finding ways of integrating women into the labor force, or reducing discrimination in financial markets,” he said, citing remarks by Sheinwald.
    In a video message, Ms. Sarah Brown, the spouse of British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, spoke of the need for world leaders to tackle “the many injustices that remain” against women.
    Ambassador Melanne Verveer, U.S. President Barack Obama’s Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues at the State Department, urged development agencies to “think women”.
    “You cannot beat poverty without putting women at the center of your development strategies,” she said.
    “Women’s equality is not just the right thing to do, it is also smart economics,” she added, paraphrasing the World Bank. She pointed out that women were key to food security and agriculture; essential players in the promotion of the rights of the child; major actors in health care provision; yet continued to suffer discrimination in powerful board rooms; and on higher rungs of corporate ladders.
    however, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman and we have seen this in many of our communities. Both man and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and fierce figure who you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elederly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equaly footing. l have had the priviledge of living in Sweden and lam realising that fathers are so involved in the family, and are so much involved in caring for the children too. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.

  65. Avatar ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA. REG NO: 2019/241246. ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    ODO LOVELYN CHIOMA
    2019/241246
    Economics Education

    1.Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    China and India played a major role in promoting the political emergence of third world countries and in changing the relations between the third world and the industrial countries. China, with its communist system, and India, with its democratic socialist system, both provided alternative models for third world countries looking to develop their own political and economic systems. Both nations also played important roles in shaping the global conversation about the relationship between developed and developing nations, and worked to promote the interests of the third world on the international stage.

    2. Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    The traditional method of defining developing countries is by their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, other organizations such as the United Nations and World Bank have developed more comprehensive criteria and indicators for measuring development and underdevelopment. These criteria may include factors such as poverty, education levels, healthcare, infrastructure, and economic growth. Additionally, organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have developed the Human Development Index (HDI) which uses a combination of indicators such as life expectancy, education and standard of living to measure a country’s development status.

    3.Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations

    The countries in which the process of developmenthas started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index. Therefore, developing nations are those nations of the world, which have lower per capita income as compared to developed nations like the USA, Germany, China, Japan, etc. Here we will discuss the different characteristics of developing countries of the world.
    Developing countries have been suffering from common attributes like mass poverty, high population growth, lower living standards, illiteracy, unemployment and underemployment, underutilization of resources, socio-political variability, lack of good governance, uncertainty, and vulnerability, low access to finance, and so on.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.

    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries. 
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.   

    4.It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?
    Poverty has a female face and the global economic downturn will have a significant impact on women as more of them lose jobs and are forced to manage shrinking household incomes,” Ezekwesili said May 8 at the “Women and the Changing Global Outlook” conference organized by the British Embassy in Washington, and the National Geographic Society.
    “The face of poverty is female,” she said, sketching the portrait of the typical poor African youth.
    “She is 18.5 years old. She lives in a rural area. She has dropped out of school. She is single, but is about to be married or be given in marriage to a man approximately twice her age. She will be the mother of six or seven kids in another 20 years,” said Ezekwesili, citing the findings of the latest edition of the annual World Bank publication, Africa Development Indicators (ADI).
    The Global Crisis and its Impact on Women and Girls
    The global economic crisis, Ezekwesili explained, is likely to hit African women on two fronts. First, it will arrest capital accumulation by women, and second, it will drastically reduce women’s individual incomes as well as the budgets they manage on behalf of households. This would have damaging consequences notably on the girl child.
    With the education of boys largely sheltered from shocks and parents often more likely to pull out a girl from school than a boy when tuition becomes hard to find, the World Bank Vice President cited research findings on household income declines in Uganda and a fall in income from agriculture in Madagascar where girls were first to be pulled out of schools.
    The World Bank has warned that an additional 700,000 African infants are likely to die before their first birthday as a result of the crisis. The girl child will be hit hardest. Research has shown that “girls are five times more likely to be impacted by increases in infant mortality rate than boys.”
    Unlike in rich countries such as the United States, where more men have tended to lose their jobs compared to women, the crisis in Africa is leaving women with ever fewer job choices. In many export-oriented industries – for example, the cut-flower industry in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda and the textile industry in Kenya and Lesotho – it is women, not men, across Africa who are bleeding jobs because of the crisis.
    Declining remittances and a tightening of micro-finance lending would further restrict the funds available to women to run their households.
    Gender-focused Development Initiatives
    Conference participants reached consensus that development and poverty alleviation strategies that fail to target girls and women have little to no chance of success in Africa.
    Ms. Ezekwesili drew attention to the Gender Entrepreneurship Markets (GEM) initiative launched by the Bank’s private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), to enhance women’s access to finance and address gender barriers to the business environment. The $50 million GEM has benefited over 1,500 women in 18 sub-Saharan African countries and will be enhanced by a recent $120 million loan program that the IFC signed with EcoBank to benefit businesswomen in five countries.
    In addition, the Bank has adopted a Gender Action Plan and launched an $11 million, three-year Adolescent Girls Initiative to train, mentor, empower and facilitate the transition of young African women to work in Liberia, Southern Sudan and Rwanda. In addition, 83 Bank-funded projects totaling $4.4 billion have female economic empowerment components; the majority of them (33) in agriculture, education (34), infrastructure (11) and private sector development (5).
    Other speakers at the conference struck similar chords.
    Speaking on behalf of the British ambassador to Washington, Sir Nigel Sheinwald, the deputy head of mission, Dominick Chilcott, stressed the link between women’s empowerment and development. The road to sustainable development, he said, is only attainable if it is built on a gender inclusive agenda.
    “We must take the opportunities presented by the crisis to innovate and invest in women, whether it is proposals to introduce better social programs, finding ways of integrating women into the labor force, or reducing discrimination in financial markets,” he said, citing remarks by Sheinwald.
    In a video message, Ms. Sarah Brown, the spouse of British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, spoke of the need for world leaders to tackle “the many injustices that remain” against women.
    Ambassador Melanne Verveer, U.S. President Barack Obama’s Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women’s Issues at the State Department, urged development agencies to “think women”.
    “You cannot beat poverty without putting women at the center of your development strategies,” she said.
    “Women’s equality is not just the right thing to do, it is also smart economics,” she added, paraphrasing the World Bank. She pointed out that women were key to food security and agriculture; essential players in the promotion of the rights of the child; major actors in health care provision; yet continued to suffer discrimination in powerful board rooms; and on higher rungs of corporate ladders.
    however, I agree that poverty has the face of a woman and we have seen this in many of our communities. Both man and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and fierce figure who you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elederly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equaly footing. l have had the priviledge of living in Sweden and lam realising that fathers are so involved in the family, and are so much involved in caring for the children too. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.

  66. Avatar Ugwu Somto Emmanuel says:

    Ugwu somto Emmanuel
    Combined social science
    Economics/philosophy
    2019/245096

    1. The rise of China and India as major world powers promises to test the established global order in the coming decades. As the two powers grow, they are bound to change the current international system—with profound implications for themselves, the United States, and the world. And whether they agree on the changes to be made, especially when it comes to their relationship with the West, will influence the system’s future character. A close examination of Chinese and Indian perspectives on the fundamentals of the emerging international order reveals that Sino-Indian differences on many issues of both bilateral and global significance are stark.
    KEY POINTS
    China and India’s sustained economic growth fuels their increasing geopolitical and military influence.
    Despite their developmental similarities, China and India’s bilateral strategic rivalry means that they have competing priorities on most major global issues.
    Sino-Indian differences are considerable on issues relating to the nonproliferation system, Asian security, regional stability in Southern Asia, and security in the maritime commons, space, and cyberspace. The two rising powers broadly agree on matters relating to the international economic system, energy security, and the environment.
    Because of its ongoing shift to the Asia-Pacific and status as the only global superpower, the United States must manage a complex set of relationships with China and India, which are at times working at cross-purposes.
    CHINESE AND INDIAN POSITIONS ON INTERNATIONAL ISSUES
    Global Order: China and India tend to agree on the importance of state sovereignty and the need to reform global governance institutions to reflect the new balance of power. They also share a strong commitment to the open economic order that has allowed both powers to flourish in the global marketplace. But the two diverge on many details of the international system, such as the future viability of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the role of state-owned enterprises in fostering globalization.
    Regional Security: Both China and India want a stable Asia-Pacific that will allow them to sustain their economic prosperity, but they perceive threats very differently and have divergent priorities. Importantly, India seeks a resolute American presence in the region to hedge against possible Chinese excesses, while China sees the United States as significantly complicating its pursuit of its regional goals and worries about American containment attempts.
    Security in the Global Commons: Beijing and New Delhi rely heavily on open sea lines of communication, and as a result, they both support the current maritime security regime. However, their interpretations as to its provisions have occasionally diverged. In space, China enjoys significant advantages over India and has emphasized the military dimensions of its program, while New Delhi has only recently begun developing space-based military technology. Both countries are just beginning to wrestle with the difficult task of forming cybersecurity policies, but they have already acted to limit objectionable or illegal activities online. In striking the balance between online freedom and social stability, India has encountered a higher degree of opprobrium in the public sphere than its counterpart.
    Nontraditional Security: Chinese and Indian approaches to both energy and the environment broadly converge. Because India and China face a rising domestic demand for energy, they heavily rely on foreign suppliers of energy resources. This has prompted both governments to seek more efficient power sources and to secure their presence in overseas energy markets. On environmental policy, the two countries focus on primarily local and short-term concerns that must be balanced with the need for economic growth.
    2. The indicators within the Economy section allow us to analyze various aspects of both national and global economic activity. As countries produce goods and services, and consume these domestically or trade internationally, economic indicators measure levels and changes in the size and structure of different economies, and identify growth and contractions.
    Economic indicators include measures of macroeconomic performance (gross domestic product [GDP], consumption, investment, and international trade) and stability (central government budgets, prices, the money supply, and the balance of payments). It also includes broader measures of income and savings adjusted for pollution, depreciation, and depletion of resources. Many economic indicators from WDI are used in tracking progress toward SDG Goal 8, promoting decent work and economic growth, and Goal 2, which encourages sustainable consumption and production.
    Measuring economic activity in a country or region provides insights into the economic well-being of its residents.

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a widely used indicator, refers to the total gross value added by all resident producers in the economy. Growth in the economy is measured by the change in GDP at constant price. Many WDI indicators use GDP or GDP per capita as a denominator to enable cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic and other data.
    Also widely used in assessing a country’s wealth and capacity to provide for its people is Gross National Income (GNI) per capita – the sum of total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents divided by total population. Furthermore, GNI per capita in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the Atlas method, is used to classify countries for operational purposes – lending eligibility and repayment terms. It is also used to classify economies into four main income groups for analytical purposes: low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income. Further information on the operational and analytical classifications is available here. GNI per capita data are published every year in July for the previous year—data for 2017 will be published during the July 2018 update of the WDI database. However, some national data do not become available until later in the year.
    3 . LOW LEVELS OF LIVING : Low productivity coupled with high rate of population growth and unemployment ruduces the standard of living of living in developing countries.
    LOW LEVEL OF PRODUCTIVITY : Developing countries usually engage in subsistence production which is characterized by the use of crude implements which result in low productivity. They largely depend on single export product for their foreign exchange earning.
    HIGH AND RAPID POPULATION GROWTH : There is high rate of population growth in developing countries while food production is not growing at the same rate. People suffer from malnutrition and diseases resulting in increase in death rate.
    HIGH RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT : Factors of production are not fully utilized in developing countries. Many factors are lying idle or are underemployed. This accounts for low productivity.
    HIGH DEPENDENCY RATIO : Due to high level of unemployment, the large percentages of the population who are unemployed depend on the few working population for their living,thus reducing the standard of living.
    LOW PER CAPITA INCOME : Low productivity results in low national income which leads to low per capita income. This will result in low standard of living.
    LOW LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT : Modern techniques of production are not yet adopted in developing countries. Most production especially in agriculture is carried out with the use of crude implements. This also accounts for low productivity.
    4 . No doubt poverty remains a global challenge; the world bank estimates that 1.29 billion people live in absolute poverty and the sad fact is that 70% of them are women.
    This is as a result of many factors like the triple burden of child bearing, child rearing, domestic unpaid labour, lack of proper education, denial of growth opportunities, inadequate health care and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.
    These characteristics and more points out that women constitute a majority of the poor and are often the poorest of the poor. These and more brought about the phrase ‘ poverty has the face of a woman”.
    YES I AGREE
    I agree to the motion that poverty has the face of a woman with these following reason;
    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income but also of nutrition and health, they are denied education (The end product of a woman is in the kitchen) and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindset permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many. The risk of poverty grow in parallel with the number of women headed households. It’s no surprise that women are over represented among the poorest; discrimination against them occur in many level: health care, education. Unsurprisingly few poor women have hope escaping this poverty as they’re so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favor them, even richer women are regularly denied inheritances and more.

  67. Avatar EMUKA CHIDERA FAVOUR 2019/246077 says:

    Eco 391
    1.Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist

    China has a mixed socialist market economy that incorporates economic planning through industrial policies.

    India has a mixed economy,the economy of India has transitioned from a mixed planned economy to mixed income developing social market economy.

    The reform and open-door policy of China began with the adoption of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political arena after his three previous defeats, the Chinese government began to pursue an open-door policy, in which it adopted a stance to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining its commitment to socialism.

    The obvious aim of this policy shift was to rebuild its economy and society that were devastated by the Cultural Revolution. The policy shift also appears to have been prompted by recognition that the incomes of ordinary Chinese were so low, in comparison with incomes in other Asian economies, that the future of the Chinese state and the communist regime would be in jeopardy unless something was done to raise living standards of its people through economic growth.

    The government subsequently established a number of areas for foreign investment, including the special economic zones, open coastal cities, the economic and technology development zones, the delta open zones, the peninsula open zones, the open border citiees, and the high-tech industry development zones. The establishment of these zones provided the trigger for massive inflows of foreign investment, primarily from companies in Hong Kong and Taiwan. At the same time, China promoted its socialist market economy concept. The changes brought an entrepreneurial boom that resulted in the emergence of huge numbers of entrepreneurs and venture businesses within China.

    Inflows of foreign capital, technology, and management knowhow enabled China to turn its vast labor resources and space to rapid economic growth. The shift to an open-door economic policy ushered in a period of high economic growth in the first half of the 1980s. The economy stagnated around the time of the Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989, but in the first half of the 1990s, China was again boasting high growth rates. Rapid economic growth was accompanied by a rise in per capita GDP (Fig. 1). In 1998, per capita income, though still only about US$770, was 14 times higher than in 1980. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that Deng Xiaoping’s first goal, which was to improve the economic status of the people, has been accomplished.

    The positive consequences of the reform and open-door policy have been economic development and rising national incomes. Naturally, there have also been negative effects, and these have become increasingly obvious over the years. The problems outlined below are closely linked to the living standards of people in China.

    there is now regional disparities in income levels, and the gap between rich and poor is now extremely wide. Under the socialist controlled economy, living standards were relatively low, but there was no big gap between rich and poor. The idea, taken from the writings of Mencius, that inequality is more lamentable than poverty, has applied throughout society. With the shift to the open-door policy, however, Deng Xiaoping indicated that it was acceptable for some regions to become wealthy before others. The result was a huge wealth disparity between coastal and inland regions, and between the cities and rural areas.

    The existence of this income disparity under a socialist regime is inevitably causing a variety of alarming social phenomena. Worship of money has spread among the people. Huge numbers of rural people have flooded into the cities in search of higher incomes, leaving many rural communities deserted and exposing China to the danger of future food shortages. There has been a breakdown of law and order in the cities, and corruption is rife among party officials and government bureaucrats. Government organizations are involved in tax evasion and smuggling, wwhile army, police, and court are operating businesses on the side. None of these phenomena are compatible with a socialist system, and they are indicative of inner contradiction in the political system.

    China has maintained a one-party socialist dictatorship on the political level, while moving to a market system on the economic level. This conflict has exposed inadequacies in the legal system, and with each passing year, it has become increasingly apparent that there is no system of checks to prevent the arbitrary exercise of power by the Communist Party. The government has accelerated the shift to a market economic system, but it has so far failed to provide a clear definition of what is meant by a “socialist market economy.” For this reason, Party and government agencies no longer function as monitors and arbiters of the market. Instead, these agencies have been given leeway to participate in business activities as direct players in the market. This situation has led them to involve in monopolistic trading and insider trading. The accepted wisdom among modern Chinese is that “those in authority (quan) will be able to acquire money (qian).”

    An extreme example of this problem relates to the export rebate system for value-added taxes. Since its implementation in 1994, the rebate rates have been lowered frequently, and the range of prices covered by the tax has also been changed. The fundamental reason for this is the fact that export rebates were greater than the amount of revenue generated by the value-added tax. Behind the scenes, exporters, customs officials, tax officials, and central and regional Party officials were conspiring to obtain massive rebates by means of fraudulent export documents.

    The economic development gap between coastal cities and other regions has engendered a sense of grievance on the part of regional government officials, who have misappropriated government money to create hastily planned development zones in an attempt to attract foreign investment. The resulting shortage of public money has frequently meant that residents have not received payments to which they were entitled.

    According to a Chinese newspaper, 158,000 senior Communist Party officials were punished for violating the Chinese Communist Party Constitution in 1998. Public prosecutors are currently investigating 35,000 cases of corruption involving 1,820 government agency officials with ranks of section manager or above. Still, those prosecuted represent only a small minority of the total number of people engaged in corrupt activities.

    China is frequently criticized for delays in updating its legal system. Despite the enactment of numerous new laws, in step with the open-door policy, China has still not established the rule of law. The collapse of the Guangdong International Trust and Investment Corporation (GITIC) in October 1998 had focused attention on the proliferation of trust and investment companies and their financial problems. At the height of the boom in the 1980s, there were almost 1,000 of these companies. Yet, China has still not established a trust and investment company law.

    The declining competitiveness of the state-owned enterprises, which are the actual and ideological pillars of the socialist economy, is a problem with serious implications for China’s economic and industrial structures. In essence, the state-owned enterprises were social microcosms created to feed the people and realize the ideals of socialism.

    However, China began to move toward a market economic system under the reform and open-door policy. One result was an influx of foreign companies with resources that made them powerful competitors in the international marketplace. The changes also triggered an upsurge of entrepreneurial activity within China. Private and individual enterprises staked their survival on business efforts that enhanced their competitiveness. Meanwhile, the state-owned enterprises were unable to modify their corporate cultures that had evolved in China’s controlled economy. In the face of this onslaught, many lost their advantage in such areas as manufacturing production, domestic sales channels, and exports.

    Inextricably linked to this problem is the state of the financial system. China’s main financial institutions are state-owned banks. Under the controlled economy, state-owned banks tended to see lending to state-owned enterprises as a mechanism for distributing fiscal funds. The state-owned enterprises that received these loans similarly regarded them less as loans than as allocations of public money.

    When the economy was opened up, however, there was a massive inflow of foreign investment. The government was forced to establish financial policies and exercise macro-level controls, while state-owned banks were required to provide support to leading enterprises under the government’s financial policies, and to improve their credit assessment capabilities. Unfortunately, credit assessment capabilities of state-owned banks have not been developed, and there was a tendency to provide continuing credit to state-owned enterprises in an environment influenced by guidance or interference from the Communist Party and the government. Now that state-owned enterprises are experiencing financial problems, state-owned banks are inevitably being left with a growing mountain of non-performing loans. Most state-owned enterprises are in need of reform, and urgent steps are needed to reform a financial system that is still based on state-owned banks.

    The U.N criteria and indicator for measuring development  provides broad measures of well-being worldwide. There are three data dimensions: life expectancy, education, and purchasing power parity.

    In addition to the main Index, the UNDP issues three supplementary resources:

    Inequality-adjusted HDI

    Gender Inequality Index

    Multidimensional Poverty Index.

    The world development indicators includes
    The Agriculture and rural development
    Aid Effectiveness
    Climate Change
    Economic policy & external debt
    Education.

    The Bretton woods institution led to the establishment of three global institution,the World Bank, international monetary fund and the World Trade Organization to ensure exchange rate stability,prevent competitive devaluation and promote economic growth.

    3)Clearly discuss and explain the characteristics of developing countries.

     Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.

    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.

    Major Characteristics of Developing Countries

    Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries. 

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Technological Backwardness

    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    Dualistic Economy

    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    Lack of Infrastructures

    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    Lower Productivity

    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    High Consumption and Low Saving

    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.   

    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020. So, challenges to development for developing nations have been added furthermore. In a summary, the major characteristics of developing countries are presented in the following table.

    4)It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement.Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    Yes,I agree,women are easily affected by poverty .Women easily reacts to emotions and situations around them.
    Firstly,Women suffer more than men from crisis-driven budget and social spending cuts, which must be offset by investing in job training and female entrepreneurship.

    “Women are facing a silent crisis which worsens and weakens their condition. Before the economic crisis unemployment, precarious work, part-time work, low salaries and slow career paths already affected women more then men. Today, with the effects of austerity policies, they are suffering a double punishment,” said rapporteur Elisabeth Morin-Chartier (EPP, FR) in Monday’s debate marking International Women’s Day.

    Parliament points out that cuts in education, childcare and care services have pushed women to work shorter hours or part-time, thereby reducing not only their income but their pensions as well.

    Women, especially women of color, in the United States are more likely to live in poverty than men, and they need robust, targeted solutions to ensure their long-term economic security.

    In conclusion,I would like to say that the government should invest in women and try to fight gender stereotypes too.

  68. Avatar Ucheama+Calista+Ngozi says:

    UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: DEVELOPING COUNTRY ISSUES (ECO 361)

    BY
    UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI
    2019/243039

    QUESTIONS:
    TWO NATIONS WHOSE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS WERE SHARPLY OPPOSED – CHINA AND INDIA – PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN PROMOTING THE POLITICAL EMERGENCE OF THE THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES AND IN CHANGING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE THIRD AND THE INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES, CAPITALIST AND COMMUNIST.

    TRADITIONALLY, DEVELOP COUNTRIES ARE DEFINED ACCORDING TO THEIR GROSS NATIONAL INCOME (GNI) PER CAPITA PER YEAR. HOWEVER, THE UNITED NATIONS, WORLD BANK AND OTHER BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS HAVE DEVELOPED MANY OTHER CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR MEASURING DEVELOPMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT

    CLEARLY DISCUSS AND ANALYZE THE COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS

    IT HAS BEEN ARGUED THAT POVERTY HAS THE FACE OF A WOMAN. AS A BUDDING ECONOMIST, CLEARLY DISCUSS AND ANALYZE THIS STATEMENT. DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE? IF YES, WHY? IF YOU NO?

    LECTURER: DR. TONY ORJI

    JANUARY, 2023
    NO. 1

    The East-West conflict which decisively influenced the postwar international scene is being shifted to the Third World. The ideological background of the relationship between communist and developing countries reflects the pluralism in the international communist movement. Soviet-oriented communists consider the dispute between the “socialist” and “capitalist” world systems as main feature of our present epoque. In this dispute the “socialist” system – according to their version – draws support from three sources:
    the communist states,
    the communist parties in Western industrial countries and
    the national revolutionary liberation movements in developing countries.
    In this theory there is no room for any “third force” in between the “socialist” and “capitalist” systems.

    India and China are two of the oldest and still extant civilizations. For Europeans, they were legendary seats of immense wealth and wisdom right up to the eighteenth century. Somewhere between the mid-eighteenth century and early nineteenth centuries, both these countries became, in the European eyes, bywords for stagnant, archaic, weak nations. For China, this happened between the adulation of Voltaire and the cooler judgment of Montesquieu; in India’s case, it was the contrast between Sir William Jones’s desire to learn things Indian and James Mill’s dismissal of Indian history as nothing but darkness. Twentieth century brought nothing but a deepening of the perception of the two countries as bywords for misery and the perceptions were not too far behind actual conditions of the two countries. For one thing they were and remain the two most populous countries. In 1820, they had a combined population in excess of half a billion and by 1900, 700 million. Within the twentieth century, their population had trebled. But they were also two of the poorest countries, typically thought of as locations of famine, disease, backwardness and superstition, of women with bound feet and men with long pony tails, untouchables beyond the pale and myriads of gods with many heads and limbs.

    In mid-twentieth century, particularly in the 1960’s, the fortunes of these two countries seemed to have reached their nadir. They were independent republics supposedly launched on their path of development, but both suffered devastating famines. China’s famine was hidden, perhaps more from China’s own ruling classes than from its people or the world, but it had followed swiftly upon the debacle of Great Leap Forward, a memorable piece of policy making by fantasy. India’s double harvest failure in 1965 and 1966 brought India to its proverbial knees in terms of foreign policy and dependence on US food aid. These two countries were “basket cases“ in the then fashionable terms of international diplomacy. Within the following forty years we are discussing China and India not as failures nor for their ancient wisdoms, but as dynamic modern economies. The Economist has to write editorials to tell the world not to be afraid of China’s economic power. American legislators pass laws to prevent their businesses outsourcing work to India’s software and telecommunication services. China ranks as the second largest economy in terms of GDP in PPP dollars. Together the two countries account for 19.2 % of world GDP- China 11.5% and India 7.7%. This is still below their share of world population 37.5%- with China 21% and India 16.5%.

    There are also political similarities and contrasts between the two both as to their 20th century history and 21st century challenges which include:
    Political: While both India and China have a long history, their histories are very different. China has been by and large a stable, centrally run state through its history with limited periods of instability and lack of a single authority. India’s history has been exactly the reverse. The periods when a single King or political authority ruled over even the major part of India’s territory can be counted on fingers of one hand. In China’s case there was a deep desire for unification of the country as a driving force of nationalism in the 20th century. But it was called reunification. Thus at the onset of World War II, China was divided and Jonathan Spence expresses the drive for nationalists as follows “The solidification of such a group of new states [ i.e. war lords, KMT, communists and Japanese enclaves ] would return China to the situation that had prevailed before the Qin conquests of 221 B.C., during the so-called Warring States period when ten major regimes controlled the country among them; or it might bring a recurrence of the shifting patterns of authority and alliances that typified China’s history from the third to sixth century A.D., and again from tenth to the thirteenth.” [Spence (1999) p.426]

    In India’s case there never was any authority which has ruled over all of India; indeed not even the British or even the present Indian government. India has been an idea in world culture for millennia, but its borders have been fixed only in the late 19th century sometime after the British gave up on Afghanistan and drew the Durand line. Kings have ruled over much of North India- the Maurya and Gupta dynasties just before and after the BC/AD division. The Mughals could be said to have ruled over much of India between the years of Akbar’s maturity in 1570 and Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. Their empire extended to Kabul but did not take in all of South India. The British could be said to have ruled over two thirds of India between 1857 and 1947, with the remaining third with native princes under their paramountcy but not direct rule. In 1947 India was partitioned and thus even what is now called India is not what Nehru in 1946 wrote about in his The Discovery of India. [Nehru (1946)]

    Economic: Both India and China were a highly urban civilization by the 18th century, though of course the bulk of the population lived in rural areas.. China was much advanced in science and technology, with gunpowder, printing, paper and paper currency as its inventions. China’s scientific and technological achievements are known to us thanks to the monumental efforts of Joseph Needham [Needham (1954- )]. India was known for its mathematics and its philosophy. The Chinese gave the world the wheelbarrow and bureaucracy; India gave the world the zero, decimals and Buddhism. Both were major exporters of fine textiles, silks and muslins; their ships sailed around the world and indeed dominated the seas till 1500. After that the Chinese withdrew from the seas and while the Indians continued, the powers that be in Delhi or Agra had no need for a navy. It was the kingdoms in South India which were maritime adventurers. As they declined in power under the Mughals, Indian shipping began to be conducted increasingly on a private basis rather than a state sponsored one. The control of the seas passed to a series of Western European countries. Yet the two countries remained economically vibrant till the late 18th century.

    Development Paths: Differences between the two appear much greater from the vantage point of 2003 than they would have in 1973 or even 1983. Each has gone through two broad phases. I would characterize them as;
    Taking Nationalist Ideas Seriously, Making Mistakes and Learning From Them: Both countries feared foreign domination and considered development as synonymous with industrialisation. Both considered the State as the engine and the driver of growth and suspected the private sector’s initiatives. The ideology forged during the long march to independence – Marxism- Leninism- Maoism in China and Gandhism, plus an amalgam of Social and liberal Democracy in India shaped the response more than economic realities warranted. One Man ruled the roost though his closest associates did not share his beliefs as much as they said while he was still around. Mao for China and Nehru for India laid down the path from which each country had to deviate, if only because the path led to a blind alley.For China the first period lasted from 1949 to 1978; for India from 1947 to 1980. China learned quickly thanks to Deng Xiao Ping. India did not have a Deng. Blood proved much thicker than pragmatism in matters of economic ideology. India began a half hearted change in 1980 when Mrs Gandhi abandoned self sufficiency as an ideal and took a big loan from the IMF. But that loan and subsequent hard currency borrowing were frittered away. India could be said to have wasted ten years in a half hearted liberalization which hit the buffers in 1991 when the country nearly went bankrupt.
    Living in The Modern World and Adapting to it: In the second phase each country forgot the lessons it had thought it had learned from its history- xenophobia, fear of foreign trade and foreign capital, distrust of private initiative and decentralization. Each adapted to the rhythm of the world economy rather than sail against the wind. Being large vessels, they have a bit more freedom of manouevre than small countries. They misused the freedom in the first phase and corrected themselves in the second phase. Their comparators would be two smaller countries both with colonial past- South Korea and Taiwan who did not go through a two phase path. After 1960, South Korea single mindedly pursued growth with spectacular results. Taiwan had a similar colonial background to Korea’s but it also had the influx of the Guomindang elite which transformed property rights in Taiwan and achieved what it could not on mainland- a successful growth strategy. The comparison between the two pairs of countries is revealing. In 1950 China and India had per capita incomes of M$439 and M$619 while South Korea and Taiwan had M$770 and M$936. By 1999, the numbers were China –M$3259, India M$1818, South Korea

    Conclusion:
    My own view is that India will remain a soft state, a consensual polity, and it will not be capable of sustained growth at the sort of rates which China has attained. To stay a stable peaceful society, India has to be a muddle and a mess. It is a miracle that proceeding in the way it has done, it has come as far as it has done, trebling its per capita income. But there will not be growth convergence between China and India [except unless China has a long breakdown in its transition to democracy]. India and China will both remove poverty in their midst and cease to be bywords for misery that they became for a hundred and fifty years after 1820. China will again become a viable Great Power; India may become just a Great Democracy.

    NO. 2

    The World Development Indicators (WDI) is produced by the Development Data Group, and in collaboration with the Bank’s regions and Global Practices, as well as external partners. The database is a compilation of relevant, high-quality, and internationally comparable statistics about global development and the fight against poverty. The WDI helps all users – analysts, policymakers, students, academics, fund and program managers, and all those curious about the state of the world – to find data related to all aspects of development, both historically and at the present time, and to follow trends and monitor progress towards a large number of goals and targets. The online database includes 1,600 indicators, for 217 economies, with some data series extending back more than 50 years. WDI is currently organized according to six main thematic areas:
    Poverty and Inequality: Indicators that measure the incidence and depth of poverty according to national and international definitions, as well the economic inequalities in income and wealth that exist both within and across countries and regions.
    People: Indicators on a range of topics that together build a portrait of societal progress across the world. They cover education, health, nutrition, mortality, and, jobs and unemployment, social protection, demographics, migration, and gender.
    Environment: Indicators on the use of natural resources, such as water and energy, and various measures of environmental degradation, including pollution, deforestation, and loss of habitat. Together these indicators help assess the extent of climate change and the human impact on the planet.
    Economy: Indicators for national accounts, including GDP, GNI, value added, and capital formation, as well as balance of payments, finance, consumption, and adjusted net savings among others, help us to measure the structure and growth of the world’s economies.
    States and Markets: Indicators on private investment, the public sector, financial systems, communication and transport infrastructure, science and technology, provide a picture of different business climates around the world, the functioning of governments, and the spread of new technologies.
    Global Links: Indicators on the size and direction of economic flows and linkages, such as trade, remittances, equity, and debt, as well as tourism and migration, provide an overview of the processes, structures, and partnerships that allow economies to flourish.
    NO. 3

    Development is a concept that is difficult to define; it is inevitable that it will also be challenging to construct development taxonomy. Countries are placed into groups to try to better understand their social and economic outcomes. The most widely accepted criterion is labeling countries as either developed or developing countries. Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop. The countries in which the process of development has started but is not completed, have a developing phase of different economic aspects or dimensions like per capita income or GDP per capita, human development index (HDI), living standards, fulfillment of basic needs, and so on. The UN identifies developing countries as a country with a relatively low standard of living, underdeveloped industrial bases, and moderate to low human development index. Therefore, developing countries are those nations of the world, which have lower per capita income as compared to developed countries like the USA, Germany, China, Japan etc. hence, the common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below:
    1. Low Per Capita Real Income: The real per capita income of developing nations is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing nations results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped or developing nations.
    2. Mass Poverty: Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty, so poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    3. Rapid Population Growth: developing nations have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing nations. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education and belief that additional kids mean additional labour force and additional labour force means additional income and wealth, etc, also stimulate people in developing nations to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    4. The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment: Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such nations.
    5. Excessive Dependency on Agriculture: The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the Gross Domestic Product in poor nations.
    6. Technological Backwardness: The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing nations is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ration, high labour-output ratio and low-wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations, illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    7. Dualistic Economy: Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing nations are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sector of the economy.
    8. Lack of Infrastructures: infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads etc is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    9. Lower Productivity: In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    10. High Consumption and Low Saving: In developing nations, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately, these nations will depend on foreign aid, loans and remittance earnings, that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing nations. Apart from explain points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc, are also major characteristics of developing nations of the world. These nations are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020. So challenges to development for developing nations have been added furthermore.

    NO. 4

    Women are the majority of the poor due to cultural norms and values, gendered division of assets, and power dynamics between men and women. Indeed, women and girls bear an unequal burden of unpaid domestic responsibilities and are overrepresented in informal and precarious jobs. Women also possess inherent agency and knowledge that is overlooked by policy-makers as they form and implement poverty reduction plans. Development interventions continue to be based on the idea that men are breadwinners and women are dependents. Women constitute a majority of the poor and are often the poorest of the poor. The societal disadvantage and inequality they face because they are women shapes their experience of poverty differently from that of men, increases their vulnerability, and makes it more challenging for them to climb out of poverty. In other words, poverty is a gendered experience — addressing it requires a gender analysis of norms and values, the division of assets, work and responsibility, and the dynamics of power and control between women and men in poor households.

    In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home, as mother and caretaker, and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home. These norms influence institutional policies and laws that define women’s and men’s access to productive resources such as education, employment, land and credit. There is overwhelming evidence from around the world to show that girls and women are more disadvantaged than boys and men in their access to these valued productive resources. There is also ample evidence to show that the responsibilities of women and the challenges they face within poor households and communities are different from those of men. Persistent gender inequality and differences in women’s and men’s roles greatly influence the causes, experiences and consequences of women’s poverty. Policies and programs to alleviate poverty must, therefore, take account of gender inequality and gender differences to effectively address the needs and constraints of both poor women and men. Girls and women in poor households bear a disproportionate share of the work and responsibility of feeding and caring for family members through unpaid household work. In poor rural households, for example, women’s work is dominated by activities such as firewood, water and fodder collection, care of livestock and subsistence agriculture. The drudgery of women’s work and its time-intensive demands contribute to women’s “time poverty” and greatly limit poor women’s choice of other, more productive income-earning opportunities.

    Faced with difficult time-allocation choices, women in poor households will often sacrifice their own health and nutrition, or the education of their daughters, by recruiting them to take care of siblings or share in other household tasks. This is just one piece of a pattern of gendered discrimination in the allocation of resources in poor households. This lack of investment in the human capital of girls perpetuates a vicious, intergenerational cycle of poverty and disadvantage that is partly responsible for the intractable nature of poverty. A focus on poor women as distinct from men in efforts to reduce poverty is justified because women’s paid and unpaid work is crucial for the survival of poor households. Poverty and gender are concepts that have historically been treated in a fairly independent fashion, which explains the specific importance each has been afforded on the political and research agendas. Notable advances have been made in the theoretical development of both concepts over the last few decades. In the case of poverty, although the most frequent definition refers to the lack of income, different approaches have emerged as regards its conceptualization and measurement. And the concept of gender, as a theoretical and methodological approach to the cultural construction of sexual differences that alludes the inequalities between the female and male sexes and to the way the two aspects relate to each other, has become an increasingly important category of analysis.

    The analysis of poverty from a gender perspective develops both concepts to help understand a number of processes inherent to this phenomenon, its dynamics and characteristics in specific contexts. It helps to explain why certain groups, by virtue of their sex, are more likely to be affected by poverty. Hence, the conceptual, methodological, and political importance of approaching the issue of poverty, from a gender perspective. Although the idea of the feminization of poverty has been questioned, it has pointed out the need to acknowledge that poverty affects men and women in different ways, and that gender is a factor just like age, ethnic factors and geographical location, among others which influences poverty and increases women’s vulnerability to it. In that sense, “the probability of being poor is not distributed randomly among the population”, as Gita Sen argues (1998 p. 127). By assigning the domestic sphere to women, the sexual division of labour causes an “inequality of opportunities for women, as a gender, to gain access to material and social resources (ownership of productive capital, paid labour, education and training), and to participate in decision-making in the main political, economic and social policies” (Bravo, 1998 p.63). In fact, women have not only relatively fewer material assets, but also fewer social assets (the income, goods and services to which people have access through their social relationships) and fewer cultural assets (the formal education and cultural knowledge that enable people perform in the human environment), all of which places them at greater risk of being poor (Bravo, 1998 p.63).
    Women’s narrower access to resources caused by the limited spaces assigned to them through the sexual division of labour and to the social hierarchies built up on the basis of this division translates into deprivation in various social spheres, fundamentally in three closely connected systems: the labour market, the welfare or social protection system and the household (Ruspini, 1996).
    Illiteracy rates are another manifestation of the constraints on women’s access to different types of assets. Although the rates historically displayed by women have decreased and the gap as regards men has narrowed, women still represent a higher proportion of the illiterate population. In 1970, the illiteracy rate for the population aged over 15 years was 22.3% for men and 30.3% for women, while in 2000 the male rate was 10.1% and the female rate 12.1%. Furthermore, the causes of discontinued schooling in adolescence are clearly differentiated by gender, since women leave their studies to undertake domestic labour, while men do so to enter paid labour (ECLAC, 2003).
    By assigning the domestic sphere to women, the sexual division of labour causes an “inequality of opportunities for women, as a gender, to gain access to material and social resources (ownership of productive capital, paid labour, education and training), and to participate in decision-making in the main political, economic and social policies” (Bravo, 1998 p.63). In fact, women have not only relatively fewer material assets, but also fewer social assets (the income, goods and services to which people have access through their social relationships) and fewer cultural assets (the formal education and cultural knowledge that enable people perform in the human environment), all of which places them at greater risk of being poor (Bravo, 1998 p.63).

    Women are economic actors
    They produce and process food for the family; they are the primary caretakers of children, the elderly and the sick; and their income and labor are directed toward children’s education, health and well-being. In fact, there is incontrovertible evidence from a number of studies conducted during the 1980s that mothers typically spend their income on food and health care for children, which is in sharp contrast to men, who spend a higher proportion of their income for personal needs. A study conducted in Brazil, for example, found that the positive effect on the probability that a child will survive in urban Brazil is almost 20 times greater when the household income is controlled by a woman rather than by a man (Quisumbing et al., 1995).
    Yet women face significant constraints in maximizing their productivity. They often do not have equal access to productive inputs or to markets for their goods. They own only 15 percent of the land worldwide, work longer hours than men and earn lower wages. They are overrepresented among workers in the informal labor market, in jobs that are seasonal, more precarious and not protected by labor standards.

    Despite this, policies and programs that are based on notions of a typical household as consisting of a male bread-winner and dependent women and children often target men for the provision of productive resources and services. Such an approach widens the gender-based productivity gap, negatively affects women’s economic status, and does little to reduce poverty. Addressing these gender biases and inequalities by intentionally investing in women as economic agents, and doing so within a framework of rights that ensures that women’s access to and control over productive resources is a part of their entitlement as citizens, is an effective and efficient poverty reduction strategy.

    Over the years there have been many efforts to reduce women’s poverty. Investments to increase agricultural productivity, improve livestock management and provide livelihood opportunities are key ways to address the needs of poor rural women. Another, more popular and effective intervention that currently reaches millions of women worldwide is microfinance — small loans and other financial services for poor women who have no access to the formal banking system. Microfinance programs have succeeded in increasing the incomes of poor households and protecting them against complete destitution. Yet another strategy to improve the economic status of poor women has been to increase women’s access to and control of land. Women who own or control land can use the land to produce food or generate income, or as collateral for credit.

    Both men and women must work together to increase family incomes and contribute to development of the community and the country. “Economic empowerment of women working through families can guarantee a change in lives and livelihoods of the poor. Microfinancing women-led families is a sustainable way to ensure women’s development,” Zafar says. The realities of the poverty-ridden and resource-constrained women in villages in remote parts of Pakistan, and a will to help change their fate, prompted Zafar to quit her World Bank job in 1995 and enter social entrepreneurship: “While working with the World Bank, I realized that until we involve women and give them ownership in water and sanitation and other infrastructure projects, we cannot ensure implementation and success in these projects, as women are the ones who take care of water-fetching for rural families and those on the periphery of urban centers.”

    Therefore, from the assertions so far, I strongly agree on the argument that says “poverty has the face of a woman because using Nigeria my country for example the marginalistion of women in political sphere, labour market, educational sector and so on has greatly affected the development of the country thereby dwindling the economic, political and social welfare of the country.

  69. Avatar ONYISHI CYNTHIA CHETACHI says:

    NAME: ONYISHI, CYNTHIA CHETACHI
    REG NO: 2019/243107
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Q1. As a result of decolonization, the UN at first numerically dominated by Europe communities and countries of European origin was gradually transformed into something of a third world forum. With increasing urgency, the problem of underdevelopment then became the focus of a permanent, through the essentially academic debate. Despite that debate, the unity of the third world remain hypotheticallybpressed mainly from the platforms of international conference.
    Q2. The criteria by World Bank noted such countries with a GNI of US $11,905, and less are defined as developing, and this was specificd by the World Bank, 2015 and $12,275 in 2019.
    The criteria by UN takes into consideration of development indicators like Human development Index(HDI),and Human poverty Index (HPI). According to UN,Countries with high HDI are developed while countries with low HDI are less developed. Also,countries with low HPI are developed,while countries with high HPI are less developed.
    Q3. Low level of living: this simply means that a segment of the population of a country does not have adequate access to much wealth and basic services and amenities necessary for living, lack of food, shelter, clothing etc.
    Low levels of productivity: this means that resources are not being used to their highest and fulest capacity, that is they are not utilizing their skills and competences to their maximum potential which in turn increases a company’s resources costs.
    High rate of population growth: this occurs when the population of an economy or country exceeds the available resources to sustain and neet the basic need of the citizens in that economy.
    Traditional and rural social structure: traditional structures can hinder development due to lack of urbanization and acceptance of new innovations and ideas for the improvement of that particular region or economy.
    Wide spread poverty: this occurs when most regions in an economy are extremely poor occuring in most individuals. This state of poverty reduces the level of living making life extremely hard and un sustainable for individuals in those regions of the economy.
    Substancial dependence on agriculture: this implies to over dependence on agriculture mainly for consumption and not for commercial purposes. Even exporting of only agricultural products can limit a country’s development.
    Feeding the government: when the government extorts its citizens and uses the money for their own personal gain it leads to under development. Not meeting the need of the people by providing good roads, jobs, Infrastructure etc, leading to low level of living in the lives of the individuals in the economy.
    Increase in unemployment: this occurs when the number of youths in the economy are without jobs, this may lead to increase in crime thus hinders Development in that economy.
    Q4. I agree with the argument that ‘poverty has the face of a woman’. This is because in the society,it is known that men are born to provide for and protect there family, while the women are meant to support the husband. In the course of providing for a family or an individual need,the father or male does it better since it is more like a natural responsibility of all men. The woman in the other hand might find it hard in performing this function especially when she is acting as single mother. This is evident in the society. Most women after losing there husband finds life hard while being the bread winner of the family. They get affected mentally, physically and even emotionally,in some cases they end up losing their life due to the pressure and pain they go through.
    Another point is that, the society in most cases is unfair to the women. They are not given access to many Social activities such as Education, leadership etc that will bring out there innate ability. This impedes them from being able to function adequately in the course of fending for themselves. They are been made to depend solely on men which in most cases are there husband, for there survival.

  70. Avatar Okoro David Kosisochukwu 2019/241946 says:

    1 China and India are the giants of the emerging world. With more than a third of the world’s population between them, these two countries would have an immense effect on global trends even if they were not growing rapidly.

    Despite very different political and economic systems, both countries have lifted millions from poverty, while income inequality and environmental degradation have worsened. Given the scale of these changes, the emergence of India and China has had profound implications for the rest of the world.

    But China and India have pursued very different development paths. China’s economic model has focused on gearing its manufacturing industries toward exports for the rest of the world. India has also become increasingly integrated with the rest of the world, though under its model, domestic demand and services have played a more important role. As this process has played out, China has become the workshop of the world.
    India’s growth has been less spectacular, but in many industries, from petrochemicals to software, India has achieved success on the global stage. Chinese goods—from T-shirts and air conditioners to iPod components and furniture—are for sale in almost every country on the planet. By contrast, Indian engineers automate office processes, call centers troubleshoot software glitches, and pharmaceutical companies produce generic drugs for clients around the world.

    China and India have played a major role in promoting the political emergence of Third World countries and changing the relationship between the Third World and the industrial countries in the following ways:
    a. Challenging the dominance of Western powers: Both China and India have challenged the dominance of Western powers by asserting their own political and economic models and rejecting the idea that the Western model is the only way to achieve development.
    b. Providing an alternative model for development: China’s communist system and India’s mixed economy have provided Third World countries with alternative models for development that they can learn from and adapt to their own context.
    c. Advocating for greater representation: Both China and India have advocated for greater representation for Third World countries in international organizations such as the United Nations, World Bank and IMF.

    2. There are several other criteria and indicators used by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods institutions to measure development and underdevelopment in addition to Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. Some examples include:
    a. Human Development Index (HDI): A composite statistic of health, education, and income indicators used to rank countries by level of human development.
    b. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): A measure of poverty that takes into account not just income, but also a range of other factors such as health, education, and living standards.
    C. Gender Development Index (GDI): A measure of gender inequality that takes into account differences in life expectancy, education, and income between men and women.
    d. Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM): A measure of gender inequality that looks at the economic, political, and educational status of women.
    e. Human Capital Index (HCI): A measure of the amount of human capital that a country has in relation to the size of its population.
    f. Social Progress Index (SPI): A measure of a country’s social progress, taking into account factors such as basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity.
    G. Press Freedom Index: A measure of freedom of the press in different countries.

    3. Developing nations, also known as less developed countries, are characterized by several common features. Some of the most notable characteristics include:
    a. Low levels of economic development: Developing nations typically have lower levels of economic development compared to developed nations. This is reflected in lower levels of income, higher levels of poverty, and a smaller middle class.
    B. Low levels of technological development: Developing nations tend to have less advanced technology compared to developed nations. This can be seen in areas such as transportation, communication, and energy production.
    C. High levels of inequality: Developing nations often have high levels of inequality, both within their borders and in relation to developed nations. This can manifest in the form of wide income disparities, limited access to education and healthcare, and limited political representation.
    d. High levels of unemployment and underemployment: Developing nations often have higher levels of unemployment and underemployment compared to developed nations. This can be due to a lack of job opportunities, a lack of education and training, or a lack of investment in the local economy.
    E. High levels of population growth: Developing nations often have higher levels of population growth compared to developed nations. This can be due to high fertility rates and low levels of access to family planning services.
    F. High level of corruption: Developing nations are often characterized by high levels of corruption in government, business, and other sectors, which can impede economic development and discourage foreign investment.
    g. Poor infrastructure: Developing nations often have poor infrastructure in areas such as transportation, communication, and energy. This can make it difficult for businesses to operate and for people to access goods and services.
    H. Dependence on primary industries: Developing nations often have economies that are heavily dependent on primary industries such as agriculture and mining. This can make their economies vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices and natural disasters.
    i. Political instability: Developing nations often have political instability, which can be due to a lack of democratic institutions, ethnic or religious conflicts, or a lack of effective governance.

    4. Yes I agree.
    It has been argued that poverty has a disproportionate impact on women, and that women are more likely to be poor than men. This idea has been referred to as the “feminization of poverty.” There are several reasons why poverty disproportionately affects women:
    A. Gender discrimination: Women often face discrimination in the workplace, which can limit their access to job opportunities and lead to lower wages. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty.
    B. Limited access to education and training: Women often have limited access to education and training, which can limit their job opportunities and earning potential. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty.
    c. Lack of legal rights: Women in many developing countries lack legal rights, which can make it difficult for them to inherit property, own land, or access credit. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty.
    D. Unpaid care work: Women often bear the majority of the responsibility for unpaid care work such as child-rearing and caring for elderly relatives. This can limit their ability to participate in the paid workforce and limit their earning potential.
    E. Cultural and societal norms: Societal norms and cultural expectations can limit the opportunities and aspirations of women, particularly in rural and patriarchal societies. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty.

  71. Avatar Divine peace says:

    Developing countries

  72. Avatar Ugwu confidence chika 2019/245041 says:

    Name :Ugwu Confidence Chika
    Departmeent: combined social science (economics/political science)
    Reg.no:2019/245041
    1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    capitalism, also called free market economy or free enterprise economy, economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets.Capitalism is an economic ideology in which the means of production is controlled by private business. This means that individual citizens run the economy without the government interfering in production or pricing. Instead, pricing is set by the free market. This means that value is based on supply and demand and the relationship between producers and consumers.
    A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc, and the Warsaw Pact.[1] Marxism–Leninism currently still remains thhe ideology of a few parties around the world. After its peak when many communist states were established, the Revolutions of 1989 brought down most of the communist states, however, it is still the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam.[2] During most of the 20th century, before the Revolutions of 1989, around one-third of the world’s population lived under communist states.
    2.)Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    The measurement of economic development can be done through the human development index (the HDI)This is the most used index to measure economic development. It takes the following three factors into account:
    A. Health. The HDI measures the average life expectancy in a specific country and compares it to the global average.
    .Education. The HDI measures the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling in a country.
    C Standard of living. The HDI measures the gross national income (GNI) per head, using the principle of purchasing power parity, PPP.In determining the HDI, each component has an equal weighting of 33%. The closer the HDI is to 1, the more developed the country is.
    *There are a few developmental measures. They are:

    A. HDI – Human Development Index.
    B. HPI – Human Poverty Index.
    Multidimensional Poverty Index.
    C. GPI – Genuine Progress Indicator
    3.)Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.Major Characteristics of Developing Countries
    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.
    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020. So, challenges to development for developing nations have been added furthermore. In a summary, the major characteristics of developing countries are presented in the following table.

    1 Low Per Capita Real Income
    2 Mass Poverty
    3 Rapid Population Growth
    4 The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    5 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    6 Technological Backwardness
    7 Dualistic Economy
    8 Lack of Infrastructures
    9 Lower Productivity
    10 High Consumption and Low Saving
    4.)It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no
    In support the motion that poverty has a woman face,To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture .

  73. Avatar Chinedu chinedu Frank 2016/237287 eco/psy says:

    1 The Chinese Economy since the Start of the Reform and Open-door Policy The reform and open-door policy of China began with the adoption of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political arena after his three previous defeats, the Chinese government began to pursue an open-door policy, in which it adopted a stance to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining its commitment to socialism. 2. A measure for per capita income, a human assets index and an economic and environmental vulnerability 3 High Population Growth Rate Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care. b .High Rates of Unemployment In rural areas, unemployment suffers from large seasonal variations. However, unemployment is a more complex problem requiring policies beyond traditional fixes. 4. I disagree Women suffer more than men from crisis-driven budget and social spending cuts, which must be offset by investing in job training and female entrepreneurship, say MEPs in a non binding resolution adopted on Tuesday. Two other resolutions look at measures to combat gender stereotyping in the EU and to protect women’s rights in North Africa.

  74. Avatar Omeje Sharon Amarachi says:

    1.A historic event, largely unnoticed by the rest of the world, took place on the border between China and India on July 6, 2006. After 44 years, the Asian neighbors reopened Nathu La, a mountain pass perched 14,140 feet up in the eastern Himalayas, connecting Tibet in China to Sikkim in India. Braving heavy wind and rain, several dignitaries—including China’s ambassador to India, the Tibet Autonomous Region’s chairperson, and Sikkim’s chief minister—watched as soldiers removed a barbed wire fence between the two nations.

    Companies all over the world would do well to hear the winds of change roaring through Nathu La (which in Tibetan means “Listening Ears Pass”). The decision to reopen the world’s highest customs post marked the culmination of a slow but steady process of rapprochement between China and India. The friends turned foes in 1962, when they fought a short but bloody war. After that, the two nations’ armies glared at each other, weapons at the ready, until their governments decided to fight poverty rather than each other. In the past few years, China (under President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao) and India (led by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh) have forged links anew. China now supports India’s bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council; their armies have held joint military exercises; and at World Trade Organization negotiations, the countries have adopted similar positions on international trade in agricultural products and intellectual property rights.

    The two nations are also reviving their old cultural and religious ties. Beginning in 2012, they will allow tourists to use Nathu La, which will increase the number of cross-border pilgrimages. The pass makes it easy for China’s Buddhists to offer prayers at monasteries in Sikkim, such as Rumtek, and for India’s Hindus and Jains to visit sacred Mount Kailash and Manasarovar Lake in Tibet. The bonds between China and India run deep. Four out of five Chinese, from a broad cross-section of society, told me in an informal survey that Bollywood movies come immediately to mind when they think about India. That’s despite the fact that it has been more than a decade since Indian movies were the only foreign films shown in China. Ignoring these facts would be a mistake; several scholars, such as Baruch College’s Tansen Sen, have argued that religion and culture lubricate the wheels of commerce.

    China and India are also rebuilding their business bridges. Although Nathu La’s reopening may be largely symbolic—the two countries allow the trade of only a few products, such as raw silk, horses, and tea, across the pass—it indicates a fresh camaraderie between the planet’s fastest-growing economies. Their desire to strike a partnership is evident: High-level official visits often take place between them; businesspeople from each country participate in conferences held in the other; and forecasts of the flow of goods and services between them keep rising. Sino–Indian trade stagnated at around $250 million a year in the 1990s, but it touched $13 billion in 2006, will cross the $20 billion mark in 2007, and may exceed $30 billion in 2008—a growth rate of more than 50% a year.

    Yet most enterprises and experts gloss over this budding business axis. I hear the naysayers all the time. China and India can’t collaborate; they can only compete, say many Western (and not a few Chinese and Indian) academics and consultants. Both nations are vying to be Asia’s undisputed superpower, and they are suspicious about each other’s intentions. China and India have nuclear weapons; they have created the world’s biggest armies; and they are trying to dominate the seas in the region. China continues to support Pakistan, which India isn’t happy about, and India still lets in Tibetan refugees, which China resents. The United States, meanwhile, plays India against China. In addition, since most adult Chinese and Indians grew up seeing each other as aggressors, it’s tough for them to trust each other.

    Moreover, the argument runs, China and India are business rivals at heart. The former’s remarkable economic rise threatens India, which trails its neighbor on almost every conventional socioeconomic indicator. China may be strong in manufacturing and infrastructure and India in services and information technology, but the latter’s manufacturing industry is becoming globally competitive, while China’s technology sector threatens to match India’s in a decade. Both have a growing appetite for natural resources such as oil, coal, and iron ore, for which they compete fiercely. They also fight for capital, especially for investments by multi-national companies from North America, Europe, and Japan. All this makes it difficult to believe that China and India can ever cooperate. Few people think to ask, “Can China and India work together?” Instead, a big question debated in boardrooms is whether India can catch up with China.

    This perspective is incomplete. China is home to 1.3 billion people; India has a population of 1.1 billion. In the next decade, they will become the largest and third-largest economies in terms of purchasing power. By 2016 they will account for around 40% of world trade, compared with 15% in 2006. That’s roughly the position they occupied about 200 years ago. Economist Angus Maddison has calculated that in the 1800s, China and India together accounted for 50% of global trade. It is impossible to make predictions about the integration of these countries into the global economy, because past events, such as Germany’s reunification and the fall of the Iron Curtain, don’t compare. After those occurrences in 1990, a large number of people entered the global economy, but the numbers pale in significance when compared with the China–India double whammy. Like it or not, the world’s future is tied to China and India.Enternal debt
    2.1Education
    life expectancy
    Energy and mining
    Environment
    Financial sector
    Adjustment real income.

    3.1 Low real per capita income: When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing.

    As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. One of the biggest issues that undeveloped nations deal with is this.

    2. Massive Poverty: The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even the most fundamental demands cannot be met by them. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries.

    So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    3. Rapid growth in population: Developing nations either experience rapid population increase or have greater populations. Different factors contribute to the faster population increase in emerging nations. People feel more secure and have more children in these nations because of the higher newborn and child mortality rates.

    People in underdeveloped nations are also influenced to have more children by a lack of family planning information and alternatives, a lack of sex education, and beliefs that having more children will increase the work force, which will increase income and riches. The idea of conservatism existing in such countries is another argument in favor of this.

    4. Unemployment and underemployment: A Problem: Other significant issues and prevalent traits of emerging or undeveloped countries include unemployment and underemployment. The issue of underemployment and unemployment in emerging nations is brought on by factors such as an overreliance on agriculture, a lack of industrialization, an improper use of natural resources, a lack of workforce planning, and others. Underemployment is a more significant issue than unemployment in developing countries.

    Because there are no alternatives to these types of professions, people are forced to work at subpar jobs. The problem of underemployment is widespread in several nations, particularly in their rural and underdeveloped regions.

    5. Technological Stagnation: Innovative technology has a positive and growing impact on a country’s ability to develop. The utilization of technology is extremely low in developing nations, and the technology that is employed is also old. In less developed countries, this results in a high cost of manufacturing and a high capital-output ratio. Poor pay rates, a high labor-to-capital ratio, and high capital-output ratios all contribute to low input productivity, which lowers a country’s gross domestic product.

    Some of the main reasons for technological backwardness in developing countries include illiteracy, a lack of good education, a lack of programs for skill development, and a lack of funding for the installation of cutting-edge technologies.

    6. Too much reliance on agriculture: In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the bulk of the population works in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue.

    Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    7. Inadequate infrastructure: In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.
    4.yes because according to Tahira Abdullah, quote “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.

    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many.

    Poverty levels in the country have crept upwards and are considered to be among the highest in South Asia. Unfortunately, the Planning Commission does not reveal the exact data on female poverty. Women bear the brunt of appallingly high socio-economic disparities; their poverty extends from the small and large denials within the home to the wider denials they experience in the community. Often they’re not even recognised as heads of households; their labour in the agricultural sector is largely unremunerated; they remain exploited, deprived of income.

    The Economic Survey of Pakistan barely acknowledges their presence and their contribution — the female labour force participation rate is the lowest in the South Asian region. A survey by Yasir Amin (in Economistan, April 12, 2012) noted that women’s contribution to the labour force had actually shrunk from 33pc in 2000 to 21pc in 2011.

    The risks of increasing poverty grow in parallel with the number of women-headed households. Single mothers are at highest risk, as are their children, who are likely to be deprived of adequate schooling and nutrition. Like most women, they have no alternative to poorly paid, informal employment.

    It is no surprise that women are over-represented among the country’s poor; discrimination against them exists at all levels, within the family, with its unequal gendered division of responsibilities and labour, inequality in access to healthcare, to schooling, to social protection. Tradition ordains that their mobility be restricted.

    Unsurprisingly, few poor women have hope of escaping this poverty as there are so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favour them, even richer women are regularly denied land inheritance by emotional coercion, forced marriage and even by ‘marriage’ to the Quran.

  75. Avatar Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma says:

    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: Development Economics I (Eco 361)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. The poverty rate is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. Gender Development Index (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. Low per capita income: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. Agriculture-based economies: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. Lack of infrastructure: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. High degrees of corruption: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. Dependence on Foreign Aid: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. High poverty rate: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. Low life expectancy: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. High rate of illiteracy: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. Environmental deterioration: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. High Consumption and Low Saving: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.
    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: Development Economics I (Eco 361)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) PER CAPITA: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. THE POVERTY RATE is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. LOW PER CAPITA INCOME: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. AGRICULTURE-BASED ECONOMIES: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. HIGH DEGREES OF CORRUPTION: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN AID: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. HIGH POVERTY RATE: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. HIGH RATE OF ILLITERACY: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. HIGH CONSUMPTION AND LOW SAVING: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.
    School: University of Nigeria Nsukka
    Department: Social science education (Education/Economics)
    Course: Development Economics I (Eco 361)
    Name: Diugwu Salvation Nmesoma
    Reg. No: 2019/242289
    Lecturer: Dr. Tony Orji
    Email address: salvationnmesoma65@gmail.com

    (1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist discuss

    Political ascent of other emerging nations, commonly referred to as the “third world,” has been significantly influenced by China and India, two of the greatest developing nations in the globe. Both countries have unique social and economic systems, which have shaped how they see foreign relations and their place in the world.

    China has long been seen as a socialist and growing country leader due to its communist regime. In addition to advocating for a more fair allocation of resources and power in the international system, it has given aid and support to other nations in the Global South. China’s recent economic growth has also made it a significant player in the global economy, which has resulted in closer economic relations with other developing nations.

    India, with its democratic and economic system, has contributed significantly to the rise of third-world nations in terms of politics. It has a history of representing the rights and interests of developing nations at international fora, as well as taking the lead in the Non-Aligned Movement, which encourages collaboration and solidarity among developing nations. India’s recent rapid economic development has made it a prominent role in the world economy and strengthened its links with other emerging nations.

    Overall, China and India have both had a significant impact on the political rise of developing nations and the evolution of their ties with industrialized, capitalist, and communist nations.

    (2). Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development. discuss

    Traditionally, developing nations are classified based on their annual Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Based on their GNI per capita, the World Bank divides nations into low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income categories. Lower-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $1,026 and $4,035; upper-middle-income nations have a GNI per capita between $4,036 and $12,475; and high-income nations have a GNI per capita of $12,476 or more. This categorization is used to assess a nation’s economic progress and to spot those who might need more help if they want to attain sustainable development.

    However, Different standards and indicators for measuring progress and underdevelopment have been created by the United Nations, World Bank, and other Bretton Woods organizations. These include metrics like the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the Human Development Index (HDI), and the Gender Development Index (GDI) (MPI).

    The value of all products and services generated in a nation is measured by its GDP. The HDI combines indices for standard of living, health, and education to give a measurement of a nation’s total human development. Gender-based disparities in these same domains are measured by GDI. To quantify poverty in a comprehensive manner, MPI takes into consideration a number of variables, such as health, education, and living conditions.

    1. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) PER CAPITA: This statistic gauges a nation’s economic success on an individual level. A greater standard of life is typically associated with a higher GDP per capita.

    2. THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite metric that considers variables including income, education, and life expectancy. High HDI nations are seen as being more developed.

    3. THE POVERTY RATE is a measurement of the proportion of a nation’s population that is living in poverty. High rates of poverty are indicative of less developed nations.

    4. GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI): The gender-based disparities in human development are measured by the Gender Development Index (GDI). Gender inequality is believed to be worse in nations with low GDI.

    5. MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDEX (MPI):The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) measures poverty by taking into account a number of factors, such as living conditions, health, and education. High MPI nations are thought to have greater levels of poverty.

    Indicators for particular areas like income inequality, access to clean water, and access to power are available in addition to these metrics. These metrics are used to evaluate a nation’s progress in reaching the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations, which include eradicating poverty, safeguarding the environment, and ensuring that all people live in peace and prosperity.

    Overall, because they give a complete view of a nation’s economic, social, and environmental well-being, these criteria and indicators are crucial instruments for gauging progress and underdevelopment.

    (3.) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1. LOW PER CAPITA INCOME: When compared to rich countries, developing countries often have lower average income levels. As a result, there are high rates of poverty and insufficient funds for social services including healthcare, education, and welfare. When compared to rich countries, the actual per capita income of emerging nations is quite low. This indicates that the average income or income per person in emerging countries is low and insufficient for saving or investing. As a result, low per capita income in emerging nations causes poor investment and savings, which leads to a vicious cycle of poverty.

    2. AGRICULTURE-BASED ECONOMIES: Agriculture is a major source of revenue and employment in many developing countries. They may become more susceptible as a result of variations in agricultural prices and climate change. In developing countries, especially in rural regions, the majority of people work in agriculture. In some countries, agriculture is the only industry that provides work and revenue. Additionally, this sector accounts for a larger portion of the GDP in developing nations. More than 70% of the people in the economies of South Asia work in agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    3. LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE: Developing countries frequently lack basic infrastructure, including insufficient electricity, transportation, and communication networks. This may hinder economic expansion and make it challenging for companies to function. In developing countries, infrastructure is not properly developed, including the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. Additionally, constructed infrastructure is poorly managed and not allocated in an effective and equitable manner. This has put these countries’ ability to develop at risk.

    4. HIGH DEGREES OF CORRUPTION: High levels of corruption are common in developing countries, which can slow economic growth and deter foreign investment.

    5. DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN AID: Developing countries depend heavily on aid from other countries to survive and develop, which leaves them open to the political and economic whims of donors.

    6. HIGH POVERTY RATE: The percentage of the population in developing nations that lives in poverty is known as the high poverty rate. Access to fundamental services like healthcare, education, and other necessities is frequently to blame for this. The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even their most basic requirements cannot be met. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. So, in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    7. LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY: Developing nations have low life expectancies, which are frequently caused by poor living circumstances and a lack of access to healthcare.

    8. HIGH RATE OF ILLITERACY: The percentage of the population who are unable to read or write is high in developing nations. Lack of access to education is frequently to blame for this.

    9. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION: Developing countries frequently experience high levels of environmental deterioration, which can be brought on by excessive exploitation of natural resources and a lack of environmental laws.

    10. The productivity of factors is similarly poor in undeveloped countries. This is a result of a lack of funding and administrative expertise needed to acquire breakthrough technology and policies and manage them successfully. Lower productivity in developing countries is ascribed to a variety of causes, including malnutrition, inadequate access to healthcare, a strong social support network, living in an unsanitary environment, employees’ bad health and stressful work environments, etc.

    11. HIGH CONSUMPTION AND LOW SAVING: Low income leads to a strong inclination to consume, a poor propensity to save, and low capital development in developing nations. People in these countries struggle with poverty and are unable to meet the majority of their basic necessities. They will be forced to spend a larger percentage of their income on consumption as a result. Less saving occurs as a result of the increased spending as a percentage of earned income, which lowers capital accumulation. These nations will ultimately rely on restricted economic growth tools including loans, remittances, and foreign help.

    (4.) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    The term “feminization of poverty” refers to the phenomena where women make up a disproportionately large fraction of the world’s impoverished. This tendency is a result of both a lack of income and possibilities because of established gender norms and gender prejudice in some communities. Due to the idea that women should be in charge of childrearing and parenting, gender prejudices sometimes deny women the chance to pursue education or jobs on their own. The rise in the number of lone mother homes is tied to the growing proportion of women living in poverty.

    The argument that poverty has the face of a woman is true. This is due to a variety of factors such as discrimination in the workforce, lack of access to education and resources, and societal expectations and norms that limit women’s opportunities. Additionally, women often bear the primary responsibility for caring for children and elderly family members, which can make it difficult for them to work and earn a stable income. As a result, women are more likely to live in poverty and have less financial security than men.

    Although poor income is the main factor contributing to female poverty, there are other interconnected causes of this issue. Women’s access to basic necessities like food and shelter as well as their potential for progress are restricted by a lack of cash.Women’s lifelong earning potential is decreased since they lack access to healthcare and basic education due to their disproportionately lower income than males. Motherhood’s obligations place further restrictions on women’s economic advancement. The homes most at danger of poverty are those headed by lone mothers or without a guardian or second parent. The likelihood of poverty is highest in female-headed families (when no male is present) since there are fewer family income providers. Lone mother families are related to concerns of gender inequality since women are more prone to poverty and lack basic necessities than males.

    Women who live in poverty have less access to healthcare resources and services. Women suffer from poor health outcomes disproportionately, in part because of the cost of childbirth. Poor health made it harder for women to make a living, which is a major contributor to the growth and maintenance of family poverty. Therefore, expanding health care to women might reduce how feminized poverty is. Greater chances for women to escape poverty and advance in society can be created through educating women and children, especially girls. Women’s access to fundamental education is restricted in nations with severe gender discrimination and social hierarchy. Even within the family, females’ education is sometimes neglected so that their brothers can go to school.

    Women throughout the world have few employment options. Due to their uneven access to lucrative and satisfying employment options, women are frequently unable to materially manage their surroundings. There are official and informal vocations in the workforce. Government regulation governs formal employment, and employees are guaranteed a pay and specific rights. In tiny, unregistered businesses, there is informal employment. Since so many women work in unorganized settings, there is less control over how they are employed. Women find it more challenging to handle workplace complaints and guarantee safe and legal working conditions as a result.

  76. Avatar NNA OZIOMA VINE says:

    NNA OZIOMA VINE
    2019/247263
    ECO 361
    DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.

    The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.The main thrust came from
    the Group of 77 (G77), which had been created at the first United Nations Conference on
    Trade and Development (UNCTAD) meeting held in 1964.

    2.) Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.

    UNDP uses the Human Development Index (HDI) as the main criterion for measuring development. This criterion takes into consideration other development indicators like literacy level, life expectancy, besides per capita income. Whereas, the World Bank compares the different countries only on the basis of the income criterion.

    (ii) The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measurement system used by the United Nations to evaluate the level of individual human development in each country.
    It was introduced by the U.N. in 1990. No
    The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
    The HDI uses components such as average annual income and educational expectations to rank and compare countries.
    The HDI has been criticized by social advocates for not representing a broad-enough measure of quality of life and by economists for providing little additional useful information beyond simpler measures of the economic standard of living.
    (iii) Infant mortality rate
    Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year.
    (iv) Literacy rate
    The rate, or percentage, of people who are able to read is a useful indicator of the state of education within a country.
    (v) High female literacy rates generally correspond with an increase in the knowledge of contraception and a falling birth rate.
    (vi) Life expectancy
    This simple statistic can be used as an indicator of the:
    (vii) healthcare quality in a country or province
    level of sanitation
    provision of care for the elderly
    It should not, of course, be used on its own to describe these things

    (3) Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.

    1 Low Per Capita Real Income
    2 Mass Poverty
    3 Rapid Population Growth
    4 The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    5 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    6 Technological Backwardness
    7 Dualistic Economy
    8 Lack of Infrastructures
    9 Lower Productivity
    10 High Consumption and Low Saving.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Technological Backwardness

    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    Dualistic Economy

    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    Lack of Infrastructures

    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    Lower Productivity

    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    High Consumption and Low Saving

    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020.

    (4) It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no?

    Both man and women have the responsibiity to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and firece figure hwo you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elederly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equaly footing. l have had the priviledge of living in Sweden and lam realising that fathers are so involved in the family, and are so much involved in caring for the children too. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.

    Well I think poverty has a woman’s face around . And I think in my opinion it can be due to the following reasons :
    There is more women population in the world than man so when doing research is easier to sample women

    As much as it’s known that a man is a provider , a woman has to be the one that provides for the kids in the interim while the man goes to “hunt”.
    I have noticed that on social media and TV when pictures are showed to potray or express poverty in most cases it is a picture of women and children.

  77. Avatar Ugwu confidence chika 2019/245041 says:

    Name :Ugwu Confidence Chika
    Department: combined social science (economics/political science)
    Reg.no:2019/245041
    1.) Two nations whose social and economic systems were sharply opposed-China and India-played a major role in promoting the political emergence of the third world countries and in changing the relation between the third world and the industrial countries, capitalist and Communist.
    capitalism, also called free market economy or free enterprise economy, economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets.Capitalism is an economic ideology in which the means of production is controlled by private business. This means that individual citizens run the economy without the government interfering in production or pricing. Instead, pricing is set by the free market. This means that value is based on supply and demand and the relationship between producers and consumers.
    A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the state ideology of the Soviet Union, the Comintern after Bolshevisation and the communist states within the Comecon, the Eastern Bloc, and the Warsaw Pact.[1] Marxism–Leninism currently still remains thhe ideology of a few parties around the world. After its peak when many communist states were established, the Revolutions of 1989 brought down most of the communist states, however, it is still the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam.[2] During most of the 20th century, before the Revolutions of 1989, around one-third of the world’s population lived under communist states.
    2.)Traditionally, Developing countries are defined according to their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. However, the United Nations, World Bank and other Bretton Woods Institutions have developed many other criteria and indicators for measuring development and under development.
    The measurement of economic development can be done through the human development index (the HDI)This is the most used index to measure economic development. It takes the following three factors into account:
    A. Health. The HDI measures the average life expectancy in a specific country and compares it to the global average.
    .Education. The HDI measures the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling in a country.
    C Standard of living. The HDI measures the gross national income (GNI) per head, using the principle of purchasing power parity, PPP.In determining the HDI, each component has an equal weighting of 33%. The closer the HDI is to 1, the more developed the country is.
    *There are a few developmental measures. They are:

    A. HDI – Human Development Index.
    B. HPI – Human Poverty Index.
    Multidimensional Poverty Index.
    C. GPI – Genuine Progress Indicator
    3.)Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations.
    Developing countries are sometimes also known as underdeveloped countries or poor countries or third-world countries or less developed countries or backward countries. These countries are in a hurry for economic development by utilizing their resources. However, they are lagging in the race of development and instability. The degree of uncertainty and vulnerability in these countries may differ from one to another but all are facing some degree of susceptibility and struggle to develop.
    The common characteristics of developing nations are briefly explained below.Major Characteristics of Developing Countries
    Low Per Capita Real Income
    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.
    Mass Poverty
    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.
    Rapid Population Growth
    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.
    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.
    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.
    Technological Backwardness
    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.
    Dualistic Economy
    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.
    Lack of Infrastructures
    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.
    Lower Productivity
    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.
    High Consumption and Low Saving
    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.
    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy, etc. are also major characteristics of developing countries of the world. These countries are affected more severely by the economic crisis derived from the coronavirus of 2020. So, challenges to development for developing nations have been added furthermore. In a summary, the major characteristics of developing countries are presented in the following table.

    1 Low Per Capita Real Income
    2 Mass Poverty
    3 Rapid Population Growth
    4 The problem of Unemployment and Underemployment
    5 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
    6 Technological Backwardness
    7 Dualistic Economy
    8 Lack of Infrastructures
    9 Lower Productivity
    10 High Consumption and Low Saving
    4.)It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no
    In support the motion that poverty has a woman face,To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture .

  78. Avatar 2019/245536 Nancy Okafor Economic and philosophy says:

    1. Shigeo Kobayashi, Jia Baobo and Junya Sano
    Introduction

    The Chinese Economy since the Start of the Reform and Open-door Policy

    The reform and open-door policy of China began with the adoption of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political arena after his three previous defeats, the Chinese government began to pursue an open-door policy, in which it adopted a stance to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining its commitment to socialism.
    2. Three criteria are used to decide whether or not a country is a Low Developing Country(LDC): A measure for per capita income, a human assets index and an economic and environmental vulnerability
    3 High Population Growth Rate
    Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care.

    b .High Rates of Unemployment
    In rural areas, unemployment suffers from large seasonal variations. However, unemployment is a more complex problem requiring policies beyond traditional fixes.
    4. I AGREE
    Women suffer more than men from crisis-driven budget and social spending cuts, which must be offset by investing in job training and female entrepreneurship, say MEPs in a non binding resolution adopted on Tuesday. Two other resolutions look at measures to combat gender stereotyping in the EU and to protect women’s rights in North Africa.

  79. Avatar Ikpeama chidubem Emmanuel (2019/243302) (economics/psychology) says:

    1. The Chinese Economy Since Reform and the Open-Door Policy Began

    The approval of a new economic development strategy at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCPCC) in late 1978 marked the beginning of China’s reform and open-door policy. The Chinese government started to pursue an open-door policy under the direction of Deng Xiaoping, who had returned to the political scene following his three previous defeats. He took a position to achieve economic growth through the active introduction of foreign capital and technology while maintaining his commitment to socialism.

    Its economy and society were decimated by the Cultural Revolution, thus it was clear that this policy change was intended to help them recover. The change in policy also appears to have been motivated by the realization that the average Chinese income was so low compared to incomes in other Asian economies that unless something was done to raise living standards for its citizens through economic growth, the future of the Chinese state and the communist regime would be in jeopardy.Following that, the government created a number of locations for foreign investment, including special economic zones, open coastal cities, economic and technological development zones, open delta zones, open peninsula zones, open border cities, and high-tech industry development zones. The creation of these zones served as the catalyst for significant inflows of foreign investment, mostly from Hong Kong and Taiwanese businesses. China simultaneously advocated the idea of a socialist market economy. As a result of the developments, China experienced an entrepreneurial boom that gave rise to a sizable number of new enterprises and entrepreneurs.

    China was able to quickly expand its economy because to the influx of foreign cash, technology, and managerial know-how.
    The early half of the 1980s saw a period of rapid economic expansion as a result of the policy. Around the time of the Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989, the economy slowed down, but in the first part of the 1990s, China was once more able to brag of strong growth rates. A surge in per capita GDP accompanied rapid economic growth (Fig. 1). Although it was still still about US$770 per person in 1998, per capita income had increased by 14 times since 1980. It is possible to infer that Deng Xiaoping’s first objective, which was to raise the standard of living for the populace, has been realized.

    2.A country is classified as a Low Developing Country (LDC) based on three factors: a measure of per capita income, a human assets index, and an index of economic and environmental vulnerability. Low income nations are those with GNI per capita less than $1,035; lower middle income nations are those with GNI between $1,036 and $4,085; upper medium income nations are those with GNI between $4,086 and $12,615; and high income nations are those with GNI over $12,615 per capita. The UN list included 46 nations as of the end of 2021.

    3a.Low real per capita income
    One of the most distinguishing features of underdeveloped economies is a low real per capita income. Their low real per capita income level causes them to have less saved and invested.

    It indicates that the typical worker doesn’t make enough money to save or invest. They squander all they earn. As a result, the majority of the population struggles to break out of the poverty cycle it fosters. In emerging nations, a large proportion of individuals live in absolute poverty, or the lowest possible income level.

    b. High Rate of Population Growth
    Having a large population or experiencing rapid population expansion is another trait shared by developing nations. This occurs frequently due to a lack of family planning alternatives and the perception that having more children will increase the family’s ability to support themselves financially. This growth in recent decades may be attributable to greater birth rates and declining mortality rates as a result of better healthcare.

    C.Continuity with the Primary Sector
    In low-income nations, the majority of people live in rural areas. The demand structure changes as income levels rise, which causes a rise in the manufacturing sector first and then the services sector.

    4. I concur;

    According to MEPs in a non-binding resolution passed on Tuesday, women suffer from budget and social spending cuts caused by the crisis more than men do, and this must be countered by funding job training and female entrepreneurship. Two more resolutions examine ways to preserve women’s rights in North Africa and to prevent gender stereotypes in the EU.

    The effects of the world economic crisis will be particularly felt by women.

    Girls will suffer more than boys in areas like schooling and newborn mortality.

    – Any strategy for economic development ought to take the situation of women into account.

    Washington, D.C., May 15 – The global economic crisis will have particularly detrimental effects on African women’s individual incomes and the budgets they oversee on behalf of their households.

  80. Avatar Odo chimdiuto joy...2019/241990 says:

    Odo chimdiuto joy
    Economics department
    2019/241990

    3.Clearly discuss and analyse the Common Characteristics of Developing Nations

    Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries. This means the average income or per person income of developing nations is little and it is not sufficient to invest or save. Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty. This is one of the most serious problems faced by underdeveloped countries.

    Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. The low per capita in developing nations also reflects the problem of poverty. So, poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment, and lack of other socio-economic participation and access apart from low per capita income.

    Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. There are different factors behind higher population growth in developing countries. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc. also stimulate people in developing countries to give birth to more children. This is also supported by the thought of conservatism existed in such nations.

    The Problem of Unemployment and Underemployment

    Unemployment and underemployment are other major problems and common features of developing or underdeveloped nations. The problem of unemployment and underemployment in developing countries is emerged due to excessive dependency on agriculture, low industrial development, lack of proper utilization of natural resources, lack of workforce planning, and so on. In developing nations, the problem of underemployment is more serious than unemployment. People are compelled to engage themselves in inferior jobs due to the non-availability of alternative sources of jobs. The underemployment problem in high extent is found especially in rural and back warded areas of such countries.

    Excessive Dependence on Agriculture

    The majority of the population in developing nations is engaged in the agriculture sector, especially in rural areas. Agriculture is the only sole source of income and employment in such nations. This sector has also a higher share of the gross domestic product in poor countries. In the case of the South Asian economies, more than 70 percent population is, directly and indirectly, engaged in the agriculture sector.

    Technological Backwardness

    The development of a nation is a positive and increasing function of innovative technology. Technological use in developing countries is very low and used technology is also outdated. This causes a high cost of production and a high capital-output ratio in underdeveloped nations. Because of the high capital-output ratio, high labor-output ratio, and low wage rates, the input productivity is low and that reduces the gross domestic product of the nations. Illiteracy, lack of proper education, lack of skill development programs, and deficiency of capital to install innovative techniques are some of the major causes of technological backwardness in developing nations.

    Dualistic Economy

    Duality or dualism means the existence of two sectors as the modern sector or advanced sector and the traditional or back warded sector within an economy that operates side by side. Most developing countries are characterized by the existence of dualism. Urban sectors are highly advanced and rural parts are having the problems like a lack of social and economic facilities. People in rural areas are majorly engaged in the agriculture sector and in urban areas they are in the service and industrial sectors of the economy.

    Lack of Infrastructures

    Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably. This has created a threat to development in such nations.

    Lower Productivity

    In developing nations, the productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc. are factors that are attributed to lower productivity in developing nations.

    High Consumption and Low Saving

    In developing countries, income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate and consequently lower capital formation. Ultimately these countries will depend on foreign aid, loans, and remittance earnings that have limited utility to expand the economy.

    The above-explained points show the state and characteristics of developing countries. Apart from explained points, excessive dependency on developed nations, having inadequate provisions of social services like education facilities, health facilities, safe drinking water distribution, sanitation, etc., and dependence on primary exports due to lack of development and expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy

    4.. It has been argued that poverty has the face of a woman. As a budding Economist, clearly discuss and analyse this statement. Do you agree or disagree? If yes, why? If you no
    Yes l.agree

    Women constitute a majority of the poor and are often the poorest of the poor. The societal disadvantage and inequality they face because they are women shapes their experience of poverty differently from that of men, increases their vulnerability, and makes it more challenging for them to climb out of poverty. In other words, poverty is a gendered experience — addressing it requires a gender analysis of norms and values, the division of assets, work and responsibility, and the dynamics of power and control between women and men in poor households.

    In most societies, gender norms define women’s role as largely relegated to the home, as mother and caretaker, and men’s role as responsible for productive activities outside the home. These norms influence institutional policies and laws that define women’s and men’s access to productive resources such as education, employment, land and credit. There is overwhelming evidence from around the world to show that girls and women are more disadvantaged than boys and men in their access to these valued productive resources. There is also ample evidence to show that the responsibilities of women and the challenges they face within poor households and communities are different from those of men. Persistent gender inequality and differences in women’s and men’s roles greatly influence the causes, experiences and consequences of women’s poverty. Policies and programs to alleviate poverty must, therefore, take account of gender inequality and gender differences to effectively address the needs and constraints of both poor women and men.

    Girls and women in households bear a disapporpriate share
    Of the work and responsibility of feeding and caring for family members through unpaid household work. In poor rural households, for example, women’s work is dominated by activities such as firewood, water and fodder collection, care of livestock and subsistence agriculture. The drudgery of women’s work and its time-intensive demands contribute to women’s “time poverty” and greatly limit poor women’s choice of other, more productive income-earning opportunities.

    Faced with difficult time-allocation choices, women in poor households will often sacrifice their own health and nutrition, or the education of their daughters, by recruiting them to take care of siblings or share in other household tasks. This is just one piece of a pattern of gendered discrimination in the allocation of resources in poor households. Evidence shows that the gender gaps in nutrition, education and health are greater in poorer households. This lack of investment in the human capital of girls perpetuates a vicious, intergenerational cycle of poverty and disadvantage that is partly responsible for the intractable nature of poverty.
    A focus on poor women as distinct from men in efforts to reduce poverty is justified because women’s paid and unpaid work is crucial for the survival of poor households.

    Women are economic actors: They produce and process food for the family; they are the primary caretakers of children, the elderly and the sick; and their income and labor are directed toward children’s education, health and well-being. In fact, there is incontrovertible evidence from a number of studies conducted during the 1980s that mothers typically spend their income on food and health care for children, which is in sharp contrast to men, who spend a higher proportion of their income for personal needs. A study conducted in Brazil, for example, found that the positive effect on the probability that a child will survive in urban Brazil is almost 20 times greater when the household income is controlled by a woman rather than by a man

    Yet women face significant constraints in maximizing their productivity. They often do not have equal access to productive inputs or to markets for their goods. They own only 15 percent of the land worldwide, work longer hours than men and earn lower wages. They are overrepresented among workers in the informal labor market, in jobs that are seasonal, more precarious and not protected by labor standards.

    Despite this, policies and programs that are based on notions of a typical household as consisting of a male bread-winner and dependent women and children often target men for the provision of productive resources and services. Such an approach widens the gender-based productivity gap, negatively affects women’s economic status, and does little to reduce poverty. Addressing these gender biases and inequalities by intentionally investing in women as economic agents, and doing so within a framework of rights that ensures that women’s access to and control over productive resources is a part of their entitlement as citizens, is an effective and efficient poverty reduction strategy.

  81. Avatar Okeke Michael Obinna says:

    Name: Okeke Michael Obinna
    Reg no: 2019/250019
    Dept: Combined Social Science(Economics/ Pol science)
    Course: Eco 361

    1. Both China and India, as large and populous nations with distinct social and economic systems, have played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of the Third World and influencing the relationships between Third World countries and industrialized nations. China, as a communist country, has promoted socialist ideologies and supported socialist movements in other countries, while India, with its mixed economy and democratic government, has advocated for non-aligned and independent policies. These contrasting approaches have had a significant impact on the political and economic development of Third World countries.

    2. Traditionally, developing countries have been defined based on their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. The World Bank uses a threshold of $1,026 per capita to determine which countries are considered “developing” and which are considered “developed.” However, the United Nations and other Bretton Woods institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have developed a wide range of other criteria and indicators to measure development and underdevelopment. These include measures of poverty, health, education, gender equality, and access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation. Additionally, these organizations also use indicators that measure economic growth, infrastructure, and governance to determine the level of development. The Human Development Index (HDI) is an example of the composite index which measures a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.

    3. Developing nations, also known as less developed or underdeveloped countries, share a number of common characteristics. These include:
    1. Low income: Developing nations typically have lower per capita income compared to developed countries. This is often reflected in a higher poverty rate and lower standard of living for the majority of the population.
    2. Weak economic infrastructure: Developing nations often have weak economic infrastructure, including inadequate transportation and communication systems, which can impede economic growth and development.
    3. Dependence on primary products: Developing nations are often heavily dependent on the export of primary products such as agricultural goods or raw materials, which can make their economies vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.
    4. High population growth: Developing nations often have high population growth rates, which can place strain on resources and make it more difficult to achieve sustainable economic growth.
    5. Low level of human development: Developing nations often have lower levels of human development, as measured by indicators such as life expectancy, literacy, and access to basic services such as healthcare and education.
    6. Political instability: Developing nations are often characterized by political instability, with a weak rule of law and a lack of democratic institutions. This can make it difficult to implement policies necessary for sustainable economic development.
    7. Income inequality: Developing nations are often characterized by high levels of income inequality, which can perpetuate poverty and impede economic growth.
    8. Environmental degradation: Developing nations are often at a greater risk of environmental degradation, with weak or absent regulations to protect natural resources and poor infrastructure to manage pollution

    4. The statement “poverty has the face of a woman” refers to the idea that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. This is generally true, as women tend to have lower incomes, less access to education and job opportunities, and greater responsibilities for caregiving and household work. This can make it more difficult for women to escape poverty and can also lead to a perpetuation of poverty within families and communities.
    I agree that women are disproportionately affected by poverty. There are various reasons for this. One is that women tend to have lower levels of education and job skills, which can limit their employment opportunities and earning potential. Women also tend to be concentrated in lower-paying and less secure jobs, such as domestic work and caregiving, which can make it difficult for them to support themselves and their families. Additionally, women often have primary responsibility for caregiving within families, which can limit their ability to work and earn an income.
    Discrimination and discrimination also play a significant role in exacerbating poverty among women. In many countries, women have limited legal rights and face discrimination in the workplace, which can make it difficult for them to find and keep jobs. In addition, cultural and societal norms can lead to discrimination against women in education and in access to credit and other financial resources.
    In conclusion, while poverty affects both men and women, women are disproportionately affected by poverty due to a combination of factors including discrimination, lack of education and job skills, limited access to financial resources and societal norms. To address poverty among women, it is important to focus on increasing access to education, job training, and financial resources for women, as well as working to change discriminatory cultural norms.

  82. Avatar Asogwa Rejoice Chinecherem says:

    Name:Asogwa Rejoice Chinecherem
    REG NUMBER:2019/242727
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1-In order to have a good understanding of the early dynamics of the relationship between
    the People’s Republic of China’s and India after 1949, it is important to situate it within the broader context of the evolution of Chinese foreign policy prior to the establishment of the new Chinese state. Mao Zedong was greatly interested in world affairs. In October 1938, he foretold the “massive war that threatens mankind.”3 His primary interest was in exploring how China might benefit from the war and, more specifically, what advantage the Chinese communists might gain from the intensifying differences between Japan and the United States on the one hand, and from the possibility of better relations between the Soviet Union and the United States on the other. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, Mao talked of a global anti-fascist front with China as a leader alongside Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. The emphasis on China as a front-rank global power despite its relative weakness was a regular theme in his writings.4 After the tide turned in favor of the allied powers, Mao talked about a postwar order that would be shaped collectively by these four countries,5 and claimed that China would also play “a very great role in safeguard- ing peace in the postwar world and a decisive one in safeguarding peace in the east.”6 By China he meant the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). From Mao’s speeches, it was clear that the CCP saw China’s postwar role as that of the front-rank world power that would play the central role in safeguarding peace in Asia.
    The other major foreign policy preoccupation of the CCP prior to 1949 was the attitude of and relationship with the United States. It initially believed that Washington was not averse to accommodation, but disillusionment had set in by the end of 1946. Zhou Enlai com- plained that the American envoys were deceitful.7 Mao and Zhou labeled the Americans as imperialists and talked about an anti-imperialist front headed by the Soviet Union.8 In 1949, Zhou demanded that the United States withdraw all its military forces from China, saying: “We have the right to wipe them out.”9 From that point on, the United States was seen as the existential threat. Mao announced his decision to “lean” to the side of the Soviet Union and to form a united front against U.S. imperialism.10

    Thus, when the People’s Republic of China was established in October 1949, two central narratives formed in the CCP: that China was the dominant Asian power without an equal in the region and that the United States was the primary adversary. Since the party and the state were fused indistinguishably, these two narratives were hardwired into the machinery of the new regime.
    Where did India fit into this Chinese worldview? Jawaharlal Nehru, who would eventually be India’s prime minister, and Mao corresponded with each other in the 1930s.11 In August 1939, Nehru visited China and met Mao’s colleagues in Chongqing. By early 1942, then president Chiang Kai-shek was expressing support for India’s independence.12 Given Mao’s interest in world affairs, he would have known about India’s anti-imperialist struggle against the British, but neither Mao nor Zhou referred to this in their writings before 1945, even
    as many Asian and African colonies were following India’s lead, not China’s. They made only general references to the freedom struggle in the colonies.13 From an interview that Mao gave to the American journalist Edgar Snow in 1936, it seems that he was not willing to acknowledge India’s leadership in the fight to liberate Asia from colonial rule. Mao told Snow that, “when the Chinese revolution comes to full power, the masses of many colonial countries will follow the example of China.”14 The Chinese revolution was deemed to be the “most important event” in postwar “Afro-Asia.”15 The strategic thinking of the CCP leaders was dominated by the idea of China as the center of the communist movement and the Third World.
    In 1954, Mao divided the beneficiaries of the Second World War into three categories: the United States, countries like China that were led by communist or socialist parties, and
    the “oppressed nations” like India that were not led by communist parties but by “patriotic organizations.”16 This suggests that India belonged in a lesser category for the CCP, presum- ably because its revolution was incomplete. Although the Indian National Congress was the dominant anti-imperial force, in 1943, Mao had made a specific reference to the Communist Party of India as “joining us in opposing Japanese imperialism.”17 Mao was hoping that India’s freedom might usher in a like-minded socialist government.
    Aside from the fact that the CCP did not consider India’s role in Asia as being as important as its own and did not look upon it as an equal, declassified papers also reveal that there was deep distrust of the country within the highest levels of the Chinese party-state from the beginning. Mao had a negative view of Nehru. On November 19, 1949, he wrote to Bhalchandra Trimbak Ranadive, the general secretary of the Communist Party of India, calling Nehru a “collaborator” (he zuo zhe) of imperialism.18 His view of India as being on the other side of the postwar political divide may have deepened because of India’s neutral position vis-à-vis the two major blocs. Nehru wished to follow an independent foreign policy. But, even though Nehru said that “we do not propose to line up with any activity that may appear to be against China,”19 for Mao everybody had to “lean either to the side of imperialism or to the side of socialism. Sitting on the fence will not do, nor is there a third road.”20 In Chinese eyes, India was not part of the socialist bloc and was therefore part of

    the imperialist bloc. The CCP labeled Nehru a “thoroughly loyal servant of US imperialism” and the “American running dog” seeking a leadership role in Asia from his U.S. “mas- ters.”21 China’s new leaders plotted with the Soviets for a communist takeover in India. In December 1950, Chinese leaders Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai were urging the Soviet Union to strengthen the Communist Party of India “in connection with the role that India should play in the final destruction of international imperialism.”22
    One could conclude that for China there was no mind-space for India as an independent player in postwar international relations since it was neither China’s equal nor ideologically aligned. India was tagged as a part of the imperialist-capitalist camp led by the United States. By implication, that meant India had no agency of its own, did not act independently, and could not be trusted. This did not mean the CCP had no use for India in the early years. It had decided to combat the U.S. challenge by adopting “united front” tactics.23 The strat- egy, according to Zhou, was “to consolidate and develop the strength of the international forces for peace [meaning the socialist countries] and to extend the influence of New China [by uniting] with and win[ning] over the former colonial and semi-colonial states.” He was even more specific about the countries of Southeast Asia: “We should try to win them over,” he said, “so that they will remain neutral in time of war and keep their distance from the imperialists in times of peace.”24 In other words, the strategy was to deny the United States further space among the newly independent countries in the region surrounding China by building “Asian solidarity.” This involved persuading Asian governments that it was in their best interest to remain neutral and to help China to build a postwar Asia for Asians. India was a principal target of persuasion in the implementation of this policy.
    Thus, the core of China’s India policy consisted of two main strands. First, India must
    be deterred from becoming an US camp follower, and policy should be crafted to keep it neutral on important matters of concern to China. Second, India’s standing and influence in the developing world should be utilized to build “Asian solidarity” as a bulwark to stop further U.S. inroads into Asia.
    Keeping India away from the United States became a key objective of China’s policy.25 Persuasion and pressure were used for this purpose. In August 1949, a senior Chinese diplomat, Han Nianlong, told India’s ambassador to the Nationalist government, K. M. Panikkar, that “the only thing that could prevent the development of such [India-China] relations is if India permitted herself to be used as a base for American activities.”26 In 1952, Zhou accused the United States of “trying to disrupt this [India-China] friendship.”27 In 1954, Mao claimed that the United States was “bent on harming us whenever it has the opportunity,” and hinted that this would not be good for India either.28 The CCP mounted pressure on India’s leaders by talking about a U.S. “conspiracy against the freedom of Asia,”29 or by claiming, as Mao did in 1954, that “we, people of the east” have to cope with imperi- alism and protect each other.30 In order to keep India away from the United States, China always framed issues in the context of imperialist versus newly independent states, and also in terms of Asian peoples determining their own destiny. In other words, framing that India could relate to.31 By the mid-1950s, Nehru was telling his ambassador to Beijing that India was closer to China than to the United States.32 India began to undertake domestic and in- ternational advocacy on behalf of the CCP. In October 1954, Nehru claimed that there was “no doubt at all that the government and people of China desire peace.”33 India even made a case for China at the 1956 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting by claiming that “it seemed unlikely that they would harbor aggressive intentions against any other country,” describing the main problem at hand as U.S. hostility to China.34
    The second objective of China’s India policy was to create a belt of neutral Asian nations in the proximate and peripheral regions around itself so that the United States would not be able to contain it. Once again, China resorted to “united front” tactics. In 1950, Zhou told
    a senior Indian diplomat, T. N. Kaul, that “all the Asian countries must be united on the basis of friendship, peace and mutual respect in order to oppose any imperialist aggression.”35 In 1954, he flew down to India with the express purpose of “conducting preparation work for signing some form of Asian peace treaty and to strike a blow at the US conspiracy to organize a south east Asian invasive bloc (SEATO).”36 The CCP saw the 1955 Asian-African Conference in Bandung as a good platform to build an anti-U.S. front in the name of Asian solidarity.37 It categorized countries as ranging from “peace and neutral” to “anti-peace and anti-neutral,” with specific instructions on how to approach the different categories under the “general line of expanding the united front of peace.”38 India was a key instrument for executing this strategy. The CCP worked through Asian leaders to secure outcomes that served the objective of building an Asian front against the United States.39 A subordinate goal of China’s policy at this time, particularly around the Bandung Conference, might also have been to use India to develop agency for China by building a Third World constituency independent of the Soviet Union.
    The Bandung Conference marked the high point of China’s early India policy. Since China had crafted relations with India within the matrix of great power relations and with the pri- mary objective of keeping it neutral, the policy worked so long as India shared the Chinese perspective on great power relations, addressed China’s core concerns in this larger context, and did not press its own issues. China seemed to expect that India would share its big-pic- ture approach and treat its own concerns as local issues to be discussed but not allowed to upset the overall framework. In the second half of the 1950s, after India started to articulate bilateral concerns, China still viewed these only through the prism of great power relations and not a bilateral one. It concluded that India was using problems like Tibet (which was internal to China) or the border dispute (with India’s claim seen as illegal) to earn support from the United States. This argument also fit in with the CCP’s ideological thinking about the Indian government as a bourgeois ruling class that was capitalist and not to be trusted. This impression gained further ground after the Tibetan rebellion and the flight of the Dalai Lama in March 1959, and following the warm welcome that India gave then U.S. president claimed that India was stirring up trouble in Tibet with active assistance from the United Kingdom and the United States.40 At the same time, China also viewed the budding Indo- Soviet relationship with concern after the visit of Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolay Bulganin to India in 1955, and especially after the sharp exchanges over India that took place between Khrushchev and Mao Zedong in Beijing in October 1959.41
    Shifting equations within the strategic triangle further complicated China’s India policy after 1958. The CCP saw the U.S. military buildup in the Taiwan Strait as preparation for an invasion—“play[ing] with fire at the brink of war” is how Zhou Enlai described it.42 After Khrushchev’s visit to Washington in September 1959, the CCP felt that the two superpowers mightq be colluding against it.43 Its biggest fear was U.S.-Soviet coordination on matters relating to China, including on its relations with India. In this changed context of triangular great power relations, China adjusted its policy to keep India neutral. Propaganda was toned down after May 1959. Mao personally drafted a conciliatory message.44 Ambassador Pan Zili said that “China will not be so foolish as to antagonize the US in the east and again to an- tagonize India in the southwest,” and added that “we cannot have two centers of attention, nor can we take friend [India] for foe. This is our state policy.”45 In September 1959, Zhou told the Indian ambassador about the great importance of Chinese-Indian friendship for Asia.46 It is believed that in January 1960, the CCP’s Politburo Standing Committee adopted guidelines for negotiating a compromise on the boundary question.47 It can be inferred that this tactical adjustment in India policy was in response to the deteriorating strategic environ- ment around China.
    Zhou Enlai’s visit to Delhi in April 1960—when he carried Mao’s message that China’s “enemy lies in the east and will come by the sea. We take India as a friendly country and we cannot turn our southern border into a national front,” and a proposal to settle the bound- ary48—was not successful. It reinforced the Chinese view that India was seeking to benefit from the unfavorable situation confronting China. The assessment from the Chinese em- bassy in Delhi was that “opposition to China and communism and dependence on America and foreign expansion are the Indian ruling circle’s long-term guiding principles for foreign policy; a focal point of these guiding principles is long-term hostility toward China.”49 The CCP concluded that India’s posture on the boundary was part of an overall design under U.S. coordination to pressurize China from two fronts.50 That China looked at developments not simply from a bilateral perspective but within the context of great power triangular relationships is clear from a statement attributed to Mao. He is reported to have said that
    Our fight with India is a complicated international question; it is not that only India is a problem, both the US and USSR and others are supporting India. They think they can teach us a lesson by dragging us into the arena at a time when we are in difficulty. But we shall not succumb to their scheme.
    why Mao described the 1962 border war as a politico-military war (zhengzhi junshi zhang). He decided on the strategy, tactics, and timing with a twofold goal: to show the superpowers that India was not a dependable Asian partner and to coerce India back to a neutral posture.
    The border war achieved little. It did not draw India back to a neutral posture—on the con- trary, Nehru called the war the “final culmination of the deterioration in relations between India and China.”52 India sought military assistance from the West. Chinese hopes that India might be more amenable to resolving the boundary question did not pan out.53 This is a recurring problem for China—by relying on coercion, it produces the opposite result from what it says it wants. Proposals by Zhou Enlai in December 1962, March 1963, and April 1963 to resume negotiations, as well as his statement that “we have not given up our desire for friendship with India,”54 drew cold responses from India. Instead of resetting relations, China’s actions led to a freeze for a quarter of a century. China’s goal of Asian solidarity as an anti-U.S. front suffered and its India policy collapsed.
    Before drawing conclusions about this first phase of China’s India policy, two other prop- ositions need addressing. First, there is a view that the inner-party struggle that Mao was waging over economic policy during the Great Leap Forward may have impacted relations with India. This paper does not examine the immediate circumstances leading to the border war. It is possible that the domestic economic crisis and simultaneous deterioration of the environment along the India-China boundary were correlated so far as the scope and timing of the Chinese attack on India in concerned. But there is evidence that points to a fair degree of consensus within the CCP leadership on the handling of India from 1959 until
    the border war, notwithstanding a letter from Wang Jiaxiang, formerly the ambassador to the Soviet Union, to Zhou Enlai in February 1961 that new methods should be employed to break through the impasse over the boundary question.55 On the whole, China’s India policy appears to have been a collective decision. Second, there is the Tibet factor to consider. This was undoubtedly a bilateral concern in the early years, but China’s initial deep concerns
    over India’s intentions had been resolved by 1954. Chinese writings, including leadership statements, in the latter part of the 1950s are usually concerned with the Anglo-U.S. efforts in Tibet. India’s role is generally viewed from this broader perspective.
    Three conclusions might be drawn from this first phase of China’s India policy. First, China regarded India as unequal, ideologically aligned with the West, and therefore untrustworthy. Second, its India policy was determined by the interplay of great power relations. The main objective was to relieve strategic pressure on China and this shaped tactics with India. Third, India may have let pass an opportunity that presented itself between mid-1959 and the end

    2-Indicators for measuring development and under development :
    (I) Gross National Income Per Capita (PPP)
    Gross National Income Per Capita – is GNI divided by the population of a country, so it’s GNI per person.
    (PPP) stands for Purchasing Power Parity – which alters the raw GNI per capita data to control for the different costs of living in a country, thus modifying the GNI figure in U.S. dollars to reflect what those dollars would actually buy given the different costs of living in different countries.
    Gross National Income Per Capita (PPP) rankings (2013)
    • 1st – Qatar – $123 000
    • 11th – United States – $53 000
    • 23rd – Finland – $38 000
    • 27th – United Kingdom – $35 000
    • 126th – Nigeria – $5360
    • 127th – India – $5350
    • 185th – Democratic Republic of Congo – $680

    • GNI per capita (PPP) gives you a general idea of what the general economic standard of living is like for the average person in a country, however, there are serious limitations with this indicator – the main one being that it does not tell you how much of that income actually stays in a country, or how income is distributed. Quality of life will thus be a lot better for some people, and a lot worse for others than these gross statistics indicate.
    • (ii) GNI per capita (PPP) gives you a general idea of what the general economic standard of living is like for the average person in a country, however, there are serious limitations with this indicator – the main one being that it does not tell you how much of that income actually stays in a country, or how income is distributed. Quality of life will thus be a lot better for some people, and a lot worse for others than these gross statistics indicate. Looking at absolute poverty statistics like this gives us a much fuller understanding of the lack of development in certain countries – in DRC, you can clearly see that poverty is endemic (absolute poverty is a significant problem in many Sub-Saharan African countries), and we can also see that absolute poverty is still a significant problem in India (mainly rural India) and while the 6% is quite low in China, this 6% represents 10s of millions of people, given the large overall population size.
    • (iii) Proportion of population living below the poverty line within a country
    The UN sustainable development goals states that one of its aims (under goal 1) is to ‘reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions’. (Source – The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals)
    The United Nations collects this data for countries will lower human development, but not for countries with high human development, and so here we are reliant on data from national governments or other agencies  – and the problem here is that different countries measure their ‘poverty line’ in different ways, so this means making cross national comparisons are difficult. Some sources are below:
    • Details on how the USA defines its poverty line can be found at this US Census Bureau Website 
    Selected Stats on the Proportion of People Living Below the Country’s own poverty line:
    • Most low income countries with high absolute poverty rates register percentages of between 30-60% living below their own poverty lines.

    • The USA has 15% of its population living below its poverty line (a household income of around $24000 per annum)
    • The UK also has around 15% of its population living below its poverty line, although its line is higher than the US – around $30000.
    • (iv) The Human Development Index
    The Human Development Index is compiled annually by the United Nations and gives countries a score based on GNI per capita, number of years of actual and expected schooling and life expectancy, or in the words of the UN itself – the HDI is ‘A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.’
    Selected Countries by Human Development Index rankings (2015)
    • 1st – Norway
    • 8th – United States
    • 14th – United Kingdom
    • 24th – Finland
    • 32nd – Qatar
    • 39th – Saudi Arabia
    • 55th – The United States
    • 56th – Saudi Arabia
    • 90th – China
    • India – 130th
    • 137th- Bhutan
    • 176th – DRC
    For the strengths and limitations of the HID, please see my aptly titled post: ‘the strengths and limitations of the Human Development Index’.
    • Percentage of children enrolled in secondary school
    • (v) The Gender Inequality Index
    The United Nations defines the Gender Inequality Index as ‘A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market’.
    More specifically, it gives countries a score between 0-1 (similar to the HDI) based on:
    • The Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
    • The Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
    • Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as percentage of total seats.
    • The proportion of the female population compared to the male population with at least some secondary education
    • The comparative Labour force participation rate for men and women.
    2015 Gender inequality index rankings
    Selected countries according to their rankings for the Gender Inequality Index
    • 1st – Slovenia
    • 11th – Finland
    • 39th – The United Kingdom
    • 55th – The United States
    • 56th – Saudi Arabia
    • 97the – Bhutan
    • 127 – Ghana
    • 130th – India Indicators for measuring underdevelopment:

    For under development
    (I) (i)Low per capita real income
    Kuhnen, F. (1986). A low per capita real income is generally regarded as one of the main indicators of underdevelopment. The World Bank has classified the various countries into three broad categories, viz. (a) low-income countries, (b) middle-income countries, and (c) industrials countries . Their population, are and the gross national product per capita
    the difference between the developed countries and the underdeveloped countries. The per capita income, on an average, in an underdeveloped countries. The per capita income, on an average, in an underdeveloped country is hardly 2.5 percent of the comparisons are more informative. It would be seen that while on the one extreme we have United Arab Emirates with the highest per capita income of $24,660 in 1981, on the other extreme figures Bhutan with as low capita income as $80. Most of the underdeveloped countries exhibit this very low ratio of income to population. This is a consequence either (a) of low level of national income, or (b) of a high level of population, or (c) of both. A low level of national income may be the result of low productivity , low saving and investment, backward technology and resources, while the level of population is determined by varied social and economic factors.
    (ii) Population
    Todaro, M., & Smith, S. (2011) Most of the underdeveloped countries experience a higher population growth rate as compares to the developed countries,

    Where the growth rates of population are not very high in relation to other countries, the size of population may be very high (e.g., in China and India). The underdeveloped countries generally experience high birth rates but advancement of medical science had led to a significant reduction in the death rates. This has resulted in most of the underdeveloped countries passing through the second stage of demographic transition, also known as the stage of ‘Population Explosion’. Two major consequences of the population explosion have been : (a) A significant growth in the number of people who live on the subsistence or ‘poverty line’. The poverty line is defined as the line of minimum calorie intake for bare subsistence. (b) A significant growth in the number and proportion of unemployed people who tend to migrate, chiefly from the countryside to the cities, on search of employment.
    (iii) Unemployment, Underemployment, disguised unemployment and low productivity
    Yotopoulos, P. A. (1965) A characteristic common to most of the underdeveloped countries is the existence of widespread unemployment. Unemployment is caused by a number of factors like (a) the population pressure, (b) a low level of economic activity, (c) poor growth rates, (d) the choice of capital-intensive technique of production, (e) unrealistic education, (f) rigidity of the wage structure, and (g) lack of investment opportunities. One or more of these causes may be operating simultaneously. Reliable information about size of unemployment in the underdeveloped countries is lacking, but most of the studies undertaken in this respect suggest that the proportion of unemployment in underdeveloped countries may be between 8 per cent and 35 per cent of the total labour force.
    Another related phenomenon is that of underdevelopment. The basic features of this situation are : (a) the type of employment is not much related to the qualifications of the employees, (b) wages are above the marginal productivity of labour, and (c) a large number of labour-hours remain unutilized. Again, no statistically accurate measurement the unemployed is available, but it has generally been estimated that the unemployed and the underemployed together in the underdeveloped countries would be about 30 per cent of the total work force.
    Disguised unemployment refers to unemployment which is ‘hidden’, i.e., not open for anyone to see. A number of persons who may apparently be employed may not be contributing anything to production, In technical jargon, the disguised unemployed are those who are so numerous, relative to the resources, that the marginal physical productivity of labour over a wide range is zero, of not negative.
    This situation obtains exclusively, or predominantly, in the agricultural sector, where family labour and non-wage employment predominate.
    Unemployment, Underemployment and disguised unemployment result from the fact that labour in the underdeveloped countries is relatively abundant in relation to capital and the productivity of labour or usually low in most underdeveloped countries in comparison with such productivity in the developed countries. Low productivity in the under-developed and other resources, (b) backward technology, (c) lack of proper education, (d) inferior training and skill, and (e) poor health and nutrition. Unemployment is the major cause of widespread poverty in the underdeveloped countries.
    (iv) Poverty
    Oshima, H. T. (1990). Poverty is widespread in the underdeveloped countries. The fact that about one-half of the total population of the world subsists on an annual average per capita income of only $270 (1981prices) is in itself quite revealing. But this single macro-variable hides many things. A further deeper probe is more informative. Various studies conducted to determine the level of poverty have shown that a substantial proportion of the population (about 30 per cent) in the underdeveloped countries earns. A level of income which varies between $50 and $75 per annum. This is regarded as the minimum necessary for subsistence in these countries. This figure in itself is staggering and more recent evidence may well suggest that the present situation must have deteriorated further. The growing poverty juxtaposed with the fact the incomes have been growing in the underdeveloped countries suggests that there must be something wrong with the income distribution in these countries.

    3-Various developing countries differ a good deal from each other. Some countries such as countries of Africa do not face problem of rapid population growth, others have to cope with the consequences of rapid population growth. Some developing countries are largely dependent on exports of primary products, others do not show such dependence, and others do not show such dependence.

    Some developing countries have weak institutional structure such as lack of property rights, absence of the rule of law and political instability which affect incentives to invest. Besides, there are lot of differences with regard to levels of education, health, food production and availability of natural resources. However, despite this great diversity there are many common features of the developing economies. It is because of common characteristics that their developmental problems are studied within a common analytical framework of development economics.
    COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS
    1. Low Per Capita Income:
    The first important feature of the developing countries is their low per capita income. According to the World Bank estimates for the year 1995, average per capita income of the low income countries is $ 430 as compared to $ 24,930 of the high-income countries including U.S.A., U.K., France and Japan. According to these estimates for the year 1995, per capita income was $340 in India, $ 620 in China, $240 in Bangladesh, $ 700 in Sri Lanka. As against these, for the year 1995 per capita income was $ 26,980 in USA, $ 23,750 in Sweden, $ 39,640 in Japan and 40,630 in Switzerland.
    It may however be noted that the extent of poverty prevailing in the developing countries is not fully reflected in the per capita income which is only an average income and also includes the incomes of the rich also. Large inequalities in income distribution prevailing in these economies have made the lives of the people more miserable. A large bulk of population of these countries lives below the poverty line.
    For example, the recent estimates reveal that about 28 per cent of India’s population (i.e. about 260 million people) lives below the poverty line, that is, they are unable to get even sufficient calories of food needed for minimum subsistence, not to speak of minimum clothing and housing facilities. The situation in other developing countries is no better.
    2. Excessive Dependence on Agriculture:
    A developing country is generally predominantly agricultural. About 60 to 75 per cent of its population depends on agriculture and its allied activities for its livelihood. Further, about 30 to 50 per cent of national income of these countries is obtained from agriculture alone. This excessive dependence on agriculture is the result of low productivity and backwardness of their agriculture and lack of modern industrial growth.
    In the present-day developed countries, the modern industrial growth brought about structural transformation with the proportion of working population engaged in agriculture falling drastically and that employed in the modern industrial and services sectors rising enormously. This occurred due to the rapid growth of the modern sector on the one hand and tremendous rise in productivity in agriculture on the other.
    3. Low Level of Capital Formation:
    The insufficient amount of physical and human capital is so characteristic a feature in all undeveloped economies that they are often called simply ‘capital-poor’ economies. One indication of the capital deficiency is the low amount of capital per head of population. Not only is the capital stock extremely small, but the current rate of capital formation is also very low. In the early 1950s in most of developing countries investment was only 5 per cent to 8 per cent of the national income, whereas in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, it was generally from 15 per cent to 30 per cent.
    Since then there has been substantial increase in the rate of saving and investment in the developing countries. However, the quantity of capital per head is still very low in them and therefore productivity remains low. For example, in India rate of investment has now (2012-13) risen to about 35 per cent but it still remains a poor country with low level of productivity. This is because as a result of rapid population growth, capital per head is still very low.
    4. Rapid Population Growth and Disguised Unemployment: The diversity among developing economies is perhaps nowhere to be seen so much in evidence as in respect of the facts of their population in respect of its size, density and growth. While we have examples of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with their teeming millions and galloping rates of population growth, there are the Latin American countries which are very sparsely populated and whose total population in some cases numbers less than a single metropolitan city in India and China. In several newly emerging countries of Africa too and in some of the Middle Eastern countries the size of their population cannot be regarded as excessive, considering their large expanse. The South- East and Eastern Asia, on the other hand, have large populations.
    However, there appears to be a common feature, namely, a rapid rate of population growth. This rate has been rising still more in recent years, thanks to the advances in medical sciences which have greatly reduced the death rate due to epidemics and diseases. While the death rate has fallen sharply, but there has been no commensurate decline in birth rate so that the natural survival rate has become much larger. The great threat of this rapid population growth rate is that it sets at nought all attempts at development in as much as much of the increased output is swallowed up by the increased population.
    One important consequence of this rapid rate of population growth is that it throws more and more people on land and into informal sector to eke out their living from agriculture, since alternative occupations do not simultaneously develop and thus are not there to absorb the increasing numbers seeking gainful employment. The resultant pressure of population on land and in informal sector thus gives rise to what has been called “disguised unemployment”.
    Disguised unemployment means that there are more persons engaged in agriculture than are actually needed so that the addition of such persons does not add to agricultural output, or putting it alternatively, given the technology and organisation even if some of the persons are withdrawn from land, no fall in production will follow from such withdrawal. As a result, marginal productivity of a wide range of labourers employed in agriculture is zero.

    5. Lower Levels of Human Capital:
    Human capital – education, health and skills – are of crucial importance for economic development. In our analysis of human development index (HDI) we noted that there is great disparity in human capital among the developing and developed countries. The developing countries lack in human capital that is responsible for low productivity of labour and capital in them.
    Lack of education manifests itself in lower enrolment rate in primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions which impact knowledge and skills of the people. Lower levels of education and skills are not conducive for the development of new industries and for absorbing new technologies to achieve higher levels of production. Besides, lack of education and skills makes people less adaptable to change and lowers the ability to organise and manage industrial enterprises. Further, in countries like India, advantage of demographic dividend can be taken only if the younger persons can be educated, healthy and equipped with appropriate skills so that they can be employed in productive activities.
    The data of various education indicators is given in Table 4.3. It will be seen from this table that as compared to high income countries enrolment in secondary and tertiary educational institutions was 38% and 63% of person of relevant age group in 2009 as compared to 100 per cent in high-income developed countries.
    6. Dualistic Structure of the Underdeveloped Economies:
    An important feature of developing economies, especially those which are marked by surplus labour is that they have a dualistic structure. This dualistic character of these economies has been held to be the cause of unemployment and underemployment existing in them. Keeping in view this dualistic structure of less developed economies, important models of income and employment have been propounded.
    Famous Lewis model of economic development with unlimited supplies of labour and Fei-Ranis model of “Development in a Labour Surplus Economy” explain how in dualistic economies, the unemployed and underemployed labour in the traditional sector is drawn into a modern high productivity sector.
    3-Globally, poverty remains a challenge: the World Bank estimates that 1.29 billion people live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. In Pakistan, it is no different, but without a national census, it isn’t even possible to gauge the correct picture. Poverty is difficult to quantify: the methodology used by the government has been challenged by the World Bank and the UNDP, while independent organisations consider poverty
    However, according to the Human Development Index, 2009, 60.3pc of Pakistan’s population lives on $2 per day. According to Unesco, 71pc of eligible girls did not attend secondary school in 2009. Gender discriminatory practices shape poverty: as expected, more women are at the suffering end. They suffer poverty of opportunities far more than men. Poverty gives rise to social powerlessness and political disenfranchisement, and these add to the vulnerability of the poor.
    The reasons for such high poverty levels are several: corruption, illicit capital flight, debt and loan conditionalities, high defence expenditures, and now, extremism. Those are the general ones.
    To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.

    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many.
    Poverty levels in the country have crept upwards and are considered to be among the highest in South Asia. Unfortunately, the Planning Commission does not reveal the exact data on female poverty. Women bear the brunt of appallingly high socio-economic disparities; their poverty extends from the small and large denials within the home to the wider denials they experience in the community. Often they’re not even recognised as heads of households; their labour in the agricultural sector is largely unremunerated; they remain exploited, deprived of income.
    The Economic Survey of Pakistan barely acknowledges their presence and their contribution — the female labour force participation rate is the lowest in the South Asian region. A survey by Yasir Amin (in Economistan, April 12, 2012) noted that women’s contribution to the labour force had actually shrunk from 33pc in 2000 to 21pc in 2011.
    The risks of increasing poverty grow in parallel with the number of women-headed households. Single mothers are at highest risk, as are their children, who are likely to be deprived of adequate schooling and nutrition. Like most women, they have no alternative to poorly paid, informal employment.

    It is no surprise that women are over-represented among the country’s poor; discrimination against them exists at all levels, within the family, with its unequal gendered division of responsibilities and labour, inequality in access to healthcare, to schooling, to social protection. Tradition ordains that their mobility be restricted.
    Unsurprisingly, few poor women have hope of escaping this poverty as there are so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favour them, even richer women are regularly denied land inheritance by emotional coercion, forced marriage and even by ‘marriage’ to the Quran.
    The current political situation prevailing in the country presents a mixed picture for women’s progress and development. On the one hand, there are several forward-looking laws and amendments, widespread provision of safety nets like the Benazir Income Support Programme and increased school enrolment for girls. On the other hand is the snail’s pace at which the bureaucracy moves to implement those laws. Then again, there’s society’s stubbornly ‘eyes shut’ attitude to women’s rights and progress, the lack of recognition that women’s progress requires an acceptance of their constitutionally guaranteed equal status as citizens of this country.
    If women are to progress and participate effectively in the economy, they must receive equal education, equal training, in rural and urban sectors and equal dignity and income. Pakistan cannot achieve progress on the efforts of less than half its population.
    What does Poverty look like for the clients at Nellies? This is what women had to say at W.E.A.V our Women Ending Violence Support Group
    • “Working everyday 2 or even 3 jobs and we don’t make enough to put food on our table every day.”
    • “Sometimes I don’t eat dinner—that way my kids have enough.”
    • “Poverty, struggling to survive, trying to stay alive.”
    • “Homeless, living on the street, trying to find something to eat.”
    • “Depressed, angry, hungry, frustrated, lonely and isolated.”
    • “You can’t get money and you can’t find a job and that’s sad.”
    Many factors cause women’s poverty including: lack of access to education, opportunities, childcare and fair income, sex-role stereotypes in paid work, changes in family composition such as divorce, health, violence and abuse, leaving gainful employment to caregive, and greater risk and increased poverty for women who are Aboriginal, non-white, disAbled or queer.
    Women as the face of poverty results in children who are poor. Poverty among children is strongly linked to ill-health and poor academic achievement. By keeping women poor, we are also keeping children poor, making them sick, sabotaging their futures, contributing to crime, and perpetuating the cycle of poverty and violence. We need to work together to effect change social changes that will help not just some, but all women and children to succeed.

  83. Avatar OZOH CHIEMERIE LILIAN 2019/242809 says:

    1.
    The idea of the Third World, which is usually traced to the late 1940s or early 1950s, was increasingly used to try and generate unity and support among an emergent group of nation-states whose governments were reluctant to take sides in the Cold War. These leaders and governments sought to displace the ‘East-West’ conflict with the ‘North-South’ conflict. The rise of Third World in the 1950s and 1960s was closely connected to a range of national liberation projects and specific forms of regionalism in the erstwhile colonies of Asia and Africa, as well as the former mandates and new nation-states of the Middle East, and the ‘older’ nation-states of Latin America. Exponents of Third World in this period linked it to national liberation and various forms of Pan-Asian, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism and Pan-American. The weakening or demise of the first generation of Third World regime in the 1960s and 1970s coincided with or was followed by the emergence of a second generation of Third World regimes that articulated a more radical, explicitly socialist, vision. A moderate form of Third World also became significant at the United Nations in the 1970s: it was centred on the call for a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the 1980s, however, Third Worldism had entered into a period of dramatic decline. With the end of the Cold War, some movements, governments and commentators have sought to reorient and revitalize the idea of a Third World, while others have argued that it has lost its relevance. This introductory article provides a critical overview of the history of Third World, while clarifying both its constraints and its appeal. As a world historical movement, Third World (in both its first and second generation modalities) emerged out of the activities and ideas of anti-colonial nationalists and their efforts to mesh highly romanticized interpretations of pre-colonial traditions and cultures with the utopianism embodied by Marxism and socialism specifically, and ‘Western’ visions of modernisation and development more generally. Apart from the problems associated with combining these different strands, Third World also went into decline because of the contradictions inherent in the process of decolonization and in the new international politico-economic order, in the context of the changing character, and eventual end, of the global political economy of the Cold War.

    2.
    Developed countries could be viewed as countries with negligible poverty at such a
    poverty line. The taxonomy would dovetail nicely with the development community’s
    current strong focus on poverty issues. A drawback is that internationally comparable
    poverty data are not very precise and are subject to large revisions as noted above. A bigger
    problem with a poverty-based development taxonomy, however, is that the required data are
    not drawn directly from official country sources. This makes the taxonomy less tractable and
    thus more difficult to gain acceptance. A simple taxonomy is based on per capita income
    data. An equally simple taxonomy would use a single social indicator. Life expectancy at
    birth would probably be among the stronger contenders. To reflect the multifaceted aspect of
    development, consideration could also be given to constructing composite indices of various
    economic and social indicators.
    A separate, but equally pertinent issue, is how to construct the development threshold. A
    threshold can either be absolute or relative. An absolute threshold has a value that is fixed
    over time. A relative threshold is based on contemporaneous outcomes. An absolute
    threshold provides a fixed goal post. The Millennium Development Goals are cast mostly as
    absolute thresholds. However, a relative threshold captures changes in expectations and
    values. For example, if in 1950, an absolute development threshold had been established
    based on life expectancy at birth with a threshold value of 69 years (the life expectancy in the
    US in 1950), Sri Lanka would now be classified as a developed country. While observers of
    vintage 1950 may have been comfortable with such a classification of Sri Lanka, current day
    observers may not be.
    The final step in constructing the taxonomy is to decide on the numerical value of the
    threshold. Countries above the x percentile could be designated as developed with remaining
    countries considered as developing. Alternatively, countries that have achieved a
    development outcome within y percent of the most advanced country could be designated as
    developed with remaining countries considered as developing. Any particular threshold
    would undoubtedly invite questions about how it had been determined and it could
    reasonably be expected that the designer of the taxonomy would provide a rationale for the
    threshold.

    3.
    Major Characteristics of Developing Countries

    a. Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries.Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty.

    b. Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment and access apart from low per capita income.

    c. Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc.
    Lack of Infrastructures

    d. Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably.

    e. Lower Productivity

    The productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc.

    f. High Consumption and Low Saving

    Income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate.

    4.

    Yes, I agree that poverty has the face of a women because of the following reasons :
    poverty has a women’s face and we have seen this in many of our communities. Both man and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and fierce figure how you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elderly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equal footing. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.
    Women are facing a silent crisis which worsens and weakens their condition. Before the economic crisis unemployment, precarious work, part-time work, low salaries and slow career paths already affected women more then men.
    Stereotypes and lower pay increase the risk for women to fall into poverty, particularly for older women, also due to low pensions also deprivation of opportunities. Gender inequalities, some restricting rules, early pregnancy and diabolical practices of some cultures has made some women to face high rate of poverty in different ways.

  84. Avatar Asogwa Rejoice Chinecherem says:

    Name:Asogwa Rejoice Chinecherem
    REG NUMBER:2019/242727
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1-In order to have a good understanding of the early dynamics of the relationship between
    the People’s Republic of China’s and India after 1949, it is important to situate it within the broader context of the evolution of Chinese foreign policy prior to the establishment of the new Chinese state. Mao Zedong was greatly interested in world affairs. In October 1938, he foretold the “massive war that threatens mankind.”3 His primary interest was in exploring how China might benefit from the war and, more specifically, what advantage the Chinese communists might gain from the intensifying differences between Japan and the United States on the one hand, and from the possibility of better relations between the Soviet Union and the United States on the other. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, Mao talked of a global anti-fascist front with China as a leader alongside Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. The emphasis on China as a front-rank global power despite its relative weakness was a regular theme in his writings.4 After the tide turned in favor of the allied powers, Mao talked about a postwar order that would be shaped collectively by these four countries,5 and claimed that China would also play “a very great role in safeguard- ing peace in the postwar world and a decisive one in safeguarding peace in the east.”6 By China he meant the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). From Mao’s speeches, it was clear that the CCP saw China’s postwar role as that of the front-rank world power that would play the central role in safeguarding peace in Asia.
    The other major foreign policy preoccupation of the CCP prior to 1949 was the attitude of and relationship with the United States. It initially believed that Washington was not averse to accommodation, but disillusionment had set in by the end of 1946. Zhou Enlai com- plained that the American envoys were deceitful.7 Mao and Zhou labeled the Americans as imperialists and talked about an anti-imperialist front headed by the Soviet Union.8 In 1949, Zhou demanded that the United States withdraw all its military forces from China, saying: “We have the right to wipe them out.”9 From that point on, the United States was seen as the existential threat. Mao announced his decision to “lean” to the side of the Soviet Union and to form a united front against U.S. imperialism.10

    Thus, when the People’s Republic of China was established in October 1949, two central narratives formed in the CCP: that China was the dominant Asian power without an equal in the region and that the United States was the primary adversary. Since the party and the state were fused indistinguishably, these two narratives were hardwired into the machinery of the new regime.
    Where did India fit into this Chinese worldview? Jawaharlal Nehru, who would eventually be India’s prime minister, and Mao corresponded with each other in the 1930s.11 In August 1939, Nehru visited China and met Mao’s colleagues in Chongqing. By early 1942, then president Chiang Kai-shek was expressing support for India’s independence.12 Given Mao’s interest in world affairs, he would have known about India’s anti-imperialist struggle against the British, but neither Mao nor Zhou referred to this in their writings before 1945, even
    as many Asian and African colonies were following India’s lead, not China’s. They made only general references to the freedom struggle in the colonies.13 From an interview that Mao gave to the American journalist Edgar Snow in 1936, it seems that he was not willing to acknowledge India’s leadership in the fight to liberate Asia from colonial rule. Mao told Snow that, “when the Chinese revolution comes to full power, the masses of many colonial countries will follow the example of China.”14 The Chinese revolution was deemed to be the “most important event” in postwar “Afro-Asia.”15 The strategic thinking of the CCP leaders was dominated by the idea of China as the center of the communist movement and the Third World.
    In 1954, Mao divided the beneficiaries of the Second World War into three categories: the United States, countries like China that were led by communist or socialist parties, and
    the “oppressed nations” like India that were not led by communist parties but by “patriotic organizations.”16 This suggests that India belonged in a lesser category for the CCP, presum- ably because its revolution was incomplete. Although the Indian National Congress was the dominant anti-imperial force, in 1943, Mao had made a specific reference to the Communist Party of India as “joining us in opposing Japanese imperialism.”17 Mao was hoping that India’s freedom might usher in a like-minded socialist government.
    Aside from the fact that the CCP did not consider India’s role in Asia as being as important as its own and did not look upon it as an equal, declassified papers also reveal that there was deep distrust of the country within the highest levels of the Chinese party-state from the beginning. Mao had a negative view of Nehru. On November 19, 1949, he wrote to Bhalchandra Trimbak Ranadive, the general secretary of the Communist Party of India, calling Nehru a “collaborator” (he zuo zhe) of imperialism.18 His view of India as being on the other side of the postwar political divide may have deepened because of India’s neutral position vis-à-vis the two major blocs. Nehru wished to follow an independent foreign policy. But, even though Nehru said that “we do not propose to line up with any activity that may appear to be against China,”19 for Mao everybody had to “lean either to the side of imperialism or to the side of socialism. Sitting on the fence will not do, nor is there a third road.”20 In Chinese eyes, India was not part of the socialist bloc and was therefore part of

    the imperialist bloc. The CCP labeled Nehru a “thoroughly loyal servant of US imperialism” and the “American running dog” seeking a leadership role in Asia from his U.S. “mas- ters.”21 China’s new leaders plotted with the Soviets for a communist takeover in India. In December 1950, Chinese leaders Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai were urging the Soviet Union to strengthen the Communist Party of India “in connection with the role that India should play in the final destruction of international imperialism.”22
    One could conclude that for China there was no mind-space for India as an independent player in postwar international relations since it was neither China’s equal nor ideologically aligned. India was tagged as a part of the imperialist-capitalist camp led by the United States. By implication, that meant India had no agency of its own, did not act independently, and could not be trusted. This did not mean the CCP had no use for India in the early years. It had decided to combat the U.S. challenge by adopting “united front” tactics.23 The strat- egy, according to Zhou, was “to consolidate and develop the strength of the international forces for peace [meaning the socialist countries] and to extend the influence of New China [by uniting] with and win[ning] over the former colonial and semi-colonial states.” He was even more specific about the countries of Southeast Asia: “We should try to win them over,” he said, “so that they will remain neutral in time of war and keep their distance from the imperialists in times of peace.”24 In other words, the strategy was to deny the United States further space among the newly independent countries in the region surrounding China by building “Asian solidarity.” This involved persuading Asian governments that it was in their best interest to remain neutral and to help China to build a postwar Asia for Asians. India was a principal target of persuasion in the implementation of this policy.
    Thus, the core of China’s India policy consisted of two main strands. First, India must
    be deterred from becoming an US camp follower, and policy should be crafted to keep it neutral on important matters of concern to China. Second, India’s standing and influence in the developing world should be utilized to build “Asian solidarity” as a bulwark to stop further U.S. inroads into Asia.
    Keeping India away from the United States became a key objective of China’s policy.25 Persuasion and pressure were used for this purpose. In August 1949, a senior Chinese diplomat, Han Nianlong, told India’s ambassador to the Nationalist government, K. M. Panikkar, that “the only thing that could prevent the development of such [India-China] relations is if India permitted herself to be used as a base for American activities.”26 In 1952, Zhou accused the United States of “trying to disrupt this [India-China] friendship.”27 In 1954, Mao claimed that the United States was “bent on harming us whenever it has the opportunity,” and hinted that this would not be good for India either.28 The CCP mounted pressure on India’s leaders by talking about a U.S. “conspiracy against the freedom of Asia,”29 or by claiming, as Mao did in 1954, that “we, people of the east” have to cope with imperi- alism and protect each other.30 In order to keep India away from the United States, China always framed issues in the context of imperialist versus newly independent states, and also in terms of Asian peoples determining their own destiny. In other words, framing that India could relate to.31 By the mid-1950s, Nehru was telling his ambassador to Beijing that India was closer to China than to the United States.32 India began to undertake domestic and in- ternational advocacy on behalf of the CCP. In October 1954, Nehru claimed that there was “no doubt at all that the government and people of China desire peace.”33 India even made a case for China at the 1956 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting by claiming that “it seemed unlikely that they would harbor aggressive intentions against any other country,” describing the main problem at hand as U.S. hostility to China.34
    The second objective of China’s India policy was to create a belt of neutral Asian nations in the proximate and peripheral regions around itself so that the United States would not be able to contain it. Once again, China resorted to “united front” tactics. In 1950, Zhou told
    a senior Indian diplomat, T. N. Kaul, that “all the Asian countries must be united on the basis of friendship, peace and mutual respect in order to oppose any imperialist aggression.”35 In 1954, he flew down to India with the express purpose of “conducting preparation work for signing some form of Asian peace treaty and to strike a blow at the US conspiracy to organize a south east Asian invasive bloc (SEATO).”36 The CCP saw the 1955 Asian-African Conference in Bandung as a good platform to build an anti-U.S. front in the name of Asian solidarity.37 It categorized countries as ranging from “peace and neutral” to “anti-peace and anti-neutral,” with specific instructions on how to approach the different categories under the “general line of expanding the united front of peace.”38 India was a key instrument for executing this strategy. The CCP worked through Asian leaders to secure outcomes that served the objective of building an Asian front against the United States.39 A subordinate goal of China’s policy at this time, particularly around the Bandung Conference, might also have been to use India to develop agency for China by building a Third World constituency independent of the Soviet Union.
    The Bandung Conference marked the high point of China’s early India policy. Since China had crafted relations with India within the matrix of great power relations and with the pri- mary objective of keeping it neutral, the policy worked so long as India shared the Chinese perspective on great power relations, addressed China’s core concerns in this larger context, and did not press its own issues. China seemed to expect that India would share its big-pic- ture approach and treat its own concerns as local issues to be discussed but not allowed to upset the overall framework. In the second half of the 1950s, after India started to articulate bilateral concerns, China still viewed these only through the prism of great power relations and not a bilateral one. It concluded that India was using problems like Tibet (which was internal to China) or the border dispute (with India’s claim seen as illegal) to earn support from the United States. This argument also fit in with the CCP’s ideological thinking about the Indian government as a bourgeois ruling class that was capitalist and not to be trusted. This impression gained further ground after the Tibetan rebellion and the flight of the Dalai Lama in March 1959, and following the warm welcome that India gave then U.S. president claimed that India was stirring up trouble in Tibet with active assistance from the United Kingdom and the United States.40 At the same time, China also viewed the budding Indo- Soviet relationship with concern after the visit of Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolay Bulganin to India in 1955, and especially after the sharp exchanges over India that took place between Khrushchev and Mao Zedong in Beijing in October 1959.41
    Shifting equations within the strategic triangle further complicated China’s India policy after 1958. The CCP saw the U.S. military buildup in the Taiwan Strait as preparation for an invasion—“play[ing] with fire at the brink of war” is how Zhou Enlai described it.42 After Khrushchev’s visit to Washington in September 1959, the CCP felt that the two superpowers might be colluding against it.43 Its biggest fear was U.S.-Soviet coordination on matters relating to China, including on its relations with India. In this changed context of triangular great power relations, China adjusted its policy to keep India neutral. Propaganda was toned down after May 1959. Mao personally drafted a conciliatory message.44 Ambassador Pan Zili said that “China will not be so foolish as to antagonize the US in the east and again to an- tagonize India in the southwest,” and added that “we cannot have two centers of attention, nor can we take friend [India] for foe. This is our state policy.”45 In September 1959, Zhou told the Indian ambassador about the great importance of Chinese-Indian friendship for Asia.46 It is believed that in January 1960, the CCP’s Politburo Standing Committee adopted guidelines for negotiating a compromise on the boundary question.47 It can be inferred that this tactical adjustment in India policy was in response to the deteriorating strategic environ- ment around China.
    Zhou Enlai’s visit to Delhi in April 1960—when he carried Mao’s message that China’s “enemy lies in the east and will come by the sea. We take India as a friendly country and we cannot turn our southern border into a national front,” and a proposal to settle the bound- ary48—was not successful. It reinforced the Chinese view that India was seeking to benefit from the unfavorable situation confronting China. The assessment from the Chinese em- bassy in Delhi was that “opposition to China and communism and dependence on America and foreign expansion are the Indian ruling circle’s long-term guiding principles for foreign policy; a focal point of these guiding principles is long-term hostility toward China.”49 The CCP concluded that India’s posture on the boundary was part of an overall design under U.S. coordination to pressurize China from two fronts.50 That China looked at developments not simply from a bilateral perspective but within the context of great power triangular relationships is clear from a statement attributed to Mao. He is reported to have said that
    Our fight with India is a complicated international question; it is not that only India is a problem, both the US and USSR and others are supporting India. They think they can teach us a lesson by dragging us into the arena at a time when we are in difficulty. But we shall not succumb to their scheme.
    why Mao described the 1962 border war as a politico-military war (zhengzhi junshi zhang). He decided on the strategy, tactics, and timing with a twofold goal: to show the superpowers that India was not a dependable Asian partner and to coerce India back to a neutral posture.
    The border war achieved little. It did not draw India back to a neutral posture—on the con- trary, Nehru called the war the “final culmination of the deterioration in relations between India and China.”52 India sought military assistance from the West. Chinese hopes that India might be more amenable to resolving the boundary question did not pan out.53 This is a recurring problem for China—by relying on coercion, it produces the opposite result from what it says it wants. Proposals by Zhou Enlai in December 1962, March 1963, and April 1963 to resume negotiations, as well as his statement that “we have not given up our desire for friendship with India,”54 drew cold responses from India. Instead of resetting relations, China’s actions led to a freeze for a quarter of a century. China’s goal of Asian solidarity as an anti-U.S. front suffered and its India policy collapsed.
    Before drawing conclusions about this first phase of China’s India policy, two other prop- ositions need addressing. First, there is a view that the inner-party struggle that Mao was waging over economic policy during the Great Leap Forward may have impacted relations with India. This paper does not examine the immediate circumstances leading to the border war. It is possible that the domestic economic crisis and simultaneous deterioration of the environment along the India-China boundary were correlated so far as the scope and timing of the Chinese attack on India in concerned. But there is evidence that points to a fair degree of consensus within the CCP leadership on the handling of India from 1959 until
    the border war, notwithstanding a letter from Wang Jiaxiang, formerly the ambassador to the Soviet Union, to Zhou Enlai in February 1961 that new methods should be employed to break through the impasse over the boundary question.55 On the whole, China’s India policy appears to have been a collective decision. Second, there is the Tibet factor to consider. This was undoubtedly a bilateral concern in the early years, but China’s initial deep concerns
    over India’s intentions had been resolved by 1954. Chinese writings, including leadership statements, in the latter part of the 1950s are usually concerned with the Anglo-U.S. efforts in Tibet. India’s role is generally viewed from this broader perspective.
    Three conclusions might be drawn from this first phase of China’s India policy. First, China regarded India as unequal, ideologically aligned with the West, and therefore untrustworthy. Second, its India policy was determined by the interplay of great power relations. The main objective was to relieve strategic pressure on China and this shaped tactics with India. Third, India may have let pass an opportunity that presented itself between mid-1959 and the end

    2-Indicators for measuring development and under development :
    (I) Gross National Income Per Capita (PPP)
    Gross National Income Per Capita – is GNI divided by the population of a country, so it’s GNI per person.
    (PPP) stands for Purchasing Power Parity – which alters the raw GNI per capita data to control for the different costs of living in a country, thus modifying the GNI figure in U.S. dollars to reflect what those dollars would actually buy given the different costs of living in different countries.
    Gross National Income Per Capita (PPP) rankings (2013)
    • 1st – Qatar – $123 000
    • 11th – United States – $53 000
    • 23rd – Finland – $38 000
    • 27th – United Kingdom – $35 000
    • 126th – Nigeria – $5360
    • 127th – India – $5350
    • 185th – Democratic Republic of Congo – $680

    • GNI per capita (PPP) gives you a general idea of what the general economic standard of living is like for the average person in a country, however, there are serious limitations with this indicator – the main one being that it does not tell you how much of that income actually stays in a country, or how income is distributed. Quality of life will thus be a lot better for some people, and a lot worse for others than these gross statistics indicate.
    • (ii) GNI per capita (PPP) gives you a general idea of what the general economic standard of living is like for the average person in a country, however, there are serious limitations with this indicator – the main one being that it does not tell you how much of that income actually stays in a country, or how income is distributed. Quality of life will thus be a lot better for some people, and a lot worse for others than these gross statistics indicate. Looking at absolute poverty statistics like this gives us a much fuller understanding of the lack of development in certain countries – in DRC, you can clearly see that poverty is endemic (absolute poverty is a significant problem in many Sub-Saharan African countries), and we can also see that absolute poverty is still a significant problem in India (mainly rural India) and while the 6% is quite low in China, this 6% represents 10s of millions of people, given the large overall population size.
    • (iii) Proportion of population living below the poverty line within a country
    The UN sustainable development goals states that one of its aims (under goal 1) is to ‘reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions’. (Source – The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals)
    The United Nations collects this data for countries will lower human development, but not for countries with high human development, and so here we are reliant on data from national governments or other agencies  – and the problem here is that different countries measure their ‘poverty line’ in different ways, so this means making cross national comparisons are difficult. Some sources are below:
    • Details on how the USA defines its poverty line can be found at this US Census Bureau Website 
    Selected Stats on the Proportion of People Living Below the Country’s own poverty line:
    • Most low income countries with high absolute poverty rates register percentages of between 30-60% living below their own poverty lines.

    • The USA has 15% of its population living below its poverty line (a household income of around $24000 per annum)
    • The UK also has around 15% of its population living below its poverty line, although its line is higher than the US – around $30000.
    • (iv) The Human Development Index
    The Human Development Index is compiled annually by the United Nations and gives countries a score based on GNI per capita, number of years of actual and expected schooling and life expectancy, or in the words of the UN itself – the HDI is ‘A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.’
    Selected Countries by Human Development Index rankings (2015)
    • 1st – Norway
    • 8th – United States
    • 14th – United Kingdom
    • 24th – Finland
    • 32nd – Qatar
    • 39th – Saudi Arabia
    • 55th – The United States
    • 56th – Saudi Arabia
    • 90th – China
    • India – 130th
    • 137th- Bhutan
    • 176th – DRC
    For the strengths and limitations of the HID, please see my aptly titled post: ‘the strengths and limitations of the Human Development Index’.
    • Percentage of children enrolled in secondary school
    • (v) The Gender Inequality Index
    The United Nations defines the Gender Inequality Index as ‘A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market’.
    More specifically, it gives countries a score between 0-1 (similar to the HDI) based on:
    • The Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.
    • The Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15–19 per 1,000 women ages 15–19.
    • Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as percentage of total seats.
    • The proportion of the female population compared to the male population with at least some secondary education
    • The comparative Labour force participation rate for men and women.
    2015 Gender inequality index rankings
    Selected countries according to their rankings for the Gender Inequality Index
    • 1st – Slovenia
    • 11th – Finland
    • 39th – The United Kingdom
    • 55th – The United States
    • 56th – Saudi Arabia
    • 97the – Bhutan
    • 127 – Ghana
    • 130th – India Indicators for measuring underdevelopment:

    For under development
    (I) (i)Low per capita real income
    Kuhnen, F. (1986). A low per capita real income is generally regarded as one of the main indicators of underdevelopment. The World Bank has classified the various countries into three broad categories, viz. (a) low-income countries, (b) middle-income countries, and (c) industrials countries . Their population, are and the gross national product per capita
    the difference between the developed countries and the underdeveloped countries. The per capita income, on an average, in an underdeveloped countries. The per capita income, on an average, in an underdeveloped country is hardly 2.5 percent of the comparisons are more informative. It would be seen that while on the one extreme we have United Arab Emirates with the highest per capita income of $24,660 in 1981, on the other extreme figures Bhutan with as low capita income as $80. Most of the underdeveloped countries exhibit this very low ratio of income to population. This is a consequence either (a) of low level of national income, or (b) of a high level of population, or (c) of both. A low level of national income may be the result of low productivity , low saving and investment, backward technology and resources, while the level of population is determined by varied social and economic factors.
    (ii) Population
    Todaro, M., & Smith, S. (2011) Most of the underdeveloped countries experience a higher population growth rate as compares to the developed countries,

    Where the growth rates of population are not very high in relation to other countries, the size of population may be very high (e.g., in China and India). The underdeveloped countries generally experience high birth rates but advancement of medical science had led to a significant reduction in the death rates. This has resulted in most of the underdeveloped countries passing through the second stage of demographic transition, also known as the stage of ‘Population Explosion’. Two major consequences of the population explosion have been : (a) A significant growth in the number of people who live on the subsistence or ‘poverty line’. The poverty line is defined as the line of minimum calorie intake for bare subsistence. (b) A significant growth in the number and proportion of unemployed people who tend to migrate, chiefly from the countryside to the cities, on search of employment.
    (iii) Unemployment, Underemployment, disguised unemployment and low productivity
    Yotopoulos, P. A. (1965) A characteristic common to most of the underdeveloped countries is the existence of widespread unemployment. Unemployment is caused by a number of factors like (a) the population pressure, (b) a low level of economic activity, (c) poor growth rates, (d) the choice of capital-intensive technique of production, (e) unrealistic education, (f) rigidity of the wage structure, and (g) lack of investment opportunities. One or more of these causes may be operating simultaneously. Reliable information about size of unemployment in the underdeveloped countries is lacking, but most of the studies undertaken in this respect suggest that the proportion of unemployment in underdeveloped countries may be between 8 per cent and 35 per cent of the total labour force.
    Another related phenomenon is that of underdevelopment. The basic features of this situation are : (a) the type of employment is not much related to the qualifications of the employees, (b) wages are above the marginal productivity of labour, and (c) a large number of labour-hours remain unutilized. Again, no statistically accurate measurement the unemployed is available, but it has generally been estimated that the unemployed and the underemployed together in the underdeveloped countries would be about 30 per cent of the total work force.
    Disguised unemployment refers to unemployment which is ‘hidden’, i.e., not open for anyone to see. A number of persons who may apparently be employed may not be contributing anything to production, In technical jargon, the disguised unemployed are those who are so numerous, relative to the resources, that the marginal physical productivity of labour over a wide range is zero, of not negative.
    This situation obtains exclusively, or predominantly, in the agricultural sector, where family labour and non-wage employment predominate.
    Unemployment, Underemployment and disguised unemployment result from the fact that labour in the underdeveloped countries is relatively abundant in relation to capital and the productivity of labour or usually low in most underdeveloped countries in comparison with such productivity in the developed countries. Low productivity in the under-developed and other resources, (b) backward technology, (c) lack of proper education, (d) inferior training and skill, and (e) poor health and nutrition. Unemployment is the major cause of widespread poverty in the underdeveloped countries.
    (iv) Poverty
    Oshima, H. T. (1990). Poverty is widespread in the underdeveloped countries. The fact that about one-half of the total population of the world subsists on an annual average per capita income of only $270 (1981prices) is in itself quite revealing. But this single macro-variable hides many things. A further deeper probe is more informative. Various studies conducted to determine the level of poverty have shown that a substantial proportion of the population (about 30 per cent) in the underdeveloped countries earns. A level of income which varies between $50 and $75 per annum. This is regarded as the minimum necessary for subsistence in these countries. This figure in itself is staggering and more recent evidence may well suggest that the present situation must have deteriorated further. The growing poverty juxtaposed with the fact the incomes have been growing in the underdeveloped countries suggests that there must be something wrong with the income distribution in these countries.

    3-Various developing countries differ a good deal from each other. Some countries such as countries of Africa do not face problem of rapid population growth, others have to cope with the consequences of rapid population growth. Some developing countries are largely dependent on exports of primary products, others do not show such dependence, and others do not show such dependence.

    Some developing countries have weak institutional structure such as lack of property rights, absence of the rule of law and political instability which affect incentives to invest. Besides, there are lot of differences with regard to levels of education, health, food production and availability of natural resources. However, despite this great diversity there are many common features of the developing economies. It is because of common characteristics that their developmental problems are studied within a common analytical framework of development economics.
    COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS
    1. Low Per Capita Income:
    The first important feature of the developing countries is their low per capita income. According to the World Bank estimates for the year 1995, average per capita income of the low income countries is $ 430 as compared to $ 24,930 of the high-income countries including U.S.A., U.K., France and Japan. According to these estimates for the year 1995, per capita income was $340 in India, $ 620 in China, $240 in Bangladesh, $ 700 in Sri Lanka. As against these, for the year 1995 per capita income was $ 26,980 in USA, $ 23,750 in Sweden, $ 39,640 in Japan and 40,630 in Switzerland.
    It may however be noted that the extent of poverty prevailing in the developing countries is not fully reflected in the per capita income which is only an average income and also includes the incomes of the rich also. Large inequalities in income distribution prevailing in these economies have made the lives of the people more miserable. A large bulk of population of these countries lives below the poverty line.
    For example, the recent estimates reveal that about 28 per cent of India’s population (i.e. about 260 million people) lives below the poverty line, that is, they are unable to get even sufficient calories of food needed for minimum subsistence, not to speak of minimum clothing and housing facilities. The situation in other developing countries is no better.
    2. Excessive Dependence on Agriculture:
    A developing country is generally predominantly agricultural. About 60 to 75 per cent of its population depends on agriculture and its allied activities for its livelihood. Further, about 30 to 50 per cent of national income of these countries is obtained from agriculture alone. This excessive dependence on agriculture is the result of low productivity and backwardness of their agriculture and lack of modern industrial growth.
    In the present-day developed countries, the modern industrial growth brought about structural transformation with the proportion of working population engaged in agriculture falling drastically and that employed in the modern industrial and services sectors rising enormously. This occurred due to the rapid growth of the modern sector on the one hand and tremendous rise in productivity in agriculture on the other.
    3. Low Level of Capital Formation:
    The insufficient amount of physical and human capital is so characteristic a feature in all undeveloped economies that they are often called simply ‘capital-poor’ economies. One indication of the capital deficiency is the low amount of capital per head of population. Not only is the capital stock extremely small, but the current rate of capital formation is also very low. In the early 1950s in most of developing countries investment was only 5 per cent to 8 per cent of the national income, whereas in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, it was generally from 15 per cent to 30 per cent.
    Since then there has been substantial increase in the rate of saving and investment in the developing countries. However, the quantity of capital per head is still very low in them and therefore productivity remains low. For example, in India rate of investment has now (2012-13) risen to about 35 per cent but it still remains a poor country with low level of productivity. This is because as a result of rapid population growth, capital per head is still very low.
    4. Rapid Population Growth and Disguised Unemployment: The diversity among developing economies is perhaps nowhere to be seen so much in evidence as in respect of the facts of their population in respect of its size, density and growth. While we have examples of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with their teeming millions and galloping rates of population growth, there are the Latin American countries which are very sparsely populated and whose total population in some cases numbers less than a single metropolitan city in India and China. In several newly emerging countries of Africa too and in some of the Middle Eastern countries the size of their population cannot be regarded as excessive, considering their large expanse. The South- East and Eastern Asia, on the other hand, have large populations.
    However, there appears to be a common feature, namely, a rapid rate of population growth. This rate has been rising still more in recent years, thanks to the advances in medical sciences which have greatly reduced the death rate due to epidemics and diseases. While the death rate has fallen sharply, but there has been no commensurate decline in birth rate so that the natural survival rate has become much larger. The great threat of this rapid population growth rate is that it sets at nought all attempts at development in as much as much of the increased output is swallowed up by the increased population.
    One important consequence of this rapid rate of population growth is that it throws more and more people on land and into informal sector to eke out their living from agriculture, since alternative occupations do not simultaneously develop and thus are not there to absorb the increasing numbers seeking gainful employment. The resultant pressure of population on land and in informal sector thus gives rise to what has been called “disguised unemployment”.
    Disguised unemployment means that there are more persons engaged in agriculture than are actually needed so that the addition of such persons does not add to agricultural output, or putting it alternatively, given the technology and organisation even if some of the persons are withdrawn from land, no fall in production will follow from such withdrawal. As a result, marginal productivity of a wide range of labourers employed in agriculture is zero.

    5. Lower Levels of Human Capital:
    Human capital – education, health and skills – are of crucial importance for economic development. In our analysis of human development index (HDI) we noted that there is great disparity in human capital among the developing and developed countries. The developing countries lack in human capital that is responsible for low productivity of labour and capital in them.
    Lack of education manifests itself in lower enrolment rate in primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions which impact knowledge and skills of the people. Lower levels of education and skills are not conducive for the development of new industries and for absorbing new technologies to achieve higher levels of production. Besides, lack of education and skills makes people less adaptable to change and lowers the ability to organise and manage industrial enterprises. Further, in countries like India, advantage of demographic dividend can be taken only if the younger persons can be educated, healthy and equipped with appropriate skills so that they can be employed in productive activities.
    The data of various education indicators is given in Table 4.3. It will be seen from this table that as compared to high income countries enrolment in secondary and tertiary educational institutions was 38% and 63% of person of relevant age group in 2009 as compared to 100 per cent in high-income developed countries.
    6. Dualistic Structure of the Underdeveloped Economies:
    An important feature of developing economies, especially those which are marked by surplus labour is that they have a dualistic structure. This dualistic character of these economies has been held to be the cause of unemployment and underemployment existing in them. Keeping in view this dualistic structure of less developed economies, important models of income and employment have been propounded.
    Famous Lewis model of economic development with unlimited supplies of labour and Fei-Ranis model of “Development in a Labour Surplus Economy” explain how in dualistic economies, the unemployed and underemployed labour in the traditional sector is drawn into a modern high productivity sector.
    3-Globally, poverty remains a challenge: the World Bank estimates that 1.29 billion people live in absolute poverty; the sad fact is that about 70 per cent of them are women. In Pakistan, it is no different, but without a national census, it isn’t even possible to gauge the correct picture. Poverty is difficult to quantify: the methodology used by the government has been challenged by the World Bank and the UNDP, while independent organisations consider poverty
    However, according to the Human Development Index, 2009, 60.3pc of Pakistan’s population lives on $2 per day. According to Unesco, 71pc of eligible girls did not attend secondary school in 2009. Gender discriminatory practices shape poverty: as expected, more women are at the suffering end. They suffer poverty of opportunities far more than men. Poverty gives rise to social powerlessness and political disenfranchisement, and these add to the vulnerability of the poor.
    The reasons for such high poverty levels are several: corruption, illicit capital flight, debt and loan conditionalities, high defence expenditures, and now, extremism. Those are the general ones.
    To quote Tahira Abdullah, “Poverty has a woman’s face.” Women face the triple burden of child-bearing, child rearing, and domestic unpaid labour; they have been denied opportunities for growth, are without access to adequate healthcare, education or income, and simultaneously forced to live in the tight bind of culture and tradition.

    Their poverty is multidimensional; not only of lack of income, but also of nutrition and health; they are denied education and the ability to earn an adequate income, their vulnerability prevents them from advancing their innate capabilities. To add to that, gender biases and patriarchal/misogynist mindsets permeate every aspect of their lives. Living with discrimination and gender-based violence is a daily reality for many.
    Poverty levels in the country have crept upwards and are considered to be among the highest in South Asia. Unfortunately, the Planning Commission does not reveal the exact data on female poverty. Women bear the brunt of appallingly high socio-economic disparities; their poverty extends from the small and large denials within the home to the wider denials they experience in the community. Often they’re not even recognised as heads of households; their labour in the agricultural sector is largely unremunerated; they remain exploited, deprived of income.
    The Economic Survey of Pakistan barely acknowledges their presence and their contribution — the female labour force participation rate is the lowest in the South Asian region. A survey by Yasir Amin (in Economistan, April 12, 2012) noted that women’s contribution to the labour force had actually shrunk from 33pc in 2000 to 21pc in 2011.
    The risks of increasing poverty grow in parallel with the number of women-headed households. Single mothers are at highest risk, as are their children, who are likely to be deprived of adequate schooling and nutrition. Like most women, they have no alternative to poorly paid, informal employment.

    It is no surprise that women are over-represented among the country’s poor; discrimination against them exists at all levels, within the family, with its unequal gendered division of responsibilities and labour, inequality in access to healthcare, to schooling, to social protection. Tradition ordains that their mobility be restricted.
    Unsurprisingly, few poor women have hope of escaping this poverty as there are so many odds stacked against them. Despite laws that favour them, even richer women are regularly denied land inheritance by emotional coercion, forced marriage and even by ‘marriage’ to the Quran.
    The current political situation prevailing in the country presents a mixed picture for women’s progress and development. On the one hand, there are several forward-looking laws and amendments, widespread provision of safety nets like the Benazir Income Support Programme and increased school enrolment for girls. On the other hand is the snail’s pace at which the bureaucracy moves to implement those laws. Then again, there’s society’s stubbornly ‘eyes shut’ attitude to women’s rights and progress, the lack of recognition that women’s progress requires an acceptance of their constitutionally guaranteed equal status as citizens of this country.
    If women are to progress and participate effectively in the economy, they must receive equal education, equal training, in rural and urban sectors and equal dignity and income. Pakistan cannot achieve progress on the efforts of less than half its population.
    What does Poverty look like for the clients at Nellies? This is what women had to say at W.E.A.V our Women Ending Violence Support Group
    • “Working everyday 2 or even 3 jobs and we don’t make enough to put food on our table every day.”
    • “Sometimes I don’t eat dinner—that way my kids have enough.”
    • “Poverty, struggling to survive, trying to stay alive.”
    • “Homeless, living on the street, trying to find something to eat.”
    • “Depressed, angry, hungry, frustrated, lonely and isolated.”
    • “You can’t get money and you can’t find a job and that’s sad.”
    Many factors cause women’s poverty including: lack of access to education, opportunities, childcare and fair income, sex-role stereotypes in paid work, changes in family composition such as divorce, health, violence and abuse, leaving gainful employment to caregive, and greater risk and increased poverty for women who are Aboriginal, non-white, disAbled or queer.
    Women as the face of poverty results in children who are poor. Poverty among children is strongly linked to ill-health and poor academic achievement. By keeping women poor, we are also keeping children poor, making them sick, sabotaging their futures, contributing to crime, and perpetuating the cycle of poverty and violence. We need to work together to effect change social changes that will help not just some, but all women and children to succeed.

  85. Avatar OZOH CHIEMERIE LILIAN 2019/242809 says:

    1.
    The idea of the Third World, which is usually traced to the late 1940s or early 1950s, was increasingly used to try and generate unity and support among an emergent group of nation-states whose governments were reluctant to take sides in the Cold War. These leaders and governments sought to displace the ‘East-West’ conflict with the ‘North-South’ conflict. The rise of Third World in the 1950s and 1960s was closely connected to a range of national liberation projects and specific forms of regionalism in the erstwhile colonies of Asia and Africa, as well as the former mandates and new nation-states of the Middle East, and the ‘older’ nation-states of Latin America. Exponents of Third World in this period linked it to national liberation and various forms of Pan-Asian, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism and Pan-American. The weakening or demise of the first generation of Third World regime in the 1960s and 1970s coincided with or was followed by the emergence of a second generation of Third World regimes that articulated a more radical, explicitly socialist, vision. A moderate form of Third World also became significant at the United Nations in the 1970s: it was centred on the call for a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the 1980s, however, Third Worldism had entered into a period of dramatic decline. With the end of the Cold War, some movements, governments and commentators have sought to reorient and revitalize the idea of a Third World, while others have argued that it has lost its relevance. This introductory article provides a critical overview of the history of Third World, while clarifying both its constraints and its appeal. As a world historical movement, Third World (in both its first and second generation modalities) emerged out of the activities and ideas of anti-colonial nationalists and their efforts to mesh highly romanticized interpretations of pre-colonial traditions and cultures with the utopianism embodied by Marxism and socialism specifically, and ‘Western’ visions of modernisation and development more generally. Apart from the problems associated with combining these different strands, Third World also went into decline because of the contradictions inherent in the process of decolonization and in the new international politico-economic order, in the context of the changing character, and eventual end, of the global political economy of the Cold War.

    2.
    Developed countries could be viewed as countries with negligible poverty at such a
    poverty line. The taxonomy would dovetail nicely with the development community’s
    current strong focus on poverty issues. A drawback is that internationally comparable
    poverty data are not very precise and are subject to large revisions as noted above. A bigger
    problem with a poverty-based development taxonomy, however, is that the required data are
    not drawn directly from official country sources. This makes the taxonomy less tractable and
    thus more difficult to gain acceptance. A simple taxonomy is based on per capita income
    data. An equally simple taxonomy would use a single social indicator. Life expectancy at
    birth would probably be among the stronger contenders. To reflect the multifaceted aspect of
    development, consideration could also be given to constructing composite indices of various
    economic and social indicators.
    A separate, but equally pertinent issue, is how to construct the development threshold. A
    threshold can either be absolute or relative. An absolute threshold has a value that is fixed
    over time. A relative threshold is based on contemporaneous outcomes. An absolute
    threshold provides a fixed goal post. The Millennium Development Goals are cast mostly as
    absolute thresholds. However, a relative threshold captures changes in expectations and
    values. For example, if in 1950, an absolute development threshold had been established
    based on life expectancy at birth with a threshold value of 69 years (the life expectancy in the
    US in 1950), Sri Lanka would now be classified as a developed country. While observers of
    vintage 1950 may have been comfortable with such a classification of Sri Lanka, current day
    observers may not be.
    The final step in constructing the taxonomy is to decide on the numerical value of the
    threshold. Countries above the x percentile could be designated as developed with remaining
    countries considered as developing. Alternatively, countries that have achieved a
    development outcome within y percent of the most advanced country could be designated as
    developed with remaining countries considered as developing. Any particular threshold
    would undoubtedly invite questions about how it had been determined and it could
    reasonably be expected that the designer of the taxonomy would provide a rationale for the
    threshold.

    3.
    Major Characteristics of Developing Countries

    a. Low Per Capita Real Income

    The real per capita income of developing countries is very low as compared to developed countries.Therefore, low per capita income in developing countries results in low savings, and low investment and ultimately creates a vicious cycle of poverty.

    b. Mass Poverty

    Most individuals in developing nations have been suffering from the problem of poverty. They are not able to fulfill even their basic needs. poverty in underdeveloped countries is seen in terms of lack of fulfillment of basic needs, illiteracy, unemployment and access apart from low per capita income.

    c. Rapid Population Growth

    Developing countries have either a high population growth rate or a larger size of population. The higher child and infant mortality rates in such countries compel people to feel insured and give birth to more children. Lack of family planning education and options, lack of sex education, and belief that additional kids mean additional labor force and additional labor force means additional income and wealth, etc.
    Lack of Infrastructures

    d. Infrastructural development like the development of transportation, communication, irrigation, power, financial institutions, social overheads, etc. is not well developed in developing nations. Moreover, developed infrastructure is also unmanaged, and not distributed efficiently and equitably.

    e. Lower Productivity

    The productivity of factors is also low. This is due to a lack of capital and managerial skills for getting innovative technologies, and policies and managing them efficiently. Malnutrition, insufficient health care, a healthy support system, living in an unhygienic environment, poor health and work-life of workers, etc.

    f. High Consumption and Low Saving

    Income is low and this causes a high propensity to consume, a low propensity to save and capital formation is also low. People living in such nations have been facing the problems of poverty and they are being unable to fulfill most of their needs. This will compel them to expend more portion of their income on consumption. The higher portion of consumption out of earned income results in a lower saving rate.

    4.

    Yes, I agree that poverty has the face of a women because of the following reasons :
    poverty has a women’s face and we have seen this in many of our communities. Both man and women have the responsibility to look after the family and ensure that the children receive proper education, food,shelter etc. However, women are often on the forefront were there is poverty. The father is portrayed as a strong and fierce figure how you cannot approach unless it is something very serious.ln many african communities the responsibility of taking care of the household and caring and nurturing the children, the elderly and the sick falls on the women of the family. As a result when a child is hungry they go to the mother or grandmother or the aunt because the child has been made to understand that it is their responsibility to provide food. l think this social construction is what has put the burden on the woman. Gender parity is the solution in my opinion, socially constructing children to know that both parents have an equal role to play in providing for the family and that you can approach either of them on equal footing. The burden needs to fall on both men and women and until then poverty will always have a woman’s face.
    Women are facing a silent crisis which worsens and weakens their condition. Before the economic crisis unemployment, precarious work, part-time work, low salaries and slow career paths already affected women more then men.
    Stereotypes and lower pay increase the risk for women to fall into poverty, particularly for older women, also due to low pensions also deprivation of opportunities. Gender inequalities, some restricting rules, early pregnancy and diabolical practices of some cultures has made some women to face high rate of poverty in different ways.

  86. Avatar Ugwunze Chukwuebuka Emmanuel, 2019/245483, says:

    1. China–India relations also called Sino-Indian relations or Indo–Chinese relations, are the bilateral relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of India. India and China have historically maintained peaceful relations for thousands of years of recorded history, but the harmony of their relationship has varied in modern times, after the Chinese Communist Party’s victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, and especially post the Annexation of Tibet by the People’s Republic of China. The two nations have sought economic cooperation with each other, while frequent border disputes and economic nationalism in both countries are a major point of contention.

    KEY POINTS
    China and India’s sustained economic growth fuels their increasing geopolitical and military influence.

    Despite their developmental similarities, China and India’s bilateral strategic rivalry means that they have competing priorities on most major global issues.

    Sino-Indian differences are considerable on issues relating to the nonproliferation system, Asian security, regional stability in Southern Asia, and security in the maritime commons, space, and cyberspace. The two rising powers broadly agree on matters relating to the international economic system, energy security, and the environment.

    Because of its ongoing shift to the Asia-Pacific and status as the only global superpower, the United States must manage a complex set of relationships with China and India, which are at times working at cross-purposes.
    CHINESE AND INDIAN POSITIONS ON INTERNATIONAL ISSUES
    Global Order: China and India tend to agree on the importance of state sovereignty and the need to reform global governance institutions to reflect the new balance of power. They also share a strong commitment to the open economic order that has allowed both powers to flourish in the global marketplace. But the two diverge on many details of the international system, such as the future viability of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the role of state-owned enterprises in fostering globalization.

    Regional Security: Both China and India want a stable Asia-Pacific that will allow them to sustain their economic prosperity, but they perceive threats very differently and have divergent priorities. Importantly, India seeks a resolute American presence in the region to hedge against possible Chinese excesses, while China sees the United States as significantly complicating its pursuit of its regional goals and worries about American containment attempts.

    Security in the Global Commons: Beijing and New Delhi rely heavily on open sea lines of communication, and as a result, they both support the current maritime security regime. However, their interpretations as to its provisions have occasionally diverged. In space, China enjoys significant advantages over India and has emphasized the military dimensions of its program, while New Delhi has only recently begun developing space-based military technology. Both countries are just beginning to wrestle with the difficult task of forming cybersecurity policies, but they have already acted to limit objectionable or illegal activities online. In striking the balance between online freedom and social stability, India has encountered a higher degree of opprobrium in the public sphere than its counterpart.

    Nontraditional Security: Chinese and Indian approaches to both energy and the environment broadly converge. Because India and China face a rising domestic demand for energy, they heavily rely on foreign suppliers of energy resources. This has prompted both governments to seek more efficient power sources and to secure their presence in overseas energy markets. On environmental policy, the two countries focus on primarily local and short-term concerns that must be balanced with the need for economic growth.

    2. The indicators within the Economy section allow us to analyze various aspects of both national and global economic activity. As countries produce goods and services, and consume these domestically or trade internationally, economic indicators measure levels and changes in the size and structure of different economies, and identify growth and contractions.

    Economic indicators include measures of macroeconomic performance (gross domestic product [GDP], consumption, investment, and international trade) and stability (central government budgets, prices, the money supply, and the balance of payments). It also includes broader measures of income and savings adjusted for pollution, depreciation, and depletion of resources. Many economic indicators from WDI are used in tracking progress toward SDG Goal 8, promoting decent work and economic growth, and Goal 2, which encourages sustainable consumption and production.

    Measuring economic activity in a country or region provides insights into the economic well-being of its residents.

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a widely used indicator, refers to the total gross value added by all resident producers in the economy. Growth in the economy is measured by the change in GDP at constant price. Many WDI indicators use GDP or GDP per capita as a denominator to enable cross-country comparisons of socioeconomic and other data.

    Also widely used in assessing a country’s wealth and capacity to provide for its people is Gross National Income (GNI) per capita – the sum of total domestic and foreign value added claimed by residents divided by total population. Furthermore, GNI per capita in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the Atlas method, is used to classify countries for operational purposes – lending eligibility and repayment terms. It is also used to classify economies into four main income groups for analytical purposes: low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income. Further information on the operational and analytical classifications is available here. GNI per capita data are published every year in July for the previous year—data for 2017 will be published during the July 2018 update of the WDI database. However, some national data do not become available until later in the year.

  87. Avatar EZEAMAMA IFECHUKWU EMMANUEL says:

    NAME:EZEAMAMA IFECHUKWU EMMANUEL
    REG NO:2019/245102
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS MAJOR
    1.)The Bandung conference of 1955 led to the emergence of the third world. India
    played a major role in raising the voice of newly independent countries. As a result of
    independence movement, the United Nations, was gradually transformed into a third world
    forum. The Afro-Asian conference co-sponsored by Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and
    Sri Lanka discussed peace, role of the Third World, economic development, and
    decolonization process. They tried to chart out a diplomatic course as neutrals or aligned‘ to either Russia or America in the Cold War. The Bandung Conference was based
    on the principles of political self-determination, mutual respect for sovereignty, non aggression, mom interference in internal affairs, and equality. Conference paved way for the
    emergence of third world free from evils of capitalism and communism.
    Thus, the concept of the Third World was born. Communist China was one of the
    countries participating as the Third World Country rather than the Russian Soviet orbit. The
    1955 Bandung Conference was the first attempt at the creation and establishment of a third
    force in global politics. The term Third World was adopted to refer to a self-defining group
    of non-aligned states. The Bandung Conference played an important role in mobilizing the
    counter-hegemonic forces to be known as the Third World. There were other priority areas
    as well such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism, non-violence and conflict resolution via
    the United Nation .The conference also emphasis on the issues of increased cultural and
    technical cooperation between African and Asian governments along with the establishment
    for an economic development fund .It also raised its voice for the required support for
    human rights and the self-determinations of peoples and nations by the world community
    and negotiations to reduce the building and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. With this kind
    of perspective the international politics marked the emergence of a non-aligned bloc from
    the two superpowers after the Bandung conference. Hee-Yeon Cho opines that the
    bandung spirit is not detachment from the powerful Western countries, but non-aligned
    self helped organization against the powerful countries
    .The early 1960s were years of optimism in the Third World. Ghanaian prime minister
    Kwame Nkrumah trumpeted pan-Africanism. It was a way for the African continent to
    place itself on a par with the rest of the world. Egyptian president Nasser boasted that his
    democratic socialism was neither Western nor Soviet-inspired and that Egypt would retain
    its neutrality in the cold war struggle. Indian prime minister Nehru blended democratic
    politics and state planning to promote India‘s quest for political independence and economic
    autonomy. The membership and aims of the Non-Aligned summits of the 1960s, 1970s
    and 1980s expanded and contracted as time progressed . The
    1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Summit conference established an alternative platform for
    negotiating the diplomatic solidarity of countries which saw an advantage in
    advertising their autonomy from the rival superpower blocs. During the early 1960s,
    primary focus was directed towards mitigating the effects of the Cold War, ―as represented
    by the British and French invasion of the Suez, and the Russian invasion of Hungary in
    1956, on states which were not part of any power bloc .Towards the middle of the 1960s, the crucial concern was anti-colonialism, and from that decade to
    the next, the principle issues centered on problems of economic development, emerging
    due to intense uncertainty in the global economy
    . The 1960s and 70s, marked the great age of Third World rhetoric of common
    cause and common action.A significant event was the 1966 Tri-continental Conference
    of Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and involved delegates from
    across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. This conference called for an
    increasingly radical anti-imperial agenda. During the 1970s, the
    collective identity of the majority of Latin American, Asian and African countries in
    international relations became expressed through demands for reform in the institutional
    structure of the international economy.The main thrust came from
    the Group of 77 (G77), which had been created at the first United Nations Conference on
    Trade and Development (UNCTAD) meeting held in 1964.
    2i) The Human Development Index (HDI)
    The measurement of economic development can be done through the human development index (the HDI).
    This is the most used index to measure economic development. It takes the following three factors into account:
    Health. The HDI measures the average life expectancy in a specific country and compares it to the global average.
    Education. The HDI measures the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling in a country.
    Standard of living. The HDI measures the gross national income (GNI) per head, using the principle of purchasing power parity, PPP.

    ii) The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
    The Genuine Progress Indicator builds off GDP as an economic indicator by including measures of the impact of economic growth on the environment as well as various social factors. The GPI takes GDP into consideration while also measuring the negative impacts of growth. For example, In this measurement, resource depletion and degradation are subtracted from the positive impacts of growth to determine the level of development. The GPI tries to get a bigger picture of the average quality of life by measuring information such as housework, parenting, the costs of crimes, and the value of volunteering work.

    iii) The Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    The Human Poverty Index complements the HDI as it is an indication of the standard of living in an economy. It considers the level of poverty and deprivation of a community in a country. The HPI uses two indices:
    The HPI-1 is used to measure developing countries.
    The HPI-2 is used for developed countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
    The HPI has limited utility as it combines the average deprivation levels of each dimension and it can’t be linked to any particular group of people.

    iv). The Multidimensional Poverty Index
    The multi-dimesnsion poverty assesses poverty at an individual level. MPI replaced the HPI in 2010. It differs from the HPI as it assesses poverty at the individual level. For example, If one person is deprived of a third or more of ten (weighted) indicators, the global index identifies them as ‘MPI poor’. The extent of poverty is measured by the percentage of deprivation a person is experiencing.

    3). i. Low Per Capita Real Income
    Low per capita real income is one of the most defining characteristics of developing economies. They suffer from low per capita real income level, which results in low savings and low investments. It means the average person doesn’t earn enough money to invest or save money. They spend whatever they make. Thus, it creates a cycle of poverty that most of the population struggles to escape. The percentage of people in absolute poverty (the minimum income level) is high in developing countries.

    ii) High Population Growth Rate
    Another common characteristic of developing countries is that they either have high population growth rates or large populations. Often, this is because of a lack of family planning options and the belief that more children could result in a higher labor force for the family to earn income. This increase in recent decades could be because of higher birth rates and reduced death rates through improved health care.

    iii) Dependence on Primary Sector
    Almost 75% of the population of low-income countries is rurally based. As income levels rise, the structure of demand changes, which leads to a rise in the manufacturing sector and then the services sector.

    iv) Massive Poverty:
    The majority of people in developing countries have been affected by the issue of poverty. Even the most fundamental demands cannot be met by them. The issue of poverty is also reflected in the low per capita in emerging countries. in addition to low per capita income, poverty in undeveloped nations is also defined as the inability to meet basic requirements, illiteracy, unemployment, and a lack of other socioeconomic engagement and access.

    V) Unemployment and underemployment:
    significant issues and prevalent traits of emerging or undeveloped countries include unemployment and underemployment. The issue of underemployment and unemployment in emerging nations is brought on by factors such as an over-reliance on agriculture, a lack of industrialization, an improper use of natural resources, a lack of workforce planning, and others. Underemployment is a more significant issue than unemployment in developing countries.
    Because there are no alternatives to these types of professions, people are forced to work at subpar jobs. The problem of underemployment is widespread in several nations, particularly in their rural and underdeveloped regions.

    4). The harmonization of policies for economic growth, social equity and gender equity is a challenge that can no longer be ignored.

    Poverty is considered as the result of power relations that first of
    all affect men and women in a different way, but then also indigenous and Afro-descendent women, older adults and the inhabitants of certain areas. The multidimensional nature of this phenomenon is shown, as well as the virtues and limitations of traditional forms of measuring poverty, drawing attention to specific aspects which explain the
    disadvantages suffered by women: the invisibility of unpaid domestic labour, the time poverty associated with such labour; the labour and wage discrimination against women; the importance of studies of the family from a gender perspective and the challenges for public policy.
    In order to avoid discriminatory biases it is suggested that efforts must be made to develop women’s economic autonomy and promote a reconciliation of private and domestic life by encouraging a mass influx of men into the sphere of care.

  88. Avatar Omeje Godsfavour Chiemerie. Reg No. 2019/244972 says:

    Characteristics of developing countries include:
    Mass poverty, unemployment or underemployment, rapid population growth, lack of infrastructures, illiteracy, etc
    Mass poverty: Developing countries are faced with the problem of mass poverty cause they are not able to carter for the needs of the people.
    Unemployment or underemployment: People in a developing country are unemployed or mostly underemployed cause they are not able to find something doing or befitting.
    Rapid population growth: Most people in the country are not properly educated on sex education and the importance of family planning and so most people that having another child means having another labor force.

  89. Avatar Nwakanma Jesse Uchechi 2019/244384 says:

    i) The Human Development Index (HDI)
    The measurement of economic development can be done through the human development index (the HDI).
    This is the most used index to measure economic development. It takes the following three factors into account:
    Health. The HDI measures the average life expectancy in a specific country and compares it to the global average.
    Education. The HDI measures the mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling in a country.
    Standard of living. The HDI measures the gross national income (GNI) per head, using the principle of purchasing power parity, PPP.

    ii) The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
    The Genuine Progress Indicator builds off GDP as an economic indicator by including measures of the impact of economic growth on the environment as well as various social factors. The GPI takes GDP into consideration while also measuring the negative impacts of growth. For example, In this measurement, resource depletion and degradation are subtracted from the positive impacts of growth to determine the level of development. The GPI tries to get a bigger picture of the average quality of life by measuring information such as housework, parenting, the costs of crimes, and the value of volunteering work.

    iii) The Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    The Human Poverty Index complements the HDI as it is an indication of the standard of living in an economy. It considers the level of poverty and deprivation of a community in a country. The HPI uses two indices:
    The HPI-1 is used to measure developing countries.
    The HPI-2 is used for devel