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ECO. 391 Online Discussion/Quiz–15-12-2022 (Understanding the fundamentals of Research)

ECO. 391 Online Discussion/Quiz–15-12-2022 (Understanding the fundamentals of Research) Development)

1.lResearch has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss

2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:  Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

4.lAdherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

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Comments 246

  1. Avatar Ugwu Confidence Chika (2019/245041, ECO/POL) says:

    Name :UGWU CONFIDENCE CHIKA
    Reg No: 2019/245041
    DEP:T COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE)

    QUESTION 1
    Critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate
    manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

    QUESTION 2
    It means the systematic inquiry for describing, explaining, predicting, as well as controlling an observable phenomenon. Research involves the use of both inductive as well as deductive methods.
    Inductive research methods are used to analyse observable events. Deductive methods are used to verify the event that has been observed. Inductive research includes the use of qualitative research methods whereas deductive approach more commonly uses quantitative analysis.
    QUESTION 3
    Qualitative research:
    •Focuses on understanding meaning
    •Uses emerging questions
    •Collects data in participant’s setting
    •Uses the an inductive approach to analysis
    •Has a written report that is flexible in structure
    Quantitative research:
    •Tests objective theories
    •Examines relationships among measurable variables
    •Uses survey instruments that produce numbered data
    •Uses statistical analysis of data generated
    •Tests theories deductively
    •Uses a set structure for the final report
    Mixed methods research:
    .Collects both quantitative and qualitative data
    •Integrates the two forms of data
    •Uses distinct designs that may involve philosophy or theory

    QUESTION 4
    Specify ONE objective: If the research question is too broad, it will be hard to focus and develop a plan of action. Too narrow, and it may be impossible to solve. Striking a balance between the two extremes is the way to go for the best results. The objective could relate to an event, relationship, identity, or situation.
    Name the individual: Be sure to state the full name, as well as any aliases, of the person who is the focus of the research. Stating something like, “my third great-grandfather” with no name, is of no help to you (or other researchers) since you have more than one third great-grandfather. In fact, your relationship to the subject doesn’t need to be mentioned at all.
    Include distinguishable characteristics: Adding one or or two known facts about the individual to the question will help distinguish him/her from others of the same name. These characteristics could be a relationship (e.g., daughter of so-and-so), a place (e.g., resided in Fulton County, Illinois, from 1860 to 1900), an event date (e.g., born about 1772), an occupation, and so on. Don’t get so detailed here that is takes away from the question. You just need enough to put the person in his or her context to make them unique.

    QUESTION 5
    Yields additional insight to a research problems workforce is increasing, the funding in most countries has been on a decline over the past decade. The situation is particularly perilous for early career researchers who find it hard to compete for funds with senior researchers. This extreme competition is also impacting the way science is conducted. The respondents of the Vox survey pointed out that since most grants are allotted only for a couple of years, researchers tend to opt for short-term projects, which can sometimes be insufficient to study complex research questions. This means researchers make choices based on what would keep the funding bodies and their institutions happy. However, the consequences of these choices are an increasing number of published papers with sub-standard quality and low research impact.
    Poor study design in published papers
    Academia is gradually moving towards open science and open access by signing open data mandates and making data sharing mandatory. However, there are many big publishers that operate their journals on subscription-based models. Paying for paywalled research is becoming difficult for researchers as well as institutions, particularly in the developing countries, due to the ever-increasing subscription fees. Many of the Vox survey respondents were critical of this as it affects the way scientific research is disseminated. Moreover, subscription-based publishing model is probably the single most important factor responsible for the foundation of Sci-Hub, a website that provides unauthorized access to almost all paywalled research papers. The only way of avoiding such consequences is developing methods to make access to research easier for the science community.
    Lack of adequate and accurate science communication
    It is a well-known fact that a wide communication gap exists between the scientific and the non-scientific community. This has resulted in miscommunication of science, divided opinions about scientific matters, and lack of informed decision-making among the public. Researchers are partly responsible for this because they lack time or sometimes the inclination to engage with the public about their research work. Therefore, the public is largely dependent on the media, which is often blamed for misconstruing scientific facts. The competitive nature of academic research is also responsible for poor communication of research. In an attempt to grab attention, sometimes researchers, universities, and even journals mislead the public by hyping the results or promoting only positive results. However, the science community should take the responsibility of projecting an accurate picture of science to the public since so that they can become cognizant of scientific issues and have a say in the way their tax money is invested in research.
    Stressful nature of academic/postdoc life
    Unarguably, the life of a postdoctoral researcher is grueling. Although it is the postdocs who drive academic research in many labs and are the future of academic research, they face challenges due to fierce competition, low income, and low job security. While the number of postdoctoral researchers is increasing, the number of permanent positions in academia is not increasing at a similar rate. Moreover, PhD programs fail to train postdocs to find a non-academic job, which leaves them struggling to find a route to advance their career. For scientific research to make strides, these young researchers should be absorbed in mainstream science.
    The Vox survey outlines some of the biggest concerns academia is grappling with at present. Apart from these, academics are also not unknown to other rampant problems such as gender inequality, research/academic misconduct, and excessive dependence on impact factor. Despite these problems, there is still hope for science. The science community is attempting to avoid the stagnation of scientific progress by taking steps toward bringing more transparency, spreading awareness about the importance of ethics, and making science more inclusive rather than exclusive. However, there are no quick fixes when it comes to science; thus, while bringing these changes will take time, each step would mean a leap toward scientific progression

    QUESTION 6
    Exploratory Research
    What it is: Used to reveal facts and details around a topic with little to no research, exploratory research forms the foundation of the research process. It identifies a topic, be it an issue or a phenomenon with scant details and seeks to find its basic properties.
    As such, it finds the correct variables the researcher needs in order to begin the study, understand its basic elements and form a hypothesis. The key issue at hand, its variables and its hypothesis are used for further research.
    Essentially, this kind of research forms the premise of a research campaign, assuring that the variables and other components are indeed what the researcher needs to study in the next steps (other types of research).
    Stage in the research process: The very first
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: Before a business can explore an issue in-depth, it needs to decide on a specific topic, the existing problem within the topic and its key variables. This ensures the business is equipped to enter the next research stage (type) and that it does not have any extraneous variables or concerns that do not contribute to solving the problem.
    Descriptive Research
    What it is: This type of research is premised on describing a phenomenon, behavior or problem discovered in an earlier stage of research, usually in exploratory research, although it can also be focused around that which was discovered in explanatory research.
    Descriptive research describes the nuances of a population, a variable or occurrence that a researcher requires further study on. Its objective centers on finding previously unknown facts or extracting more details on facets with fewer details.
    It focuses on the what, how, when and where of a study rather than on the why.
    Stage in the research process: The early portion of the middle stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: It is crucial for a business to understand a phenomenon and its variables in a full or close-to-full context. This type of research helps a business do just that, as it finds all the key details about a phenomenon that a business may not have known about before conducting the research.
    What’s more is that, as a primarily quantitative form of research, it is apt for creating statistics. Being statistically-oriented allows this form of research to be conclusive, although it is considered to be in the early mid-stages of an entire research project.
    These statistics are not simply key for internal resource purposes, but they provide a differentiating ingredient for your content. A strong content marketing strategy relies on putting out original insights; the data you derive from descriptive research is as original as it gets. This can be accomplished when you opt for a primary method (such as survey research).
    Explanatory Research
    What it is: Explanatory research is based on research that explains the already established aspects in a research campaign. It fills in the gaps and connects the dots from exploratory and descriptive research.
    This type of research is unique in that it can be conducted either prior to or after descriptive research. As such, it rests in the early to mid-stages of the overall research process.
    Like descriptive research, it works to shine a light on the various details that make up a research subject of study. However, contrary to descriptive research, it does not simply seek to describe, but rather to explain.
    Thus, this research category falls under qualitative research. It helps find the why of a problem or phenomenon. It is not conclusive.
    Stage in the research process: Early to mid-stages (can be performed before or after descriptive research, depending on a business’s needs).
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: It benefits a business in that it seeks to go beyond describing a subject of study. Rather, it plunges into a subject in greater depth, finding the kinds of insights that descriptive research cannot.
    Additionally, it is flexible. It can be conducted following exploratory research and either before or after descriptive research, the only research of its kind to offer this benefit.
    This research involves studying an important aspect that is studied in the later stages of the entire process, that of cause and effect. Explanatory research studies cause and effect relationships so as to explain their scope and nature, a critical precursor for correlational and causal research.
    Correlational Research
    What it is: Correlational research is a study into the relationship between two variables. Inspecting precisely two variables, this type of research seeks to discover and render the relationship between variables suspected of relating in some way.
    This research seeks to make sense out of the variables identified in earlier stages of research. Although correlational research is not sufficient to conclude on cause and effect relationships, it is necessary to conduct to find whether a relationship between variables exists to begin with.
    An observational form of research, it is non-experimental; there is no controlling or manipulation of the variables involved.
    The relationship between the variables can be either positive, negative or zero (nonexistent).
    Stage in the research process: Middle stage
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: Being able to determine if there is a positive, negative or zero correlation between two variables allows researchers to know how to move on to the next step: finding a cause and effect relationship between the variables.
    A zero correlation informs a business that there’s no need to further study the relationship between two particular variables, saving the business money and time. A negative or positive correlation dictates that further research is needed to discover whether there is cause and effect relationship.
    Either way, the results derived from this type of research are highly influential on the next steps a business decides to take in their research process: whether to end it, continue and how.
    Above all, it reveals how two variables relate to one other, giving a business a clearer picture of the environment they operate within, whether the variables concern sales figures, impressions or something more abstract like customer loyalty.
    Causal Research
    What it is: Causal research is founded on the undertaking of determining cause and effect relationships. As such, it involves conducting experiments and testing markets in a controlled setting. It is more scientific than any of the previous types of research.
    This kind of research uses the findings from correlational and explanatory research in an attempt to unearth causal relationships. Since correlation does not equal causation, causal research studies whether the variables with a negative or positive correlation have any effect on the other variable(s) in the study.
    Causal research has two objectives: finding which variable forms the cause and which makes up the effect, and understanding the relationship of the causal variables after the effect occurs.
    Stage in the research process: Late-final stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: Often the final form of research, causal research is critical to complete the entire process. It involves conducting both secondary and primary research, the latter of which is experimental.
    As such, this research type does not only observe, rather it investigates the variables themselves, manipulating them and controlling them as needed. This is crucial for a business in that it not only analyzes, but proves the existence of a causal relationship, along with how the effect manifests.
    Thus, this research is not only conclusive, as it finds the most important result that a business or market researcher seeks: a proven answer to their hypothesis. This allows researchers to close off the research process, or conduct further experimental research if they so choose.
    Experimental Research
    What it is: Experimental research vigorously follows a scientific research design. It is entirely scientific, more so than causal research, as it nearly, if not fully implements the scientific method towards finding a solution.
    The final stage of the research process, this kind of research uses all the information from the previous stages to conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis. It can also follow causal research; causal research itself is a kind of experimental research.
    Researchers can conduct further experiments on the variables they found causal relationships for, in that they can test how to reverse an unwanted correlation, or minimize it to some degree. Or, further experiments can show a business how to reap more benefits from a desired correlation.
    Stage in the research process: Final stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: Experimental research proves or disproves a hypothesis; as such, it is the final stage in the research process. It is the most scientific kind, leaving little to no room for errors, intuition or bias.
    It can be used to accommodate causal research, digging further into a discovered cause and effect relationship. This is especially important for a business, as while it is critical to know whether a causal relationship exists, understanding how to move forward with this knowledge is of the essence.
    Experimental research allows brands to test discovered causal relationships further, finding much-needed solutions. For example, a brand may want to learn how to reduce an unwanted correlation or to increase a needed correlation. Moreover, conducting further experiments can show brands how to gain a desired causal relationship sooner.
    Complementing Your Research
    In summary, there are six major types of research. A market researcher must consider these carefully before setting up their market research campaign. In order to build a comprehensive and effective study, you need to be able to organize your research.
    To begin this endeavor, you need to classify your research topic(s) under a particular campaign, such as advertising, for example. Following this, you need to create a smooth and educated process. Thus, you need to follow the research process by way of the 6 dominant forms of research that this guide explains.
    Doing so will ensure you conduct a comprehensive research campaign, one that leaves little to discover, except for possible future events, In order to complement your research, you need to conduct effective surveys for research campaigns. These allow you to understand your target market or target population. Even in experimental research, conducting surveys helps fill in the cracks and find answers to the unknown. Understanding your respondents, i.e., customers is paramount for a business. The proper online survey tool does not solely compliment a business or research endeavor, it completes it.

    QUESTION 7
    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.
    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  2. Avatar Nnaji Lovelyn Chinwe. 2019/247502 says:

    1: Research is a systematic way of asking questions and a careful way of making inquiry about an issue in order to discover new information about the issue and to expand an existing knowledge on the issue. In making researches, there are methods and guidelines that needs to be adhered to in order to produce accurate results, therefore, research is a process of finding out the truth through observations and experimentations, arranging the observed results in such a manner that it is trustworthy.
    2. Yes. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information. This means that we carefully make inquiries about an issue in order to find out the cause of that particular problem and be able to suggest a new solution. You don’t just put out a fact and expect people to agreed with you. You make careful observations by carefully asking the right questions to the right people through survey and question papers and also, by carefully collecting the accurate and proper data from the right source. Furthermore, we make researches in order to expand and to verify an existing knowledge, truth or fact. This means that in order to find out more truth and fact about a particular theory, you need to make researches.
    3. These three steps are:
    (a). Pose a question
    (b). Collect data to answer the question
    (c). Present an answer to the question.
    A. Pose a question: If a researcher wants to find out the truth about an issue or problem, the researcher needs to first of all, point out the right questions concerning the issue. For instance, using the example we gave in class. To find out the relationship between inflation and unemployment, we must first ask questions about the variables like; what is the current inflation rate? What is the current unemployment rate? What are the causes of unemployment and inflation? If you try to reduce or increase inflation rate or price level, what happens to unemployment? After posing the necessary questions, the researcher moves to step 2.
    B. Collect data to answer the questions: The researcher needs to visit the right sources in order to collect accurate data to answer the questions. Using correct graphs and trends from CBN website about unemployment and inflation helps to answer the question in our example above. After collecting the data to answer the questions, the researcher then moves to step 3.
    C. Present an answer to the question posed in step 1 through the data collected. For example, using the Philip’s curve graph, we can see that if we try to reduce inflation rate or price level, wage rate might increase leading to unemployment.
    4. A. Research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies or approaches. This set of philosophies or approaches means qualitative and quantitative approaches and academic discipline in which you have been trained. For example, an Economist makes researches within it’s field of academic discipline. An Economist cannot research about chemical because he has not been trained in that field.
    B. Research processes uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability. This means that there are methods and procedures and guidelines that needs to be adhered to while making researches and this procedures needs to be valid and reliable in order to produce accurate and quality results.
    C. Research processes is designed to be unbiased and objective. This means that a researcher needs to have an objective towards a research. Been unbiased towards research means that the researcher draws each conclusion to the best of his or her ability and doesn’t introduce his own personal interest and doesn’t deliberately conceal or highlight something to his own personal interest. For example, if a researcher is researching about a particular company, he or she should not try to conceal or highlight a particular point deliberately for his own personal interest. Adherence to this criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called research.
    5. The purpose of research varies across different scientific fields and disciplines means that the methods and approach a particular discipline uses for research differs from the approach another discipline uses, therefore, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline.
    6. (A). Explanation: Research is conducted in order to acquire knowledge to understand a particular issue and be able to explain the issue and why the issue is occurring.
    (B). Prediction: Through research, we are able to predict the outcome of a situation or the outcome of applying a particular theory.
    (C). Monitoring: Through research, we monitor theories and decisions that are been made to ensure that the goals are been attained. For instance, the cash withdrawal limit policy that was made by the CBN needs to be monitored through researches in order to make sure that the goals are been attained.
    D. Discovery/New improved situations: We make researches to find out about new situations and discover new things.
    E. Hypothesis testing: Research helps test theories about some issues through hypothesis testing and statistical analysis.
    F: Control: Research can be applied to real problems and real situations thereby helping to understand the relationship between variables and when we understand this relationship we are able to control the situation and our environment to suit our interest.
    7. There are problems associated with conducting researches and these challenges can hinder an efficient and accurate research. These challenges are multidimensional and some of these challenges are; (a). Insufficient data due to inadequate past records and data shortages.
    (b). Absence of current and updated data, trends and graphs.
    (c). Lack of cooperation from the public either deliberately or ignorance and illiteracy.
    (d). Lack of data due to deliberate decision by a correct source to be bias about an information.
    (e). Unwillingness to share information.
    (f). Language barrier: Not knowing the language of a particular place or people can hinder the progress of a survey during research.

  3. Name: Arinze,ebuka kelvin
    Reg no: 2019/246530
    Department: Economics department
    course: Eco 391(Research method)

    Question 1
    Research is made to know the cause of a particular problem and how the solve it. It is a systematic way of finding solutions to problems or getting more information concerning issues that needs attention. (Encyclopedia) Research is the organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions.  It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organized because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion.  Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. Development research is focussed on relevant, useful and important questions. If there are no questions, there can be no research.
    For example if we want to make a research on the causes of unemployment in a particular geographical entity, we must ask questions like why are few persons employed and many are unemployed. when such question gets an answer it will lead to another question which will draw us closer to a solution.

    Question 2
    Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge and also a movement from the known to unknown (encyclopedia). Research is made by asking questions and through a close look into a cause of a problem.
    Researchers are driven by a desire to solve personal, professional, and societal problems. These problems may be simple everyday problems like the best school in Nigeria or they may be major problems that require vast teams of researchers working in well funded labs.
    Research is done by making inquries. For example, imagine you just wrote WAEC and you are preparing to write Jamb to study Economics in a particular university. As a researcher you begin to make inquries of the best university to study Economics, the cutoff mark, the price of school fees etc. Inquiry and research has somehow morphed into synonyms.

    Question 3
    Creswell states – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: 
    1. Pose a question
    2. collect data to answer the question and
    3.present an answer to the question.
    creswell in his words above is saying that, the first thing to do while making a research is to first of all ask questions. For example if you are making a research on the causes of COVID-19, you first of all ask or write down questions like who first got the disease, where is that person from (country), the occupation of that person, where he or she goes to every day etc. After that, you start collecting data to answer the question. After getting answers to the questions then you summarize by answering what is the actual cause of COVID-19.

    Question 4)

    I study developmental economics because development economics focuses on how people in a society can escape poverty and enjoy a better standard of living.
    Development economic studies can be divided into economic and social aspects.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans, even though we tend to find our self in a rigmarole country.

    (Question 5)

    Third World” is an outdated and derogatory phrase that has been used historically to describe a class of economically developing nations. It is part of a four-part segmentation that was used to describe the world’s economies by economic status. Third World falls behind First World and Second World but was ahead of Fourth World, though Fourth-World countries were hardly recognized at all. Today, the preferred terminology is a developing nation, an underdeveloped country, or a low- and middle-income country (LMIC).
    There can be a few ways to divide up the world for purposes of economic segmentation. Classifying countries as First, Second, Third, and Fourth World was a concept created during and after the Cold War, which ran from approximately 1945 to the 1990s.

  4. Avatar Alozie Daniel says:

    ALOZIE UCHE DANIEL
    2019/245679
    DEPARTMENT: ECO MAJOR

    1.Research is how individuals and businesses collect and analyze data. Accurate and relevant research guides key business decisions, including marketing plans, staffing decisions and expansions, and critical data, like environmental impacts, health care, and social characteristics. Determining what data is most useful for your goals and finding the most effective ways to obtain it can help your company make successful long-term decisions.
    Different types of research studies are useful across industries and fields, including:

    Biology, chemistry and other science-related fields
    Government offices and agencies
    Education
    Business

    2. The search for knowledge is closely linked to the object of study; that is, to the reconstruction of the facts that will provide an explanation to an observed event and that at first sight can be considered as a problem. It is very human to seek answers and satisfy our curiosity. Let’s talk about research.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    3. Creswell states

    – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”.
    Qualitative researchers collect data themselves through examining documents, observing behavior, or interviewing participants. They may use a protocol an instrument for collecting data but the researchers are the ones who actually gather the information.
    It consists of three steps:
    1. Pose a question,
    2. collect data to answer the question, and
    3. present an answer to the question.

    4. Good research is anchored on a sound research question.

    A sound research question is one of the most important characteristics of good research. In fact, formulating one is embedded in the curricula of research-heavy programs like engineering and physics degrees and careers. 

    2. Research uses relevant, empirical data and proper data analysis methods.

    One of the most important qualities of a good research study is that it deals with empirical data. Empirical data is data that has been collected by researchers themselves through observation, experience, or experimentation 

    3. Good research is representative and generalizable.

    Criteria of good research include being representative. In research, representativeness refers to a sample’s ability to represent a larger group. This means the characteristics of the subjects (people) being studied closely match those of the study’s target population

    5. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through scientific theories, concepts and ideas.
    Research is about finding things we do not know, so what is uncovered in a research effort in a given field adds to our knowledge about things, phenomena, issues, problems and help mankind to know more about and therefore, helps mankind in all fields to resolve problems, to help mankind to do things better, have more things, and ultimately give us a higher standard of living. Take the medical field, research in the field help medical scientists, and doctors to find cures for many sicknesses, thus, preserving health and giving us a longer life.

    Research in the business field, help mankind to manage businesses profitably, ensure them to make available more goods and services to mankind. Ensure customers’ interest are being look after – can you think of how?

    Research in science, engineering and technology ensure that we can have more goods that benefit mankind hugely. To explain, technological research, for example, enable us to have various devices/means invented, thus, allowing mankind to communicate easily (viz, mobile phones, computer), travel conveniently, further and quicker (viz, cars, train, ship and plane) and also many, many other areas of benefits, which ultimately, give mankind a much, much higher living standard as times go by, particularly with new research endeavour and inventions. We cannot do without these inventions, but they all were made possible by the accumulated research work done in the STEM fields.

    However, research is important not just in the STEMS fields, but indeed, in ‘all fields’ of studies because new knowledge are advanced from research, which benefit mankind in different ways in in different fields – history, law, education, psychology, sociology. economics, politics, and many, many others, on top of the STEMs fields mentioned above.

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through scientific theories, concepts and ideas.

    6.
    Exploration as a purpose of research is when a research is conducted to explore/investigate a subject or concept;

    2. Description fulfils the need to provide more insight to a problem by providing more data and analysing them according to specific needs,

    3. Explanation is the use of research to give a new perspective to existing knowledge. This is the purpose of research most students are familiar with as it is the form most undergraduate papers come in.

    4. Research brings to light knowledge previously unknown or uncharted: Terry Freedman noted in his book “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” that “Research can shed light on issues we did not even know existed and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking”.

    5. Fact-check: In the age where the internet has made information accessible to everyone with a few clicks, news travel faster than was believed to be possible some decades ago. The speed at which information spread has birthed the need to fact-check news and information that find their ways to the public domain. Researching is the way some journalists go about fact-checking information before they release them to the public. Organisations and websites now exist with their mission being to check the factuality of news and information.

    6. To test the reliability of their claims and that of others: One of the most essential features of research is the ability to recreate the result by following the same processes. It is through this means that researchers test the stability as well as the reliability of their findings as well as that of other researchers. It follows the logic that if a research can be recreated, it must be transparent enough to ensure its reliability.

    7.
    1. Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials.

    2. Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.

    3. Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    4. Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    5. Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  5. Avatar hezekiah joy says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com
    1.
    Research basically is to find answers to questions. It is a way of innovative reasoning, innovative thinking so as to advance the current position of a discipline. Research has an end of instituting positive changes for more effectiveness when it comes to its application in various disciplines.
    It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.This implies that research involves methods that are systematically structured to bring about valid and reliable answers to problems. Research methods likeanalyzing historical records, documents, questionnaire, telephone survey as well asorganizing a small group study of random behavior to help in the collection of data, establishing relationships amongst data, and also to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained.
    Hence, there are methods that have been structured to ensures that research conducted provide an accurate and reliable information about a given problem.

    2.
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    As a careful inquiry to discover new information or relationships it has to follow a systematic process, such that such findings follows a methodical presentation. So that at every stage of its findings there is no vague understanding because its validity and accuracy may fits into other body of knowledge.
    Research as a careful inquiry to verify an existing knowledge talks about logical consistency, logical coherence because there has to be an understanding of the very foundations that support any claim of knowledge, as well as an open air to critique such findings to solidify its validity and to clear any error that would have been made in previous generalizations like the case of Geocentrism held by the Church before the Corpenican System.
    Conducting a research to expand an existing knowledge talks about correspondence. In other words, the newly discovered knowledge has to logically correspond with the previous to form a body of knowledge.
    3.
    Creswell argues that, ‘Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue and it consists of three steps, which are;
    • Pose a question
    In posing a question, a researcher has to be clear-minded on why the research is to be conducted and what answers are sought for, then he makes an hypothesis out of the defined problem. For instance, let’s say the defined problem is: What kind of strategies can a business implement to retain their customer base?
    • Collect data to answer the question
    Here, the researcher would have to identify what type of data he would need, what will constitute his survey and where the data would come from?. The data may come from primary sources or in this case from the Internal data the company has, such as CRM software, E-mail marketing tools and so on. The data may also be fetched from Secondary sources or External sources, such as data from Government portals, International Organizations’databases
    • Present an answer to the question
    This requires the researcher to give his unbiased and objective view on the research conducted to form a generalization. And so he exposes the research decision to evaluation before they are implemented.
    4. There are three criteria that are sufficient to define the essence of a research study, and they are;
    • The Research study is being conducted within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches)
    This implies that one’s philosophical exposure gives structure to the research study to be conducted. In other words, one’s philosophical exposure conditions.
    For instance, one’s academic discipline gives structure on the kind of research to be carried out.And so, to carry out a research on Agriculture in the Northern part of Nigeria, I will carry this out by reason of how I have studied a combination of Economics and Philosophy.
    • The research study uses procedures,methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability.
    Such procedures, methods and techniques to be employed have been deemed justified by several indicators on their efficacy and also it could be employed in other researches without reducing it efficacy.
    And so, I could possibly employ the observation method, I would observe the farmers as they work and possibly engage them in a conversationwhile recording.
    • The Research study is designed to be unbiased and objective
    An unbiased research study has no personal prejudice of the researcher, that is there are no preconceived opinion in the generalizations made. He has no ulterior intention as heconducts the research, while objectivity implies that a researcher’s thoughts pattern being engaged in the process of the research study is not conditioned or affected by his personality, for instance, his Philosophy, experience, social background and so on.
    While conducting this Research on the Northerners, I would not allow my experience with the Eastern farmers to affect my judgements. Knowing fully well that the climate is different, the soil texture, their culture are all different.
    5.
    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Research basically, is to find answers to questions. There are various ends for which a research is conducted as determined by the scientific fields and discipline. Hence, they are;
    • To solve problems, this is common in the medical field as they constantly undergo researches to combat strange phenomena that plague the survival of mankind.
    • To obtain academic degrees, it is held that no matter how intelligent a student is, such would not be awarded an academic degree if he fails a course on Research. Hence Research could be conducted as a part of an academic course work. Hence, in this wise, Research is carried out as a partial fulfilment for the award of a doctorate degree for example.
    • To contribute to the existing body of knowledge, this is for the Educationists. They carry out Research studies to update the syllabus of learning to bring students to terms with what prevails in the society.
    • Research institutions,they serve as stewards of data and information. They contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
    6.
    The Purpose of Research for any discipline is generally categorized into 6, which are;
    • Explanation, this is the most common reason for conducting research. Here, the purpose is to unveil a truth that underlies a phenomenon.In this wise, research is carried out as an art of scientific investigation to understand the world. In a bid to explain certain phenomena faced by the world, an exploratory research studies is carried out.
    • Prediction, another reason for conducting research studies is to be able to manipulate the future to work to the advantage of the society. This is feasible after by making perhaps a diagnostic research studies on a particular phenomenon, so as to predict a future occurrence and hence know how to install preventive measures if measures to manipulate the negative occurrence will not be obtainable.
    For instance Corpenicus’ celestial model helped to make accurate prediction of planetary positions.
    • Monitoring, specifically Research studies are carried out to extend, correct or verify an existing body of knowledge. Hence, a particular body of knowledge is closely monitored for any update or extension. Also, research could also be carried to monitor the accuracy of a body of knowledge so as to discard any that is not accurate and aligns with reality.
    For instance, Polish theologian Nicolaus Corpenicus after a long time research, through observation from his Observatory, that took almost his entire life, devised a theory that the planets revolved around the Sun as opposed to Ptolemy who claimed the Sun revolved around the Earth. Galileo Galilei went ahead to make further research on Corpenicus’ claim and was able to validate it. However he was charged with heresy for advocating the Corpenican System.
    • Discovery or New Improved Situation, research is also conducted for this purpose. Almost similar to the above, where the difference is that, for the purpose of Monitoring, it is to sustain an existing body of knowledge and guard against any error that may have occurred in making generalizations. But for the purpose of Discovery, it could be an offshoot from exercising the instinct of inquisitiveness.
    • Hypothesis Testing,researchers engage statistical tools to evaluate an hypothesis to test, such tools as Chi-square test, F- test. When conducting research ,the researcher formulates an hypothesis and then tests it to see if there is any causal relationship between the variables.
    • Control, here research is applied to real world situations, to see how control measures could be applied so as to manipulate the environment to the society’s interests.
    7.
    The problems of conducting Research in Developing countries arises due to the following:
    • Funding, which is the major problem of developing countries. In the process of carrying out researches, specific tools, equipment, technology may be required to bring about an objective and accurate truth that was sought for by reason ofengaging in the research. While carrying out an exploratory research in the sciences, a researcher might be faced with the need to obtain some materials, which could be used for experiments. And so for experiments, the researcher might be forced to purchase more of those materials, to avoid any form of biasness or error or material misstatements.
    For instance, a program was shown on Discovery Family channel in the DStv dish, how two groups were given five thousand dollars each to carry out a research on how to stop a moving vehicle that refuses to stop at a toll gate without any of the passengers being hurt. That amount I fear cannot be comfortably provided for such a problem in Developing countries.
    • Incorrect Sampling, this could be an outgrowth from the lack of trained personnel who could carry out researches with expertise making use of the sophisticated tools and techniques for research. For instance, a researcher not understanding who to survey and thus selects a sample that is not representative of the population.
    • Non-compliance from Correspondents, this could be a spin-off from the lack of awareness or say the ignorance of the correspondents especially in rural areas. When they are not adequately educated on the essence of such researches by the authority within their jurisdiction if not the National authority, then non-compliance is inevitable. This could also be an offshoot from their cultural beliefs. In some locales, there might be certain cultural beliefs that are held in high esteem which would conflict with any form of research carried within that vicinity.
    • Actions of the Government, with the present Nigerian government as a case study, the leadership is very poor to the point that it hardly sponsors innovative researches, as her primary focus is on corruption. Notwithstanding, she dreads fearfully, capital projects, as her culture is to discard previous administration’s projects and take up new irrelevant ones. Sotaking up projects that may span across administrations may not be feasible.
    • Insecurity, as there are undeveloped institutions so are there places that are undeveloped such that there is no internet connection for smooth communication. Hence, obtaining primary data in a field survey may prove abortive as there may be loss of lives, distorted data.

  6. Avatar Innocent Love Ihunanya. 2019/251037 says:

    Innocent Love Ihunanya
    2019/251037
    Economics
    1) Research is a systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. It is a systematic application of a family of method because it follows a well organize step by step method/process that leads to conclusion. You don’t jump into getting an answer without following process. Research, just like family that is incomplete when a member is missing is also incomplete without an answer whether we like the answer or not.
    You start by getting the questions, you characterize it, you analyze and interpret it and then get your answers. When you are carrying out your research, it implies that
    a) The process is being undertaken within a set of approaches.
    b) The tools used or to be used are tested and trustworthy.
    c) And that your process and final answers are not bias. This is to say that your process and answer should not be influenced by personal interest, otherwise. Your research is false.
    The following of the above criteria enables the process to be called Research. But the criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline as the meaning of research differs from one academic field to another.
    2)Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. People research to discover answer to problem or question or probably to expand their knowledge. Research is not always about solving new problems, some people like to know more about things, so, they go on carrying out research to know about an issue, most times, it is driven by curiosity.
    Also, when face with problem or issue, people tries to research to get the answer to solve the problem. And let us not forget that to get the answer to the problem or to expand knowledge, one have to follow methodology or it might not be consider as a research.
    3)According to Creswell, research involves three steps:
    Pose a question. Research always starts with questions. No research starts on its own. You can’t start research without something driving and it is always question. Why is the thing like this and not like that? And then, you find yourself following process to know why.
    Collect data to answer the question. From posing a question to getting data to answer the question. I mean how can you carry out research to solve a problem without data. Are you going to use your head? Or something else? You will need data to solve the problem, data to experiment on, in order to solve your problem.
    Present an answer to the question. After experimenting, you are expected to get answers, whether true or not. An answer shows that your research was carried out successfully. So, why carry out research when you don’t want an answer? Your answer must not be influenced by you. if your answer is to be influenced by you, then, there is no need for research, you can as well just formulate the answer yourself.
    4)For your process to be called Research, it has to adhere to three criteria:
    Being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies. Your process have to be qualitative, quantitative and within the area of your specialization. Your process should not be an assumption that cannot be quantify and what you don’t know of. Follow the process of your field to carry out the research as there are different process to research of different field.
    Uses procedures, methods and techniques that haven been tested for validity or reliability. Research follows laid down process according to different discipline. The process have to be tested, you don’t just do research with any processfor, the process you have to follow must be reliable and trustworthy that someone else can follow to get that same answer as yours.
    Designed to be unbiased. Your process must be unbiased, if not, it is not research. If your process is biased, then people who are to follow that your process will be bias too, in fact, your answer will be false and no research have been carried out.
    5)The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. This purpose can be loosely divided into two in scientific:
    Pure Research. This involves developing and testing hypothesis that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but may or may not have practical application at the present time. This also involves gathering and analyzing information to develop theory. Here, the main purpose is to expand knowledge.
    Applied Research. The purpose of this research is for testing theory and evaluating its usefulness for solving problem. In the present day, more emphasis is being given to applied research to solve problems arising from over population and scarcity of resources that influences government policies at grass root level.
    6)For any discipline, the purpose of research is categorized into:
    Explanation. Research is used to explain why something is happing, to understand the fundamental of a problem. Explanation is the basic purpose of research.
    Prediction. It is used to make predictions or forecast an event in the future. When a hypothesis is tested, then, it can be used to make predictions.
    Monitoring. Research can be used to monitor decisions made and to ensure that goals are attained.
    Discovery/New improved situation. Research can also be used to discover situations.
    Hypothesis Testing. Research helps in testing hypothesis that is at the heart of scientific research and it relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate hypothesis.
    Control. To control the way problems are solved in order to shape our environment.
    7)The problem of conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. The problem of research in developing countries is not just one but many and it comes in different form, ranging from insufficient data, lack of co-operation from public, language barrier, illiteracy, wrong samples, lack of funding, to inadequate public records.

  7. Avatar ONYEMA DIVINE OLUCHI 2019/244390 says:

    1. Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    ANSWER
    Research is a systematic and methodical process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to provide trustworthy information about a particular topic or problem. It is an essential component of many fields of study, including science, social science, business, and healthcare, and it has numerous applications in many other areas of human endeavor.
    The primary goal of research is to generate new knowledge and contribute to the existing body of knowledge in a particular field. The methods used in research depend on the type of study being conducted, the nature of the research question, and the available resources.
    One of the most important aspects of research is that it must be systematic, meaning that it follows a structured and rigorous process that is designed to ensure that the results are reliable and valid. This process typically involves several stages, including defining the research question, selecting a sample or population to study, collecting data, analyzing the data, and drawing conclusions based on the findings.
    In addition to being systematic, research must also be methodical, meaning that it uses a variety of methods and techniques to gather and analyze data. These methods may include surveys, experiments, case studies, interviews, and observations, among others. Each of these methods has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of method will depend on the specific research question being addressed.
    The ultimate goal of research is to provide trustworthy information that can be used to make informed decisions or solve problems. This is particularly important in fields such as healthcare, where research can help to identify new treatments or interventions that can improve patient outcomes. In business, research can be used to identify new market opportunities, improve products or services, or optimize business processes.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details
    ANSWER
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that involves the careful examination of a particular topic or problem in order to discover new information, relationships, and insights. It is an essential tool for expanding and verifying existing knowledge in a wide range of fields, including science, social science, and humanities.
    At its core, research involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. This data can come from a variety of sources, including experiments, surveys, interviews, case studies, and observational studies. The data is then analyzed using a range of statistical and other quantitative or qualitative methods, depending on the nature of the research question and the available resources.
    One of the key aims of research is to expand knowledge and understanding by discovering new information and relationships. This can involve exploring new areas of inquiry or examining existing knowledge in new ways. For example, a scientist may conduct research to explore the effects of a particular drug on a specific medical condition, while a sociologist may conduct research to examine the relationship between social class and educational attainment.
    In addition to expanding knowledge, research also plays an important role in verifying existing knowledge. This involves testing hypotheses and theories in order to confirm or refute them, and to gain a better understanding of how they work. For example, a scientist may conduct research to test a hypothesis about the mechanism by which a particular drug works, while a historian may conduct research to verify the accuracy of a particular historical account.
    Research also involves careful planning and execution in order to ensure that the data collected is valid and reliable. This involves using appropriate research methods and techniques, selecting appropriate samples or populations to study, ensuring that the data collected is accurate and representative, and analyzing the data using appropriate statistical methods.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    ANSWER
    Creswell’s definition of research as a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue involves three main steps:
    1. Planning and designing the research study:
    The first step in research involves planning and designing the study. This includes selecting a research question or topic, developing hypotheses or research objectives, deciding on the research design and methodology, and identifying the sample population or data sources to be used in the study. For instance, a researcher interested in investigating the impact of social media on student academic performance may design a study with a survey questionnaire as the data collection method, with the population being students from various schools.
    2. Collecting and analyzing data:
    The second step in research involves collecting and analyzing data. This involves using appropriate research tools or instruments, such as surveys, interviews, or experiments, to collect data that can answer the research question or test hypotheses. After data collection, the researcher will then analyze the data using statistical or other methods to identify patterns, relationships, or trends that can answer the research question or test hypotheses. For example, in a study examining the relationship between employee motivation and job performance, data may be collected through surveys, and then analyzed using statistical methods to identify any significant correlations.
    3. Reporting and interpreting the findings:
    The third step in research involves reporting and interpreting the findings. This involves presenting the results in a clear and understandable way, using tables, graphs, and other visual aids to support the findings. The researcher will then interpret the results by drawing conclusions, making recommendations, and discussing the implications of the findings for future research or practice. For example, a researcher investigating the effects of a new medication may report the findings in a scientific paper, interpreting the results by discussing the significance of the medication’s effects on the study population, as well as the potential implications for future medical practice.

    4. Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    ANSWER
    In order for a given process to be called ‘research’, it must adhere to three specific criteria. These criteria are:

    1. Systematic: Research must be conducted using a systematic and organized approach. This means that the research process must be clearly defined and well-planned, with specific steps taken to ensure that the research is conducted in a consistent and objective manner. Systematic research also involves the use of appropriate research methods and techniques, as well as the careful selection of data sources or sample populations.
    Example: A researcher studying the impact of nutrition on athletic performance may use a systematic approach by first identifying a research question, designing a study using appropriate methodology (such as a randomized controlled trial), and then systematically collecting and analyzing data to answer the research question.
    2. Controlled: Research must be conducted using controls to ensure that any observed effects are actually due to the factors being studied, and not due to chance or other extraneous variables. This means that researchers must carefully design their studies to control for potential confounding variables and other factors that could affect the outcome of the study.
    Example: A researcher studying the effects of a new medication on a particular condition may use a control group, in which participants are given a placebo instead of the medication, to control for potential placebo effects or other variables that could affect the outcome of the study.
    3. Empirical: Research must be based on empirical evidence, which means that it is grounded in observable and measurable phenomena. This means that researchers must use objective and reliable measures to collect data, and must analyze this data using appropriate statistical or other quantitative methods.
    Example: A researcher studying the relationship between social media use and mental health may collect data through surveys or other means, using objective and reliable measures to assess social media use and mental health outcomes. The researcher would then analyze this data using appropriate statistical methods to determine whether there is a significant relationship between social media use and mental health outcomes.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss
    ANSWER
    The purpose of research can vary across different scientific fields and disciplines, and even within specific fields, the purpose of research can vary depending on the context and the research questions being addressed. However, there are several common goals of research that apply across different fields and disciplines.

    1. Advancing knowledge: One of the primary purposes of research is to advance knowledge in a particular field or discipline. Research seeks to uncover new information, test theories and hypotheses, and build upon existing knowledge to generate new insights and understanding.
    2. Solving problems: Research can also be conducted to solve practical problems or address real-world issues. Researchers may seek to identify the underlying causes of a particular problem or develop new solutions to address it.
    3. Developing or improving products and services: Research can be used to develop or improve products and services. For example, research in the field of engineering can be used to develop new technologies, while research in marketing can be used to develop new products or improve existing ones.
    4. Policy-making: Research can also inform policy-making by providing evidence-based recommendations and guidance for decision-makers. For example, research in public health can inform policy decisions related to disease prevention and control.
    5. Academic and career advancement: Research can also serve as a means of academic and career advancement, particularly in academic fields where research is a key component of professional success.
    It is important to note that the purpose of research can also be influenced by external factors, such as funding sources and political or social agendas. For example, research funded by private corporations may be geared towards developing new products or technologies that are profitable, while research funded by government agencies may be focused on solving societal problems or advancing public policy goals.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    ANSWER
    Research can be broadly categorized into six different purposes, regardless of the scientific field or discipline. These categories are:

    1. Exploration: This type of research is conducted to explore new topics or areas of study. It seeks to generate new ideas and theories, and can involve reviewing existing literature, conducting surveys, or collecting data through observations or interviews.
    2. Description: Description research seeks to describe the characteristics or behavior of a particular group or phenomenon. It can involve collecting data through surveys, questionnaires, or other forms of data collection to provide a detailed description of a particular group or phenomenon.
    3. Explanation: Explanation research is conducted to determine the underlying causes or factors that contribute to a particular phenomenon or behavior. It often involves developing hypotheses and testing them using statistical or other quantitative methods.
    4. Prediction: Prediction research seeks to predict the future behavior or outcomes of a particular group or phenomenon. It can involve analyzing historical data and using statistical models to predict future trends or behaviors.
    5. Intervention: Intervention research is conducted to test the effectiveness of a particular intervention or treatment. It often involves a randomized controlled trial, in which participants are randomly assigned to a treatment group or control group to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.
    6. Evaluation: Evaluation research is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness or impact of a particular program or policy. It can involve collecting data through surveys, interviews, or other forms of data collection to determine the outcomes or impact of a particular program or policy.
    It is important to note that these categories of research are not mutually exclusive and often overlap. For example, a study may involve both description and explanation research, as the researcher seeks to describe a particular phenomenon while also explaining the underlying causes or factors that contribute to it.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    ANSWER
    Conducting social science research in developing countries can be a complex and challenging process due to a variety of factors. Some of the main problems that researchers may encounter include:

    1. Limited resources: Developing countries may have limited resources for research, including funding, equipment, and trained personnel. This can make it difficult to conduct research that meets the standards of academic rigor and quality.
    2. Cultural and language barriers: Researchers may encounter cultural and language barriers when conducting research in developing countries. These barriers can impact the ability to communicate with research participants, collect accurate data, and interpret findings.
    3. Political instability: Developing countries may experience political instability, which can impact the ability to conduct research. For example, researchers may face censorship, surveillance, or restrictions on their activities.
    4. Ethical considerations: Researchers must navigate ethical considerations when conducting research in developing countries. This can include ensuring informed consent, protecting participant privacy, and avoiding exploitation.
    5. Limited access to technology: Developing countries may have limited access to technology, such as the internet or electronic data storage, which can make it difficult to collect and analyze data.
    6. Limited access to research participants: Researchers may encounter challenges in accessing research participants in developing countries. For example, participants may be located in remote areas with limited transportation infrastructure, or they may have limited access to healthcare facilities where research is conducted.
    7. Different cultural norms and values: Researchers must be sensitive to different cultural norms and values when conducting research in developing countries. This can impact the way research questions are framed, the methods used to collect data, and the interpretation of findings.

  8. Avatar Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette says:

    Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette
    2019/245486
    Combined Social Science
    Economics/Political Science
    chikaodililovette@gmail.com

    1. Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Research gives the fundamental to about all administration strategies in our economic framework. Research gives the premise to almost all administration approaches in our economic framework. Research has its uncommon centrality in taking care of different operational and arranging issues of business and industry.
    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details
    The term “research” is often loosely defined and thus used in a similar way. This unfortunate development results from a misconception about what is research. To properly understand what is research, it is good to start with common misconceptions about research. Consider a typical high school research project. The teacher assigns a “research project” on some topic. The students went to the library, checked out several books, and might have copied several pertinent pages from the book. The typical student organized collected information and wrote up the “research report”. What these students did is information gathering and organization; it is nothing more or nothing less. No doubt the student went through some motions associated with research. But finding fact and fact transferal alone is not research. Transfer of information from one source, namely books and pertinent pages, to another source, namely the so-called research report, is nothing more than fact transferal, but not research. To my distress I find many college students repeat this same mistake by submitting a ‘research report’ which is nothing but fact transferal from one source to their report. A second misconception about research is that research is related to laboratory research (for example, in chemistry or biology in the natural sciences). When people hear term the “research”, they often conjure up this image. But research is not limited to certain fields of study; it is characterized by the methods used.
    What then, is research? It is a”studious inquiry or examination: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”.
    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    -Locating and Defining Issues or Problems: This step focuses on uncovering the nature and boundaries of a situation or question that needs to be answered or studied. In defining the issues or problems, the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, what information is needed, and how it will be used in decision-making. A well-defined problem will help the researcher through all steps of the research process, from setting goals to choosing a method.
    -Designing the Research Project: This step is focused on creating a research plan or overall approach to how you are going to solve the issue or problem identified. A research plan or approach is a framework or blueprint for conducting a research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision-making.
    -Collecting Data: This step revolved around obtaining the information needed to solve the identified issue or problem. Data collection can involve experiments, observations, personal interviewing , from an office by telephone or through the mail. The two groups of researchers must provide data.
    4.Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    – Knowledge: Do people know enough about the questions asked to give reliable and meaningful answers?
    – Conviction: Do people have convictions upon the subject sufficient to give stability to their answers?
    – Significance: Are the questions asked of any real significance for social science?
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss
    At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges. The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Exploratory Research: Used to reveal facts and details around a topic with little to no research, exploratory research forms the foundation of the research process. It identifies a topic, be it an issue or a phenomenon with scant details and seeks to find its basic properties. As such, it finds the correct variables the researcher needs in order to begin the study, understand its basic elements and form a hypothesis. The key issue at hand, its variables and its hypothesis are used for further research. Essentially, this kind of research forms the premise of a research campaign, assuring that the variables and other components are indeed what the researcher needs to study in the next steps.
    Descriptive Research: This type of research is premised on describing a phenomenon, behavior or problem discovered in an earlier stage of research, usually in exploratory research, although it can also be focused around that which was discovered in explanatory research. Descriptive research describes the nuances of a population, a variable or occurrence that a researcher requires further study on. Its objective centers on finding previously unknown facts or extracting more details on facets with fewer details.It focuses on the what, how, when and where of a study rather than on the why.
    Explanatory Research: Explanatory research is based on research that explains the already established aspects in a research campaign. It fills in the gaps and connects the dots from exploratory and descriptive research.This type of research is unique in that it can be conducted either prior to or after descriptive research. As such, it rests in the early to mid-stages of the overall research process. Like descriptive research, it works to shine a light on the various details that make up a research subject of study. However, contrary to descriptive research, it does not simply seek to describe, but rather to explain.Thus, this research category falls under qualitative research. It helps find the why of a problem or phenomenon.
    Correlational Research: Correlational research is a study into the relationship between two variables. Inspecting precisely two variables, this type of research seeks to discover and render the relationship between variables suspected of relating in some way.This research seeks to make sense out of the variables identified in earlier stages of research. Although correlational research is not sufficient to conclude on cause and effect relationships, it is necessary to conduct to find whether a relationship between variables exists to begin with.
    Causal Research: Causal research is founded on the undertaking of determining cause and effect relationships. As such, it involves conducting experiments and testing markets in a controlled setting. It is more scientific than any of the previous types of research.This kind of research uses the findings from correlational and explanatory research in an attempt to unearth causal relationships. Since correlation does not equal causation, causal research studies whether the variables with a negative or positive correlation have any effect on the other variable(s) in the study.
    Experimental Research: Experimental research vigorously follows a scientific research design. It is entirely scientific, more so than causal research, as it nearly, if not fully implements the scientific method towards finding a solution.The final stage of the research process, this kind of research uses all the information from the previous stages to conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis. It can also follow causal research; causal research itself is a kind of experimental research. Researchers can conduct further experiments on the variables they found causal relationships for, in that they can test how to reverse an unwanted correlation, or minimize it to some degree. Or, further experiments can show a business how to reap more benefits from a desired correlation.
    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    -Human resources:The overall problem is largely one of resources and their allocation, coupled with a much smaller base of educated people in developing countries than usually found in the developed countries. Increasing the educated population is a slow business which will take a couple of generations or more, in many cases. It is therefore necessary to make the best use of the scientific manpower that there is available in the short term.
    Nowadays with the improved facilities which exist in most countries, undergraduate training is best carried out in the country, rather than in a developed country, which can lead to problems of re-assimilation on return home.
    -Research priorities and funding:Scientists should realize that at least some of the responsibility for achieving general government support and specific funding rests on them. They cannot expect support just to come to them as of right. Members of government and higher civil servants are mostly non-scientists and it is necessary for scientists to go out and explain the significance of their work and what they hope to achieve, with the objective of building up a climate of support. This is true for scientists in developed countries, too, but it is especially important in developing countries.
    Having obtained support then the work should be pursued with the serious intention of showing results for the money received. The reason that the governments of many developing countries do not support scientific research more enthusiastically than they do, is because they regard research as a sack into which money is poured and nothing of apparent value comes out.
    -Research facilities:Scientific research is not cheap these days. At one time the most expensive item in a research programme was the salary of the research worker involved, nowadays the cost of equipment and its maintenance are ever increasing factors. Moreover, science is no longer neatly compartmented — every branch is interdependent with a number of other disciplines. Today, too, biological and agricultural research is more dependent on physical methods of analysis, isotope and radiation techniques, etc., and a modern research station requires a whole range of sophisticated equipment.
    Probably many developing countries might have made more progress in scientific research if they had concentrated their effort. Rich, developed countries can afford the luxury of many research institutes and centres, but the situation in developing countries is different.
    -Communication: Keeping in contact with the mainstream of ideas and developments is a major problem for scientists in most developing countries, if a high level of scientific attainment is aspired to. Particularly South of the Equator, there is both a geographical and communication problem relative to the well-established scientific centres of the Northern Hemisphere. Frequent contact for intellectual stimulation, as well as for keeping up-to-date is thus very important, and for this the short scientific visit or study tour has proved to be extremely valuable.
    Such tours provide the opportunity to attend international meetings, renew contacts, observe developments elsewhere, and to check the relevance and standard of one’s own work with some of the best work in other countries. Often this provides new information and new ideas for further research, and often for better organization and improved facilities.
    -Importation problems:In most developing countries the difficulties and cost of importing scientific equipment and spare parts is a principal limiting factor to scientific research but seldom recognized by governments. Obtaining permission for the necessary foreign exchange can be both difficult and time consuming. Almost all developing countries have balance of payment problems, especially since the great increase in the price of oil, and governments’ basic reasons for tight foreign exchange control are fully understood. They wish to reduce imports and to encourage local manufacture. The fact is that there are very few developing countries that can either technically or economically produce sophisticated scientific equipment in the foreseeable future.

  9. Avatar Metu Sandra chiamaka says:

    Metu Sandra chiamaka
    2017/249526
    sandratouch21@gmail.com
    Eco major

    1.Research involves the use of organized processes based on so many accumulated understandings and explanations that when taken together leads to generalizations about problems and the development of theories. It is a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic method of inquiry.
    2.Research and examinations are carried out carefully and are organized with layouts and terminologies other even expand or delve vast into past samples so as to acquire appropriate data sets, link or verify the relationships between past and present events, analysis and knowledge.
    3.-Pose a question: The sole reason for every reason is because questions were asked.
    -Collect data to answer the question: The process of facts findings, of data and information in a manner that the knowledge acquired provides solutions to the problem posed or asked.
    -Present an answer to the question: Here, presentation of facts and truths through various methods answer questions.
    4.-The process is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies: processes are carried out within a body of approaches; that is, the discipline at which the research is carried out.
    -The process uses procedures, methods and techniques that have being tested for their validity and reliability: Every method used in research processes have been tested and reliable to find answers to questions.
    -The process is designed to be unbiased and objective: processes must be carried without personal interests to provide accurate data.
    5.-to obtain academic progress
    – to contribute to the existing world of knowledge
    – to make sound decisions; it is very vital to our everyday decisions.
    – to unveil the truth
    – provides answers to unknown problems
    – to solve problems
    – provides for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims through deductive reasoning
    – to find out casual or underlying relationships
    6.-Explanation: It is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    -Predictions: Research is used to access situations and predicts what may happen in the future.
    -Monitoring: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    -Discovery or New improves situation: Research is used in finding out new situations and facts.
    -Hypothesis testing: Research helps theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate an hypothesis
    -Control: Control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus, helping us to shape our environment.
    7.- insufficient data or lack of data due to inadequate past records or data shortage
    – insufficient funds or lack of funds to finance research processes
    – bias results by the researcher to satisfy his/her own interests

  10. Avatar Uche Miracle Chiamaka says:

    Name: Uche Miracle Chiamaka
    2019/241948
    Economics
    Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.
    Research is a crucial tool for advancing knowledge, informing public policy, and improving the quality of life in various fields, including science, medicine, engineering, social sciences, and more. Research is a systematic process because it involves a structured and rigorous approach to inquiry. The research process typically involves several key steps, including formulating a research question or hypothesis, designing a study, collecting and analyzing data, and drawing conclusions based on the findings. These steps are iterative, meaning that they can be revised and refined throughout the research process based on the emerging findings. Research also involves the application of a family of methods that are employed to generate trustworthy information. These methods include both qualitative and quantitative approaches, and can vary depending on the research question, the nature of the problem, and the availability of resources.

    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and verify existing knowledge. It is an essential component of any discipline or field, as it provides the foundation for advancing knowledge and understanding. Research can take various forms, including exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, and evaluative research. Exploratory research is used to gain a preliminary understanding of a topic, while descriptive research is used to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon. Explanatory research is used to determine the causal relationships between variables, while evaluative research is used to determine the effectiveness of interventions or programs.

    Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    Creswell’s research process consists of three steps: exploration, data collection, and data analysis. In the exploration step, researchers identify a topic or issue of interest and conduct a preliminary review of the literature to gain an understanding of the topic. In the data collection step, researchers collect data using various methods, such as surveys, interviews, or observations. In the data analysis step, researchers analyze the data collected to draw conclusions and make recommendations. For example, a researcher interested in examining the impact of social media on mental health might conduct an exploratory study by reviewing the literature on the topic. They might then collect data through a survey of social media use and mental health symptoms and analyze the data to determine whether there is a relationship between the two variables.

    Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    The three criteria that enable a given process to be called research are systematic inquiry, public nature, and rigor. Systematic inquiry involves a structured and methodical approach to inquiry that is designed to generate new knowledge or insights. Public nature means that research findings should be made publicly available and subject to scrutiny and evaluation by others. Rigor refers to the use of appropriate methods and techniques to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings. For example, a study that investigates the relationship between exercise and weight loss would need to adhere to these criteria to be considered research. The study would need to have a structured approach to inquiry, such as a randomized controlled trial, with findings made publicly available and subject to scrutiny by others. The study would also need to use appropriate methods and techniques to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings, such as measuring weight loss accurately and controlling for confounding variables.

    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss.

  11. Avatar EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM 2019/245390 says:

    EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM
    2019/245390
    ECONOMICS MAJOR
    SOLUTIONS TO ECO 391
    Answer to question one
    It is no doubt that research has different definitions in different fields, and the understanding differs according to the different fields and their applications. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Research can also be seen as the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Now considering the following “Research is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems”. Looking at the following key points:Systematic applicationFamily of methodsTrustworthy informationSystematic application: Systematic application can be seen as a means of management aimed at reducing the number and severity of mistakes, errors and failures due to either human or technological functions involved. In application to research, it involves a systematic method used in carrying out research in order to get if not appropriate result, at least a close percentage of the true result. It does not make use of intuition, prophecy or any other means, but uses a particular method known as the scientific method. The word science according to professor Mrs. Madueme Stella is “a systematic and organized body of knowledge in any area of inquiry that is acquired using “the scientific method”. Other research such as intuition, prophecy and other are non scientific and cannot be clearly studied, understand or proven, thus, it give room for argument.Family of methods: Have seen that a quality and reliable research has to do with a scientific method, these scientific methods are made up of different stages or aspects that at the end of the result, it can be proven, referred and even re conducted to prove the result. The following are the scientific methods used in studying at phenomenon before getting the result. They are:Logical: Scientific inferences must be based on logical principles of reasoning. Confirmable: Inferences derived must match with observed evidence. Repeatable: Other scientists should be able to independently replicate or repeat a scientific study and obtain similar, if not identical, results.Scrutinizable: The procedures used and the inferences derived must withstand critical scrutiny (peer review) by other scientists. Still the more, due to the context of research, there is a quantitative AMD qualitative method employed. When we say it is made up of a family of methods, it means that it make use of different methods that makes the result authentic.Trustworthy information: When we say an information is trustworthy, we mean it is a reliable piece of information that is current, free from biases, accurate, and also from a reputable authority (author or organization). When research is said to be a trustworthy research, it means the research has undergone the different levels of scientific methods which makes it trustworthy in solving problems. This means that, the result from the research can be logically analized, can be confirmed for clearance of doubt, can re conducted repeatedly for confirmation and can also be critically scrutinized. With this, it can be trusted that results from research can be made clear for people to understand unlike the use of intuition, sooth saying, etc that has no prove.Answer to question twoFor a research to be reliable, there must be a careful inquiry and examination of samples, context and other things. For more understanding, let’s analyze the query part by part. The key points are as follows:Careful inquiry or examinationDiscovery of new information or relationshipsExpansion and verification of existing knowledgeCareful inquiry or examination: The word “careful” means close attention and the word “inquiry” means search for truth, information, or knowledge; examination of facts or principles. Then, the word “Examination” means to observe or inspect carefully or critically. With the use of scientific methods, the can able to carefully inquire or search for truth in the population. If a researcher wants to know the number of farmers in Ogoja local government, the researcher must sit down to plan his queries, how to contact farmers in Ogoja,etc. The researcher will meet both farmers and non farmers for effective information, after the inquiries, the researcher takes a critical analysis or examination of his research to ensure proper and referable information.Discovery of new information or relationships: When there is an argument or when there is need to carry out a new research over a particular one, most likely, there seem to be a new discovery or change from the previous research carried out. With the presence of a new carefully made research, it brings to mind the knowledge hidden before and also gives a clearer understanding of the new one. With the discovery of a new information, it makes null the old ones and brings to play the new one. Take for an instance, a researcher carried out a research and found out that, farmers get more yield from crops without applying fertilizer, and that has been the belief of farmers, as time goes on, a researcher argues this result and went on to re conduct his on research and found that the application of fertilizer to crops makes a high yeild and this becomes the new result from the old one. With this result, it brings to the minds of farmers that applying fertilizer to their crops gives a high yeild and makes the farmer understand that fertilizer is also important.Expansion and verification of existing knowledge: When we say research, the word is the combination of two words, “re” and “search”. Re means over and over again and search means an attempt to find something. This shows that research over a topic or an issue cannot just be done once, the continues attempt to find something (survey) leads to expansion and verification of existing knowledge. What do I mean by this? For instance, if a research shows that, cultivating supi ( a specie of rice) and harvesting twice a year is the best, this research shows that this is the fastest growing specie of rise for the moment. Now if another research is carried out and the result shows that another specie of rice known as iron rice can be cultivated and harvested in three months. With these researches made, we can deduce an expansion and verification of research. This shows also the benefit of research. With the help of research our world today has changed from the use of lamp to the use of electricity and not only light but so many other changes. Also, research brings development in different areas of studies.Answer to question threeCreswell methods of research consist of: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question Pose a question: The creation of questions by the researcher gives the bedrock of his research. If the researcher has no questions directed to towards his area of research, then he or she is not carrying out a research. For example, if a researcher is to research on the causes of infertility in women in Nsukka local government, he will direct his questions to those things that cause infertility in Nsukka local government, and not to reasons for poverty in Nsukka. Thus, he may ask questions like: What is the origin of fertility in Nsukka? How long has it lasted? Etc. To pose a question on what someone is to research on is as vital as using pen on a sheet of paper. There are many ways a researcher can pose questions on the masses, he may decide to print out questioners for people to fill so as to allow the express their views in writing, also, there can be face to face dialogue or interview to allow people explain in details their views over the research, this method is also good. In anywhere the researcher would use to pose a question, what matters is that questions directed to area of research is necessary.Collect data to answer the questions: In statistics, there is what is known as population and sample. Population is the total number of objects from which a sample is taken for survey, while sample is the number of objects taken from the population for survey. For a researcher to get answers to his questions, he must first locate the area of his survey and get some data ( number of persons) from the population to answer his questions. For example, if the researcher on infertility in women in Nsukka local government wants to get answers to his research, he must first go to Nsukka and ask some proportion of peoples in Nsukka the questions set by him on the topic of his research. It is possible that he cannot meet every member of Nsukka local government for answers. The number of persons he meet maybe 60% would be able to give him satisfying answers to the topic which would stand out for the whole population. With this step taken, he would be able to get answers to his queries.Present an answer to the question: The next thing a researcher does is to assemble all the different answers to his questions and analyze them, take out the best from the answers and formulate his result. How he does this is by comparing answers if like lines and of related views together, analyze them and come out with a result. This result may not be hundred percent correct, but may be close to the expected answer, that is why researchers carry out research over and over against a particular topic. So, in order for the researcher to get answers to questions, he assembles and analyzes the answers and come out with a result.Answer to question four For a given process to be called a research, the following must be adhered to, viz:KnowledgeConvictionSignificanceKnowledge: knowledge can be seen as facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education it is also the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. For a given research to be successful and meaningful, there must be a knowledge and understanding of the topic or what the researcher needs to carry out research on. Imagine a researcher who is to research on the importance and efficacy of the holy mass ( the Eucharistic celebration) celebrated by the Catholic church, if such a researcher is not a Catholic but rather a Muslim, the research would be had for him because he has no basic knowledge of the Catholic church and the worst is that he is not a Christian. For him to be able to carry out this research very well, he has to seek for basic and wide knowledge of the Catholic church. In doing this he gains information, skills and experience in order to carry out his research well.Conviction: Conviction can be seen as a strong opinion or belief. It can also be seen as a firmly held belief. Gaining knowledge of something shows that you believe that such thing exist. For a researcher to have looked for facts, information and skillful experience and education towards what he is researching on, then, there is the likeliness that the researcher is convinced that all he has studied, inquired and learnt are true. Conviction has do with the full assurance and hope of the researcher over the information gathered. When a researcher gathers facts and information, he do not believe all the information at once and as such, he verifies the the information and do away with the fake ones. Thus, with full conviction, he affirms what he has taken. This shows the conviction of the researcher.Significance: This means the extent to which something matters, it can also be seen as the importance of something, especially when it has to do with something of the future. The importance of a research matters a lot and it varies according to how useful the research is. Some research may be as a result of confirmation, some may be as research to replace old ones, etc. Also, significance of a research varies in different fields. For instance, in economics, the research on the total number of men and women in the nation who are productive is very important to economists than a research in religion on the number of religion in a nation. Like in economics, the total number of men and women that determines the work force of the nation is important because if there is less workforce in the nation, the nation will suffer so many loss. As such, the researcher would take it very serious in order to determine the number of workforce in the country, this would show the weakness of the nation and with this proffer solutions to it. The significance of a research spells out the goals and the benefits to be received in the research.PRACTICAL EXAMPLEMusa is to carryout a research on the topic ” The importance of mass and the significance of the items used to say mass”. First, for Musa who is a Muslim to get a good knowledge of the topic, he makes plan on how and where to get it. This may be paying a visit to a priest and also living with the priest for some length of days in order to acquire, observe and also know the facts on this topic, by doing this he will gain a full knowledge and understanding of what mass is all about and also the importance of mass. He.would learn about the Holy Eucharist which is the center of the Catholic faith and also things used for the celebration of Mass, etc. With this experience, observation, and information gotten, at this point, he is fully convinced about the mass and things used. Now, for the significance, Musa would through the knowledge gotten know that the holy Mass is important for all Catholics because they derive a lot of graces from it. He may also be able to explain to his fellow Muslims the reason and importance of the holy mass. This is not a good example but tells about what the three criteria for a good research looks like. From the knowledge of the importance of the Holy mass for Catholicsthrough observation, learning and experience he was convinced about the data and knowledge gotten and hence, he knew the significance of the Holy Mass for Catholics, with all these, he will be able to give a good result from the research he carried out.Answer to question fiveThere are many complicated issues in the research in different fields and disciplines in scientific research, this is due to the nature of the research to be carried out and some other factors. For instance, in social sciences like economics and sociology, it studies the nature of human behavior in relation to ends and scarce means which have alternative uses, sociology studies the behavior of human being and the society, ie human behavior in a group con text. Like other animals, human being is unpredictable, an analysis can be said of a human being in a moment to be extremely grieved while the next second, if that test is re conducted, there may be a different result or a little change from the former results gotten from the later. Thus, this is a complicated issue in one of the fields of science ( social science). Looking at another field in science like the natural science such as physics and chemistry which studies properties of matters and other bodies. These properties are not like humans that are not predictable, but still there are other matters that are complicating here other than prediction.Differences in the purpose of the research in different fields of studies in science is also another thing to look up to. In the social sciences, for instance like in economics, most of the researches carried out has to do with problems of human wants, consumption, scarcity, etc and a means of solving them. Researches here can be based on demand and supply of goods, price level in the economy, supply of money in the economy, etc. Another department of science in the social sciences like sociology looks at the science of building the society and it studies behavior that proffer unity and growth in the society. With the natural and social sciences, one can be able to depict the differences in scientific research and how the purpose of the research conducted in the subfields of science varies.Generally, some of the complicated issues in conducting scientific research are as follows:Financial crunch in academia.Poor study design in published papers.Lack of replication studies.Problems with peer review.Problem related to research accessibility.Lack of adequate and accurate science communication.Stressful nature of academic life.With the above mentioned problems, scientific research becomes complicated.Answer to question sixThe purposes of research can be generally categorized into the following:forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.Forming Thesis: Thesis is a statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved. In order to form a thesis, making use of the information gotten from preliminary research is necessary because with the idea gotten from the preliminary research on your topic, it will help you to understand the topic and have a clear idea of what the topic is all about. A thesis statement summarizes what your research paper would look like, usually, it is the first statement made in your paper which shows your introduction to the topic. With the thesis statement, you will be able to give answer to how you will start you research and this at time makes it easier for other researcher to know if your material can service as a solution to their research. A good thesis statement includes all the relevant points and information in the work in a summarized form. Sometimes, a thesis statement can come in form of a question and the answer to it shows how your research will go. There are four steps to write a thesis, there are:Ask a question about your topic.Write your initial answer.Develop your answer by including reasons.Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.Collecting Data: The collection of data for research can take different ways. Data collection can be seen as a process of methodological gathering of information on a particular subject. Data collection can be gotten from a primary and a secondary source. Data collection is a vital aspect of research which without there will be no research done. The collection of data can be done in different ways according to how the researcher has designed his research. There are so many methods of collecting data such as:Data from literature sources: TThese are already prepared data found in textbooks, journal, etc which can be sorted for use. This is a secondary method of data collection.Survey: This is another method of a of data collection which makes use of questionaire. This can be in a web-base form or a printed one. This will allow people to express their views in a written way to the researcher.Interview: This can be qualitative method of data collection whose results are based on intensive engagement with respondents about a particular study. Usually, interviews are used in order to collect in-depth responses from the professionals being interviewed.Interview can be structured (formal), semi-structured or unstructured (informal). In essence, an interview method of data collection can be conducted through face-to-face meeting with the interviewee or through telephone or using the mass media.Observation: This is another method of research, this has to do with observing a phenomenon or what you are researching on. Some of the observation is usually with natural things which can be controlled.Other methods of research are documents and records, and also experiments.Analyzing results: The process of data analysis or result analysis begins from your gathering of data and your preliminary understanding of your topic of research. This has to do with the different methods of data collection after which the data would be studied in order to know the ones that are not in relationship with others and to know those ones that are in line with others. Analyzing data gives more understanding and interpretation to the result gotten. forming conclusions: This is the summary of the result gotten after analysis. Here after studying and understanding the phenomenon the researcher can be able to tell clearly the true results of his research. Here a researcher can for instance say that, haven studied the whether condition of Nsukka, in November there is no rain or there would always be no rain fall in November due to the conditions found under the analysis level made. With this, a researcher states clearly in a summarized form the result from the research. Also, this where a theory can be made, like the law of motion, the law of thermodynamics and others.implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions: This has to do with the application of the result you have gotten in real life situations. Example, when you theorize that in the month of November there will usually be no rain fall in Nsukka, if eventually there happen to be rainfall in that month, then there will be a problem in your research and this will give room for questions and also for a new research to be carried out.Answer to question sevenThe problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are complex. In the other pages above, we talked about social science research to be not easily predictable due to most of its research on humans who are quick to change unlike natural science research that has to do with laboratory. When a problem is multifaceted and multidimensional, what does it mean? The word multifaceted means having many different aspects or features while the word multidimensional means having so many dimensions, both words are synonymous. The problem in social science research are multidimensional thus leading from one problem to the other. Some of those problems are as follows:lack of planning: Lack of planning is one of the beaches of the multifaceted problems in carrying out research in a developing country. One of the main reasons for this is that the developing countries are not exposed to the modern ways of easy planning, thus the lack of organization and orderliness in the country can alter the social science researchers plans, also, on the part of the researchers, they being in a confined zone where there is no experience of a developed country, they also would wallow in the ocean of ignorance. lack of moral and financial incentives: This is also an iota of the trees of social science research problems in developing countries. In a developing country like Nigeria where there is no plan, there is degradation in morals and this leads to financial problem. Talking about the good morals, the government itself is corrupt because of bad leaders, if the citizens of the country lack good morals, it will also pose a problem in social science research since it has to do with people. In most developed countries, most citizens are given incentives which enables them forge ahead with their career and this allows them to learn more and develop. In a developing country, the reverse is the case because of instability in the government and ignorance, with all these, there is problem in research because researchers would be discouraged since there is no enlightenment in both morals and financial perspectives. shortage of time available for research: In a developing country, researchers face the problem of time in carryout research. A research that has to do with social science demands a lot of time and commitment, but due to the un steadiness of the developing countries and the lack of incentives and also the ignorance of the importance of social science research, there is always a problem in such aspect.underdeveloped health informatics structure: In a developing country, one of the multifaceted problems is lack of healthy information, When there is lack of healthy information in a country, researchers fail to find easily the solutions to their problems. An instance can be the case in Nigeria there is constantly false news and untrustworthy information in circulation. When there is poor information structure, researchers would find it hard to get a valid information to use in their research, it would seem to them that their research is untrustworthy, thus, crippling the agitated legs of the researchers.lack of available funding: One is a major issue in most developing countries. When there is no fund provided for researchers to be able to carryout their research, the researchers are discouraged from carryout their research. This can be seen in our country Nigeria where our leaders embezzle money for themselves rather than making good plans and assisting the researchers to do their research.We see that these problems connect from one source to the other, there can only be solutions to this if the researchers and the government make good plans and also learn good morals by copying and learning from developed countries. Also, the government should provide incentives for researchers to enable them learn and equip themselves more. Furthermore, good and healthy information structure should be set up in order for researchers to get quick information that would help them in their research.

  12. Avatar Ihediohamma Gloria Chiamaka 2019/246443 says:

    Ihediohamma Gloria Chiamaka 2019/246443
    1. In order to provide reliable knowledge that may guide decision-making or offer insights into a particular field of study or human effort, research is a crucial process that entails the methodical exploration of a certain topic, problem, or phenomena. The research subject, the discipline, and the resources at hand all influence the research methodology. To provide accurate and valid information that may be utilized to inform practice, policy, or theory is the common purpose shared by all research methodologies.

    Research is employed in a wide range of academic and professional sectors, including business, engineering, education, and the social, natural, and health sciences. When studying human behavior, attitudes, and societal structures in the social sciences, research is frequently utilized, although in the natural sciences, research is frequently used to investigate physical and chemical phenomena.
    The techniques used in research are created to guarantee that the data generated is reliable. These techniques frequently entail gathering and analyzing data, which might be qualitative, quantitative, or a combination of the two. While quantitative research methods are used to collect, organize, and evaluate numerical data, qualitative research methods are used to investigate people’s subjective experiences. To comprehend a phenomena more thoroughly, mixed-methods research combines both qualitative and quantitative techniques.

    Research entails not only gathering and analyzing data, but also analyzing the literature that has already been published in the area. To lay a theoretical groundwork for the research and pinpoint knowledge gaps, this entails analyzing prior studies, ideas, and concepts associated with the research subject.

    2. The goal of research is to expand and validate current knowledge while also seeking out new information or correlations. It is a crucial process that helps us to comprehend the world around us more fully, deal with challenging issues, and arrive at wise conclusions.

    Finding a research issue or problem is usually the first step in the research process. This query or issue is often guided by a critical assessment of the body of knowledge in the domain, which aids in identifying knowledge gaps and areas that need more research.

    Researchers often create a hypothesis, which is a tentative explanation for the phenomenon being studied, after identifying a research topic. The theory is then put to the test through a number of meticulously planned experiments or investigations, with the goal of gathering data that can either confirm or disprove the hypothesis.

    Typically, the research process comprises numerous important phases, such as:

    A literature review comprises a critical assessment of the body of work already published in the domain to spot knowledge gaps and potential research opportunities.

    Create a preliminary explanation for the phenomenon being studied as a hypothesis. It generally draws on the body of literature already in existence and seeks to offer a verifiable justification for the research topic.

    Designing the study: Carefully planning the research or experiment is necessary to guarantee that the information gathered is credible and valid.

    Data collection entails gathering information using a variety of research techniques, including surveys, interviews, and experiments.

    Data analysis: Following collection, data is often examined using statistical or other quantitative techniques to spot trends, patterns, or linkages.

    Making inferences: Researchers might make inferences about the research topic or problem based on the study of the data. These findings could confirm or deny the concept.

    Results communication: Lastly, researchers frequently report their findings in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, or through other channels.

    In conclusion, research is an in-depth investigation or analysis that seeks to enlarge and validate already held knowledge as well as uncover new facts or correlations. A literature review, developing a hypothesis, planning the study, gathering and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and disseminating findings are some of the essential processes that normally make up the research process. The ultimate objective of research is to advance the area and to provide new information that may be used to inform theory, practice, or policy.

    3.Creswell’s three steps of research are:

    a. Formulating a research question or hypothesis
    b. Collecting and analyzing data
    c. Interpreting and reporting the findings
    Let’s discuss each of these steps in more detail and provide practical examples:

    a. Formulating a research question or hypothesis:Finding an issue or a question that needs to be looked into is the first step. A research question or hypothesis ought to be precise, pertinent, and easy to understand. One such study topic is, “What effect does social media have on teenagers’ mental health?” similarly an assertion would be, “Higher levels of anxiety and depression among teenagers are linked to increased use of social media.”

    b. Collecting and analyzing data:The next stage after formulating the study topic or hypothesis is to gather and evaluate data. This include establishing a study design, picking a sample group, and using techniques like surveys, interviews, or experiments to gather data. Utilizing statistical methodologies and other approaches, data analysis entails organizing and evaluating the data. For instance, information could be gathered through a survey and the results could be analyzed using statistical techniques like correlation analysis to ascertain the relationship between social media use and levels of anxiety or depression in the study on the effect of social media on mental health among teenagers.

    c. Interpreting and reporting the findings:The final phase entails analyzing the data and summarizing the results. Drawing conclusions from the data analysis and explaining the ramifications of the results are included in this. The results should be presented using tables, graphs, or other visual aids in a clear and succinct way. The results of a study on the effects of social media on teen mental health, for instance, could be presented in a research report or journal article, highlighting the link between social media use and mental health outcomes and discussing the potential implications of these findings for future research or governmental policy.

    4.A procedure has to meet three requirements in order to be classified as research:

    a. Systematic approach: To guarantee that all pertinent facets of the issue are addressed, research must be undertaken in a systematic and orderly manner. This include recognizing and characterizing the issue, formulating a research question or hypothesis, deciding on an appropriate research strategy, gathering and processing data, and finally, interpreting and summarizing the results.
    Example: A researcher wishes to look at the elements that affect employee churn in a workplace. They adopt a methodical approach by first researching the literature to pinpoint important aspects, establishing a study question and hypothesis, choosing a survey design, then deploying the survey to gather information from workers. After that, they analyse the data and make inferences about the components using statistical analysis.

    b. Empirical evidence: Studies must be supported by empirical evidence, which calls for the collection of facts by direct observation or measurement as opposed to relying exclusively on subjective judgments or anecdotal evidence. The use of empirical evidence guarantees the objectivity and reproducibility of research.
    Example: A researcher wants to find out how well a new teaching strategy affects students’ performance in a certain topic. They compare the test results of the two groups of students after randomly choosing two groups of students, one of whom will be taught using the new approach and the other using the conventional way.

    c. Reproducibility is the capacity for others to duplicate a research using the same procedures and information in order to validate the results and guarantee their validity.
    Example: A study on the effects of exercise on depression in a particular demographic is carried out by a researcher. They include the type and frequency of exercise, the duration of the trial, and the measures used to diagnose depression in detail in order to assure repeatability. This information can be used by another researcher to duplicate the study and confirm the results.

    Overall, commitment to these three standards aids in ensuring that research is carried out in a thorough, impartial, and trustworthy manner and can increase knowledge in a particular sector.

    5. The goal of research can range significantly amongst scientific disciplines and domains, and it might even vary within a single field, depending on the particular subject being addressed. However, a few typical objectives of study include:

    To increase knowledge: The main goal of a lot of researchers’ research is to increase knowledge in their particular sector. This might entail learning new facts, creating fresh hypotheses, or putting theories to the test.

    In many disciplines, research is carried out with the intention of resolving practical issues or enhancing actual results. For instance, engineers may undertake research to design more effective structures or transportation systems, while medical professionals may conduct study to create novel therapies for illnesses.
    To create new tools or technologies that may be utilized to address issues or expand knowledge, researchers may carry out their studies with this objective in mind. For instance, computer scientists may do research to create new software programs or algorithms, while materials scientists might do the same to create new materials with certain features.

    Research is carried out in various domains with the intention of guiding policy choices. For instance, social scientists may carry out research to learn more about the causes of inequality, poverty, and crime in order to create policies that might solve these problems.
    To aid education: Researchers may also carry out studies to aid instruction and training in their area of study. This might entail creating new curriculum, assessing the success of educational initiatives, or determining the top methods for instructing and learning.

    Overall, research has many different purposes, each of which can be determined by the individual goals and objectives of the researcher or research team. Regardless of the study’s intended use, it is crucial that it be carried out methodically, ethically, and with a specific and well-defined research topic or hypothesis.

    6.Yes, I can go through the six broad kinds of research goals that apply to all disciplines:

    a. Exploration: This style of study tries to look into and obtain basic data on a subject that has not been thoroughly examined before. Finding novel thoughts, ideas, or patterns will help researchers create hypotheses or research questions for more study. Exploration study can be qualitative or quantitative in nature and use techniques including surveys, observations, interviews, and literature reviews.

    b. Description :This kind of study seeks to offer a precise and thorough account of a phenomena, population, or process. The purpose is to systematically and impartially record the traits, traits, and behaviors of the topic of interest. Research on descriptions may be qualitative or quantitative in nature, and it may include techniques like content analysis, case studies, or statistical data analysis.

    c. Explanation : The goal of this form of study is to determine the causal links between various variables, events, or processes. The aim is to test ideas or hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms and to explain why and how a phenomena happens. Explanation research frequently uses quantitative approaches, including experiments, surveys, and statistical modeling.

    d.Prediction : Using historical data or present patterns, this sort of study attempts to predict the results or tendencies of a phenomena in the future. Insights and recommendations are intended to aid in planning and making decisions in a variety of fields, including marketing, finance, and economics. The majority of prediction research is quantitative in nature, and techniques like regression analysis, time series analysis, and machine learning algorithms may be used.

    e. Intervention : Research on interventions tries to evaluate the efficacy of interventions or therapies on a specific population or condition. The objective is to assess the intervention’s effect on the desired goals and identify the best methods for enhancing social welfare, education, or health. Intervention studies may be qualitative or quantitative in nature and use techniques like focus groups, randomized controlled trials, and quasi-experiments.

    f. Evaluation: This kind of research tries to assess a system, policy, or program’s effectiveness, effectiveness, or impact. In addition to ensuring accountability and openness in the decision-making process, the objective is to offer feedback and suggestions for enhancing the program or policy. Research on evaluation may be qualitative or quantitative in style and entail methods such as surveys, interviews, or performance metrics.

    7. Due to the complicated and dynamic character of these cultures, doing social science research in developing nations presents a number of difficulties. These difficulties may be divided into a number of categories, including those based on economic, cultural, political, and ethical considerations.

    The lack of money for research is one of the main economic issues, which might make it difficult to gather and analyze data. Since funding is sometimes scarce in developing nations, it can be challenging for researchers to obtain the tools and technologies they need. The development of research initiatives may also be hampered by the restricted options for collaboration with other scholars or organizations.

    For social science research in poor nations, cultural considerations might provide additional difficulties. Language difficulties, diverse customs and beliefs, and other cultural variables must all be taken into consideration by researchers. It is sometimes challenging to acquire access to study subjects or to build relationships with them due to mistrust or skepticism of foreign researchers.

    Conducting research in poor nations might also provide political difficulties. Researchers’ capacity to carry out their job may be impacted by political instability, corruption, and governmental censorship. Researchers could have to wade through bureaucratic hoops, apply for licenses, or even deal with threats to their safety. It may be challenging to do research in a timely and effective manner due to these obstacles.

    Finally, while doing research in impoverished nations, ethical issues must be taken into mind. Researchers must make sure that their work doesn’t negatively impact participants or communities since some cultural or religious beliefs may be in contradiction with conventional research procedures or ethical standards. Furthermore, when collecting and analyzing data, researchers must protect confidentiality and acquire participants’ informed consent.

    In conclusion, there are numerous and varied difficulties involved in doing social science research in developing nations. When preparing and carrying out their research initiatives, researchers must take economic, cultural, political, and ethical considerations into account. Despite these difficulties, social science research in developing nations is essential for understanding these cultures better and enhancing the welfare of their citizens.

  13. Avatar zignaly says:

    Reading your article helped me a lot and I agree with you. But I still have some doubts, can you clarify for me? I’ll keep an eye out for your answers.

  14. Avatar Amaechi Emmanuella Athanasius says:

    1. Generally research have to do with organised and systematic method of finding answers to questions. It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not.Research is conducted systematically and to add to the available body of knowledge in any field.Research is also an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions. It is systemactic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow.
    2. Research is a careful examination and inquiry to discover new information and verify existing knowledge.It is systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
    3. quantitative approach: Creswell in 2014 describes that quantitative approach construes analysis of an idea by establishing narrow assumptions and use data gathering to support or controvert the assumptions. The data are obtained from measuring attitudes, and are analyzed using statistical procedures and assumptions testing; whereas qualitative approach is establishing the significance of a certain phenomenon from the participants’ point of view, and analyzing it over time. The data collection is obtained through observing participants behavior during their engagement in quantitative approach uses data analysis that relies on statistical procedures.
    Qualitative approach: Qualitative research consist of research strategy such as ethnography, grounded theory, narrative, phenomenological, and case study. Moreover, Creswell In 2014, explains that Ethnography is the deep study of a cultural or social group in a natural setting sustainably; Grounded theory is a theory that is generated from data collection derived from communication grounded in the participants’ point of view in a study; Narrative research observe on individuals’ anecdotes whether formed in written or spoken, and the obtained information will be transformed into narrative chronology; Phenomenology is description of individuals’ experiences about a certain activity; Case study construes a research that comprises a the profound analysis about a particular situation, occurrence, agenda, activity procedure or more.
    Mixed method approach:Mixed method approach is made up of the inspection and gathering of both qualitative and quantitative data that can include logical assumption and theoretical bases (Creswell, 2014). Thus, according to the phubbing phenomenon that is being researched which is aimed to investigate social issues, thus, qualitative research design entailed in this research.

    4. Respect for person: this are two ethical convictions: first, that individuals should be treated as autonomous agents, and second, that persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection.
    Beneficience: people are treated in an ethical manner not only by respecting their decisions and protecting them from harm, but also by making efforts to secure their well-being. The term “beneficence” is often understood to cover acts of kindness or charity that go beyond strict obligation. In this document, beneficence is understood in a stronger sense, as an obligation. Two general rules have been formulated as complementary expressions of beneficent actions in this sense: (1) do not harm and (2) maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms.

    5. Research discovers and seize opportunity-People can maximize their potential and achieve their goals through various opportunities provided by research. These include getting jobs, scholarships, educational subsidies, projects, commercial collaboration, and budgeted travel.
    Research Helps in Business Success :Like any other technical work, a business demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proof and market research.
    Research Builds Credibility:Research provides a solid basis for formulating thoughts and views. You can speak confidently about something you know to be true. It’s much more difficult for someone to find flaws in your arguments after you’ve finished your tasks.
    Acquire Knowledge Efficiently through Research:The most apparent reason to conduct research is to understand more. Even if you think you know everything there is to know about a subject, there is always more to learn.
    6. The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Lack of communication with the supervisor can make research bad.It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible. Lastly Not having a definite deadline. Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars

  15. Avatar Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka reg no: 2019/246458 economics says:

    1. Research is a scientific approach to answering a research question, solving a research problem, or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of data to make research findings useful in decision-making, the systematic application of a family of methods that are employed to provide trustworthy information about problems are meant to answer questions about our observations and experiences in the world. It is a structured approach to gathering and interpreting information that will allow us to understand.

    2. Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalize knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific.
    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using
    scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a
    systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It
    involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    3.● Pose a question
    ● Collection of data
    ● Present the report writing.
    Pose a question
    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of
    study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I
    can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors
    surrounding this central phenomenon.
    Collection of data
    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that
    needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and
    documentation, focus groups and so many others.
    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be
    seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.
    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged
    Men in Nigeria
    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.
    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria.

    4. ● It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    ● Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    ● It is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in
    Nigeria.
    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set of
    philosophers.
    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested
    to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.
    It should be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’.
    Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.
    An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure maths is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied maths, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity.
    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.

    6.● Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is
    concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    ● Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the
    future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    ● Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    ● Discovery: finding a new situation
    ● Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical
    analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    ● Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and
    situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship
    between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. Social Science Research is not offered as an undergraduate major or supporting subject. Students who commenced a Social Science Research major in 2011 or prior should contact the School of Social Sciences for advice.

    Social Science Research papers consider the principles of effective design of social science research projects with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. They contribute to a number of specialist subject areas within the School of Social Sciences.

    A competent social researcher has a critical appreciation of contemporary society and social issues based on a sound foundation of social theory and research methodology. Researchers need a critical understanding of a range of social research methods and styles. Social research design encompasses not only theoretical and methodological but also ethical considerations relating to respect for the rights and welfare of all parties involved in the research.

    7.Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research
    department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research
    institutions, on the other.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority
    of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and
    inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This
    discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the
    contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer
    adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations
    responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems
    concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of
    resources.
    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a
    researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a
    researcher can take help.

  16. Avatar Ijara Peter Elochukwu says:

    Ijara Peter Elochukwu
    2017/249513
    petochris86@yahoo.com
    Eco 391

    1.Research involves the use of organized processes based on so many accumulated understandings and explanations that when taken together leads to generalizations about problems and the development of theories. It is a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic method of inquiry.
    2.Research and examinations are carried out carefully and are organized with layouts and terminologies other even expand or delve vast into past samples so as to acquire appropriate data sets, link or verify the relationships between past and present events, analysis and knowledge.
    3.-Pose a question: The sole reason for every reason is because questions were asked.
    -Collect data to answer the question: The process of facts findings, of data and information in a manner that the knowledge acquired provides solutions to the problem posed or asked.
    -Present an answer to the question: Here, presentation of facts and truths through various methods answer questions.
    4.-The process is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies: processes are carried out within a body of approaches; that is, the discipline at which the research is carried out.
    -The process uses procedures, methods and techniques that have being tested for their validity and reliability: Every method used in research processes have been tested and reliable to find answers to questions.
    -The process is designed to be unbiased and objective: processes must be carried without personal interests to provide accurate data.
    5.-to obtain academic progress
    – to contribute to the existing world of knowledge
    – to make sound decisions; it is very vital to our everyday decisions.
    – to unveil the truth
    – provides answers to unknown problems
    – to solve problems
    – provides for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims through deductive reasoning
    – to find out casual or underlying relationships
    6.-Explanation: It is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    -Predictions: Research is used to access situations and predicts what may happen in the future.
    -Monitoring: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    -Discovery or New improves situation: Research is used in finding out new situations and facts.
    -Hypothesis testing: Research helps theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate an hypothesis
    -Control: Control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus, helping us to shape our environment.
    7.- insufficient data or lack of data due to inadequate past records or data shortage
    – insufficient funds or lack of funds to finance research processes
    – bias results by the researcher to satisfy his/her own interests

  17. Avatar NGANA THADDEUS IFEANYI REG, NO: 2019/246750 ECONOMICS says:

    Answer:
    1. Research is a scientific approach to answering a research question, solving a research problem, or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of data to make research findings useful in decision-making, the systematic application of a family of methods that are employed to provide trustworthy information about problems are meant to answer questions about our observations and experiences in the world. It is a structured approach to gathering and interpreting information that will allow us to understand.

    2. Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalize knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific.
    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using
    scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a
    systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It
    involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    3.● Pose a question
    ● Collection of data
    ● Present the report writing.
    Pose a question
    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of
    study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I
    can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors
    surrounding this central phenomenon.
    Collection of data
    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that
    needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and
    documentation, focus groups and so many others.
    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be
    seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.
    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged
    Men in Nigeria
    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.
    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria.

    4. ● It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    ● Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    ● It is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in
    Nigeria.
    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set of
    philosophers.
    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested
    to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.
    It should be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’.
    Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.
    An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure maths is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied maths, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity.
    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.
    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.

    6.● Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is
    concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    ● Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the
    future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    ● Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    ● Discovery: finding a new situation
    ● Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical
    analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    ● Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and
    situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship
    between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. * Social Science Research is not offered as an undergraduate major or supporting subject. Students who commenced a Social Science Research major in 2011 or prior should contact the School of Social Sciences for advice.

    Social Science Research papers consider the principles of effective design of social science research projects with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. They contribute to a number of specialist subject areas within the School of Social Sciences.

    A competent social researcher has a critical appreciation of contemporary society and social issues based on a sound foundation of social theory and research methodology. Researchers need a critical understanding of a range of social research methods and styles. Social research design encompasses not only theoretical and methodological but also ethical considerations relating to respect for the rights and welfare of all parties involved in the research.

    7.Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research
    department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research
    institutions, on the other.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority
    of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and
    inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This
    discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the
    contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer
    adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations
    responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems
    concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of
    resources.
    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a
    researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a
    researcher can take help.

  18. Avatar Iheanacho Emmanuel Chinedu Reg no: 2019/244463 Combined Social Science ( ECO/SOC) says:

    1. Research is a scientific approach to answering a research question, solving a research problem, or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of data to make research findings useful in decision-making. The systematic application of a family of methods that are employed to provide trustworthy information about problems meant to answer questions about our observations and experiences in the world. It is a structured approach to gathering and interpreting information that will allow us to understand, theorize

    2. Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) helps to established a general knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.
    A definition of research is given by John W. Creswell , who states that ” research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue ” . It consists of three steps : pose a question , collect data to answer the question , and present an answer to the question .
    3.

    Step 1: Identify the Problem

    The first step in the process is to know the problem and develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. In the example in table 2.4, the problem that the agency has identified is childhood obesity, which is a local problem and concern within the community. This serves as the focus of the study.

    Step 2: Review the Literature

    Since the problem has been known, the researcher must acquire more information on topic under investigation. To achieve this,, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides the basic knowledge and information about the problem area. The review of literature also educates the researcher on the past study which had been conducted on the case of his study or interest, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area. In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the programmer to discover horrifying statistics related to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health issues, death rates, and projected medical costs. In addition, the programmer finds several articles and information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that describe the benefits of walking 10,000 steps a day. The information gathered helps the programmer to under the cause, the magnitude of the problems , recognize the future consequences of obesity, and help him develop strategies to fight against obesity (i.e., walking).

    Step 3: Clarify the Problem
    In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study so as to have a center of focus, sometimes the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large in scope. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project. In the example, the programmer has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is too large which can be studied based on some factor like genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence, leisure activities, or health issues. All of these areas cannot be investigated in a single study; therefore, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined. The programmer has decided that the purpose of the study is to determine if walking 10,000 steps a day for three days a week will improve the individual’s health. This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem.

    Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts

    Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study. These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions depending on who is reading the study. To minimize confusion about what the terms and phrases mean, the researcher must specifically define them for the study. In the obesity study, the concept of “individual’s health” can be defined in hundreds of ways, such as physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health. For this study, the individual’s health is defined as physical health. The concept of physical health may also be defined and measured in many ways. In this case, the programmer decides to more narrowly define “individual health” to refer to the areas of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol. By defining the terms or concepts more narrowly, the scope of the study is more manageable for the programmer, making it easier to collect the necessary data for the study. This also makes the concepts more understandable to the reader.

    Step 5: Define the Population

    Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations. For example, if a researcher wants to examine a specific group of people in the community, the study could examine a specific age group, males or females, people living in a specific geographic area, or a specific ethnic group. Literally thousands of options are available to the researcher to specifically identify the group to study. The research problem and the purpose of the study assist the researcher in identifying the group to involve in the study. In research terms, the group to involve in the study is always called the population. Defining the population assists the researcher in several ways. First, it narrows the scope of the study from a very large population to one that is manageable. Second, the population identifies the group that the researcher’s efforts will be focused on within the study. This helps ensure that the researcher stays on the right path during the study. Finally, by defining the population, the researcher identifies the group that the results will apply to at the conclusion of the study. In the example in table 2.4, the programmer has identified the population of the study as children ages 10 to 12 years. This narrower population makes the study more manageable in terms of time and resources.

    Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan

    The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study, specifying who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program. This plan is composed of numerous decisions and considerations that are addressed in chapter 8 of this text. In the obesity study, the researcher has decided to have the children participate in a walking program for six months. The group of participants is called the sample, which is a smaller group selected from the population specified for the study. The study cannot possibly include every 10- to 12-year-old child in the community, so a smaller group is used to represent the population. The researcher develops the plan for the walking program, indicating what data will be collected, when and how the data will be collected, who will collect the data, and how the data will be analyzed. The instrumentation plan specifies all the steps that must be completed for the study. This ensures that the programmer has carefully thought through all these decisions and that she provides a step-by-step plan to be followed in the study.

    Step 7: Collect Data

    Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the literature. In the obesity study, the programmers will be collecting data on the defined variables: weight, percentage of body fat, cholesterol levels, and the number of days the person walked a total of 10,000 steps during the class.

    The researcher collects these data at the first session and at the last session of the program. These two sets of data are necessary to determine the effect of the walking program on weight, body fat, and cholesterol level. Once the data are collected on the variables, the researcher is ready to move to the final step of the process, which is the data analysis.

    Step 8: Analyze the Data

    All the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed. The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan. The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly related to the research questions. In the obesity study, the researcher compares the measurements of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol that were taken at the first meeting of the subjects to the measurements of the same variables at the final program session. These two sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was a difference between the first measurement and the second measurement for each individual in the program. Then, the data will be analyzed to determine if the differences are statistically significant. If the differences are statistically significant, the study validates the theory that was the focus of the study. The results of the study also provide valuable information about one strategy to combat childhood obesity in the community.

    4. They are:
    1. The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used.

    2. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained.

    3. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’, Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for spreading, testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.

    An illustration showing the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure mathematics is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories while Applied mathematics, uses these equations to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity.

    Pure Scientific Research
    It is a research concerned with the explanation of the world around us with a perfect understanding on how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.

    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.

    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.

    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.

    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles. It provides answer to pressing questions.

    6.
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on reason of the research.

    7. Social Science Research is not offered as an undergraduate major or supporting subject. Students who commenced a Social Science Research major in 2011 or prior should contact the School of Social Sciences for advice.

    Social Science Research papers consider the principles of effective design of social science research projects with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. They contribute to a number of specialist subject areas within the School of Social Sciences.

    A competent social researcher has a critical appreciation of contemporary society and social issues based on a sound foundation of social theory and research methodology. Researchers need a critical understanding of a range of social research methods and styles. Social research design encompasses not only theoretical and methodological but also ethical considerations relating to respect for the rights and welfare of all parties involved in the research.

  19. Avatar OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS says:

    NAME: OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS
    REG NO:2019/244686
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: ozonwuchukwuebuka@gmail.com
    1.
    i. It is also an ongoing process based on many accumulated understanding and explanation that when taken together lead to generalization about problems and the development of theories.
    ii. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information of knowledge of relationship and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    iii. Research is a systematic way of asking question a systematic.
    2.Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge “. [1] It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence tov increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. These activities are characterized by accounting and controlling for biases. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Based on purpose or utility, a research approach can either be basic or applied. While basic research aims at expanding knowledge by creating new theories andvmodifying existing ones, applied research is focused on providing practical solutions to specific problems by analyzing empirical evidence. There are several meeting and departure points for these approaches, and it is pertinent for every researcher to understand them effectively. In this article, we will be detailing 15 key differences between basic and applied research methods, while also highlighting some similarities between these research methodologies.
    BASIC RESEARCH:
    Basic research is a research approach that is entirely theoretical and aimed at improving or expanding the knowledge-base of a particular field of study. It focuses on “knowledge for its own sake” and it is primarily driven by curiosity and the need to explore the unknown. It is also known as fundamental or pure research and it is a systematic investigation set to achieve a better and more detailed understanding of a research subject or phenomenon, not to solve a specific problem.
    APPLIED RESEARCH:
    Applied research is designed to focus on providing practical solutions to a specific problem. It is a form of investigation that entails solution-oriented inquiries into a phenomenon,a field of study or research subject generally employing empirical methodologies.
    3. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, orbpractical application of such new or revised theories or laws.” Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.” According to the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Research is a systematic inquiry into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, etc.
    4.
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability ;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective
    i.Research philosophy is a vast topic and here we discussing this topic in great details. Research philosophies associated with assumption, knowledge and nature study. It deals with the specific way of developing This matter needs to be addressed because resear have different assumptions about the nature of knowledge and philosophy helps us to understand but assumptions.
    ii.Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method , technique. or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. It’s important to consider reliability and validity when you are creating your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your results, especially in quantitative research . Failing to do so can lead to several types of research bias and seriously affect your work.
    iii. Sometimes, in the cause of carrying out a systematic investigation, the researcher may influence the process intentionally or unknowingly. When this happens, it is termed as research bias, and like every other type of bias , it can alter your findings. Research bias is one of the dominant reasons for the poor validity of research outcomes. There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to research bias and this simply means that it can happen at any time; if you do not pay adequate attention. The spontaneity of research bias means you must take care to understand what it is, be able to identify its feature, and ultimately avoid or reduce its occurrence to the barest minimum. In this article, we will show you how to handle bias in research and how to create unbiased research surveys with Formplus
    5.
    I. To solve problems (including practical problem of the society).
    ii. To make a Sound . decision: It is very vital to our everyday decision making.
    iii. To obtain academic degree.
    iv. To unveil the truth.
    v. To acquint with the facts data obtained through research enable us understand existing phenomenal.
    vi. To fulfill an academic requirement for example as partial fulfillment for the award of a doctorate degree.
    vii. For enjoyment; some people enjoy the indicated challenge of creative work.
    viii. A researcher may be called upon to study a specified phenomenal by some higher authority: thus is enhances collaboration with higher authorities (even among peers)
    ix. To generate new theories confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones.
    x. To contribute to the existing body of knowledge.This is mainly triggered by curiosity about a subject.
    xi. To find out casual relationship it enable researcher to establish the existence and extent of relationship between variable.
    xii. Researches help to provide answer to unknown problem.
    xiii. Research provides for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or treatment claims through deductive reasoning .
    6.
    i. Explanation: Possibly the most cited for conducting research is use it explain why something is occurring,this is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    ii. Prediction: Research is use to help access a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We’re able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen.
    iii. Monitoring: many decisions made must be measured to ensure that goals are being obtained
    iv. Discovering/new improved situation finding out new situation.
    v. Hypothesis testing: research helps test theories about some issues . Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research,relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    vi. Control: control represent the way in which research can be applied to real problem and situation,thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variable we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.
    7.
    1. Nonexistence of Scientific Training:
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    2. Financial issues:
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.
    3. Lack of communication with the guide:
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    4. Proper Time managemen:t
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.
    5. Stress:
    Pursuing a doctorate can be highly nerve-wracking. To overcome this stressful life, below are the points that should be followed:

  20. Avatar EKECHUKWU IFEANYI PAUL 2019/249227 ECONOMICS EDUCATION says:

    Question 1
    Research as we can see is the organised and systematic method of finding answers to questions. It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. Development research is focused on relevant, useful and important questions. If there are no questions, there can be no research.
    If government, business, institutions, labour, organisations and society in general are to function efficiently and effectively, it is important that the decisions they make are based on valid and reliable information and thorough analysis. The search for this information is referred to as the research process. There maybe an existing body of evidence (prior research, studies etc) you can make use of. If there is not, there is a need for research.
    For example, the Department of Health in planning a HIV and AIDS prevention programme may have to ask some of the following questions before agreeing on and rolling out the programme. The Department of Health may have an existing body of evidence that assists in finding the answers to some of these questions whilst others may require research.
    Question 2

    Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others. Whilst research can confirm your views, it is important that the researcher remains open-minded and impartial even when the results fail to confirm your views.
    Research often throws up other facts which you may not have been aware of that helps to strengthen, or even change, your arguments and beliefs. These facts make it easier to plan programmes and ensure that interventions are effective.
    research is a systematic and organised process. It is about collecting information that answers a question. Throughout this process the researcher has to ensure that information is gathered in a systematic and accurate manner.
    Information gathered must be cross-checked by using other sources and references, even when the researcher is convinced that the information already obtained provides a good answer to the question asked.
    Below are guidelines and steps for a general research process, no matter the type or method or research being undertaken.
    Step 1: Identify and define the issue or question
    • What is the issue?
    • Why is it necessary to research this issue?
    • What do we want to find out?
    • What information/evidence already exists?
    This step assists in identifying the problem or issue that requires research. For example, South Africa has a high incidence of road death. Research already done shows that around 10,000 people are killed in road accidents each year. Now we need to find out what are the causes and impact of the high incidence of road deaths. We need to know what other facts and evidence already exist so that we can build on that.
    Step 2: Deciding direction by identifying a focus and refining the question
    • What will be the aim and focus of the research?
    • What questions need to be answered?
    In this step we set out the aims and objectives of the research. For example, the aim of the research may be to “assess the social and economic impact of road accidents on the South African population”. The aim of the research may provide a title for the research, i.e. “The causes of road accidents and the social and economic impact on the South African population”.
    A clear aim will make it easier to develop objectives for the research, for example:
    • To investigate the causes of accidents in South Africa.
    • To ascertain which geographical areas in South Africa experience the most road-accident deaths.
    • To measure the social impacts of road-accidents on the South African population.
    • To measure the economic impacts of road-accidents on South Africa.
    • To make recommendations arising from the study to interested groups.
    The objectives will help you to decide which questions need answers. For example,
    “What are the three most common causes of road accidents?”
    Step 3: Organising the work plan to answer the questions
    • What sort of information is needed to answer the questions? Where will it be found (sources)?
    • What would be the best research methods to use?
    • Who is best suited to do this research?
    • What are the tasks and who will do what?
    • When does the work need to be completed?
    This step entails organising the work and choosing the methods that will be used to conduct the research. A terms of reference (ToR) should be drawn up that that spells out the work needed. This is usually given to the researcher who must then prepare a proposal about how they will go about doing the research. A ToR usually has the following sections: background, research objectives, methodology to be used, resources to be used (people, money for travel, etc), and timeframes for completing the project (broken down into phases, e.g. when the fieldwork will be completed, when the report will be written).
    Step 4: Collecting information to help answer the question
    This step entails the actual collection of information. This may require fieldwork. The research example on “The causes of road accidents and the social and economic impact on the South African population” is a huge and difficult one that will require lots of resources. For example, 80,000 fieldworkers were employed to conduct the 2001 Census. In this case the fieldworkers were called enumerators.
    Other research may be conducted on a much smaller scale and may include a team of 5-10 people and the amount of resources required would be less.
    Step 5: organise the information collected and discard what is not needed
    This phase entails organising and analysing the information gathered in the previous step. To analyse means to make calculations, such as adding up the different responses so as to get a full picture of the situation. For example, after analysis it might be that 70% of those that were interviewed may have been driving over the speed limit of 120km/hr. The analysis may be in the form of tables, graphs, percentages, etc. Similarities may emerge. For example, the incidence of road deaths may be higher during rainy days. Similarly patterns may start to emerge. For example, the occurrence of drunken driving is higher during weekends and at the end of the month when people get paid.
    Step 6: Drawing conclusions
    This step entails discussing the findings and drawing conclusions.
    Findings are often in table, graph, numeric or percentage form. The discussion involves using words to describe the findings. The discussion section is where the researcher gives opinions based on the findings of the research. The researcher then draws conclusions and may make recommendations based on the findings. The conclusion may be that “Road deaths are mainly caused by drunk drivers, drunken pedestrians, un-roadworthy vehicles and poor driver behaviour. The main economic impact is on the productive workforce due to high death rate and the more than 100 000 economically active people who are disabled annually. Impact is most severe on individual families affected. “

    Question 3

    Creswell, argues that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    POSE A QUESTION
    Questions that could be researched are:
    • Which are the most vulnerable groups and areas of high transmission? Here the Department of Health may rely on the annual ante-natal survey (existing body of evidence) to answer these questions.
    • What are the most effective ways of changing sexual behaviour amongst the different vulnerable groups? Here little or no information may be available. The Department of Health would have to find answers to these questions through research.
    Once a decision is made that research is required, the Department of Health must decide on the research methods and process that will be used to answer the questions.
    2. How is research used
    As indicated above, the primary purpose of research is to find answers to questions. Research allows us to find the right solutions to key issues in our communities by:
    • providing facts that will help us to analyse the problem;
    • testing the feasibility and the impact of programmes; and
    • finding better solutions to the challenges.
    Here are some examples of questions that research will help to answer in community development work:
    • Is it feasible to start a new project? For example, the Department of Agriculture may want to conduct a study on whether food gardens are sustainable in drought prone areas of our country.
    • What impact has a project or programme had on a community? For example, a community based organisation may want to measure the impact of its environmental awareness programme in the local community.
    • What other interventions are needed to improve on a situation? For example, a civic may have initiated a poverty alleviation programme that is not having the desired impact. It needs to find other ways of impacting on poverty.

    COLLECT DATA
    There are different or various ways of collecting research data. some basic methods:
    1. Desktop research refers to seeking facts, general information on a topic, historical background, study results, etc., that have been published or exist in public documents. This information can be obtained from libraries, newspaper archives, government, university, websites, NGOs and CBOs etc. For example, most research undertaken by government departments is easily accessible on the internet or at government offices.
    2. Interviews and conversations are used when you want to find out the community’s past experience with an issue. The best way to find it is usually by talking to individuals. For example, it may be best to talk to local community leaders to collect information on the history of an area. You may use informal conversations, structured interviews, or a combination to get as much information as possible. Sometimes, it is useful to ask questions of a group of people (for example, in a workshop situation), as this can stimulate different views and discussion.
    3. Surveys are used if you want to know what most people in the community think or feel about an issue. For example, how many people would take advantage of a service if it were available? A survey is a way to reach a lot of people in a short space of time. A survey usually consists of a list of simple questions on a topic, and may include some chance for respondents to express a broader opinion or comment on the issue. You can conduct surveys by post, phone, in person, by e-mail, on a web site, or by making them available in public places (See the CDW Skills Manual, p. 42, for more on doing your own surveys.)
    The information that is collected through these methods is either quantitative or qualitative in nature. Quantitative research depends on numbers and statistical procedures. For example, a household income survey is a quantitative survey that looks at the average household income in an area.
    Information can also be qualitative – based on observations of behavior, participants’ reports of how they or their lives have changed, etc. For example, the Department of Transport may want to find out the impact of its Arrive Alive Campaign using a qualitative study in areas that are usually high accident zones. Here the researchers will observe how road users conduct themselves in these areas and in addition speak to a sample of them to find out what impact the television and radio advertisements have had on their behavior on the roads.
    Some studies seek to understand cause and effect – what causes something else to happen or the connection between two factors. For example, the Department of Water Affairs may want to find the cause of certain rivers being highly polluted and the effect this has on the lives of people living along these rivers.
    Some studies are conducted to find answers to very specific questions. For example, the Department of Agriculture may want to find out whether maize or pumpkins are the best crops to grow in a particular area as part of a poverty alleviation project.

    4. Case studies that describe the experience of individuals or groups affected by an issue can be very effective for research that aims to change a situation or influence decision-makers. Politicians and the public are often more easily swayed by stories they can identify with than by statistics. Finding people who can provide convincing first hand information is an important part of research. Key people and activists in the target community are good sources for finding people who can provide first-hand information. For example, the Department of Social Services and w Development may want to find out the impact of drought on a rural village. Local people who have lived in the area for a long time will be able to provide compelling stories and anecdotal information on the impact of drought in the area and how the community has coped with this over the years.

    Hypothesis
    This is a prediction of what the outcome of the research may be.

    Question 4

    1. Good research is systematic: It means that research is structured with specified steps to be taken in a specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set of rules. Systematic characteristic of the research does not rule out creative thinking but it certainly does reject the use of guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions.
    2. Good research is logical: This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and the logical process of induction and deduction are of great value in carrying out research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a part to the whole whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from some premise to a conclusion which follows from that very premise. In fact, logical reasoning makes research more meaningful in the context of decision making.
    3. Good research is empirical: It implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for external validity to research results.

    Question 5
    Challenge: Choosing the Right Topic
    Your research topic is the foundation on which everything else rests, so it’s crucial to choose carefully. “You can’t do anything else until you figure out the basic focus of your topic.
    • Develop a doable topic. Determine what resources you have available—time, money, people—and choose a topic that you can do justice. Getsch scrapped an initial study idea of replicating another researcher’s study because it would be too resource-intensive.
    • Read everything you can on the topic. Getsch “stumbled across” systems theory, an interdisciplinary framework for understanding systems in science and society. The topic was outside her required class reading, but ultimately provided Getsch’s theoretical framework.
    • Find a theoretical basis to support your topic. The key is having an overarching theoretical context for your results. “I was really thrilled when I found these theories that fit my study like a glove,” Getsch says.
    • Make sure the topic will hold your interest. You’ll be spending at least a year on a dissertation or any large research project, so it has to be compelling enough that you’ll go the distance.
    • Look for a niche in which you can make a difference … My view is that you really should be offering something new to the field,” says Getsch.
    • … but remember you can’t change the world with one dissertation. Getsch’s dissertation committee chair, Dr. Stephanie Cawthon, helped her focus on the crux of what she wanted to explore. “She gently pointed out that I couldn’t change the whole world with my dissertation, but I could add to the body of knowledge,” says Getsch.
    • Let yourself shift gears. Getsch admits that the topic she started out with was “in no way” what she ended up with.
    • Fine-tune your topic based on input from others. “Take every opportunity you can to pick the brains” of experts, Getsch recommends. “I went across disciplines. I drove people crazy. And each time, I would revise slightly based on what the last person taught me.”
    Challenge: Choosing the Right Methodology
    Once you’ve chosen a topic, you’ll need a methodology—a procedure for conducting your research—in order to move forward.
    Dr. Linda Crawford, a faculty member in Walden’s PhD program, has received the Bernard L. Turner award two times for chairing outstanding dissertation recipients. She offers several techniques for getting on the right path when it comes to choosing the appropriate methodology for your study.
    “The best way to choose it is not to choose.”In other words, Crawford says, “the methodology that’s used comes from the research question, not from your personal preferences for one design or another.” She recommends refraining from choosing between a qualitative or quantitative methodology until you:
    • Complete the sentence: “The problem is …”
    Complete the sentence: “The purpose of this study is …”
    Formulate your research questions.
    • Let your answers guide you.
    • Determine what kind of design and methodology can best answer your research questions. If your questions include words such as “explore,” “understand,” and “generate,” it’s an indication that your study is qualitative. Whereas words such as “compare,” “relate,” or “correlate” indicate a quantitative study. The design comes out of the study, rather than being imposed on the study.
    • Hone your study design. Once you become clear whether you’re going in a quantitative or qualitative direction, you can begin to look in more detail at the methodology. This will be determined by figuring out “from whom you’re going to collect data, how you’re going to collect the data, and how you’re going to analyze it once you collect it,” says Crawford.
    • Be crystal clear. For a qualitative study, you might use focus groups and interviews, for example, to collect data, whereas a quantitative study may use test scores or survey results. Either way, the methodology should be so clear that any other trained researcher should be able to pick it up and do it exactly the same way.
    • Be honest about your abilities. Ask yourself, “This is what the study demands—do I have the skills to do it?” says Crawford. If not, determine if you can develop the skills or bring together a research team.
    • Take your time with the planning process. “It’s worth consulting other researchers, doing a pilot study to test it, before you go out spending the time, money, and energy to do the big study,” Crawford says. “Because once you begin the study, you can’t stop.”

    Challenge: Assembling a Research Team
    Research is never done in a vacuum. Once your topic and methodology are in place, you will need a research team to support you, as well as study participants.

    • Solicit useful feedback.Savage suggests that you “cultivate friendships with people who are going to help you think critically” about your topic. These people are invaluable for helping you consider your idea from a different angle or perspective.
    • Vet your committee. If you need a formal committee, choose your chairperson carefully, Savage says, “because you’re going to work closely with him or her for a while.” She recommends interviewing your potential chair and committee members to make sure there’s a match and discussing upfront what each party needs in order to go through the process. This includes asking whom your chairperson is comfortable working with—“The chair helps negotiate things if the committee can’t come to agreement, so he or she needs to get along with everyone else,” Savage explains.
    • Be clear about your needs. Similarly, when it comes to finding mentors, or getting help for tasks such as creating a survey tool or writing your research question, Savage suggests being very clear about what you need from them. “People are very willing to help when you come structured and prepared,” she says.
    Challenge: Finding Study Participants
    Once you have your team together, it’s time to conduct your study, and that means finding participants.
    • Don’t waste your money.Lemery first tried hiring a third-party email marketing group to send his survey to 50,000 self-identified men who fit his criteria. While email marketing might work in some cases, it’s a costly risk—Lemery spent $2,500 and got just four subjects.
    • Leverage the power of a network. Lemery’s next attempt to reach his target group was more successful. He used what are called “snowball” sampling techniques—“targeting a particular group, locating advocates within that social network,” and then asking them to recommend others who might be willing to participate in the study. “You almost get a domino effect, if it works,” Lemery explains.
    • Don’t be afraid to reach out. Lemery also approached established researchers in his field for guidance and networking. “I was very nervous, but I went ahead anyway and contacted two very well-known researchers, and one of them turned out to be a very key advocate in my research and recruitment,” he explains. “If I had listened to my fear, I never would have gotten 45 of my participants.” His advice to others looking for mentors: “Just go for it—the worst thing that can happen is that people can say no.”
    Challenge: Getting Institutions to Participate
    Sometimes recruiting study participants requires going through institutions, which may put up barriers, particularly if your research is controversial or sensitive, and this presents an additional challenge.
    • Don’t stop at the first rejection. I went to one of the superintendents, and she said, ‘That’s interesting, but you’re not going to get any support from this school district,’” says Berg. “So I started to apply to different districts and got all these rejections—the influence of the unions in Ontario was so strong that nobody wanted to participate.
    • Pursue alternate avenues. After extensive research online and networking, Berg eventually found an organization that would promote the study to principals and another organization that agreed to publish a notice about the study in its bulletin for teachers.
    • Persevere. “If it’s an extremely hot topic, you’re going to have the doors blocked,” Berg says. “You need to persevere, you need to make contacts, you need to network with people and make phone calls and ask, ‘How can you help me?’ … Just sending emails won’t work.”
    • Build relationships. Plum agrees that when going through institutions to find study participants, the key “is trying to form relationships with the people who will help you gain access.”
    • Learn to sell yourself. “You’ve got to do a lot of selling of yourself and what you’re trying to do,” Plum says. But, he warns, there’s a fine line between being persistent and not turning people off. “That’s the art,” he says. “You have to finesse it and understand the importance of building that comfort level. The people who are the gatekeepers have to believe that you’re coming in objectively and that what your research yields will potentially positively impact the institution in some way. How does this add value?”
    • Be prepared. Plum also stresses the importance of having all of your forms and information—such as a copy of your abstract and a thumb drive with supporting documents—on hand at all times, in case someone wants more information.
    • The importance of image. Finally, Plum says, “presentation is important—it all paints a picture in terms of how you’re going to come across.”
    Challenge: Staying Motivated and Working Your Plan
    Sometimes, in the course of a large research project, the biggest challenge can be internal—maintaining the motivation to keep going despite obstacles in your research and the pressures of work and personal commitments.
    • Follow your passion and your purpose. “The first component of motivation is working on something you’re passionate about, that you believe in,” Walker explains. “It’s cyclical—if you’re passionate about what you’re researching, the research will increase your passion to complete your research.” Passion, she says, comes from the belief that your work will have some kind of social impact, that an injustice in the world could be improved “even just 10 percent.”
    • Monitor your attitude. “When there’s so much to do, attitude does make a difference,” Walker says. “There can be no doubt in your mind that you can do this. You must believe that you can make it through this process.” To stay positive, she suggests thinking of the mind like a garden: “We have to pluck out the negative thoughts like weeds and constantly plant positive thoughts.”
    • Reward yourself. “Make rewards part of your work plan, and then give yourself those rewards,” Walker says. “It could be going to the movies, going out to lunch, spending time with your family—whatever it is, make it something meaningful to you.”
    • Ask for help. Walker credits her family—especially her husband—with helping her handle all her commitments. “If you share your goals with those individuals you care about, they will get to buy in and help you achieve those goals,” she says. “But only share your greatest dreams and goals with people who are going to be positive and supportive.”
    Challenge: Dealing With Your Data
    When you’ve completed your study, the final challenge is knowing how to make sense of the data you’ve collected.
    • Ground yourself in the research. Paige realized that, to address his large volume of research, he had to connect his own research to the existing research. Grounded in a “huge survey of the literature,” he had the parameters to organize his research. Dawidowicz adds that your data should be presented in a way that demonstrates how your research adds to the body of knowledge.
    • Get back to your methodology. Paige credits a course in research methodologies taught by his mentor and committee chair, Dr. Linda Crawford, with preparing him to deal with his data. “The books we had to read were excellent,” he says, “and we compared methodologies in class—that was very helpful.”
    • Listen to the data. “When you have that kind of qualitative data, and you’re looking at it cold, the biggest challenge is not to look at it with any preconceived ideas—you literally have to step back and wait for the data to come alive and start speaking,” Paige says.
    • Take advantage of technology. “The key thing in qualitative research is looking for patterns, and that’s where having a software program—I used one called HyperRESEARCH—was invaluable,” Paige says. “I couldn’t have done it without that.”
    • Stay focused. Dawidowicz cautions against being distracted by irrelevant data as you do your analysis. She suggests “keeping a really close eye” on your research questions and your hypothesis, “because sometimes the data you collect will take you away from that.”
    • Account for biases. Dawidowicz explains that, in a quantitative study, the researcher needs to address the biases of the individuals completing the survey before the results can be generalized to a larger population. Whereas qualitative work requires researchers to discuss “how their bias or interpretation may have played into their conclusions.”
    • Let the data drive your presentation. Dawidowicz says, “The data should drive how you present what you’re doing. It’s your job to organize it around the research questions.”
    • Draw on the details. “A good quote or a good point pulled from a quantitative survey—that information can always give us a greater sense of what actually occurred,” Dawidowicz says.

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  22. Avatar Ogaeme Onyedikachi Lovedey says:

    NAME: Ogaeme Onyedikachi Lovedey
    DEPARTMENT: Economics department
    REG NO: 2019/251299.

    1. Research differs from each academic field of study due to what’s being studied. For example research in engineering is all about researching about engineering concepts, ideas or innovation while research in economics deals with researching about the economy and human activities.
    Researching has a laid down process to which research informations are being provided. There is a pattern and way to follow to provide solutions to problems through researches.

    2. Researches are being done to give answers and solutions to a question or to get knowledge (more) about a topic, idea and inquiry. Research helps or enables one to be more knowledgeable or advanced in a field or topic because of information that has being gathered.

    3. Creswell mentioned three steps used to collect and analyse informations; the three steps include;
    (a). Pose a question: Research can’t be done without a question in mind. Research is all about getting more information about something and that thing is the question be placed forward. So for an adequate research to take place, there must be a question or inquiry.
    (b). Collect data to answer the question: Once the questions has been posed or identified the next step is to get informations to answer the questions. It’s in this place that field work, data gathering, polls are being done to get informations as answers.
    (c). Present an answer to the question: The final step in researching is to present your answers. After the informations has been gather and put together, the next thing to do is to present the information as answers to the question.

    For example; a research is to be done on the average number of boys that drink garri in a day.

    The question here is – what is the average number of boys that drink garri in a day in Unn?
    Then the next thing to do is gather information either through a poll or asking questions. After that the information gotten is to be presented. That is the average number of boys that drink garri in Unn is 5/20 that is 5 boys in 20 group of boys drink garri in a day.

    4. The three criteria to which a process can be called research are;
    a). The process is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies.
    b). The process must use procedures, method and technique that have been tested for validity and reliability
    c). The process is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research include;
    a). To solve problems
    b). To obtain academic degrees
    c). To provide answers to unknown problems.
    d). To find out casual relationships between variables.
    e). To generate new their theories, confirm our disapprove existing ones.

    6. For any discipline, the purpose of research may be generally categoried into six (6) they are;
    1). Explanation – the reason why research of being done is to provide an explanation to a question or inquiry.
    2). Predictions – through research future situations can be predicted
    3). Monitoring – research enables happenings or goals to be monitored accurately to ensure achievement
    4). Discovery – through research new ideas, information or situations are being discovered
    5). Hypothesis testing – research can help test theories that at be set to ensure validity
    6). Control

    7. The problems of conducting research in social science are multifaceted and multidimensional, some of which include.
    a). Insufficient data due to inadequate past records or data storage.
    b). Lack of cooperation from the public
    c). Language barrier
    d). Missing data information
    Among many others, and this officials has often made it hard for research to be efficiently carried out.

  23. 2019/249884
    Economics Education
    1. Research involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
    Research is not purely defined and thus used in a similar way. This develops unfortunate results from a misconception about what is research. To understand properly what is research, it is good to start with common misconceptions about research. First, fact transferal is not research. Consider a typical high school research project. The teacher assigns a “research project” on some topic. The students went to the library, checked out several books, and might have copied several pertinent pages from the book. The typical student organized collected information and wrote up the “research report”. What these students did is information gathering and arranging it is nothing more or nothing less. No doubt the student went through some motions associated with research. But finding fact and fact transferal alone is not research. Transfer of information from one source, namely books and pertinent pages, to another source, namely the so-called research report, is nothing more than fact transferal, but not research. To my distress I find many college students repeat this same mistake by submitting a ‘research report’ which is nothing but fact transferal from one source to their report.
    2.Research includes “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” This is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion in past work on the field. Research projects can be used in developing further knowledge on a topic, or given an example of a school research project, they can be use to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs.
    3. Creswell states that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:
    1) Pose a question: posing a question or a problem is the single most important part of research. It brings attention to the a problem. Posing a question helps to determine the type of research and identify specific objectives.
    2) collect data to answer the question: this is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
    3) Present an answer to the question: This answers these questions on one’s research findings. The methods you use or the experiments that you conduct are all directed at finding the answers to your research questions. Thus, we can say that the Results and Discussion sections include the answers to your research question

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    1) Explanation: possibly the most clted reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge establishing facts and developing new methods. When things that are happening in the environment people tend to find out reasons why such things happens in order to understand or acquire knowledge on such matter.
    2) Prediction: research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen. When information are gathered it makes prediction easy, one can easily say what may happen based on the information already gotten which may likely be true.
    3) Monitoring: many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained.
    4) Discovery/ New improved situation: finding out situations
    5) Hypothesis testing: finally research helps test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    6) Control: control represent the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situation, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional
    1) lack of training: this is one of the biggest problems developing countries face, scarcity of qualified research workers. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound.
    2) lack of code of conduct: there is absence of code of conduct for researchers in most developing countries.
    3) lack of available funding: sufficient funds for researchers to perform a quality research are not provided. This discourage research of all type.
    4) illiteracy: performing research in developing countries can be hindered because of lack of knowledge and understanding of what research is all about.
    5) repetition: overlapping of research studies on one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

  24. 1. Research involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
    Research is not purely defined and thus used in a similar way. This develops unfortunate results from a misconception about what is research. To understand properly what is research, it is good to start with common misconceptions about research. First, fact transferal is not research. Consider a typical high school research project. The teacher assigns a “research project” on some topic. The students went to the library, checked out several books, and might have copied several pertinent pages from the book. The typical student organized collected information and wrote up the “research report”. What these students did is information gathering and arranging it is nothing more or nothing less. No doubt the student went through some motions associated with research. But finding fact and fact transferal alone is not research. Transfer of information from one source, namely books and pertinent pages, to another source, namely the so-called research report, is nothing more than fact transferal, but not research. To my distress I find many college students repeat this same mistake by submitting a ‘research report’ which is nothing but fact transferal from one source to their report.
    2.Research includes “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” This is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion in past work on the field. Research projects can be used in developing further knowledge on a topic, or given an example of a school research project, they can be use to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs.
    3. Creswell states that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:
    1) Pose a question: posing a question or a problem is the single most important part of research. It brings attention to the a problem. Posing a question helps to determine the type of research and identify specific objectives.
    2) collect data to answer the question: this is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
    3) Present an answer to the question: This answers these questions on one’s research findings. The methods you use or the experiments that you conduct are all directed at finding the answers to your research questions. Thus, we can say that the Results and Discussion sections include the answers to your research question

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    1) Explanation: possibly the most clted reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge establishing facts and developing new methods. When things that are happening in the environment people tend to find out reasons why such things happens in order to understand or acquire knowledge on such matter.
    2) Prediction: research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen. When information are gathered it makes prediction easy, one can easily say what may happen based on the information already gotten which may likely be true.
    3) Monitoring: many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained.
    4) Discovery/ New improved situation: finding out situations
    5) Hypothesis testing: finally research helps test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    6) Control: control represent the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situation, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional
    1) lack of training: this is one of the biggest problems developing countries face, scarcity of qualified research workers. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound.
    2) lack of code of conduct: there is absence of code of conduct for researchers in most developing countries.
    3) lack of available funding: sufficient funds for researchers to perform a quality research are not provided. This discourage research of all type.
    4) illiteracy: performing research in developing countries can be hindered because of lack of knowledge and understanding of what research is all about.
    5) repetition: overlapping of research studies on one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

  25. Avatar UCHEOMA DANIELLA CHIMDINDU says:

    UCHEOMA DANIELLA CHIMDINDU
    2019/241763
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    danympompo123@gmail.com

    Answer 1:
    The general idea of research is to get information about a subject in a particular field. The difference however is reflected in their various definitions and methodologies. Research definitions and methods in the social science fields are different from those in the medical and science fields.
    It also depends on the reason for seeking information and how it will be applied. For academic purpose, it is said to be an academic activity. The term is then used in a technical sense. It is also sometimes done as a leisure activity; that way it can be simply defined as a devoted attempt to find out truth.
    Many scholars in their different fields have tried to bring forward their own contributions to the meaning of this term. Clifford Woody states that it comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. Drew Hardman and Hard in 1996 define it as a systematic way of asking question.
    The various applications of research have led to development. The outcome of scientific research was what lead to the invention of technology and various laws and even theories we now use to explain life phenomena. Results from research has led to the invention of various forms of treatments in the medical field which are safer and more ethnical than earlier methods; There are also new drugs and the discovery of cure for various diseases we would have never thought could be eradicated. These among many more are the various applications of research.
    Research being a systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems explains that it is a process and not just one action. Involves various methods (some repeated) to get to the root of a problem or to find answers. It involves systematic investigations, research development, testing and evaluation and many more. In order for research to be carried out, it should be well mapped out to follow the appropriate steps.
    Creswell defines research as a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
    Answer 2:
    This is from the definition of research given by Roger Bennette and was used by Anthony Veal, in his 2005 book, Business Research Methods. In full definition, the two words to be taken note of in this definition is “systematic” and “careful”. Systematic in this definition means that research is done according to a fixed plan or system depending on the method being used and the purpose of the research. It is also a careful inquiry because the researcher must try as much as possible to avoid errors when making investigations. It should be done in a reasonable speed; it should not be rushed or delayed. An appropriate amount of time should be allocated to each step taking to get to the final result.
    As an inquiry, it means that it involves asking questions from various sources of different forms (digital, or paper) and making detailed investigations. A researcher set on getting an answer to his or her questions or a solution to a problem would visit every part or section of different sources to get the desired result. Often time. A researcher comes across many sources to get the what he or she want of which some may not be of help. With the invention and improvement of technology, making inquires have become a lot easier.
    It also defines research as an examination meaning there is a detailed inspection of the subject being studied. The research careful examines the object and observes its properties and characteristics and writes down his observation usually for further research or to draw a conclusion. Also, examinations are done to prove an existing knowledge or to disprove it.
    Finally, there must be a result either verifying or expanding on an existing knowledge.
    Answer 3:
    Creswell’s three step method of research shows how information is gotten and presented from the point of inquiry to the point of display. These steps are;
    1. Pose a question
    2. Collect data to answer the question
    3. Present an answer to the question.
    These steps may differ depending on the kind of data being collected or the kinds of research to be carried out. These kinds of research are quantitative, qualitative and mixed research.
    The Quantitative research tests objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. These variables are being measured on the appropriate instrument. With this kind of research, the three steps will differ.
    The first step being to pose a question would demand an answer based on quantitative analysis. The main aim of asking the question is to get an answer in relation to a standard figure.
    The second step (collecting data) will involve taking measurements from the instrument. One must take note of errors while doing so to avoid total inaccuracy.
    The third step is the presentation of answers. These answers are usually in graphical forms and charts, sometimes in tabular form.
    The qualitative Research involves studying and trying to understand usually social phenomena. It also involves the three step research methods which are asking questions which can be done in various forms (questionnaires), collecting data usually from observation and from answers gotten from questions and presenting your answers in form of statements, laws and theories.
    The mixed research method is a combination of both the quantitative and qualitative research method. It also includes the three step methods which are done by a mix of the quantitative and qualitative method of research.
    Answer 4:
    The three criteria of research explain what a research question to be or look like. It was introduced by Fisher in 1993. It a problem will qualify as a potential research problem when the following three conditions exist.
    1. There should be a perceived discrepancy between “what it is” and “what it should have been.” This implies that there should be a difference between “what exists” and the “ideal or planned situation”;
    2. A question about “why” the discrepancy exists. This implies that the reason(s) for this discrepancy is unclear to the researcher (so that it makes sense to develop a research question); and
    3. There should be at least two possible answers or solutions to the questions or problems.

    Answer 5:
    As stated earlier, the main idea of research is to get information about a particular objective. However, this information varies with the different purpose of carrying out research.
    One major purpose of carrying out research is for academic purpose. This may also vary depending on who is carrying out the research (undergraduate or post graduate student or lecturer) and on what field the research is being carried out on. For a student, the main purpose for carrying out academic research if not for anything is to be graded according to his performance which is affected by how much effort he or she has put. For a lecturer, the main purpose is to move up to a higher cadre.
    Research is carried out by people from various backgrounds to discover the truth. A detective will do a lot of research to uncover a crime. Also, ordinary people do research to find out the truth about things they are curious about. They are also carried out for enjoyment.
    Research is important for generating new theories and inventions. Information is gotten to help build new knowledge and unlearn wrong ones. Society has only evolved with the help of research.
    In all, the seeking of knowledge and truth is what characterizes research no matter the purpose. And the general purpose of carrying out research is to make a change.

    REFERENCES:
    Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approach (3rd ed.). Sage.
    Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2nd ed.). New Age International Publications.

  26. Avatar OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA says:

    Name: Ogbonna Mmesoma Rita
    Reg no: 2019/243578
    Department: Social science
    education/Economics

    Answer
    1. To answer questions about our observations and experiences in the world. It is a structured approach to gathering and interpreting information that will allow us to understand, theorize about,and explain our experiences
    2. Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    Research can be done with human beings, animals, plants, other organisms and inorganic matter. When research is done with human beings and animals, it must follow specific rules about the treatment of humans and animals that have been created by the U.S. Federal Government. This ensures that humans and animals are treated with dignity and respect, and that the research causes minimal harm.

    No matter what topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    There are three main purposes of research :

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    3.#Posing a research question: Once you have narrowed your topic, you need to come up with a research question—a specific question that you will then work to answer through your research. Generate a list of questions beginning with What? When? Where? Who? How? Why? Would? Could? and Should? For example, here are some questions about the tentative topic “the potential environmental effects of increasing the use of ethanol”:
    How much energy does producing ethanol require?
    Why do some environmental groups oppose the use of ethanol?
    Should ethanol use be increased?
    Select one question and use it to help guide your research.

    #Collect data to answer a question: to collect data here is the procedure and analyzing accurate insight for research using standard validated techniques. For example Let’s consider an example of a mobile manufacturer, company X, which is launching a new product variant. To conduct research about features, price range, target market, competitor analysis etc. data has to be collected from appropriate sources. The marketing team can conduct various data collection activities such as online surveys or focus groups.
    The survey should have all the right questions about features and pricing such as “What are the top 3 features expected from an upcoming product?” or “How much are your likely to spend on this product?” or “Which competitors provide similar products?” etc.
    For conducting a focus group, the marketing team should decide the participants as well as the mediator. The topic of discussion and objective behind conducting a focus group should be made clear beforehand to conduct a conclusive discussion.
    Collecting of this data are chosen depending on the available resources. For example, conducting questionnaires and surveys would require the least resources while focus groups require moderately high resources.

    #Present an answer to a question: Analyze the Question.
    You have been assigned a research project. Usually, with this type of assignment, your teacher poses some general questions and expects you to answer them with your project. But, how do you go about doing so?
    First, you need to really understand the question. The question might be related to a novel you have read in class. Or, it could be related to some topic or concept that you’ve learned. It can even be a question about an issue in today’s society. Whatever it is, you need to look closely at what it is asking.
    For example, if your teacher wants you to research a hot topic in today’s society, he or she may ask, ‘Do you support gun control?’ If your teacher is asking for a research project, then you obviously cannot simply write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ as your response to this question. Look at the question and really understand what it is asking. In this case, your teacher is asking you to choose a side. The expectation for your project, then, is to make a stand and support your opinion.
    This is a common theme in side research projects. Some other questions can include making comparisons between two ideas or even describing the benefits of something, like an invention. You need to realize what exactly the question is asking of you

    Research
    When you’ve analyzed the question and really understand what it is asking, you need to begin to gather information through research. It is possible that you may not be familiar with the topic or issue. Even if you are familiar with it, you need up-to-date information to include in your research project.

    For example, if your research question was the example from above on gun control, you need to research the topic in order to fully understand the issue. Look up gun control laws and the danger of guns in any kind of scholarly resource. Encyclopedias, textbooks, and websites could all hold relevant information for you. Be sure the websites you are using are reliable and credible. Someone’s personal web page is usually not considered a credible resource.

    Note down all research you find relevant to the issue. For example, information on the statistics of how many deaths are caused by guns legally issued to citizens is certainly information to include for your research project.

    Also, be sure to find information for both sides. After you choose the side you agree with, it will still be helpful to have the facts for the other side. You might be able to use it to undermine the arguments against your opinion. Last, don’t forget to note down the publishing information for your sources, which includes the author, publisher, date of publishing, and web address. You should include this in your project.

    Choose Your Side
    Now you know exactly what the question is asking, and you have found research with relevant information. What next? At this time, you need to formulate your opinion based on the information found in the research. You will have undoubtedly found support for both sides of the argument, but that is okay. You are entitled to make your own decisions; it is, after all, your research paper. The key here is choosing a side with solid evidence. Look over all your facts and statistics. Formulate your opinion based on the facts you have found.

    For example, the gun control question definitely asks for your personal opinion. You need to choose a side. In this case, you will be either for gun control or against it. The rest of the project then needs to explain why you believe that and provide supporting details for your opinion.

    If your research question has a different type of question, like comparing two ideas or describing a concept, this step is still basically the same. However, in this case there may not be a clear-cut side to choose. For example, instead of making a claim against gun control, you will make a claim that the two ideas you are comparing are very similar. Or, your claim might be the invention of the telephone was the greatest invention of mankind. You are still formulating your opinion. The key is always using evidence to support that opinion.
    6. Explanation: Possibly the must cited reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new method.

    Prediction: Research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say that if it gives certain conditions then this is likely to happen.

    Monitoring: many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained.

    Discovery/New improved: Finding out new situations

    Hypothesis Testing: Research helps test theories about some issues.hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate hypothesis.

    Control: Control represents the way in which we understand the relationship between variables we are to control our environment to suit our interests.

  27. Avatar Ogbaga Stella chinwedu says:

    Ogbaga Stella chinwedu
    Economics major
    2019/2417333
    Assignment eco 361(developmental economics)

    (Question 1)

    Michael Todaro (1977), on the other hand, stressed that development must be
    regarded as “multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social
    structures, popular attitudes, institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic
    growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of absolute poverty.” He
    further explained that development must represent the whole gamut of change by which
    the entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and
    social groups within that system, moves away from a condition greatly perceived to be
    unsatisfactory toward a situation or condition of life regarded as materially and spiritually
    “better”. Todaro emphasized the “good life” that individuals and societies ought to
    pursue as based on three (3) core values : 1)life sustenance, 2) self esteem, and 3)
    freedom from servitude. Todaro here, thus provide a normative philosophical and
    humanistic dimension to development but taking on a much holistic integrative
    perspective by emphasizing the need for accelerated economic growth along with social
    and institutional component. By this, he points out that the problem of
    underdevelopment and inequality is largely structural in nature and proliferated by
    existing institutions in society the promotes rather than prevents inequality, inadequate
    redistribution of wealth, blocks access to basic services, and are the very cause of
    deprivation thereby impeding attainment of development objectives on top of efforts and
    interventions being done.

    (Question 2)

    The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic developed and compiled by the United Nations since 1990 to measure various countries’ levels of social and economic development. It is composed of four principal areas of interest: mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, life expectancy at birth, and gross national income (GNI) per capita.

    This index is a tool used to follow changes in development levels over time and compare the development levels of different countries.

    (Question 3)

    Development economics is a branch of economics whose goal is to better the fiscal, economic, and social conditions of developing countries.
    Areas that development economics focuses on include health, education, working conditions, and market conditions.
    Development economics seeks to understand and shape macro and microeconomic policies in order to lift poor countries out of poverty, especially third world countries.

    (Question 4)

    I study developmental economics because development economics focuses on how people in a society can escape poverty and enjoy a better standard of living.
    Development economic studies can be divided into economic and social aspects.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans, even though we tend to find our self in a rigmarole country.

    (Question 5)

    Third World” is an outdated and derogatory phrase that has been used historically to describe a class of economically developing nations. It is part of a four-part segmentation that was used to describe the world’s economies by economic status. Third World falls behind First World and Second World but was ahead of Fourth World, though Fourth-World countries were hardly recognized at all. Today, the preferred terminology is a developing nation, an underdeveloped country, or a low- and middle-income country (LMIC).
    There can be a few ways to divide up the world for purposes of economic segmentation. Classifying countries as First, Second, Third, and Fourth World was a concept created during and after the Cold War, which ran from approximately 1945 to the 1990s.

  28. Avatar Ogbaga Stella chinwedu says:

    Ogbaga Stella chinwedu
    Economics major
    2019/2417333
    Assignment eco 361(developmental economics)

    (Question 1)

    Michael Todaro (1977), on the other hand, stressed that development must be
    regarded as “multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social
    structures, popular attitudes, institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic
    growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of absolute poverty.” He
    further explained that development must represent the whole gamut of change by which
    the entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and
    social groups within that system, moves away from a condition greatly perceived to be
    unsatisfactory toward a situation or condition of life regarded as materially and spiritually
    “better”. Todaro emphasized the “good life” that individuals and societies ought to
    pursue as based on three (3) core values : 1)life sustenance, 2) self esteem, and 3)
    freedom from servitude. Todaro here, thus provide a normative philosophical and
    humanistic dimension to development but taking on a much holistic integrative
    perspective by emphasizing the need for accelerated economic growth along with social
    and institutional component. By this, he points out that the problem of
    underdevelopment and inequality is largely structural in nature and proliferated by
    existing institutions in society the promotes rather than prevents inequality, inadequate
    redistribution of wealth, blocks access to basic services, and are the very cause of
    deprivation thereby impeding attainment of development objectives on top of efforts and
    interventions being done.

    (Question 2)

    The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic developed and compiled by the United Nations since 1990 to measure various countries’ levels of social and economic development. It is composed of four principal areas of interest: mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, life expectancy at birth, and gross national income (GNI) per capita.

    This index is a tool used to follow changes in development levels over time and compare the development levels of different countries.

    (Question 3)

    Development economics is a branch of economics whose goal is to better the fiscal, economic, and social conditions of developing countries.
    Areas that development economics focuses on include health, education, working conditions, and market conditions.
    Development economics seeks to understand and shape macro and microeconomic policies in order to lift poor countries out of poverty, especially third world countries.

    (Question 4)

    I study developmental economics because development economics focuses on how people in a society can escape poverty and enjoy a better standard of living.
    Development economic studies can be divided into economic and social aspects.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans.
    Development economic research can help policymakers to make better decisions and formulate the right plans, even though we tend to find our self in a rigmarole country.

    (Question 5)

    Third World” is an outdated and derogatory phrase that has been used historically to describe a class of economically developing nations. It is part of a four-part segmentation that was used to describe the world’s economies by economic status. Third World falls behind First World and Second World but was ahead of Fourth World, though Fourth-World countries were hardly recognized at all. Today, the preferred terminology is a developing nation, an underdeveloped country, or a low- and middle-income country (LMIC).
    There can be a few ways to divide up the world for purposes of economic segmentation. Classifying countries as First, Second, Third, and Fourth World was a concept created during and after the Cold War, which ran from approximately 1945 to the 1990s.

    Alfred Sauvy, a French demographer, anthropologist, and historian, is credited with coining the term Third World during the Cold War. Sauvy observed a group of countries, many former colonies, that did not share the ideological views of Western capitalism or Soviet socialism.

  29. Avatar Ogbaga Stella chinwedu says:

    Ogbaga Stella chinwedu
    Economics department
    2019/241733
    Assignment 391(Research method)

    Question 1

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    A research approach is the procedure selected by the researcher to collect, analyze, and interpret data. There are three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods.

    Different research techniques are used to collect data depending upon the researcher’s choice to conduct quantitative research or qualitative research.

    When conducting quantitative research, surveys can be conducted. Survey research is a quantitative research methodology technique that involves collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions about the status of the subject in the study.

    Question 2

    Research process consists of a series of steps or actions required for effectively conducting research while formulating the research problem, extensive literature survey, developing hypothesis, preparing the research design, determining sample design, collecting data, execution of the project, analysis of data, hypothesis testing, generalization and interpretation, and preparation of the report or presentation of the results. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organisation. According to Clifford woody, research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions collecting, organising and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions; to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

    Question 3

    The three common approaches to conducting research are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. The
    researcher anticipates the type of data needed to respond to the research question. For instance, is numerical, textural,
    or both numerical and textural data needed? Based on this assessment, the researcher selects one of the three
    aforementioned approaches to conduct research. Researchers typically select the quantitative approach to respond to
    research questions requiring numerical data, the qualitative approach for research questions requiring textural data,
    and the mixed methods approach for research questions requiring both numerical and textural data.

    This various notions could be stated as criteria, also there are 3 basic steps to follow when considering a research program.

    Three Purposes of Research

    Social research can serve a variety of purposes. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description and explanation.

    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.

    Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.

    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same. Given these statistics, you could start to develop an explanation for attitudes toward marijuana legalization. In addition, further study of gender and political orientation could lead to a deeper explanation of this issue.

    Question 4

    Research is at times mistaken for gathering information, documenting facts, and rummaging for information
    (Leedy & Ormrod, 2001). Research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to understand
    a phenomenon (Leedy & Ormrod). The research process is systematic in that defining the objective, managing the
    data, and communicating the findings occur within established frameworks and in accordance with existing
    guidelines. The frameworks and guidelines provide researchers with an indication of what to include in the research,
    how to perform the research, and what types of inferences are probable based on the data collected.
    Research originates with at least one question about one phenomenon of interest.

    Quantitative research has dominated the western cultural as the research method to create meaning
    and new knowledge. What constitutes a quantitative research method involves a numeric or statistical approach to
    research design. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) alleged that quantitative research is specific in its surveying and
    experimentation, as it builds upon existing theories. The methodology of a quantitative research maintains the
    assumption of an empiricist paradigm (Creswell, 2003). The research itself is independent of the researcher. As a
    result, data is used to objectively measure reality. Quantitative research creates meaning through objectivity
    uncovered in the collected data.
    Quantitative research can be used in response to relational questions of variables within the research.
    “Quantitative researchers seek explanations and predictions that will generate to other persons and places. The intent
    is to establish, confirm, or validate relationships and to develop generalizations that contribute to theory” (Leedy and
    Ormrod, 2001, p. 102). Quantitative research begins with a problem statement and involves the formation of a
    hypothesis, a literature review, and a quantitative data analysis. Creswell (2003) states, quantitative research “employ
    strategies of inquiry such as experimental and surveys, and collect data on predetermined instruments that yield
    statistical data” (p. 18). The findings from quantitative research can be predictive, explanatory, and confirming. The
    next section focuses on quantitative research methodology.

    Qualitative research is a holistic approach that involves discovery. Qualitative research is also
    described as an unfolding model that occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail
    from high involvement in the actual experiences (Creswell, 1994). One identifier of a qualitative research is the social
    phenomenon being investigated from the participant‟s viewpoint. There are different types of research designs that use
    qualitative research techniques to frame the research approach. As a result, the different techniques have a dramatic
    effect on the research strategies explored.
    What constitutes qualitative research involves purposeful use for describing, explaining, and
    interpreting collected data. Leedy and Ormrod (2001) alleged that qualitative research is less structured in description
    because it formulates and builds new theories. Qualitative research can also be described as an effective model that
    occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail from being highly involved in the
    actual experiences (Creswell, 2003).
    Qualitative research is conducted within a poststructuralist paradigm. There are five areas of
    qualitative research: case study, ethnography study, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, and content
    analysis. These five areas are representative of research that is built upon inductive reasoning and associated
    methodologies.
    Qualitative research builds its premises on inductive, rather than deductive reasoning. It is from the
    observational elements that pose questions that the researcher attempts to explain. The strong correlation between the
    observer and the data is a marked difference from quantitative research, where the researcher is strictly outside of the
    phenomena being investigated. There is no beginning point of truth or any established assumptions from which the researcher can begin (Leedy and Ormrod, 2001).

    There are several different methods for conducting a qualitative research; however, Leedy and Ormrod
    (2001) recommend the following five: Case studies, grounded theory, ethnography, content analysis, and
    phenomenological. Creswell (2003) describes how these methods meet different needs. For instance, case studies and
    the grounded theory research explore processes, activities, and events while ethnographic research analyses broad
    cultural-sharing behaviors of individuals or groups. Case studies as well as phenomenology can be used to study
    individuals.

    Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) discussed the mixed methods approach to research, which emerged in the
    mid-to-late 1900s (Tashakkori & Teddlie). Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) hoped that the mixed methods approach
    to research provided researchers with an alternative to believing that the quantitative and qualitative research
    approaches are incompatible and, in turn, their associated methods “cannot and should not be mixed” (p. 14)

    The mixed methods approach to research is an extension of rather than a replacement for the quantitative and
    qualitative approaches to research, as the latter two research approaches will continue to be useful and important
    (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004). The goal for researchers using the mixed methods approach to research is to draw
    from the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative research approaches (Johnson &
    Onwuegbuzie). Of course, the strengths and weaknesses associated with the various research approaches are not
    absolute but rather relative to the context and the manner in which researchers aspire to address the phenomenon
    under study. For example, if the researcher purports to provide in-depth insight into a phenomenon, the researcher
    might view selecting a small but informative sample, which is typical of qualitative research. The researcher might use
    inferential statistics to quantify the results, which is typical of quantitative research, as strengths worthy of combining
    into a single research study.
    By having the ability to design research studies that combine data collection or data analysis methods from
    the quantitative and qualitative research approaches, researchers are now able to test and build theories. Researchers
    are also able to employ deductive and inductive analysis in the same research study. The mixed methods approach to
    research provides researchers with the ability to design a single research study that answers questions about both the
    complex nature of phenomenon from the participants‟ point of view and the relationship between measurable
    variables. Proponents of the mixed methods approach to research advocate doing „what works‟ within the precepts of
    research to investigate, to predict, to explore, to describe, to understand the phenomenon (Carr, 1994; Creswell, 2003;
    Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Mingers, 2001; Sale, Lohfeld, & Brazil, 2002; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). That is,
    in relation to the mixed methods approach to research, pragmatic assumptions govern claims about what is knowledge
    (Creswell; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998). The fact that the quantitative and the qualitative
    research approaches are not only compatible but also complimentary underpins calls for additional research studies
    that use the mixed methods research approach (Carr; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie; Mingers; Sale, Lohfeld, & Brazil;
    Tashakkori & Teddlie).

    Question 5

    Some researcher find it hard to begin research and formulate a research topic. A good research topic is a big step towards a successful research. But sometimes it is not that easy because you need a research topic that is workable for you, narrowed down to the best possible, and clear and precise. But, of course not everyone encounters similar problems in formulating a topic for their research. Some people find the best topic as a result of some discussion with the research supervisor, friends, research partners etc. Sometimes brainstorming helps or a topic suddenly comes into your mind that is most suitable for your situation.

    Another difficulty arises when you have to find the sources of information for your research. You need plenty of sources directly and indirectly related to your research topic. Sometimes the topic is one that is less researched in the past. Otherwise, most of the information s lost and you need to find sources but they are few. Similarly, sometimes the books and journals you need are not available in your library database. All or any of these situations bring a new difficulty in the research writing. But there is always a solution the librarian in your institute or public library can help you find the best possible sources. You can request your librarian to get the required material from another library.

    Question 6

    ~Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    ~Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    ~Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    ~Correlational research is a study into the relationship between two variables. Inspecting precisely two variables, this type of research seeks to discover and render the relationship between variables suspected of relating in some way.

    This research seeks to make sense out of the variables identified in earlier stages of research. Although correlational research is not sufficient to conclude on cause and effect relationships, it is necessary to conduct to find whether a relationship between variables exists to begin with.

    An observational form of research, it is non-experimental; there is no controlling or manipulation of the variables involved.

    The relationship between the variables can be either positive, negative or zero (nonexisten)

    ~Causal research is founded on the undertaking of determining cause and effect relationships. As such, it involves conducting experiments and testing markets in a controlled setting. It is more scientific than any of the previous types of research.

    This kind of research uses the findings from correlational and explanatory research in an attempt to unearth causal relationships. Since correlation does not equal causation, causal research studies whether the variables with a negative or positive correlation have any effect on the other variable(s) in the study.

    Causal research has two objectives: finding which variable forms the cause and which makes up the effect, and understanding the relationship of the causal variables after the effect occurs.

    ~Experimental research vigorously follows a scientific research design. It is entirely scientific, more so than causal research, as it nearly, if not fully implements the scientific method towards finding a solution.

    The final stage of the research process, this kind of research uses all the information from the previous stages to conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis. It can also follow causal research; causal research itself is a kind of experimental research.

    Researchers can conduct further experiments on the variables they found causal relationships for, in that they can test how to reverse an unwanted correlation, or minimize it to some degree. Or, further experiments can show a business how to reap more benefits from a desired correlation.

    Question 7

    The establishment of social science research in developing countries has not been an easy process because problems and challenges related with social science research continues even till date. One of the main reasons for the variable research quality is the lack of proper institutional support.
    Although a number of third world social scientists have achieved eminence in the international social science community, a majority of the institutions are yet to make a mark in the international academic community. Research organisations recruit university graduates, but do not invest in
    further research capacity building and training. Applied research organisations and consulting firms are increasingly becoming attractive career options but there is a preference in these organisations to
    produce policy papers or briefs with no incentives to publish academic articles in refereed journals.
    While the bulk of social science research is undertaken in universities and public-funded research organizations, the university administration is not research friendly and there are no incentive structures – either financial or professional – to encourage teachers to undertake research. Some
    NGOs and policy research initiatives such as think tanks have also produced specific development focused research products but generally do not have longer term interest in research and the quality of their research is not yet established. Thus, the future of Social Science Research depends on how
    we overcome these challenges.

  30. Avatar Okafor Roseline Chugo 2019/248202 says:

    1.lResearch has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Research is a systematic process which tries to find answers to certain questions. According to David Burns “ Research is systematic investigation to find answers to problem ”.
    Research is a process through which new knowledge is discovered.
    Research proccedures should be carefully planned and described in order to enable other researchers to do research for further advancements. Research design should be carefully planned in order to generate results that are as objective as possible.
    Researcher should report, with complete frankness flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects on findings.
    Adequate data analysis and appropriate methods for data analysis so that there no errors.
    Validity and reliability of data should examined.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details
    research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    The first step requires the research to organize and prepare the data for analysis through transcribing interviews, optimally scanning material, and cataloging each visual material among others. The second step according to Creswell (2013) is reading or looking at all the data. The essence of this step is to gain a general sense of the information and to secure the opportunity to reflect on its overall meaning. The third phase in qualitative data analysis is coding the data. In this case, a researcher organizes the collected data by categorizing the images and text and then labeling the categories with a term.

    4.lAdherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    clearly defined
    The purpose of the research the problem involved or the decision to be made should be clearly defined and sharply delineated in terms as unambiguous as possible. The statement of the decision problem should include its scope, limitations and precise specifications of the meanings of all words and terms significant to the research. Failure of the researcher to do this adequately may raise legitimate doubts in the minds of research report readers as to whether the researcher has sufficient understanding of the problem to make a sound proposal to attack it.
    process detailed
    The research procedures used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research. Except when secrecy is imposed, research reports should reveal with candor the sources of data and the means by which they were obtained. Omissions of significant procedural details make it difficult or impossible to estimate the validity and reliability of the data and justifiably weaken the confidence of the reader in the research and any recommendations based on the research.
    Research design thoroughly planned
    The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. When a sampling of the population is involved the report should include evidence concerning the degree of representatives of the sample. A survey of opinions or recollections ought not to be used when more reliable evidence is available from documentary sources or by direct observation.
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    : Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc. Here’s a list of top challenges that we found intimidating for budding researchers:
    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.
    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.
    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.
    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.
    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.
    Concerns that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.
    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

  31. Avatar Ugwuda confidence chika says:

    ritical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate
    manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

    2.it means the systematic inquiry for describing, explaining, predicting, as well as controlling an observable phenomenon. Research involves the use of both inductive as well as deductive methods.
    Inductive research methods are used to analyse observable events. Deductive methods are used to verify the event that has been observed. Inductive research includes the use of qualitative research methods whereas deductive approach more commonly uses quantitative analysis.

    3.Qualitative research:
    •Focuses on understanding meaning
    •Uses emerging questions
    •Collects data in participant’s setting
    •Uses the an inductive approach to analysis
    •Has a written report that is flexible in structure
    Quantitative research:
    •Tests objective theories
    •Examines relationships among measurable variables
    •Uses survey instruments that produce numbered data
    •Uses statistical analysis of data generated
    •Tests theories deductively
    •Uses a set structure for the final report
    Mixed methods research:
    .Collects both quantitative and qualitative data
    •Integrates the two forms of data
    •Uses distinct designs that may involve philosophy or theory
    4. Specify ONE objective: If the research question is too broad, it will be hard to focus and develop a plan of action. Too narrow, and it may be impossible to solve. Striking a balance between the two extremes is the way to go for the best results. The objective could relate to an event, relationship, identity, or situation.
    Name the individual: Be sure to state the full name, as well as any aliases, of the person who is the focus of the research. Stating something like, “my third great-grandfather” with no name, is of no help to you (or other researchers) since you have more than one third great-grandfather. In fact, your relationship to the subject doesn’t need to be mentioned at all.
    Include distinguishable characteristics: Adding one or or two known facts about the individual to the question will help distinguish him/her from others of the same name. These characteristics could be a relationship (e.g., daughter of so-and-so), a place (e.g., resided in Fulton County, Illinois, from 1860 to 1900), an event date (e.g., born about 1772), an occupation, and so on. Don’t get so detailed here that is takes away from the question. You just need enough to put the person in his or her context to make them unique

    •Yields additional insight to a research problem5.workforce is increasing, the funding in most countries has been on a decline over the past decade. The situation is particularly perilous for early career researchers who find it hard to compete for funds with senior researchers. This extreme competition is also impacting the way science is conducted. The respondents of the Vox survey pointed out that since most grants are allotted only for a couple of years, researchers tend to opt for short-term projects, which can sometimes be insufficient to study complex research questions. This means researchers make choices based on what would keep the funding bodies and their institutions happy. However, the consequences of these choices are an increasing number of published papers with sub-standard quality and low research impact.
    2. Poor study design in published papers

    Poorly designed studies have become a m
    Academia is gradually moving towards open science and open access by signing open data mandates and making data sharing mandatory. However, there are many big publishers that operate their journals on subscription-based models. Paying for paywalled research is becoming difficult for researchers as well as institutions, particularly in the developing countries, due to the ever-increasing subscription fees. Many of the Vox survey respondents were critical of this as it affects the way scientific research is disseminated. Moreover, subscription-based publishing model is probably the single most important factor responsible for the foundation of Sci-Hub, a website that provides unauthorized access to almost all paywalled research papers. The only way of avoiding such consequences is developing methods to make access to research easier for the science community.
    6. Lack of adequate and accurate science communication
    It is a well-known fact that a wide communication gap exists between the scientific and the non-scientific community. This has resulted in miscommunication of science, divided opinions about scientific matters, and lack of informed decision-making among the public. Researchers are partly responsible for this because they lack time or sometimes the inclination to engage with the public about their research work. Therefore, the public is largely dependent on the media, which is often blamed for misconstruing scientific facts. The competitive nature of academic research is also responsible for poor communication of research. In an attempt to grab attention, sometimes researchers, universities, and even journals mislead the public by hyping the results or promoting only positive results. However, the science community should take the responsibility of projecting an accurate picture of science to the public since so that they can become cognizant of scientific issues and have a say in the way their tax money is invested in research.
    Bonus takeaway exclusively for community members
    7. Stressful nature of academic/postdoc life
    Unarguably, the life of a postdoctoral researcher is grueling. Although it is the postdocs who drive academic research in many labs and are the future of academic research, they face challenges due to fierce competition, low income, and low job security. While the number of postdoctoral researchers is increasing, the number of permanent positions in academia is not increasing at a similar rate. Moreover, PhD programs fail to train postdocs to find a non-academic job, which leaves them struggling to find a route to advance their career. For scientific research to make strides, these young researchers should be absorbed in mainstream science.
    The Vox survey outlines some of the biggest concerns academia is grappling with at present. Apart from these, academics are also not unknown to other rampant problems such as gender inequality, research/academic misconduct, and excessive dependence on impact factor. Despite these problems, there is still hope for science. The science community is attempting to avoid the stagnation of scientific progress by taking steps toward bringing more transparency, spreading awareness about the importance of ethics, and making science more inclusive rather than exclusive. However, there are no quick fixes when it comes to science; thus, while bringing these changes will take time, each step would mean a leap toward scientific progression
    6. Exploratory Research
    What it is: Used to reveal facts and details around a topic with little to no research, exploratory research forms the foundation of the research process. It identifies a topic, be it an issue or a phenomenon with scant details and seeks to find its basic properties.
    As such, it finds the correct variables the researcher needs in order to begin the study, understand its basic elements and form a hypothesis. The key issue at hand, its variables and its hypothesis are used for further research.
    Essentially, this kind of research forms the premise of a research campaign, assuring that the variables and other components are indeed what the researcher needs to study in the next steps (other types of research).
    Stage in the research process: The very first
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: Before a business can explore an issue in-depth, it needs to decide on a specific topic, the existing problem within the topic and its key variables. This ensures the business is equipped to enter the next research stage (type) and that it does not have any extraneous variables or concerns that do not contribute to solving the problem.
    Descriptive Research
    What it is: This type of research is premised on describing a phenomenon, behavior or problem discovered in an earlier stage of research, usually in exploratory research, although it can also be focused around that which was discovered in explanatory research.
    Descriptive research describes the nuances of a population, a variable or occurrence that a researcher requires further study on. Its objective centers on finding previously unknown facts or extracting more details on facets with fewer details.
    It focuses on the what, how, when and where of a study rather than on the why.
    Stage in the research process: The early portion of the middle stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: It is crucial for a business to understand a phenomenon and its variables in a full or close-to-full context. This type of research helps a business do just that, as it finds all the key details about a phenomenon that a business may not have known about before conducting the research.
    What’s more is that, as a primarily quantitative form of research, it is apt for creating statistics. Being statistically-oriented allows this form of research to be conclusive, although it is considered to be in the early mid-stages of an entire research project.
    These statistics are not simply key for internal resource purposes, but they provide a differentiating ingredient for your content. A strong content marketing strategy relies on putting out original insights; the data you derive from descriptive research is as original as it gets. This can be accomplished when you opt for a primary method (such as survey research).
    Explanatory Research

    What it is: Explanatory research is based on research that explains the already established aspects in a research campaign. It fills in the gaps and connects the dots from exploratory and descriptive research.
    This type of research is unique in that it can be conducted either prior to or after descriptive research. As such, it rests in the early to mid-stages of the overall research process.
    Like descriptive research, it works to shine a light on the various details that make up a research subject of study. However, contrary to descriptive research, it does not simply seek to describe, but rather to explain.
    Thus, this research category falls under qualitative research. It helps find the why of a problem or phenomenon. It is not conclusive.
    Stage in the research process: Early to mid-stages (can be performed before or after descriptive research, depending on a business’s needs).
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: It benefits a business in that it seeks to go beyond describing a subject of study. Rather, it plunges into a subject in greater depth, finding the kinds of insights that descriptive research cannot.
    Additionally, it is flexible. It can be conducted following exploratory research and either before or after descriptive research, the only research of its kind to offer this benefit.
    This research involves studying an important aspect that is studied in the later stages of the entire process, that of cause and effect. Explanatory research studies cause and effect relationships so as to explain their scope and nature, a critical precursor for correlational and causal research.
    Correlational Research
    What it is: Correlational research is a study into the relationship between two variables. Inspecting precisely two variables, this type of research seeks to discover and render the relationship between variables suspected of relating in some way.
    This research seeks to make sense out of the variables identified in earlier stages of research. Although correlational research is not sufficient to conclude on cause and effect relationships, it is necessary to conduct to find whether a relationship between variables exists to begin with.
    An observational form of research, it is non-experimental; there is no controlling or manipulation of the variables involved.
    The relationship between the variables can be either positive, negative or zero (nonexistent).
    Stage in the research process: Middle stage
    Conclusive? No
    How it benefits a business: Being able to determine if there is a positive, negative or zero correlation between two variables allows researchers to know how to move on to the next step: finding a cause and effect relationship between the variables.
    A zero correlation informs a business that there’s no need to further study the relationship between two particular variables, saving the business money and time. A negative or positive correlation dictates that further research is needed to discover whether there is cause and effect relationship.
    Either way, the results derived from this type of research are highly influential on the next steps a business decides to take in their research process: whether to end it, continue and how.
    Above all, it reveals how two variables relate to one other, giving a business a clearer picture of the environment they operate within, whether the variables concern sales figures, impressions or something more abstract like customer loyalty.
    Causal Research
    What it is: Causal research is founded on the undertaking of determining cause and effect relationships. As such, it involves conducting experiments and testing markets in a controlled setting. It is more scientific than any of the previous types of research.
    This kind of research uses the findings from correlational and explanatory research in an attempt to unearth causal relationships. Since correlation does not equal causation, causal research studies whether the variables with a negative or positive correlation have any effect on the other variable(s) in the study.
    Causal research has two objectives: finding which variable forms the cause and which makes up the effect, and understanding the relationship of the causal variables after the effect occurs.
    Stage in the research process: Late-final stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: Often the final form of research, causal research is critical to complete the entire process. It involves conducting both secondary and primary research, the latter of which is experimental.
    As such, this research type does not only observe, rather it investigates the variables themselves, manipulating them and controlling them as needed. This is crucial for a business in that it not only analyzes, but proves the existence of a causal relationship, along with how the effect manifests.
    Thus, this research is not only conclusive, as it finds the most important result that a business or market researcher seeks: a proven answer to their hypothesis. This allows researchers to close off the research process, or conduct further experimental research if they so choose.
    Experimental Research

    What it is: Experimental research vigorously follows a scientific research design. It is entirely scientific, more so than causal research, as it nearly, if not fully implements the scientific method towards finding a solution.
    The final stage of the research process, this kind of research uses all the information from the previous stages to conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis. It can also follow causal research; causal research itself is a kind of experimental research.
    Researchers can conduct further experiments on the variables they found causal relationships for, in that they can test how to reverse an unwanted correlation, or minimize it to some degree. Or, further experiments can show a business how to reap more benefits from a desired correlation.
    Stage in the research process: Final stage
    Conclusive? Yes
    How it benefits a business: Experimental research proves or disproves a hypothesis; as such, it is the final stage in the research process. It is the most scientific kind, leaving little to no room for errors, intuition or bias.
    It can be used to accommodate causal research, digging further into a discovered cause and effect relationship. This is especially important for a business, as while it is critical to know whether a causal relationship exists, understanding how to move forward with this knowledge is of the essence.
    Experimental research allows brands to test discovered causal relationships further, finding much-needed solutions. For example, a brand may want to learn how to reduce an unwanted correlation or to increase a needed correlation. Moreover, conducting further experiments can show brands how to gain a desired causal relationship sooner.
    Complementing Your Research
    In summary, there are six major types of research. A market researcher must consider these carefully before setting up their market research campaign. In order to build a comprehensive and effective study, you need to be able to organize your research.
    To begin this endeavor, you need to classify your research topic(s) under a particular campaign, such as advertising, for example. Following this, you need to create a smooth and educated process. Thus, you need to follow the research process by way of the 6 dominant forms of research that this guide explains.
    Doing so will ensure you conduct a comprehensive research campaign, one that leaves little to discover, except for possible future events, In order to complement your research, you need to conduct effective surveys for research campaigns. These allow you to understand your target market or target population. Even in experimental research, conducting surveys helps fill in the cracks and find answers to the unknown. Understanding your respondents, i.e., customers is paramount for a business. The proper online survey tool does not solely compliment a business or research endeavor, it completes it.
    7. Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.
    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  32. Avatar Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi says:

    Name: Onwudimegwu Emmanuel Onyekachi
    Reg No: 2019/246703
    Department: Combined Social Science (Economics and Sociology)
    Eco 391

    1: 1) Research is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    Nevertheless, it is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. Development research is focussed on relevant, useful and important questions. If there are no questions, there can be no research.
    If government, business, institutions, labour, organisations and society in general are to function efficiently and effectively, it is important that the decisions they make are based on genuine and reliable information and thorough analysis. The search for this information is referred to as the research process. There maybe an already existing body of evidence (prior research, studies etc) you can make use of. If there is not, there is a need for research.

    2) Research is a process to discover or find new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    3) The definition of research as provided by John W. Creswell is “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue” This definition states that a research is a systematic way to find a solution of a problem and that solution helps in adding to the available knowledge.
    This step-by-step approach requires the following steps:
    *Formulation of a problem
    * Collecting data to solve that problem
    *Analyzing that data to reach the conclusion about that problem

    4) There are several criteria that are generally recognized as necessary for a process to be considered “research.” Here are three of the most important ones:

    The process must be systematic: This means that the research must be carefully planned and executed in a logical and organized manner. For example, a scientist studying the effects of a new drug on a particular disease would need to carefully design and implement a study that controls for various variables, such as the age and health of the participants, to ensure that any observed effects can be confidently attributed to the drug being tested.
    The process must be empirical: This means that the research must be based on observations and data, rather than just theory or speculation. For example, a sociologist studying the impact of poverty on education outcomes might collect data on income levels and test scores from a large number of schools, and use statistical analysis to look for patterns and correlations.
    The process must be replicable: This means that other researchers should be able to follow the same procedures and obtain similar results. This is important because it helps to ensure the reliability and validity of the research. For example, if a psychologist conducts a study showing that a certain therapy is effective for treating depression, other researchers should be able to replicate the study and get similar results in order to confirm the validity of the original findings.

    5). Yes, the purpose of research can be complex and multifaceted. In general, the purpose of research is to increase our understanding of the world around us and to find solutions to problems that we face. However, the specific goals and objectives of research can vary widely depending on the discipline and area of study.

    For example, research in the natural sciences (such as biology, physics, and chemistry) is often focused on understanding how the natural world works and discovering new laws and principles that govern the behavior of the universe. This type of research may be driven by a desire to understand the fundamental nature of the world and to explain phenomena that have been observed.

    In the social sciences (such as psychology, sociology, and economics), research is often focused on understanding human behavior and the social, cultural, and economic systems that shape our world. This type of research may be driven by a desire to improve social policies, to understand the root causes of social problems, or to identify ways to promote social change.

    In the humanities (such as literature, history, and philosophy), research is often focused on understanding the human experience and the cultural and historical context in which it occurs. This type of research may be driven by a desire to understand the past and to learn from it, or to analyze and interpret cultural artifacts and ideas.

    Overall, the purpose of research is to gain new knowledge and insights that can help us to better understand and address the challenges and problems that we face in the world.

    6). The purpose of research is the following-
    I. Exploration
    II. Description
    III. Causal Explanation
    IV. Prediction.
    Exploration is finding out about some previously unexamined phenomenon. It is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the course of the study. Through exploration, researchers – Develop concepts more clearly – Establish priorities – Develop operational definitions – Formulate research hypotheses, and – Improve the final research design. Explorative studies tend toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. One might think, for example, of initiating an exploratory research in the following situations – Crime is increasing in the city at an alarming rate, the reasons for which remain unknown. The problem is ambiguous and what is actually happening is to be cleared. A new product is to be marketed, the manufacturer remains in worry if the product will be accepted by the people or not.

    Description: Description refers to the data based information-gathering activities. The situations and events which are described through studies are referred to as descriptive studies. Descriptive studies try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where and sometimes how. A descriptive study may be feasible in the following cases – What are the characteristics of the people who are involved in city crime? Are they young? Middle aged? Poor?
    Who are the potential buyers of the new product? Men or women? Urban people or rural people?

    Causal Exploration: An explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to establish cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It explains the reason for the phenomenon that describes study observed. Thus, if a researcher finds that communities having higher family size have higher child death, s/he is performing a descriptive study. If researcher is explaining why it is so and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationship, s/he is performing an explanatory study. Such studies are also called causal studies.

    Prediction: Prediction seeks to answer when and in what situations the event will occur, if it can be provided plausible explanation for the vent in question. In addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, it will be able to predict when the event will occur.

    7). There are several challenges that researchers may face when conducting social science research in developing countries. Some of these challenges include:

    Cultural differences: Researchers may encounter cultural differences that can impact the way they conduct their research and interpret their findings. For example, certain cultural practices or beliefs may be unfamiliar to the researcher, leading to misunderstandings or inaccurate conclusions.
    Limited resources: Developing countries often have limited resources, which can make it difficult for researchers to access the necessary materials and equipment for their studies. This can also make it challenging to recruit participants and gather data.
    Political instability: Political instability and conflict can make it difficult for researchers to access certain areas or obtain permission to conduct their research. This can also lead to safety concerns for researchers and participants.
    Language barriers: Researchers may encounter language barriers that make it difficult to communicate with participants and understand their experiences.
    Ethical concerns: Researchers may face ethical concerns when conducting research in developing countries, such as obtaining informed consent from participants or protecting their privacy.
    Overall, conducting social science research in developing countries requires careful consideration of these and other challenges in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the research findings.

  33. Avatar Okoh Rachel Ifunanya says:

    Name: Okoh Rachel Ifunanya
    Registration Number: 2019/242735
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391

    1) Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss. Research is a process of investigation. An examination of a subject from different points of view. It’s not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth. It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest you and following up on them. Research is the way you educate yourself.
    2) Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in detail. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.
    3) Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples. 1) Pose a question 2) Collect data to answer questions 3) Present answer to the question
    4) Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Validity: means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Philosophies: this means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained.
    5) The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness. It helps us succeed in business.
    6) For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6. Clearly discuss these 6 categories. Discovery – finding out new situations. Hypothesis testing – research helps test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis. Monitoring – many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained. Explanation – possibly the most cited reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Prediction – research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen. Control – control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.
    7) The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly. Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars. Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets in the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic. Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible. A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources. Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

  34. Avatar ODIMBU GIFT AWELE says:

    Name: Odimbu Gift Awele
    Department: Economics Major
    Reg Number: 2019/245398

    QUESTIONS 1; What is research? Some people will say that they routinely research different online websites to find the best place to buy goods or services they want. Television news channels supposedly conduct research in the form of viewer polls on topics of public interest such as forthcoming elections or government-funded projects. Undergraduate students research the Internet to find the information they need to complete assigned projects or term papers. Graduate students working on research projects for a professor may see research as collecting or analyzing data related to their project. Businesses and consultants research different potential solutions to remedy organizational problems such as a supply chain bottleneck or to identify customer purchase patterns. However, none of the above can be considered “scientific research” unless: (1) it contributes to a body of science, and (2) it follows the scientific method. This chapter will examine what these terms mean.

    QUESTION 2;. Research is a process to discover new knowledge. pertaining to the inquiry human subjects, research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.
    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    QUESTION 3;. It consists of 3steps , yes… to Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present ananswer to the question.Research is an inquiry process that has clearly defined parameters and as itsaim the discovery or creation of knowledge or theory building, testing, confirmation,revision, refutation of knowledge and theory; and/ or investigation of a problem forlocal decision making . Research is a scientific, experimental, or inductive manner of thinking.Starting from particular to more complex ideas, you execute varied thinking acts thatrange from lower-order to higher-order thinking strategies reflected by these research activities: identifying the topic or problem, gathering data, making theories,formulating hypotheses, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. Cognitively driven terms like empirical, logical, cyclical, analytical, critical, methodical, and replicableare the right descriptive words to characterize research. These modifiers explained to a certain extent, are the very same terms to characterize any quantitative research you intend to carry outthis time.The data you work on in research do not come mainly from yourself but alsofrom other sources of knowledge like people, books, and artworks, among others.Hence, one cardinal principle in research is to give acknowledgment to owners of all sources of knowledge involved in your research work.

    QUESTION 4;.

    Step 1: Identify the Problem

    The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. example is that , the problem that the agency has identified is childhood obesity, which is a local problem and concern within the community. This serves as the focus of the study.

    Step 2: Clarify the Problem

    Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The knowledge gained through the review of literature guides the researcher in clarifying and narrowing the research project. In the example, the programmer has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is very broad and could be studied based on genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence, leisure activities, or health issues. All of these areas cannot be investigated in a single study; therefore, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined. This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem

    Step 3: Collect Data

    Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the literature.

    QUESTION 5;. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’.
    Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.
    An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure maths is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied maths, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity.

    QUESTION 6;.
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.
    Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers.

    For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice

    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.

    Exploratory Research

    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.

    Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.

    For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.

    Descriptive Research

    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.
    In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved.
    For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.

    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.

    Explanatory research.
    is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment.

    For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.

    QUESTION 7; Research in the humanities is considered by many to be totally different from that of the natural sciences in terms of
    theory and methodology. Claims are made that humanities are not part of what is called “the sciences”, especially history
    and the literary studies since they are exclusively based on textual sources. Humanities research is seen as lacking the
    rigor that is present in the natural sciences – it is a “soft” science, where a researcher can closet himself/herself in the
    archives and call that research. Thus there is talk of the “two cultures” – and the term dominates the organization of
    disciplines in universities and drives the distribution of most national research funding . These views are
    held by policy makers, the public and the natural scientists themselves, as well as some researchers in the humanities.
    However, research in the humanities and social sciences does not have to adhere to the “lofty” ideals of research in the
    natural sciences. There is instead need for close collaboration with the natural sciences because the different types of
    approaches contribute to a multidimensional solving of research problems. an example of research
    in human cloning and states that “science today must be accompanied by profound thinking on morals and ethics, domains
    whose matrix is the humanities” and social sciences. Issues such as human cloning cannot be the
    preserve of natural scientists alone, but also require the input of the humanities and social sciences. The research ethics
    which underpins such research cannot be limited to either type of research but is all-embracive, thereby underscoring the
    need to focus on the knowledge continuum when engaging in research for development, scholarship and knowledge
    generation.

  35. Avatar Idajor John Ayuochieyi says:

    It is no doubt that research has different definitions in different fields, and the understanding differs according to the different fields and their applications. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Research can also be seen as the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Now considering the following “Research is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems”. Looking at the following key points:
    Systematic application
    Family of methods
    Trustworthy information
    Systematic application: Systematic application can be seen as a means of management aimed at reducing the number and severity of mistakes, errors and failures due to either human or technological functions involved. In application to research, it involves a systematic method used in carrying out research in order to get if not appropriate result, at least a close percentage of the true result. It does not make use of intuition, prophecy or any other means, but uses a particular method known as the scientific method. The word science according to professor Mrs. Madueme Stella is “a systematic and organized body of knowledge in any area of inquiry that is acquired using “the scientific method”. Other research such as intuition, prophecy and other are non scientific and cannot be clearly studied, understand or proven, thus, it give room for argument.
    Family of methods: Have seen that a quality and reliable research has to do with a scientific method, these scientific methods are made up of different stages or aspects that at the end of the result, it can be proven, referred and even re conducted to prove the result. The following are the scientific methods used in studying at phenomenon before getting the result. They are:
    Logical: Scientific inferences must be based on logical principles of reasoning.
    Confirmable: Inferences derived must match with observed evidence. Repeatable: Other scientists should be able to independently replicate or repeat a scientific study and obtain similar, if not identical, results.
    Scrutinizable: The procedures used and the inferences derived must withstand critical scrutiny (peer review) by other scientists.
    Still the more, due to the context of research, there is a quantitative AMD qualitative method employed. When we say it is made up of a family of methods, it means that it make use of different methods that makes the result authentic.
    Trustworthy information: When we say an information is trustworthy, we mean it is a reliable piece of information that is current, free from biases, accurate, and also from a reputable authority (author or organization). When research is said to be a trustworthy research, it means the research has undergone the different levels of scientific methods which makes it trustworthy in solving problems. This means that, the result from the research can be logically analized, can be confirmed for clearance of doubt, can re conducted repeatedly for confirmation and can also be critically scrutinized. With this, it can be trusted that results from research can be made clear for people to understand unlike the use of intuition, sooth saying, etc that has no prove.
    Answer to question two
    For a research to be reliable, there must be a careful inquiry and examination of samples, context and other things. For more understanding, let’s analyze the query part by part. The key points are as follows:
    Careful inquiry or examination
    Discovery of new information or relationships
    Expansion and verification of existing knowledge
    Careful inquiry or examination: The word “careful” means close attention and the word “inquiry” means search for truth, information, or knowledge; examination of facts or principles. Then, the word “Examination” means to observe or inspect carefully or critically. With the use of scientific methods, the can able to carefully inquire or search for truth in the population. If a researcher wants to know the number of farmers in Ogoja local government, the researcher must sit down to plan his queries, how to contact farmers in Ogoja,etc. The researcher will meet both farmers and non farmers for effective information, after the inquiries, the researcher takes a critical analysis or examination of his research to ensure proper and referable information.
    Discovery of new information or relationships: When there is an argument or when there is need to carry out a new research over a particular one, most likely, there seem to be a new discovery or change from the previous research carried out. With the presence of a new carefully made research, it brings to mind the knowledge hidden before and also gives a clearer understanding of the new one. With the discovery of a new information, it makes null the old ones and brings to play the new one. Take for an instance, a researcher carried out a research and found out that, farmers get more yield from crops without applying fertilizer, and that has been the belief of farmers, as time goes on, a researcher argues this result and went on to re conduct his on research and found that the application of fertilizer to crops makes a high yeild and this becomes the new result from the old one. With this result, it brings to the minds of farmers that applying fertilizer to their crops gives a high yeild and makes the farmer understand that fertilizer is also important.
    Expansion and verification of existing knowledge: When we say research, the word is the combination of two words, “re” and “search”. Re means over and over again and search means an attempt to find something. This shows that research over a topic or an issue cannot just be done once, the continues attempt to find something (survey) leads to expansion and verification of existing knowledge. What do I mean by this? For instance, if a research shows that, cultivating supi ( a specie of rice) and harvesting twice a year is the best, this research shows that this is the fastest growing specie of rise for the moment. Now if another research is carried out and the result shows that another specie of rice known as iron rice can be cultivated and harvested in three months. With these researches made, we can deduce an expansion and verification of research.
    This shows also the benefit of research. With the help of research our world today has changed from the use of lamp to the use of electricity and not only light but so many other changes. Also, research brings development in different areas of studies.
    Answer to question three
    Creswell methods of research consist of:
    Pose a question,
    collect data to answer the question,
    and present an answer to the question
    Pose a question: The creation of questions by the researcher gives the bedrock of his research. If the researcher has no questions directed to towards his area of research, then he or she is not carrying out a research. For example, if a researcher is to research on the causes of infertility in women in Nsukka local government, he will direct his questions to those things that cause infertility in Nsukka local government, and not to reasons for poverty in Nsukka. Thus, he may ask questions like: What is the origin of fertility in Nsukka? How long has it lasted? Etc. To pose a question on what someone is to research on is as vital as using pen on a sheet of paper.
    There are many ways a researcher can pose questions on the masses, he may decide to print out questioners for people to fill so as to allow the express their views in writing, also, there can be face to face dialogue or interview to allow people explain in details their views over the research, this method is also good. In anywhere the researcher would use to pose a question, what matters is that questions directed to area of research is necessary.
    Collect data to answer the questions: In statistics, there is what is known as population and sample. Population is the total number of objects from which a sample is taken for survey, while sample is the number of objects taken from the population for survey. For a researcher to get answers to his questions, he must first locate the area of his survey and get some data ( number of persons) from the population to answer his questions. For example, if the researcher on infertility in women in Nsukka local government wants to get answers to his research, he must first go to Nsukka and ask some proportion of peoples in Nsukka the questions set by him on the topic of his research. It is possible that he cannot meet every member of Nsukka local government for answers. The number of persons he meet maybe 60% would be able to give him satisfying answers to the topic which would stand out for the whole population. With this step taken, he would be able to get answers to his queries.
    Present an answer to the question: The next thing a researcher does is to assemble all the different answers to his questions and analyze them, take out the best from the answers and formulate his result. How he does this is by comparing answers if like lines and of related views together, analyze them and come out with a result. This result may not be hundred percent correct, but may be close to the expected answer, that is why researchers carry out research over and over against a particular topic. So, in order for the researcher to get answers to questions, he assembles and analyzes the answers and come out with a result.
    Answer to question four
    For a given process to be called a research, the following must be adhered to, viz:
    Knowledge
    Conviction
    Significance
    Knowledge: knowledge can be seen as facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education it is also the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. For a given research to be successful and meaningful, there must be a knowledge and understanding of the topic or what the researcher needs to carry out research on. Imagine a researcher who is to research on the importance and efficacy of the holy mass ( the Eucharistic celebration) celebrated by the Catholic church, if such a researcher is not a Catholic but rather a Muslim, the research would be had for him because he has no basic knowledge of the Catholic church and the worst is that he is not a Christian. For him to be able to carry out this research very well, he has to seek for basic and wide knowledge of the Catholic church. In doing this he gains information, skills and experience in order to carry out his research well.
    Conviction: Conviction can be seen as a strong opinion or belief. It can also be seen as a firmly held belief. Gaining knowledge of something shows that you believe that such thing exist. For a researcher to have looked for facts, information and skillful experience and education towards what he is researching on, then, there is the likeliness that the researcher is convinced that all he has studied, inquired and learnt are true. Conviction has do with the full assurance and hope of the researcher over the information gathered. When a researcher gathers facts and information, he do not believe all the information at once and as such, he verifies the the information and do away with the fake ones. Thus, with full conviction, he affirms what he has taken. This shows the conviction of the researcher.
    Significance: This means the extent to which something matters, it can also be seen as the importance of something, especially when it has to do with something of the future. The importance of a research matters a lot and it varies according to how useful the research is. Some research may be as a result of confirmation, some may be as research to replace old ones, etc. Also, significance of a research varies in different fields. For instance, in economics, the research on the total number of men and women in the nation who are productive is very important to economists than a research in religion on the number of religion in a nation. Like in economics, the total number of men and women that determines the work force of the nation is important because if there is less workforce in the nation, the nation will suffer so many loss. As such, the researcher would take it very serious in order to determine the number of workforce in the country, this would show the weakness of the nation and with this proffer solutions to it. The significance of a research spells out the goals and the benefits to be received in the research.
    PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
    Musa is to carryout a research on the topic ” The importance of mass and the significance of the items used to say mass”. First, for Musa who is a Muslim to get a good knowledge of the topic, he makes plan on how and where to get it. This may be paying a visit to a priest and also living with the priest for some length of days in order to acquire, observe and also know the facts on this topic, by doing this he will gain a full knowledge and understanding of what mass is all about and also the importance of mass. He.would learn about the Holy Eucharist which is the center of the Catholic faith and also things used for the celebration of Mass, etc. With this experience, observation, and information gotten, at this point, he is fully convinced about the mass and things used. Now, for the significance, Musa would through the knowledge gotten know that the holy Mass is important for all Catholics because they derive a lot of graces from it. He may also be able to explain to his fellow Muslims the reason and importance of the holy mass. This is not a good example but tells about what the three criteria for a good research looks like. From the knowledge of the importance of the Holy mass for Catholicsthrough observation, learning and experience he was convinced about the data and knowledge gotten and hence, he knew the significance of the Holy Mass for Catholics, with all these, he will be able to give a good result from the research he carried out.
    Answer to question five
    There are many complicated issues in the research in different fields and disciplines in scientific research, this is due to the nature of the research to be carried out and some other factors. For instance, in social sciences like economics and sociology, it studies the nature of human behavior in relation to ends and scarce means which have alternative uses, sociology studies the behavior of human being and the society, ie human behavior in a group con text. Like other animals, human being is unpredictable, an analysis can be said of a human being in a moment to be extremely grieved while the next second, if that test is re conducted, there may be a different result or a little change from the former results gotten from the later. Thus, this is a complicated issue in one of the fields of science ( social science). Looking at another field in science like the natural science such as physics and chemistry which studies properties of matters and other bodies. These properties are not like humans that are not predictable, but still there are other matters that are complicating here other than prediction.
    Differences in the purpose of the research in different fields of studies in science is also another thing to look up to. In the social sciences, for instance like in economics, most of the researches carried out has to do with problems of human wants, consumption, scarcity, etc and a means of solving them. Researches here can be based on demand and supply of goods, price level in the economy, supply of money in the economy, etc. Another department of science in the social sciences like sociology looks at the science of building the society and it studies behavior that proffer unity and growth in the society. With the natural and social sciences, one can be able to depict the differences in scientific research and how the purpose of the research conducted in the subfields of science varies.
    Generally, some of the complicated issues in conducting scientific research are as follows:
    Financial crunch in academia.
    Poor study design in published papers.
    Lack of replication studies.
    Problems with peer review.
    Problem related to research accessibility.
    Lack of adequate and accurate science communication.
    Stressful nature of academic life.
    With the above mentioned problems, scientific research becomes complicated.
    Answer to question six
    The purposes of research can be generally categorized into the following:
    forming hypotheses,
    collecting data,
    analysing results,
    forming conclusions,
    implementing findings into real-life applications and
    forming new research questions.
    Forming Thesis: Thesis is a statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved. In order to form a thesis, making use of the information gotten from preliminary research is necessary because with the idea gotten from the preliminary research on your topic, it will help you to understand the topic and have a clear idea of what the topic is all about. A thesis statement summarizes what your research paper would look like, usually, it is the first statement made in your paper which shows your introduction to the topic. With the thesis statement, you will be able to give answer to how you will start you research and this at time makes it easier for other researcher to know if your material can service as a solution to their research. A good thesis statement includes all the relevant points and information in the work in a summarized form. Sometimes, a thesis statement can come in form of a question and the answer to it shows how your research will go. There are four steps to write a thesis, there are:
    Ask a question about your topic.
    Write your initial answer.
    Develop your answer by including reasons.
    Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.
    Collecting Data: The collection of data for research can take different ways. Data collection can be seen as a process of methodological gathering of information on a particular subject. Data collection can be gotten from a primary and a secondary source. Data collection is a vital aspect of research which without there will be no research done. The collection of data can be done in different ways according to how the researcher has designed his research. There are so many methods of collecting data such as:
    Data from literature sources: TThese are already prepared data found in textbooks, journal, etc which can be sorted for use. This is a secondary method of data collection.
    Survey: This is another method of a of data collection which makes use of questionaire. This can be in a web-base form or a printed one. This will allow people to express their views in a written way to the researcher.
    Interview: This can be qualitative method of data collection whose results are based on intensive engagement with respondents about a particular study. Usually, interviews are used in order to collect in-depth responses from the professionals being interviewed.

    Interview can be structured (formal), semi-structured or unstructured (informal). In essence, an interview method of data collection can be conducted through face-to-face meeting with the interviewee or through telephone or using the mass media.
    Observation: This is another method of research, this has to do with observing a phenomenon or what you are researching on. Some of the observation is usually with natural things which can be controlled.
    Other methods of research are documents and records, and also experiments.
    Analyzing results: The process of data analysis or result analysis begins from your gathering of data and your preliminary understanding of your topic of research. This has to do with the different methods of data collection after which the data would be studied in order to know the ones that are not in relationship with others and to know those ones that are in line with others. Analyzing data gives more understanding and interpretation to the result gotten.
    forming conclusions: This is the summary of the result gotten after analysis. Here after studying and understanding the phenomenon the researcher can be able to tell clearly the true results of his research. Here a researcher can for instance say that, haven studied the whether condition of Nsukka, in November there is no rain or there would always be no rain fall in November due to the conditions found under the analysis level made. With this, a researcher states clearly in a summarized form the result from the research. Also, this where a theory can be made, like the law of motion, the law of thermodynamics and others.
    implementing findings into real-life applications and
    forming new research questions: This has to do with the application of the result you have gotten in real life situations. Example, when you theorize that in the month of November there will usually be no rain fall in Nsukka, if eventually there happen to be rainfall in that month, then there will be a problem in your research and this will give room for questions and also for a new research to be carried out.
    Answer to question seven
    The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are complex. In the other pages above, we talked about social science research to be not easily predictable due to most of its research on humans who are quick to change unlike natural science research that has to do with laboratory. When a problem is multifaceted and multidimensional, what does it mean? The word multifaceted means having many different aspects or features while the word multidimensional means having so many dimensions, both words are synonymous. The problem in social science research are multidimensional thus leading from one problem to the other. Some of those problems are as follows:
    lack of planning: Lack of planning is one of the beaches of the multifaceted problems in carrying out research in a developing country. One of the main reasons for this is that the developing countries are not exposed to the modern ways of easy planning, thus the lack of organization and orderliness in the country can alter the social science researchers plans, also, on the part of the researchers, they being in a confined zone where there is no experience of a developed country, they also would wallow in the ocean of ignorance.
    lack of moral and financial incentives: This is also an iota of the trees of social science research problems in developing countries. In a developing country like Nigeria where there is no plan, there is degradation in morals and this leads to financial problem. Talking about the good morals, the government itself is corrupt because of bad leaders, if the citizens of the country lack good morals, it will also pose a problem in social science research since it has to do with people. In most developed countries, most citizens are given incentives which enables them forge ahead with their career and this allows them to learn more and develop. In a developing country, the reverse is the case because of instability in the government and ignorance, with all these, there is problem in research because researchers would be discouraged since there is no enlightenment in both morals and financial perspectives.
    shortage of time available for research: In a developing country, researchers face the problem of time in carryout research. A research that has to do with social science demands a lot of time and commitment, but due to the un steadiness of the developing countries and the lack of incentives and also the ignorance of the importance of social science research, there is always a problem in such aspect.
    underdeveloped health informatics structure: In a developing country, one of the multifaceted problems is lack of healthy information, When there is lack of healthy information in a country, researchers fail to find easily the solutions to their problems. An instance can be the case in Nigeria there is constantly false news and untrustworthy information in circulation. When there is poor information structure, researchers would find it hard to get a valid information to use in their research, it would seem to them that their research is untrustworthy, thus, crippling the agitated legs of the researchers.
    lack of available funding: One is a major issue in most developing countries. When there is no fund provided for researchers to be able to carryout their research, the researchers are discouraged from carryout their research. This can be seen in our country Nigeria where our leaders embezzle money for themselves rather than making good plans and assisting the researchers to do their research.
    We see that these problems connect from one source to the other, there can only be solutions to this if the researchers and the government make good plans and also learn good morals by copying and learning from developed countries. Also, the government should provide incentives for researchers to enable them learn and equip themselves more. Furthermore, good and healthy information structure should be set up in order for researchers to get quick information that would help them in their research.

  36. Avatar NWAFOR EMMANUEL ONYEDIKACHI says:

    1]
    The systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems is a definition of research that I love because of the fact that it speaks to everything research aims to achieve like providing trustworth information and this is very important because of the fact that research wouldn’t be research if at the end of the day you end up with information that you cannot trust hence its value, also it is a family of methods and this is key because although there are various different formulas to achieving the aims of research we still get that it has to be methodical [FAMILY OF METHODS].

    2]
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge, I especially love this definition because it aims to “inquire” basically the careful inquiry is a form of research and we take it a step forward by examining with the aim to discover new information/relationships and most importantly we expand on what we already know and verify what we think we already know also.

    3]
    The definition of research given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps firstly you pose a question, secondly you collect data to answer the question, thirdly present an answer to the question.
    Firstly by asking a question we have actually began the research and this could be anything we would like to research on say for example what percentage of 300lv economics students in UNN own economics text-books. After this is achieved i.e we have posed a question we get to the next phase.
    Then we would need to collect data to answer the question we initially posed, all we need to do now is collect data from every economics in 300lv by simply asking them to kindly complete a survey so we can use the collected data.
    Finally we would have to present an answer to the question, basically we would use the data collected to find the percentage and then present the “answer” in the appropriate manner.

    4]
    The three criteria that John W. creswell postulated were the criteria for any process to be called research and this is very important, for example the first step involves posing a question for example what percentage of 300lv economics students in UNN own economics text-books. If we wanted to conduct a research and we said every economics students in unn possibly has an economics text based solely on the fact that its only logical for every student to have it then, we would be in error and thus we have not conducted a research. Futhermore if we asked the right question and we do not ask questions that help us answer our question we would get data that is totally useless to us hence the importance of strict adherence to the criteria.
    Finally If we had done everything right and when the time came to present our answer we instead gave an opinion we have by no account done any research. simply put deviations from the criteria set meant that the said process does not qualify to be called a research.

    5]
    The purpose of research can actually be a complicated issue because it varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Let’s answer this by comparing two reasons for “research” Individual A might research about the universe because he wants to simply understand and explain various phenomena that he might encounter from day to day while Individual B carries out the same research but with the aim of being able to affect the universe say for example force rain to fall even when the rain normally wouldn’t even drizzle. We can see that the purpose of research tends to be a complicated one because the aims of research varies across different scientific fields and disciplines.

    6]
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas The purpose of any research carried out can be categorized into the following 1, forming hypotheses, this involves posing a question that will then be the centre focus of the research 2, collecting data, then we move to the next phase which is collecting this involves asking relevant questions that ultimately would help us in the later parts 3, analysing results, this process simply involves us studing our data, breaking them down thus making then make more sense and essentially useful to us 4, forming conclusions, this step involves us presenting our findings in the appropriate manner 5, implementing findings into real-life applications, this is self explanatory because it just involves us doing what we have learnt from our research and 6, forming new research questions, just like we know every solution beings about another question, we then begin to form new research questions.

    7]
    The Problems faced while conducting social science research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional this is because Performing such researches in developing countries have multiple barriers ranging from the lack of planning which could be a nightmare if a researcher is not able to plan accurately that could inhibit research progress, also the lack of incentives both moral and financial incentives, just like we were taught in human resources human need to be properly motivated to work, also the shortage of time available for research is a serious one in the sense that you as a researcher are given inadequate time to perform these researches and the above are some of the Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

  37. Avatar UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI - 2019/243039 says:

    UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILOMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: UNDERSTANDING THE FUNDAMENTALS OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (ECO 391)

    BY
    UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI
    2019/243039

    TOPICS:
    NO. 1 – RESEARCH HAS DIFFERENT MEANINGS AND VARIOUS APPLICATIONS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS OF STUDY AND HUM AN ENDEAVOR. IT IS THE SYSTEMATIC APPLICATION OF A FAMILY OF METHODS EMPLOYED TO PROVIDE TRUSTWORTHY INFORMATION ABOUT PROBLEMS. DISCUSS.

    NO. 2 – RESEARCH IS A CAREFUL INQUIRY OR EXAMINATION TO DISCOVER NEW INFORMATION OR RELATIONSHIPS AND TO EXPAND AND TO VERIFY THE EXISTING K KNOWLEDGE. DISCUSS THIS IN DETAILS.

    NO. 3 – CRESWELL ARGUES THAT “RESEARCH IS A PROCESS OF STEPS USED TO COLLECT AND ANALYZE INFORMATION TO INCREASE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF A TOPIC OR ISSUE”. IT CONSISTS OF THREE STEPS: CLEARLY DISCUSS THESE THREE STEPS WITH PRACTICAL EXAMPLES.

    NO. 4 – ADHERENCE TO THREE CRITERIA ENABLES A GIVEN PROCESS TO BE CALLED “RESEARCH”. DISCUSS THESE THREE CRITERIA WITH PRACTICAL EXAMPLES.

    NO. 5 – THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH CAN BE A COMPLICATED ISSUE AND VARIES ACROSS DIFFERENT SCIENTIFIC FIELDS AND DISCIPLINES. DISCUSS.

    NO. 6 – FOR ANY DISCIPLINE, THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH MAY BE GENERALLY CATEGORIZED INTO 6. CLEARLY DISCUSS THESE SIX CATEGORIES.

    NO. 7 – THE PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE MULTIFACETED AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL. DISCUSS THIS CLEARLY AND LUCIDLY.

    JANUARY, 2023.
    NO. 1

    Research as the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems and harnessing curiosity. Research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher which may include:
    • Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject-related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
    • Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
    • Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
    • Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
    • Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
    • Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it.
    • Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words.
    • Test, revising of hypothesis
    • Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

    NO. 2
    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis. Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    • Identify potential and new customers
    • Understand existing customers
    • Set pragmatic goals
    • Develop productive market strategies
    • Address business challenges
    • Put together a business expansion plan
    • Identify new business opportunities

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    NO. 3
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    • Pose a question (Exploratory Research): Researchers conducting research are typically at the early stages of examining their topics which are usually conducted when a researcher wants to test the feasibility of conducting a more extensive study; he or she wants to figure out the lay of the land with respect to the particular topic. Perhaps very little prior research has been conducted on this subject. If this is the case, a researcher may wish to do some work to learn what method to use in collecting data, how best to approach research participants, or even what sorts of questions are reasonable to ask. A researcher wanting to simply satisfy his or her own curiosity about a topic could also just pose a question. Posing a question on a topic is often a necessary first step, both to satisfy researcher curiosity about the subject and to better understand the phenomenon and the research participants in order to design a larger, subsequent study.
    • Collection of data to answer the question (Descriptive Research): Sometimes the goal of research is to describe or define a particular phenomenon. In this case, descriptive research would be an appropriate strategy. A descriptive may, for example, aim to describe a pattern. For example, researchers often collect information to describe something for the benefit of the general public. Market researchers rely on descriptive research to tell them what consumers think of their products. In fact, collecting data to answer the question of the researchers curiosity has many useful applications, and he/she probably rely on findings without even being aware that that is what you are doing.
    • Present an answer to the question (Explanatory Research): This is the third step of research, explanatory research, seeks to answer “why” questions. In this case, the researcher is trying to identify the causes and effects of whatever phenomenon is being studied. An explanatory study of college students’ addictions to their electronic gadgets, for example, might aim to understand why students become addicted. Does it have anything to do with their family histories? Does it have anything to do with their other extracurricular hobbies and activities? Does it have anything to do with the people with whom they spend their time? An explanatory study could present an answer to these kinds of questions.
    NO. 4

    Below is a tabulated chart that clearly states the three criteria that enables a given process to be called research:

    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Degree of Problem
    Definition Key variables not define Key variables not define Key variables not define
    Researchable issue example “The quality of service is declining and we don’t know why.” “What have been the trends in organizational downsizing over the past ten years?” “Which of two training programs is more effective for reducing labour turnover?
    Researchable issue example “Would people be interested in our new product idea? “Did last year’s product recall have an impact on our company’s share price?” “Can I predict the value of energy stocks if I know the current dividends and growth rates of dividends?”
    Researchable issue example “How important is business process reengineering as a strategy? “Has the average merger rate for financial institutions increased in the past decade?” “Do buyers prefer our product in a new package?”

    NO. 5

    Research is a professional training process through which we can learn to think and work systematically. The advantage of systematic thinking is that it contributes to accuracy and a more orderly approach and is reliable in handling research. Research is a process of planning, executing and investigating in order to find answers to our specific questions in a systematic manner to understand logic and believe in our report. This paper is a practical guideline for students so that they can efficiently handle their research projects and write good dissertations and project reports. In other words they must learn how to formulate a problem, how to choose a particular method and how to argue and motivate. They must also learn how to write a valid and reliable report, which is useful for the purpose of research which include.

    • Qualitative research: is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. The process of research involves emerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the participant’s setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to general themes, and the researcher making interpretations of the meaning of the data. The final written report has a flexible structure. Those who engage in this form of inquiry support a way of looking at research that honors an inductive style, a focus on individual meaning, and the importance of rendering the complexity of a situation (adapted from Creswell, 2007).

    • Quantitative research: is a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. These variables, in turn, can be measured, typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures. The final written report has a set structure consisting of introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion (Creswell, 2008). Like qualitative researchers, those who engage in this form of inquiry have assumptions about testing theories deductively, building in protections against bias, controlling for alternative explanations, and being able to generalize and replicate the findings.

    • Mixed methods research: is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms. It involves philosophical assumptions, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches, and the mixing of both approaches in a study. Thus, it is more than simply collecting and analyzing both kinds of data; it also involves the use of both approaches in tandem so that the overall strength of a study is greater than either qualitative or quantitative research (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007).

    It begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions. When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. To make sense of your study and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    NO. 6
    The search for knowledge is closely linked to the object of study; that is, to the reconstruction of the facts that will provide an explanation to an observed event and that at first sight can be considered as a problem. It is very human to seek answers and satisfy our curiosity. Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis. Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    • Identify and understand potential and new customers
    • Set pragmatic goals
    • Develop productive market strategies
    • Address business challenges
    • Put together a business expansion plan
    • Identify new business opportunities

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    NO. 7
    Research is a scientific and systematic search for applicable evidence on a specific subject. It comprises crucial problems, framing hypothesis or recommended explanations; assembling, establishing and estimating data; making assumptions and reaching conclusions; and at last, wisely testing the conclusions to regulate whether they fit the formulating assumption. In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Performing scientific study in emerging countries has numerous obstructions comprising deficiency of planning, moral and financial motivations, and lack of time available for research.

    Below certain major and the most general challenges that a researcher in the developing country encounters are discussed:
    • Nonexistence of Scientific Training: Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    • Financial issues: Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.
    • Lack of communication with the guide: Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    • Proper Time management: It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes.
    • Stress: Pursuing a doctorate can be highly nerve-wracking. To overcome this stressful life, below are the points that should be followed:
    – Seeking positive feedback
    – Acknowledging your achievements so far
    – Taking stock of your competencies
    – Trying out new things

    • Lack of confidence: The absence of confidence is one of the most common problems among scientists in developing countries. Scientists with low self-confidence feel less stirred thus affecting the quality of the work.
    • Problems associated with importation: In most developing countries the complications and cost of importing scientific equipment, instruments, and spare parts is a major limiting factor to scientific research.
    • Library management: The proper management and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journals, reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.

    In summary, scientific research is provided with a very low priority in the case of developing countries.

  38. Avatar Eze Emmanuel C says:

    Name: Eze Emmanuel C
    Registration Number: 2019/244174
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391

    1) Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss. Research is the process of gathering information and data to better understand a particular topic or phenomenon. It involves using various methods and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data to draw meaningful conclusions. Research is used to answer questions and solve problems, as well as identify trends and opportunities.
    2) Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in detail. Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    3) Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples. The first step is to pose a question. This is when a question about a problem is outlined then the next step is to collect data to answer the question. The final step is presenting an answer to the question.
    4) Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples. Validity: means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Philosophies: this means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    5) The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss. To generate new theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones; to contribute to the existing body of knowledge. This is mainly triggered by curiosity about a subject; to find out casual/underlying relationships. It enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationship between variables; research helps to provide answers to unknown problems; research provides for acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or tentative claims through deductive reasoning.
    6) For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6. Clearly discuss these 6 categories. Discovery – finding out new situations. Hypothesis testing – research helps test theories about some issues. Monitoring – many decisions made must be monitored to insure that goals are being attained. Explanation – possibly the most cited reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Prediction – research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis. Control – control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.
    7) The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly. Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance. Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work. Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint. Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time. Research demands immediate action on the part of the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

  39. Avatar AUDU JACINTHA OCHANYA REG NO: 2019/246511 Department: Economics/ Philosophy says:

    1. Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Research is used in various fields of study.
    i. Research is widely used in the medical industry and various pharmaceuticals in order to conduct testing and find new medicines to cure different diseases. It is because of research that pharmaceuticals are able to synthesize new molecules and adequate diseases like Mumps, Measles, Polio, etc.
    ii. Business Research: Business is the domain which has found enormous applications for research in the last few decades. Different streams of businesses have found a wide variety of applications of research in order to attract customers to build better brands and make better products.
    iii. Product Research: Developing a new product requires a huge amount of research on the market. The companies should study the existing products and their market along with the customer demands and needs.
    The company should also study what is missing in the market and what is it that customers require in order to formulate a better product and deliver excellent results in the market.
    iv. Advertising Research: It is a form of marketing research which is very specialized and narrow in nature which is conducted in order to improve the advertising efficiency and to reach customers in a better way. In advertising research there is a concept called pre-testing in which the advertisement is analyzed by the selected audience and their feedback is taken into consideration and the ads are edited or changed accordingly.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    The English Dictionary meaning of Research is “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” information about a subject can be collected by deliberate effort and it is presented in a new form after analyzing thoroughly in research work. Research is an academic activity.

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    i. Identify a research problem: Getting to know your problem is the first stage of research. It directs the researcher. An example is research on the relationship between personal income and GDP of a nation.
    ii. Review the literature
    iii. specify a purpose for research,
    iv. collect data,
    v. analyze and interpret the data, and
    vi finally report and evaluate research

    4. Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

    When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question,
    you are implying that the process.
    i. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches)
    ii. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their
    validity and reliability.
    iii. is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Research for comparison also called as comparative research is used to identify similarities and differences between two or more than two nations, cultures, societies or institutions. This type of research is particularly used in social sciences to compare different countries or cultures. In science, comparative analysis is used to compare one or two data sets to determine consistency with one another.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    i. In most topics dealing with research, the word research is mostly accompanied by another word; development, which is the reason companies have teams/units/departments named Research and Development. The interconnectivity between research and development almost literally translates to knowledge and growth. Thus, apart from the fundamental purposes of research which are exploration, description and explanation, here are some other purposes of research to prompt you into carrying out one yourself:

    ii. Research brings to light knowledge previously unknown or uncharted: Terry Freedman noted in his book “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” that “Research can shed light on issues we did not even know existed and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking”.

    iii. Researches in the social sciences have provided insights to crevices of human lives such as providing explanations for people’s political inclinations, exploring the nuances of social ethics in different societies, describing the impact of familial bonding on the psychological wellbeing of a person, among other previously unfamiliar issues.

    iv. Fact-check: In the age where the internet has made information accessible to everyone with a few clicks, news travel faster than was believed to be possible some decades ago. The speed at which information spread has birthed the need to fact-check news and information that find their ways to the public domain. Researching is the way some journalists go about fact-checking information before they release them to the public. Organisations and websites now exist with their mission being to check the factuality of news and information.

    v. Research pushes the boundaries of knowledge: Research provides new perspectives to old issues and brings to light various new problems with a view to providing explanations or solutions to them. Man’s insatiable thirst for knowledge will continue to lead to more understanding of human existence including areas supposedly above the intelligence of man. Research has helped philosophers question almost everything related to human existence and knowledge while psychologists continue to provide explanations for every variation of human behaviour.

    vi. To test the reliability of their claims and that of others: One of the most essential features of research is the ability to recreate the result by following the same processes. It is through this means that researchers test the stability as well as the reliability of their findings as well as that of other researchers. It follows the logic that if a research can be recreated, it must be transparent enough to ensure its reliability.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials.

    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.

    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  40. Avatar Ugwu kaosisochukwu immaculeta says:

    UGWU KAOSISOCHUKWU IMMACULETA
    2019/241226
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    Answer
    1) Research is a process of discovering new knowledge or innovation to jump start the development of the society. According to Martyn Shuttleworth, Research is “In the 15 broadest sense of the word includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge”. According to Clifford Woody, “Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis”. According to Theodorson and Theodorson (1969), research refers to “any honest attempt to study a problem systematically or to add to man’s knowledge of a problem”. According to Saunders. et al. (2007), research is “something that people undertake to find out things in a systematic way thereby increasing their knowledge”. All these definitions above shows how research is employed for gaining knowledge and solving human problems. It also shows that data for research are collected and interpreted for a specific purpose.

    2) A research can be conducted based on any problem no matter how vast or far fetched the problem may seem. Thus, the process of research should be carefully delved into as the information gotten from any such research is a huge and stable basis for development. Even the information gotten from a research, can be researched on which can help expand the scope as well as connect its relation to other topics of discussion. Most times, further verification helps to correct any gaps or lapses in the existing knowledge. For example, when Thomas Friedman(2005) wrote in his Book “The World is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century” about how his research proved that the earth is indeed flat at that time he gave his facts and the people accepted that fact. However it was quickly disapproved, before then Aristotle (384-322BC) was among the first to recognize that the Earth is a sphere and further research substantiated that fact, subsequently a practical demonstration of Earth’s Sphericity was achieved by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano’s circumnavigation (1519-1522) this completely displaced earlier beliefs in a flat earth. Consequently, further research has made mankind able to get a good look at its Sphericity as well as the galaxy itself.

    3) There are 3 steps to Research according to J.W.Creswell(2008), which are;
    i) Pose a Question: This is the first step of the research process as it indicates a problem which is further solidified with a question. As human beings, we ask questions every day about the surroundings, or situation and these questions bring about ideas about how things should be or how they feel it can be especially in a positive point of view. These questions serve as a source of interest for researchers as well as provide a clear research problem.
    ii)Collect data to answer the question: After the research problem has been established, using the time and resources at the researchers disposal, the scope of the problem is narrowed down and if the skills of the researcher is up to par with the topic’s complexity, then the data collection process begins. The researcher gathers data by himself (raw) or from already existing body of knowledge to help substantiate his/her research findings and all these leads towards a fact establishment. Data can be collected far and near but should be of useful relevance to the topic so as to be able to solve the proposed problem.
    iii) Present an answer to the question: After relevant data has been collected and Interpreted to the best of the researchers gained knowledge and after the data have been subjected to various tests. For example, an hypothesis can be established to help check whether the observations gotten provides a clear answer to the previously asked question or problem. After all the data have been analysed, the researcher presents his/her preferred answer or soution open to criticism.

    4i) Validity: This process refers to how well the results or answer the researcher presents actually shows the true findings with true data. This shows the accuracy and quality of a research work and it can be validated only after going through various stages of criticism with the conclusion still similar to the original. In other words, validity is just a method of accessing the overall quality of a research finding. For example, if a research undertaken concludes that about 75% of students in Economics department are liable to get second class above, then we need to consider the validity of such research as well as the conditions surrounding such results.
    ii)Reliability: This refers to a research method’s level of consistency which determines the value of such findings. In other words if the same result is consistently achieved by applying the same method under the same circumstances, then such measument is said to be reliable. For example, whatever method that is employed to count a finite population the result achieved should be a similar or a close estimation when another method is used.
    iii)Unbiased or Objective: Any result gotter from a research work should be an unbiased estimator of the sample or population drawn. In other words, the selection of where the data should be gotten must be random but also Objective, that is, lt must be of value or relevance to the research work, and not for convenience or according to one’s interest. For example, when giving out questionnaires for compiling raw data and you are not able to find the adequate number of people to fill it then you actually decide to manipulate to your convenience, any data interpreted from such source will be extremely biased.

    5) There are various purpose for embarking on a research and those reasons can cut across different disciplines and more. One of the major purpose of a research is to discover new concepts, ideas and innovations which work to develop the society as well as increase the society’s knowledge base in order to Improve the quality of life. By researching, one would learn new things and improve on the existing knowledge so as to obtain facts that will help in vital decision making process. As a student by engaging in research, one can obtain Certificate or degrees and even fulfill academic requirement for professional courses, which comes with lots of benefit and a boost in one’ career. Another purpose can be just for enjoyment as research challenges one’s capacity and meeting such challenge can bring a delightful satisfaction as well as answers to intriguing questions.

    6i) Explanation: This kind of research answers the “why” and “how” questions, thus by answering such question it will lead to an improved understanding or a sense of clarity on the research problem. It can alse be seen as a “cause and effect” model that investigates patterns and trends in existing data that haven’t been previously investigated. Thus, the purpose of conducting research is to investigate why and how something occurs.
    ii) Prediction: This can be seen as a statement of expectations from an experiment conducted. Here, the researchers form hypothesis that requires only correlations. For example, acquiring knowledge about various causes and predicting the effect it would have in the coming future so that appropriate measures can be taken in the present.
    iii) Monitoring: This allows answers and experiments to be documented properly and boost decision making and learning processes. Thus, it is the act of checking the progress of the tests and trials conducted by ensuring that it is recorded and reported in accordance with the rules and regulatory requirements.
    iv) Discovery: This can also be said to be finding out new and improved situation. It involves investigating the problem in order to gain a deep understanding so as to improve the situation. Thus discovery is very important in tackling the unknown as well as in generating new theories that can be channeled positively towards development.
    v) Hypothesis testing: This helps to determine whether there is enough statistical evidence to backup the research. It involves testing an assumption to know whether it is true or false. For example, using null and alternative hypothesis to verify the plausibility of the statistics used.
    vi) Control: This helps to establish and confirm the relationship between the variables used in the experiment or research. It helps to check errors so as to take corrective action and confirm the theories, thus, after this process it can be applied in real life problem in order to improve the overall quality of societal life.

    7) There are varying problems that are faced when conducting a research and sometimes such problems can vary from country to country. Performing a research study in emerging or developing countries has numerous obstructions ranging from lack of finance, lack of planning or organizing and many more challenges. The most general problems include;
    i) Financial Issues: It is usually difficult for developing countries to gather sufficient funds as most scholars are not financially secured and depends largely on family, institutions and the government whose funding are not always certain.
    ii) Data Management issues: A reasonable amount of time and energy is usually spent cooking for data like book, journals, report e.t.c, which are supposed to be properly managed and displayed efficiently in real and virtual library. However, developing countries finds it difficult to have their data properly functioning and up to date.
    iii) Problem of scientific equipments: In most developing countries, lack of major instruments is one of the limiting factors of conducting a research. Most times, these instruments are imported from abroad and it’s costs are usually exhorbitant but due to it’s importance in the research these parts are vital.
    iv) Low Incentives: Most research works receives low profits or incentive and this lowers the self confidence of researchers, thus they feel less motivated which affects the quality of their works.
    v) Poor infrastructural management: Another major problem of researching in a developing country are the poor state of the laboratories, equipments and other infrastructure. All these serve to discourage researchers while increasing their workloads. Thus, it is not enough to just build a science infrastructure but one must also manage and maintain it.

  41. Avatar IHEDURU CHIGOZIE OSITA says:

    1. Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Research is used in various fields of study.
    i. Research is widely used in the medical industry and various pharmaceuticals in order to conduct testing and find new medicines to cure different diseases. It is because of research that pharmaceuticals are able to synthesize new molecules and adequate diseases like Mumps, Measles, Polio, etc.
    ii. Business Research: Business is the domain which has found enormous applications for research in the last few decades. Different streams of businesses have found a wide variety of applications of research in order to attract customers to build better brands and make better products.
    iii. Product Research: Developing a new product requires a huge amount of research on the market. The companies should study the existing products and their market along with the customer demands and needs.
    The company should also study what is missing in the market and what is it that customers require in order to formulate a better product and deliver excellent results in the market.
    iv. Advertising Research: It is a form of marketing research which is very specialized and narrow in nature which is conducted in order to improve the advertising efficiency and to reach customers in a better way. In advertising research there is a concept called pre-testing in which the advertisement is analyzed by the selected audience and their feedback is taken into consideration and the ads are edited or changed accordingly.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    The English Dictionary meaning of Research is “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” information about a subject can be collected by deliberate effort and it is presented in a new form after analyzing thoroughly in research work. Research is an academic activity.

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    i. Identify a research problem: Getting to know your problem is the first stage of research. It directs the researcher. An example is research on the relationship between personal income and GDP of a nation.
    ii. Review the literature
    iii. specify a purpose for research,
    iv. collect data,
    v. analyze and interpret the data, and
    vi finally report and evaluate research

    4. Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

    When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question,
    you are implying that the process.
    i. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches)
    ii. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their
    validity and reliability.
    iii. is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Research for comparison also called as comparative research is used to identify similarities and differences between two or more than two nations, cultures, societies or institutions. This type of research is particularly used in social sciences to compare different countries or cultures. In science, comparative analysis is used to compare one or two data sets to determine consistency with one another.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    i. In most topics dealing with research, the word research is mostly accompanied by another word; development, which is the reason companies have teams/units/departments named Research and Development. The interconnectivity between research and development almost literally translates to knowledge and growth. Thus, apart from the fundamental purposes of research which are exploration, description and explanation, here are some other purposes of research to prompt you into carrying out one yourself:

    ii. Research brings to light knowledge previously unknown or uncharted: Terry Freedman noted in his book “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” that “Research can shed light on issues we did not even know existed and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking”.

    iii. Researches in the social sciences have provided insights to crevices of human lives such as providing explanations for people’s political inclinations, exploring the nuances of social ethics in different societies, describing the impact of familial bonding on the psychological wellbeing of a person, among other previously unfamiliar issues.

    iv. Fact-check: In the age where the internet has made information accessible to everyone with a few clicks, news travel faster than was believed to be possible some decades ago. The speed at which information spread has birthed the need to fact-check news and information that find their ways to the public domain. Researching is the way some journalists go about fact-checking information before they release them to the public. Organisations and websites now exist with their mission being to check the factuality of news and information.

    v. Research pushes the boundaries of knowledge: Research provides new perspectives to old issues and brings to light various new problems with a view to providing explanations or solutions to them. Man’s insatiable thirst for knowledge will continue to lead to more understanding of human existence including areas supposedly above the intelligence of man. Research has helped philosophers question almost everything related to human existence and knowledge while psychologists continue to provide explanations for every variation of human behaviour.

    vi. To test the reliability of their claims and that of others: One of the most essential features of research is the ability to recreate the result by following the same processes. It is through this means that researchers test the stability as well as the reliability of their findings as well as that of other researchers. It follows the logic that if a research can be recreated, it must be transparent enough to ensure its reliability.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials.

    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.

    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  42. Avatar Onu Chinecherem Excellence says:

    Name: ONU CHINECHEREM EXCELLENCE
    Reg. No: 2019/241446
    Dept: ECONOMICS
    Level: 300L
    Course Code: ECO 391
    Course Title: UNDERSYANDING THE FUNDAMENTALS OF RESEARCH

    1.lResearch has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Answer: Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question. Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Research requires many ingredients, some difficult to manage while others difficult to areange. It is done by a single individual but requires the approval of several others like suppervisors, deffence committee members,guides, etc.
    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details
    Answer: In the simplest of terms, the research definition is a process of seeking out knowledge. This knowledge can be new, or it can support an already known fact. The purpose of research is to inform and is based on collected and analyzed data. This exploration occurs systematically, where it is either tested or investigated to add to a body of knowledge.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    Answer: Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:  Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    1.) Pose a question: This means to ask a question. It is a question that a study or research project aims to answer. This question often addresses an issue or a problem, which, through analysis and interpretation of data, is answered in the study’s conclusion. In most studies, the research question is written so that it outlines various aspects of the study, including the population and variables to be studied and the problem the study addresses.
    2.) Collect data to answer the question: Data collection methods are closely tied to sampling, since the methods used to collect information must be appropriate for the sample that is selected. Some of the methods for collecting data can include: Interviews, Questionnaires and surveys, Observations, Focus group discussions, Delphi method, Case study, User-generated data
    3.) Present an answer to the question: There are five procedures in presenting an answer to any question with a research project. Delve into each step including analyzing the question, researching, choosing a side, narrowing to a thesis, and creating the project.
    Research validity in surveys relates to the extent at which the survey measures right elements that need to be measured. In simple terms, validity refers to how well an instrument as measures what it is intended to measure.
    4.Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    Answer: 1) Validity: Research validity in surveys relates to the extent at which the survey measures right elements that need to be measured. In simple terms, validity refers to how well an instrument as measures what it is intended to measure. A valid language test for university entry, for example, should include tasks that are representative of at least some aspects of what actually happens in university settings, such as listening to lectures, giving presentations, engaging in tutorials, writing essays, and reading texts.
    2) Reliability: This refers to how consistently a method measures something. If the same result can be consistently achieved by using the same methods under the same circumstances, the measurement is considered reliable. You measure the temperature of a liquid sample several times under identical conditions. The thermometer displays the same temperature every time, so the results are reliable. Reliability is also defined as the probability that a product, system, or service will perform its intended function adequately for a specified period of time, or will operate in a defined environment without failure.
    3) Unbiased and Objective: To be unbiased, you have to be 100% fair — you can’t have a favorite, or opinions that would color your judgment. For example, to make things as unbiased as possible, judges of an art contest didn’t see the artists’ names or the names of their schools and hometowns. You are unbiased if you can assess situations with a completely open mind.
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss
    Answer: The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’.
    Pure Scientific Research: Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence. Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research: Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer. The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles. Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as ‘Is global warming avoidable?’ or ‘Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?’
    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Answer: the purpose of research may be generally categorized into the following; Explanations, prediction, monitoring, discovery, hypothesis, and control.
    i. Explanations: Research is concerned with acquring knowledge establishing fact and developing news methods.
    PREDICTIONS: Research is used to access situations, predict what may happen in future. We are able to say that given certain conditions then this is likely to happen.
    MONITORING: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained
    DISCOVERING/NEW IMPROVED SITUATIONS: Finding out new situation
    HYPOTHESIS TESTING: Finally, research helps to test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    CONTROL: Control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problem and situations, this helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.
    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    ANSWER: In developing nations, research is in its incessant or contenous stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial problems, etc. Many obstacles faced when conducting research for a developing country are identified below:
    i. Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methods and knowledge needed to carry out research practices.
    ii. Lack of communication with the supervisor: The power and the need for communication can not be overemphasized as no one embarks on a research on what he/she already knows. Hence the need to build strong communication link with those who have traded such path before you. So when the place of communication is neglected it will take longer than necessary time to produce result or no result may be produced. For instance,a University Professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    iii. Time management: this is a very big challenge to developing countries as all the implements need to carryout the research are not always available thereby consuming longer time than it would have done. Spending time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a case, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    iv. Shortage of fund: Finance is a very huge factor that enables efficient research practice. Shortage of it hinders the progress of research activities. Developing countries have this problem of financial stability, this makes researchers not to carry their research effectively as they will be no fund to get apparatus need to carry out research and even to go to the place/places where investigations would be carried out.
    v. Cultural restrictions: most of this developing countries still hold their customs and traditions tenaciously and are not yet ready to accept changes of any kind. For instance, there are places that some customs don’t allow strangers enter. In situations like this, research will have little or no effect. Customs beliefs and traditions hinders research in developing countries.
    vi. Lack of harmony among researchers: it is always said that a cord of three fold can not be easily broken and that Unitedly we stand. So when researchers begin to form rivals amongst themselves it hinders the progress of development because Mr.A will not want to shall his own result to Mr. B and this will bring about delay and most times incorrect results. Unity and harmony should not be toiled with if research will be successful.

  43. RER NO:2019/243547
    Department: economics
    Ugwuoke Kosisochuwu precious
    1:Some people consider research as a voyage of discovery of new knowledge.

    It comprises the creation of ideas and the generation of new knowledge that leads to new and improved insights and the development of new materials, devices, products, and processes. It should have the potential to produce sufficiently relevant results to increase and synthesize existing knowledge or correct and integrate previous knowledge. Good reflective research produces theories and hypotheses and benefits any intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena.

    The word ‘research’ perhaps originates from the old French word “recerchier” which meant to ‘search again.’ It implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete; hence, a repeated search is called for.
    2: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you.
    3:John Creswell three steps of research :
    (A)Data collection refers to observing, measuring, and recording data or information.
    (B)Data analysis, on the other hand, refers to arranging and organizing the collected data so that we may be able to find out what their significance is and generalize about them.
    (C)Report writing is the ultimate step of the study. Its purpose is to convey the information contained in it to the readers or audience.
    4: (A)Research methodology simply refers to the practical “how” of any given piece of research. More specifically, it’s about how a researcher systematically designs a study to ensure valid and reliable results.
    For example, how did the researcher go about deciding: what data to collect and who to collect it from
    (B) What are qualitative, quantitative and
    mixed-method methodologies?
    Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods are different types of methodologies, distinguished by whether they focus on words, numbers or both. This is a bit of an oversimplification, but its a good starting point for understandings.
    (C)sampling design approaches
    As we mentioned earlier, sampling design is about deciding who you’re going to collect your data from (i.e. your sample). There are many sample options, but the two main categories of sampling design are probability sampling and non-probability sampling.
    5: Research findings are predicted by many factors. The research package (questions, methodology, analytical procedures) may be the same but factors such as the time of the research, the depth of the research probings, and the level of dedication to unearth the truth regarding the research questions may vary the findings in most cases. However, that is the richness associated with research- finding different perspectives of the same problem while finding different pragmatic solutions that can improve the quality of life. That is the beauty of research.
    6: (A) forming hypotheses: Once you come up with a possible explanation, ask yourself if it could be proven wrong by an experiment. If it could be proven wrong, then you have formed a hypothesis. If there is no way to prove it wrong, .
    (B)Data collection is a systematic process of gathering observations or measurements. Whether you are performing research for business, governmental or academic purposes, data collection allows you to gain first-hand knowledge and original insights into your research problem.
    (C)analysis result the act of studying or examining something in detail, in order to discover or understand more about it
    (D)Research questions often begin as more general research ideas—usually focusing on some behaviour or psychological characteristic: talkativeness, learning, depression, bungee jumping, and so on. Before looking at how to turn such ideas into empirically testable research questions, it is worth looking at where such ideas come from in the first place
    (E)forming conclusions: The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement. This paragraph looks like the reverse of your introduction paragraph, going from specific to general.
    (F)Implementation research is the systematic study of methods that support the application of research findings and other evidence-based knowledge into policy and practice
    7: Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including: lack of planning, lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research; underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding which brings limitation to an effective research.

  44. Avatar Eze Queen Amarachi says:

    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss

    Research may be broadly described as any systematic endeavors or striving towards the understanding, on perceiving certain complex situational problem of more than immediate personal concern and stated in a problematic form. (Heros, 1960). Travers (1969) has described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. The goal is to discover general principles or interpretations of behaviour, to explain, predict and control events in everyday life situations.For instance leedy (1997) defines research as the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to him research is not:Mere information gathering Mere transformation of facts from one location to another
    Merely rummaging information.Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically, and with the support of data, the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    According to Rajasekar et. al. (2006), research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge. Only through research is it possible to make progress in a field. Research is done with the help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparison and reasoning. More precisely, research seeks predictions of events and explanations, relationships and theories for them. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process:
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    Philosophies mean approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something). Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called ‘research’. However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline and so the meaning of ‘research’ differs from one academic discipline to another. The difference between research and non-research activity is, in the way one finds answers: the process must meet certain requirements to be called research.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    1. Pose a question
    Make the research question as specific and concise as possible to ensure clarity. Avoid using words or terms that don’t add to the meaning of the question.
    2. collect data to answer the question
    3. present ananswer to the question.

    4.lAdherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.
    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as ‘Is global warming avoidable?’ or ‘Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?’
    Generating Testable Data
    However, they all involve generating a theory to explain why something is happening and using the full battery of scientific tools and methods to test it rigorously.
    This process opens up new areas for further study and a continued refinement of thehypotheses.Observation is not accurate enough, with statistically testable and analyzable data the only results accepted across all scientific disciplines. The exact nature of the experimental process may vary, but they all adhere to the same basic principles.Scientists can be opinionated, like anybody else, and often will adhere to their own theories, even if the evidence shows otherwise. Research is a tool by which they can test their own, and each others’ theories, by using this antagonism to find an answer and advance knowledge.
    The purpose of research is really an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses, which should lead to the acceptance of certain scientific truths.
    Whilst no scientific proof can be accepted as ultimate fact, rigorous testing ensures that proofs can become presumptions. Certain basic presumptions are made before embarking on any research project, and build upon this gradual accumulation of knowledge.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions,
    implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    arch purposesResearchinvolves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:
    1.Information gathering and/or
    2.Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering,gaining some familiarity with a topic, discovering some of itsmain dimensions, and possibly planning further, more structured research.
    3.Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing.Some research has the purpose ofdescription,as in the Censusreport on how many Zimbabweans there are, a political poll predicting who will win anelection.
    4.Theory testing
    5.Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relationsFinally, research often has the aimofexplanation. In addition to knowing which candidates voters favor, we may go the next step to askwhy?What kinds of voters–men or women, young or old–prefer which candidates and why?
    6.Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including: lack of planning, lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research; underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding.

  45. Avatar MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE says:

    NAME: MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE
    REG NO: 2019/248922
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (ECONOMICS EDUCATION)
    ASSIGNMENT
    1. Different methods can be used to conduct the research depending on the nature of the research and the approach that has been taken to address the research. The different types of research such as humanities, scientific, social, Marketing, artistic, practitioner, business, technological etc.
    Because research has wide application in every domain it finds application in almost every industry. Let’s explain applications of research with two examples
    i.Medicine industry: Research is widely used in the medical industry and various pharmaceutical in order to conduct testing and find new medicine to cure different diseases. It is because of research that pharmaceuticals are able to synthesize new molecules and adequate diseases like mumps, measles, polio etc. Research is conducted on animals and after successful research on animals, it is moved to human trials. Medicinal industry has wide applications of research and it would not be an exaggeration if it is said that the entire medical industry runs on research only.
    ii. Business research: Business is the domain which has found enormous applications for research in the last few decades. Different streams of businesses have found a wide variety of applications of research in order to attract customers to build better brands and make better product. The following are few of the applications in business research:
    a. Product research
    b. Advertising research
    c. Case studies
    d. Surveys
    e. Focus groups
    f. Competition assessment
    2. Research is a logical and systemic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. Here knowledge means information about matters. A research can lead to a new contributions to an existing knowledge. Only through research it is possible to make origin a field. Research is done with the help of study, experiments, observations, analysis, comparison and reasoning. Research is in fact ubiquitous. More precisely, research seeks prediction of events and explanation relationship and theories for them.

    3. Creswell states that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issues. This consist of three steps, which are:-
    i. Pose a question: Once you have narrowed your topic, you need to come up with a research question. A specific question that you will then work to answer through your research. A good research question should:
    a. Be clear and provide specific information so readers can easily understand the purpose.
    b. Be focused in its scope and narrow enough to be addressed in the space allowed by your paper.
    c. Be relevant and concise and express your main ideas in as few words as possible, like hypothesis.
    ii. Collect data to answer the question: Data collection is the process of collecting and analysing information on relevant variables in a predetermined methodological way so that one can respond to specific research questions, test hypothesis and assess results.
    There are many methods that a researcher can use to collect the information they need in order to answer their research question and to achieve their aims and objectives. These methods are:
    a.Interviews
    b. Questionnaire and surveys
    c. Observations
    d. Focus group discussion
    e. Delpi method
    f. Case study
    g. User- generated data
    iii. Present an answer to the questions: The answers to these questions are your research findings. The methods you use or the experiments that you conduct are all directed at finding the answers to your research questions. Thus, we can say that the results and discussion sections include the answers to your research questions.

    4.The three criteria that enables a given process to be called a research is as follows:-
    i. Validity: This refers to how well the results among the study participants represent true findings among similar individuals outside the study. For example, a valid driver’s test should include a practical driving components and not just a theoretical test of rules of driving.
    ii. Reliability: This shows how consistently a method measures something. Reliability also measures the stability or consistency of test scores. For example, a medical thermometer is a reliable tool that would measure a correct temperature each time it is used.
    iii. Unbiased and objective: This implies not only freedom from bias in the method of selection, eg random sampling, but freedom from any bias of procedures eg wrong definition, non-response, design of questions, interviewer bias etc. To be unbiased, you have to be 100% fair. You can’t have a favourite or opinions that would colour your judgement. For example, to make things as unbiased as possible, judges of an art contest did not see the artist’s name or the name of their school and hometown.
    5. The process of research across different scientific fields and discipline are as follows
    i. Make an observation or ask a question: The first step is to observe something that you would like to learn about or ask questions that you would like to answer.
    ii. Gather background information: This involves doing research into what is already known about the topic. This can also involve finding if anyone has already asked same question.
    iii. Create a hypothesis: A hypothesis is an explanation for the observation or question. If proven later it become a fact.
    iv. Create a prediction and perform a test: Create a testable prediction based on the hypothesis. The test should establish a noticeable change that can be measured or observed using empirical analysis. It is also important to control for other variables during the test.
    v. Analyse the results and draw a conclusion: Use the metrics established before the test to see if the results match the prediction.
    vi. Share the conclusion or decide what question to ask next: Document the results of your experiment. By sharing the results with others, you also increase the total body of knowledge available.
    6. Purpose of research maybe generally categoried into six and they are as follows:-
    i. Explanation: This answers “why” and “how” questions, lending to an improved understanding of a previously unresolved problem or providing clarity for related future research initiatives.
    ii. Prediction: This is a statement of the expected result of the experiments based on the hypothesis. The prediction is often an “if/then statement”.
    iii. Monitoring: Is an essential element of research conduct, designed to ensure ethical conduct, proper collection and documentation of study results, appropriate records of study procedures and subject interaction and compliance with the approved protocol.
    iv. Discovery: This involves investigating the problem space in order to gain a deep understanding of the people who might be using a product or service.
    v. Hypothesis: This states your prediction about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not been tested.
    vi. Control: In research, researchers manipulate independent variables to test their effects on dependent variable. In a controlled research, all variables other than the independent variables are controlled or held constant so that they don’t influence the dependent variable.
    7. Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are as follows:
    i. Lack of scientific training: Many researcher undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies.
    ii. Lack of communication with the supervisor: Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    iii.Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes alot of time. In such situation, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    iv. Insufficient data: insufficiency of data is a potential problem. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data maybe of most importance.
    v. Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

  46. Avatar GABRIELS SHARON CHISOM says:

    GABRIELS SHARON CHISOM
    2019/241572
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    SHARONGABRIELS123@GMAIL.COM

    1- Research is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.
    This means that research includes a combination of various methods which would be applied in a given situation in order to result in the provision of credible and resourceful information that would be relevant and applicable in knowledge on problems and providing problem solving solutions.

    2- Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    This means that researchers is a well thought out or planned procedure which is embarked on, with the purpose of discovering something, particularly knowledge which is unknown to the subject. Asides acquiring new knowledge, or also includes the addition of existing knowledge to a topic or situation that was known.

    3- Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Thus research involves:
    * pose a question: for research to be done, a question has to be asked. A question that would rouse the researchers to answer or conduct research on. E.g how many children from ages 9-16 suffer from depression in Nigeria
    * collect data answer the question: data is source from primary sources or secondary sources in order to answer the question asked. e.g check the records of children that have been diagnosed with depression through a particular timeline
    * present and answer to the question: after compiling results and drawing conclusions, the answer to the question that caused the research should be presented.

    4- Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. These are:
    * being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches): for example, a set of approaches are used to conduct research. The researchers could decide to use various or a combination of these approaches to conduct research. In a community, where they want to find out the number of unemployed males, they could do one on one interviews with a selected sample etc
    * uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability: a certain procedure or method of selecting these adult males should also be chosen. It could be by snowballing method or stratified sampling
    * Unbiased: it is designed to be unblased and objective. The researchers shouldn’t tweak their findings to suit their results, if they do so that have become biased.
    5-The purpose of research can be a complicated and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. They include:
    * to solve problems (including practical problems of the society)
to make a sound decision – it is very vital to our everyday decision making.
    * to obtain academic degrees – research studies can be studied as a discipline in order to obtain a certification in the field or discipline.
    * to unveil the truth- research sheds lights on matters that aren’t known or discussed publicly. It’s a process of enlightenment.
    * to acquaint with the facts/happening-data obtained through research enables us understand existing phenomena. Their previous existence could be further looked into to understand and embark on additional research on such phenomena.

    6- For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 and they are:

    * Explanation – Possibly the most cited reason for conducting research to explain why something is occurring.This is to attempt to understand the world we live in. Research Is w with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    * Prediction – Research is used to help assess a situation and predict what may happen in the future. We are able to say test given certain conditions, then a situation is likely to happen.
    * Monitoring – Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that the set goals are being attained.
    * Discovery/New Improved situation – finding out new situations
    * Hypothesis testing – research helps test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing, which is at the heart of scientific research relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    * Control – control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationshlp between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interests.

    7- The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional

    * Value and perception of research. Research is slow and expensive: Some research methodologies take time to execute or require external vendor support to get the best insight, there are perceptions that research is slow or expensive and will be a barrier or blocker in building research. C In other cases it may lead to research not getting the right budget to effectively perform their work, leading to researchers having to be scrappy, hacky and de-prioritize research that may take up a significant percentage of their budget.
    * Research team sizes. Research teams of one, or silos: When research is not valued, organizations will not invest in a group. Many organizations will have an individual researcher across the entire company or multiple product areas, which can strain the researcher to rigorously prioritize what projects they work on and lead to frustrations with other teams if they are not getting research support.
    * Research execution. Throwing research over the fence: Sometimes, after a researcher has spent the time and effort creating a robust research report, it isn’t used. A research report is usually not used because of a mismatch in expectations of the stakeholder and researcher. Researchers need to ensure that stakeholders are taken along the research creation journey to ensure there is alignment and buy-in from stakeholders.
    * In some cases, researchers may “throw research over the fence” in that they may not invest the effort in creating research outputs that resonate with stakeholders or take the time to have conversations and presentations with stakeholders to open a dialogue about the research and help the stakeholder understand how to leverage the research.
    * Knowledge management. Too much effort to add and search for previous work: Researchers can spend a lot of time looking for past research or data to support a stakeholder or research project. Because researchers have to quickly jump from one project to another to ensure they can continually provide value, ‘meta work’ such as knowledge management is usually deprioritized in the research process.
    * Researchers may actively try to stay up to date with knowledge management activities. As each researcher may have a different mental model for how to tag and store insights, other researchers can find it difficult to find research unless they know the right search keywords.
    * Whatever the format a researcher presents in (such as a presentation or report), it will be the same format that it is stored. An inconsistent storage format can be hard for future researchers to parse for insights, leading researchers to have to go through every individual report on a topic to determine if there are relevant insights.

  47. Avatar Okeke Michael Obinna says:

    Name: Okeke Michael Obinna
    Dept: Combined social science(Eco/pol)
    Reg no: 2019/250019
    Course: Eco 361

    1..The three objectives of development proposed by Professor Michael Todaro are:
    1. Producing more life sustaining necessities such as food, shelter, and healthcare, and broadening their distribution: This objective focuses on meeting the basic needs of the population, including access to clean water, nutritious food, adequate housing, and healthcare. It also involves ensuring that these necessities are distributed fairly and reach all members of the population, rather than just a select few.
    2. Improving standards of living and individual self-esteem: This objective aims to improve the quality of life for individuals, including their physical, mental, and emotional well-being. It involves efforts to increase access to education, employment opportunities, and social services, as well as efforts to reduce poverty and inequality.
    3. Expanding economic and social choice and reducing fear: This objective focuses on increasing opportunities for individuals to make choices about their own lives and pursue their own goals. It involves efforts to create a more inclusive and equitable society, where individuals are able to participate fully in the economic, social, and political life of their community. This can involve initiatives to reduce discrimination and violence, and to create a more stable and secure environment for all members of the population.

    2. There are several indices that have been developed by the United Nations (UN) and other global agencies to measure development. These indices are typically based on a variety of economic, social, and environmental indicators, and are used to assess the progress of countries towards meeting development goals.
    3. One of the most well-known indices is the Human Development Index (HDI), which is published by the UN Development Programme (UNDP). The HDI is a composite measure that takes into account three dimensions of human development: health, education, and standard of living. It is calculated using indicators such as life expectancy at birth, years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
    4. Another widely used index is the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which measures poverty in terms of multiple dimensions, including health, education, and living standards. The MPI is based on the concept of “deprivations,” which are indicators of a lack of access to basic needs such as education, healthcare, and sanitation.
    5. Other indices that have been developed to measure development include the Gender Development Index (GDI), which measures gender-based inequalities in the same three dimensions as the HDI; the Gender Equality Index (GEI), which measures gender-based inequalities in six dimensions: work, money, knowledge, time, power, and health; and the Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), which adjusts the HDI for inequality within countries.
    6. In addition to these indices, there are also numerous other indicators that are used to measure development, including measures of economic growth, social welfare, and environmental sustainability.

    3. Yes, that’s correct. Development economics is a branch of economics that focuses on improving the economic and social well-being of people in developing countries. It emerged in the post-World War II period, when many economists became concerned about the low levels of income and widespread poverty that existed in many countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. These economists recognized that the traditional tools of economics were not sufficient to address the complex issues facing developing countries, and that a new approach was needed. As a result, development economics emerged as a distinct field of study, with a focus on understanding the economic and social factors that influence development and finding ways to promote economic growth and reduce poverty in developing countries.

    4. There are many reasons why people might study development economics. Some people are drawn to this field because they are interested in understanding the economic and social issues that affect developing countries and want to work towards improving the well-being of people in these countries. Others may be motivated by a desire to help reduce poverty and inequality, and see development economics as a way to contribute to these efforts. Still others may be interested in the policy challenges that developing countries face, and want to use their skills and knowledge to help address these challenges. Some people may also be interested in development economics because they are passionate about social justice and want to work towards creating a more equitable and fair global economy. Whatever the reason, studying development economics can be a rewarding and meaningful way to make a positive difference in the world.

    5. Alfred Sauvy, the French demographer who coined the term “Third World,” used the expression to refer to the countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were not aligned with either the capitalist countries of the First World or the communist countries of the Second World during the Cold War. In using the analogy of the “third estate,” Sauvy was pointing out that these countries were not considered to be part of the global political and economic power structures, but rather were on the periphery, and often marginalized and exploited. Sauvy’s assertion that the Third World is “nothing” and “wants to be something” suggests that these countries were not seen as having any agency or power in the global system. They were considered to be dependent on the First World for economic aid and support, and were often subject to interference and manipulation by the major powers. However, Sauvy’s use of the word “wants” suggests that the Third World was not passive, but rather had a desire and a will to assert itself and to develop its own voice and identity on the global stage. Overall, Sauvy’s characterization of the Third World highlights the inequalities and power imbalances that have long existed in the global system, and the ways in which these have disadvantaged many countries and peoples around the world. While significant progress has been made in reducing poverty and promoting development in many parts of the world, the legacy of colonialism and the ongoing effects of globalization continue to pose challenges for many developing countries.

  48. Avatar Ihechukwu+Chukwuebuka+Manasseh+2018/251195 says:

    1. Research, despite having different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor yet still systematically employs a family of methods to provide trustworthy information about problems. This method is known as research methods. Research methods are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information or create better understanding of a topic. There are different types of research methods which use different tools for data collection. They are; Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method research.
    Qualitative research is one that aims at collecting informations about experiences, emotions and feelings from individuals, and the meaning they attach to them.
    Secondly, quantitative research collects numerical data which can be measured, rated or categorized in any form from individuals.
    And lastly, the mixed method research combines both qualitative and quantitative methods in its own inquiry.

    2. For a work to be termed a research it has to go through a careful inquiry or examination to discover the latest and historical facts about the phenomenon. It entails surfing the web or checking archives for informations or possible relationships our concern has with other phenomena. Lastly, it then ends with combining these informations to improve on the existing understanding about the phenomenon.

    3. The first step to collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of an issue is to pose a research question. A research topic is a question that a study or research endeavor seeks to answer. This question frequently refers to a problem or issue, and the study’s conclusion provides a solution based on data analysis and interpretation.
    Research questions can be classified into different categories, depending on the type of research to be done. Knowing what type of research one wants to do—quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods studies—can help determine the best research question to use.
    Doody and Bailey (2016) suggest several common types of research questions, as outlined below.
    Quantitative research questions
    Quantitative research questions are specific. They try to make a connection between the research design and the question being studied. The population to be examined, the dependent and independent variables, and the research methodology are usually included in these queries. There is no “yes” or “no” way to respond to these inquiries. Therefore, words like “is,” “are,” “do,” or “does” are not used in quantitative research inquiries.
    Qualitative research questions
    Qualitative research questions may concern broad areas of research or more specific areas of study. Similar to quantitative research questions, qualitative research questions are linked to research design. Unlike their quantitative counterparts, though, qualitative research questions are usually adaptable, non-directional, and more flexible (Creswell, 2013). As a result, studies using these questions generally aim to “discover,” “explain,” or “explore.”
    Mixed Research Questions
    Mixed-methods studies typically require a set of both quantitative and qualitative research questions. Separate questions are appropriate when the mixed-methods study focuses on the significance and differences in quantitative and qualitative methods and not on the study’s integrative component (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010).
    Researchers also have the option to develop a single mixed-methods research question. According to Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010), this suggests an integrative process or component between the study’s quantitative and qualitative research methods. An example of a mixed methods research question for concurrent mixed methods research designs is “What is the relationship between the income levels of Southeastern Nigerians who travel to the east by air every December and their perceptions of the current increase in the price of local flight tickets?” To answer this question, information about both the income levels of southeastern Nigerians who travel to the east by air every December (quantitative, independent variable) and their perceptions towards the current increase in the price of local flight tickets (qualitative, dependent variable) must be obtained. Specifically, their income levels would be gleaned from the quantitative component of the mixed methods study, whereas their perception of the inquiry.

    Collect data to answer the questions
    Before diving into what data collection is let’s first understand what data is. According to Wikipedia.com data refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing. Also, according to Merriam-Webster dictionary- data refers to factual information (such as measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation. Therefore, data collection is the process of gathering, measuring, and analyzing accurate data from a variety of relevant sources to find answers to research problems, answer questions, evaluate outcomes, and forecast trends and probabilities.
    Our society is highly reliant on data, emphasizing the significance of data collection. However, accurate data collection is required to make informed business decisions, ensure quality assurance, and maintain the integrity of research.
    Before an analyst begins collecting data, they must answer three questions first:
    What’s the goal or purpose of this research?
    What kinds of data are they planning on gathering?
    What methods and procedures will be used to collect, store, and process the information?
    In addition, data can be broken down into qualitative and quantitative types. Qualitative data covers descriptions such as color, size, quality, and appearance. While, quantitative data deals with numbers, such as statistics, poll numbers, percentages, etc.
    Furthermore, there are two methods of collecting data:
    Primary
    As the name implies, this is original, first-hand data collected by the data researchers. This process is the initial information gathering step, performed before anyone carries out any further or related research. Primary data results are highly accurate provided the researcher collects the information. However, there’s a downside, as first-hand research is potentially time-consuming and expensive.
    There are other primary data collection techniques that can be listed under this. Amongst others, they include; Interviews, focus groups, questionnaires etc.
    Secondary
    Secondary data is second-hand data collected by other parties and already having undergone statistical analysis. This data is either information that the researcher has tasked other people to collect or information the researcher has looked up. Simply put, it’s second-hand information. Although it’s easier and cheaper to obtain than primary information, secondary information raises concerns regarding accuracy and authenticity. Quantitative data makes up a majority of secondary data.
    Unlike primary data collection, there are no specific collection methods. Instead, since the information has already been collected, the researcher consults various data sources, such as; Sales Reports, Trade/Business Magazinesa, Retailer/Distributor/Deal Feedback, Customer Personal Information, etc.
    http://www.simplilearn.com
    Present an answer to the question- This part focuses on presenting the report of the research findings. First, let’s uncover what a research report means. Basically, a research report is a systematic write-up on the findings of a study including methodologies, discussion, conclusions, etc., following a definite style. A Research Report is a report on the findings of a research study that includes an abstract, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusions and recommendations, references, and so on, and that follows a specific style or format.
    Types of Report
    Amongst several other types of reports, there are three major types. They include;
    1. Informational Report – Informal reports are reports without a specific structure. They include brief and unstructured information that can be critical. Similarly, these reports have lesser sections and are, thus, shorter than formal reports.
    2. Analytical Report – Analytical report writing is a sort of report that analyses and evaluates a particular research question using qualitative and quantitative data while encouraging an audience to make data-driven decisions based on the information and analytics. What makes an analytical report different is that it gives you recommendations instead of just plain numbers.
    3. Persuasive Report – This is an extension of analytical reports. Its main focus is to sell an idea, a service or a product. A typical type of persuasive report is a Proposal.

    4. The number one criteria is that the research must be undertaken within a framework of a set of approaches. In other words, it must be undertaken within the framework of a research method.
    What are research methods? Research methods are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information or create better understanding of a topic.
    There are three types of research methods which are; qualitative, quantitative and mixed method research.
    For example, a researcher wants to know the relationship between the weather and the consumption of ice cream. For this inquiry to be called a research it has to adopt either of the research methods mentioned above. That is, it’s either it gathers information using questionnaires that asks questions like – how many ice creams are you likely to take per day during summer?(quantitative), or interviews that asks questions like – why would you take ice cream during summer?(qualitative), or an integration of the two and asks – to what extent does the sales margin of ice cream (quantitative) reflects analysts perception of the weather conditions in Nigeria? (qualitative).
    The second criteria is that it must use procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability. In other words, it must undergo a scientific method to ensure reliability, validity and replicability. It provides an objective, standardized approach to conducting experiments and, in doing so, improves their results. For example, the researcher of the relationship between ice cream and the weather must go through the scientific methods in other for his work to be seen as valid, reliable or even be replicated in another like study.
    The third criteria is that the research must be designed to be unbiased and objective. This means that the steps taken in the research process must be unbiased and strictly focusing on the objective of the research. For example the researcher of the relationship between ice cream and the weather in Nigeria must get a sample of more than 30 people and must be gotten at random. It will be a bias research if all the samples were gotten from a particular state in Nigeria but makes sure that a sample of say 50 persons must have people from every state in Nigeria.

    5. The purpose of research can include to solve problems, to make a sound decision, to obtain acadic degrees, to acquaint with the happenings, to fulfill an academic requirement and many more. But for any discipline the purpose may be generally categorized into 6.
    1. Explanation- This is an attempt to understand well the world in which we live in. As we pose tons of questions every niw and then, we’ll definitely need explanation rather than just answers to better understand a particular phenomenon.
    2. Predictions – Here we seek to understand a problem and be able to predict the future based on our understanding of the relationships and facts about the problem.
    3. Monitoring – The decisions been made must be monitored to ensure that goals are been attained as well.
    4. Discovery- This ensures that new findings come out all the time.
    5. Hypothesis testing- Research help to do hypothesis testing on theories about some issues.

  49. Avatar Ugwu Somto Emmanuel says:

    Ugwu Somto Emmanuel
    Combined social science
    Economics/philosophy
    2019/245096

    1. Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Research has also been defined by many authors like Saunders et al. (2007) who defined research as something that people undertake to find out things in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge.
    Research is the process of gathering information and data to better understand a particular topic or phenomenon. It involves using various methods and techniques to collect, analyze and interpret data to draw meaningful conclusions.
    It can be used to answer questions and solve problems, as well as identify trends and opportunities. It is an essential tool for businesses and organizations, as it allows them to make more informed decisions and stay competitive in their respective market And so many other definitions.
    The application of research in different fields of study has helped in eradicating some major problems some of these fields may encounter, provide detailed and quality information and probably confirm some already known facts to remove doubts. If government, business, institutions, labour, organisations and society in general are to function efficiently and effectively, it is important that the decisions they make are based on valid and reliable information and thorough analysis.For instance, in the medical industry, It is because of research that pharmaceuticals are able to synthesize new molecules and adequate diseases like Mumps, Measles, Polio, etc. in the business sector, application of research is imperative and important especially in the area of producing a product, advertising a product, development of a new product, surveys, etc.

    2. Research is a scientific or systematic search for various information about a specific topic, subject, project etc. research is the organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions. You can simply say it’s just like a search for truth or knowledge. It is like a movement from the known to the unknown in which new ideas and information discovered about a particular topic or subject.
    Research does noty just produce information but properly scrutinize them to make sure that they are not just any ordinary information but original and facts. It produces hard facts that could support your arguments and beliefs. Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others.

    3. According to Creswell – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:

    Pose a question,
    collect data to answer the question,
    present an answer to the question.

    4. Three Criteria Are:

    1. Knowledge: Do people know enough about this question and do they give meaningful and reliable answers.

    2. Conviction: Do people have enough conviction about the subject so that there is real stability to their answers.

    3. Significance: Assuming answers can be obtained with a satisfactory degree of reliability, are the questions important

    5. At the most basic level, science can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’. Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.
    Pure scientific research is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence. Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    While in applied scientific research, applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer. The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    Generally, they all involve generating a theory to explain why something is happening and using the full battery of scientific tools and methods to test it rigorously. This process opens up new areas for further study and a continued refinement of the hypotheses.

    However, the purpose of research is an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses, which should lead to the acceptance of certain scientific truths.

    6. The six purpose of research are as follows;
    i. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    ii. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    iii. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    iv. Prediction: Prediction seeks to answer when and in what situations the event will occur, if it can be provided plausible explanation for the event in question. In addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, it will be able to predict when the event will occur.
    V. MONITORING : Monitoring is considered an essential tool for effective research. It ensures that relevant progressu and performance information is collected processed and analyzed on a regular basis to aid an evidence based decision making and also help to insure that decisions made achieve their required goals.
    Vi. DISCOVERY : This is the observation of new phenomenon, action or event which explains knowledge gathered through research discovery also give researchers the opportunity to take risks needed to tackle the unknown

    7. Insufficient data due to inadequate past records: This is a pervasive concern amongst the entire research community. It refers to a situation where of observation or information for a perimeter of interest in an experimental data set is not recorded. Nearly all researchers encounter this problem at some point in their career. This can happen especially from secondary data sources like; NBS, and other outlets. The impact of this can be serious as it may result in a biased estimation of crucial study parameters and Poor generalizability findings.
    Lack of cooperation from the public : This occurs when the correspondent / public fails to cooperate via providing necessary information for the sake of the research. This might be because of illiteracy, ignorance or belief.
    Staying motivated and working your plan : sometimes, in the course of a large research project the biggest challenge can be internal-maintaining the motivation to keep going despite obstacles in your research and the pressure of work and personal commitment.
    An availability of permission to do research in specific centres : hospital and business establishments usually don’t allow third-parties inside to conduct research. this may be due to security reasons or due to lack of confidence in keeping the confidentiality of the data.

  50. Avatar Nwadike Ruth Chidimma, 2019/246677, ( Edu/Economics) says:

    (1)Research is the systemic application of a family of methods, employed to provide trustworthy information. Discuss
    ANSWER:
    Research is a systematic and scientific approach to discovering new knowledge, or confirming and extending existing knowledge. It involves the collection and analysis of data, the formation of hypotheses, and the testing of those hypotheses through experimentation or other forms of investigation. The ultimate goal of research is to increase understanding of a particular topic or issue, and to provide reliable and evidence-based information that can be used to inform decisions, policies, and practices.
    There are many different methods that can be used in research, depending on the specific question or topic being studied and the resources available. Some common methods include experiments, observations, surveys, and case studies. Researchers may also use existing data or literature, or may collect new data through methods such as interviews, focus groups, or laboratory tests.
    In order to be considered trustworthy, research must be conducted in an ethical and rigorous manner, following established protocols and standards. This includes using reliable and valid methods of data collection and analysis, and accurately reporting and documenting the results of the research. Research that is conducted in a systematic and transparent manner is more likely to be reliable and trustworthy, and can be used to inform policy, practice, and decision-making in a variety of fields.
    (2)Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss in details
    ANSWER:
    Research is a systematic and scientific approach to discovering new knowledge or understanding, or to confirming and extending existing knowledge. It is a careful inquiry or investigation that is conducted in order to increase understanding of a particular topic or issue, and to provide reliable and evidence-based information that can inform decisions, policies, and practices.

    There are many different methods that can be used in research, depending on the specific question or topic being studied and the resources available. Some common methods include experiments, observations, surveys, and case studies. Researchers may also use existing data or literature, or may collect new data through methods such as interviews, focus groups, or laboratory tests.

    The process of research typically involves several steps, including: Identifying a research question or problem: Researchers begin by identifying a question or problem that they want to investigate. This may be based on a gap in existing knowledge, or on a problem or issue that needs to be addressed. Forming a hypothesis: Researchers then form a hypothesis, which is an educated guess or prediction about the relationship between different variables or factors. A hypothesis allows researchers to test their ideas and to determine whether their predictions are supported by the data.
    Designing the study: Researchers then design a study to test their hypothesis. This may involve deciding on the sample size, selecting a study population, and determining the methods of data collection and analysis.
    Collecting data: Researchers collect data using the methods that they have chosen, such as experiments, observations, surveys, or case studies.
    Analyzing the data: Researchers then analyze the data to determine whether their hypothesis is supported by the results. This may involve using statistical analysis or other methods of data analysis.
    Drawing conclusions: Based on the results of the study, researchers draw conclusions about the relationship between the variables or factors that they studied. They may also make recommendations for future research or for policy or practice.
    Overall, research is an important tool for increasing understanding and for providing reliable and evidence-based information that can inform decision-making in a variety of fields.

    (3)Creswell (2009) argues that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. According to Creswell, the research process consists of three main steps:
    (i). Planning: Planning involves identifying the research question or problem that will be studied, and deciding on the methods that will be used to collect and analyze data. This may include deciding on the sample size, selecting a study population, and determining the appropriate data collection and analysis techniques.
    For example, a researcher studying the effectiveness of a new medication for treating depression might begin by identifying the research question: “Does the new medication effectively reduce symptoms of depression in adults?” They might then decide to conduct a randomized controlled trial, in which they assign participants to either a treatment group receiving the new medication.
    (ii) Collecting: Collecting involves gathering data using the methods that have been chosen. This may involve conducting experiments, observing behavior, administering surveys, or collecting existing data or literature.
    Continuing the example above, the researcher might collect data on the participants’ symptoms of depression using a standardized assessment tool, such as the Beck Depression Inventory, at the beginning and end of the study. They might also gather data on any side effects experienced by the participants.
    (iii). Analyzing: Analyzing involves examining the data to answer the research question and to draw conclusions about the relationship between the variables or factors being studied. This may involve using statistical analysis or other methods of data analysis.
    In the example above, the researcher might analyze the data to determine whether the treatment group experienced a greater reduction in symptoms of depression compared to the control group. They might then draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the new medication in reducing symptoms of depression in adults.
    Overall, the research process involves a systematic and scientific approach to collecting and analyzing data in order to increase understanding of a particular topic or issue.
    (4)There are three main criteria that must be met in order for a given process to be considered research:
    i)Systematic: Research is systematic in that it involves a structured and organized approach to collecting and analyzing data. This may involve following a set of protocols or procedures, and using reliable and valid methods of data collection and analysis.
    For example, a researcher studying the effects of a new medication on blood pressure might follow a systematic protocol that involves measuring blood pressure at specific intervals during the study and using statistical analysis to compare the results between the treatment group and the control group.
    (ii)Empirical: Research is empirical in that it is based on observations and data that can be objectively verified. This means that the results of research can be generalized to a larger population, based on the evidence that has been collected.
    For example, a researcher studying the effects of a new exercise program on weight loss might collect data on the weight of participants before and after the program, and use statistical analysis to determine the average amount of weight loss in the treatment group. This empirical evidence can then be used to support the effectiveness of the exercise program in promoting weight loss.
    (iii)Verifiable: Research is verifiable in that the methods and results of the study can be reviewed and checked by other researchers. This helps to ensure the reliability and validity of the research, and allows other researchers to replicate the study if necessary.
    For example, a researcher studying the relationship between diet and heart disease might publish their results in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which allows other researchers to review the methods and results of the study and to verify the findings. This helps to ensure the credibility of the research and to build a solid foundation of knowledge on the topic. Overall, adherence to these three criteria – systematic, empirical, and verifiable – is essential in order for a given process to be considered research.
    (5) The purpose of research can indeed vary across different scientific fields and disciplines. Broadly speaking, the purpose of research is to increase understanding and knowledge about a particular topic or issue, and to provide reliable and evidence-based information that can inform decisions, policies, and practices.
    However, the specific goals and objectives of research can vary depending on the field or discipline in which the research is being conducted. For example:

    In the natural sciences (such as biology, physics, or chemistry), the purpose of research might be to investigate the natural world and to understand the underlying principles and laws that govern it. Research in the natural sciences often aims to discover new phenomena or to explain observed phenomena in terms of underlying causes.
    In the social sciences (such as sociology, psychology, or anthropology), the purpose of research might be to understand human behavior, social systems, and culture, and to identify factors that influence or shape these phenomena.Research in the social sciences often aims to identify patterns and trends, and to develop theories that help to explain these patterns and trends.
    In the humanities (such as history, literature, or philosophy), the purpose of research might be to understand and interpret human experiences, cultures, and ideas, and to provide new insights into these topics. Research in the humanities often involves the study of texts, artifacts, and other forms of cultural expression, and may aim to shed light on the historical, social, or cultural context in which these expressions were produced.
    Overall, the purpose of research can vary widely across different scientific fields and disciplines, but the common goal is to increase understanding and knowledge, and to provide reliable and evidence-based information that can inform decision-making and policy.
    (6)The purpose of research can generally be categorized into six main categories:
    (i)Exploratory: Exploratory research is designed to explore a particular topic or issue in order to gain a better understanding of it. It is often used to generate ideas or to identify potential areas of study.
    (ii)Descriptive: Descriptive research is designed to describe and characterize a particular phenomenon or population. It is often used to provide a detailed account of a particular topic or to identify patterns or trends.
    (iii)Correlational: Correlational research is designed to identify relationships between variables or factors. It is often used to examine the extent to which two or more variables are related, and to identify the nature of the relationship.
    (iv)Experimental: Experimental research is designed to test hypotheses about the relationship between variables or factors. It involves manipulating one or more independent variables in order to observe the effect on a dependent variable.
    (v)Quasi-experimental: Quasi-experimental research is similar to experimental research, but does not involve random assignment of subjects to treatment groups. It is often used when random assignment is not possible or ethical.
    (vi)Mixed methods: Mixed methods research combines qualitative and quantitative methods in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of a particular topic. It is often used to triangulate data and to explore complex issues from multiple perspectives.
    Overall, the purpose of research can vary depending on the specific goals and objectives of the study, and may involve one or more of these six categories.
    (7)Conducting social science research in developing countries can present a number of challenges and difficulties, due to the multifaceted and multi-dimensional nature of the problems involved. Some of the key problems of conducting social science research in developing countries include:
    (i)Limited resources: Developing countries often have limited resources available for research, including funding, personnel, and infrastructure. This can make it difficult to conduct high-quality research, and may limit the scope or scale of the research that is possible.
    (ii)Cultural and linguistic barriers: Researchers may encounter cultural and linguistic barriers when conducting research in developing countries, particularly if the researchers and the research participants come from different cultural backgrounds. These barriers can make it difficult to understand and interpret the research findings, and may require the use of interpreters or other cultural mediators.
    (iii)Political and social instability: Developing countries may be prone to political or social instability, which can create a challenging environment for research. Researchers may face risks to their personal safety, and may have to navigate complex political or social dynamics in order to conduct their research.
    (iv)Ethical considerations: Conducting research in developing countries can also raise ethical concerns, particularly if the research involves vulnerable populations or may have the potential to impact local communities. Researchers must be mindful of these ethical considerations and take steps to protect the rights and well-being of research participants.
    Overall, conducting social science research in developing countries can present a range of challenges and difficulties, but it is also an important and valuable endeavor that can contribute to the understanding of important social issues and inform policy and practice in these countries.

  51. Avatar Okeke Michael Obinna says:

    Name: Okeke Michael Obinna
    Dept: Combined social science(Eco/pol)
    Reg no: 2019/250019
    Course: Eco 391

    1) Research is a systematic and intensive investigation or study of a particular subject or problem in order to discover new knowledge or to clarify and revise existing knowledge. It is a process of inquiry that involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in order to answer a question or solve a problem. Research can be applied in a variety of fields, including science, medicine, engineering, social sciences, and humanities. It is an important tool for advancing knowledge and understanding in a particular field, and it is often used to inform decision-making and problem-solving in both academic and practical settings.
    There are various methods and approaches that can be used in research, depending on the specific goals and questions being addressed. Some common types of research include experiments, observations, surveys, and case studies. Researchers may also use a variety of data collection techniques, such as interviews, focus groups, and online surveys, to gather information. It is important for research to be conducted in a systematic and rigorous manner in order to ensure that the results are reliable and trustworthy.

    2) Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    3) Creswell’s three steps of research are:
    1. Planning and designing the study: This step involves developing a clear research question or hypothesis, identifying the variables of interest, and selecting the appropriate research method and design. For example, a researcher studying the effects of a new teaching method on student performance might develop a hypothesis that the new method will lead to improved test scores, and then design an experiment to test this hypothesis by randomly assigning students to either a control group or a treatment group.
    2. Collecting and analyzing data: This step involves gathering data from various sources, such as experiments, surveys, or observations. The researcher must then analyze the data using appropriate statistical techniques or qualitative methods to draw conclusions and answer the research question. For example, if the researcher in the previous example found that students in the treatment group had significantly higher test scores than those in the control group, they might conclude that the new teaching method was effective.
    3. Reporting the findings: This step involves presenting the results of the study in a clear and concise manner, either through a written report or a presentation. The researcher should also discuss the implications of the findings and any limitations of the study. For example, the researcher in the previous example might write a paper discussing the results of the study and the potential implications of the new teaching method for educational practice.

    4. There are several criteria that are generally recognized as necessary for a process to be considered “research.” The process must be systematic: This means that the research must be carefully planned and executed in a logical and organized manner. For example, a scientist studying the effects of a new drug on a particular disease would need to carefully design and implement a study that controls for various variables, such as the age and health of the participants, to ensure that any observed effects can be confidently attributed to the drug being tested. The process must be empirical: This means that the research must be based on observations and data, rather than just theory or speculation. For example, a sociologist studying the impact of poverty on education outcomes might collect data on income levels and test scores from a large number of schools, and use statistical analysis to look for patterns and correlations. The process must be replicable: This means that other researchers should be able to follow the same procedures and obtain similar results. This is important because it helps to ensure the reliability and validity of the research. For example, if a psychologist conducts a study showing that a certain therapy is effective for treating depression, other researchers should be able to replicate the study and get similar results in order to confirm the validity of the original findings. This means that the research must be carefully planned and executed in a logical and organized manner. For example, a scientist studying the effects of a new drug on a particular disease would need to carefully design and implement a study that controls for various variables, such as the age and health of the participants, to ensure that any observed effects can be confidently attributed to the drug being tested.

    5). Yes, the purpose of research can be complex and multifaceted. In general, the purpose of research is to increase our understanding of the world around us and to find solutions to problems that we face. However, the specific goals and objectives of research can vary widely depending on the discipline and area of study.
    For example, research in the natural sciences (such as biology, physics, and chemistry) is often focused on understanding how the natural world works and discovering new laws and principles that govern the behavior of the universe. This type of research may be driven by a desire to understand the fundamental nature of the world and to explain phenomena that have been observed.
    In the social sciences (such as psychology, sociology, and economics), research is often focused on understanding human behavior and the social, cultural, and economic systems that shape our world. This type of research may be driven by a desire to improve social policies, to understand the root causes of social problems, or to identify ways to promote social change.
    In the humanities (such as literature, history, and philosophy), research is often focused on understanding the human experience and the cultural and historical context in which it occurs. This type of research may be driven by a desire to understand the past and to learn from it, or to analyze and interpret cultural artifacts and ideas.
    Overall, the purpose of research is to gain new knowledge and insights that can help us to better understand and address the challenges and problems that we face in the world

    6). The purpose of research is the following-
    A. Exploration
    B. Description
    C. Causal Explanation
    D. Prediction.
    Exploration is finding out about some previously unexamined phenomenon. It is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the course of the study. Through exploration, researchers – Develop concepts more clearly – Establish priorities – Develop operational definitions – Formulate research hypotheses, and – Improve the final research design. Explorative studies tend toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. One might think, for example, of initiating an exploratory research in the following situations – Crime is increasing in the city at an alarming rate, the reasons for which remain unknown. The problem is ambiguous and what is actually happening is to be cleared. A new product is to be marketed, the manufacturer remains in worry if the product will be accepted by the people or not.

    Description: Description refers to the data based information-gathering activities. The situations and events which are described through studies are referred to as descriptive studies. Descriptive studies try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where and sometimes how. A descriptive study may be feasible in the following cases – What are the characteristics of the people who are involved in city crime? Are they young? Middle aged? Poor?
    Who are the potential buyers of the new product? Men or women? Urban people or rural people?

    Causal Exploration: An explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to establish cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It explains the reason for the phenomenon that describes study observed. Thus, if a researcher finds that communities having higher family size have higher child death, s/he is performing a descriptive study. If researcher is explaining why it is so and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationship, s/he is performing an explanatory study. Such studies are also called causal studies.

    Prediction: Prediction seeks to answer when and in what situations the event will occur, if it can be provided plausible explanation for the vent in question. In addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, it will be able to predict when the event will occur.

    7). There are several challenges that researchers may face when conducting social science research in developing countries. Some of these challenges include:
    1. Cultural differences: Researchers may encounter cultural differences that can impact the way they conduct their research and interpret their findings. For example, certain cultural practices or beliefs may be unfamiliar to the researcher, leading to misunderstandings or inaccurate conclusions.
    2. Limited resources: Developing countries often have limited resources, which can make it difficult for researchers to access the necessary materials and equipment for their studies. This can also make it challenging to recruit participants and gather data.
    3. Political instability: Political instability and conflict can make it difficult for researchers to access certain areas or obtain permission to conduct their research. This can also lead to safety concerns for researchers and participants.
    4. Language barriers: Researchers may encounter language barriers that make it difficult to communicate with participants and understand their experiences.
    5. Ethical concerns: Researchers may face ethical concerns when conducting research in developing countries, such as obtaining informed consent from participants or protecting their privacy.
    Overall, conducting social science research in developing countries requires careful consideration of these and other challenges in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the research findings.

  52. Avatar Okoro David 2019/241946 says:

    1. Research has many meanings in different fields of study and does not only exist in one. EXAMPLES OF THIS FIELDS OF STUDY INCLUDE ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, MASS COMMUNICATION, ETC. RESEARCH IS A SYSTEMATIC APPLICATION OF METHODS USEDTO EXTRACT RELIABLE INFORMATION ON PROBLEMS.
    All areas of study and human endeavor are plagued with problems, yet there are no known solutions or sources of information about them. Research must be carried out in order to learn more about these problems.
    2. Careful investigation or study is utilized in research to glean data on both old and new knowledge.
    Existing knowledge is continually being examined to see if it is still reliable and to broaden it. NEW RESEARCH METHODS ARE USED TO FORMULATE NEW KNOWLEDGES.
    3. ASK A QUESTION – Choose the topic for your research and formulate a question about it. How many patients with malaria have been treated, for instance.
    COLLECT INFORMATION TO ANSWER A QUESTION – COLLECT INFORMATION BASED ON THE QUESTION POSTED – PRESENT AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION – ANALYZE AND ORGANIZE ANSWERS COLLECTED – PRESENT THE END RESULT.
    4. Being conducted inside a framework of a set of philosophical principles (approaches) – There are steps established by IUR for doing research; any deviation from them implies invalid research, such as academic discipline.
    (ii) USE TECHNIQUES AND METHODS TESTED FOR VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY – FOR RESEARCH TO BE CONFIRMED VALID, IT SHOULD USE THE APPROVED RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, e.g. POSE A QUESTION.
    (iii) INTENDED TO BE UNBIASED AND OBJECTIVE – PERSONAL INTEREST IS NOT REQUIRED FOR A RESEARCH TO BE CONDUCTED. EVERY STEP OF A RESEARCH PROCESS MUST BE COMPLETED.
    5. THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH VARS JUST AS DOES ITS MEANING. THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH IN AN ACADEMIC FIELD OF STUDY MAY NOT BE THE SAME AS RESEARCH IN A HOSPITAL. For instance, research can be done in school to find a more effective way to deliver a presentation, while research is done in a hospital to simply determine the number of elderly patients admitted between 2017 and 2019.
    6. EXPLANATION – RESEARCH IS DONE TO DISCUSS WHY SOMETHING IS HAPPENING
    ii. It is used to predict what will happen in the future.
    iii. MONITORING is used to track progress or identify decisions that failed.
    IV. DISCOVERY – IT LEARNS NEW INFORMATION

  53. Avatar Chidiebere james says:

    CHIDIEBERE JAMES CHIWENDU
    COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES (ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY)
    REG NO: 2019/249120
    1) Research is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    Nevertheless, it is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. Development research is focussed on relevant, useful and important questions. If there are no questions, there can be no research.
    If government, business, institutions, labour, organisations and society in general are to function efficiently and effectively, it is important that the decisions they make are based on genuine and reliable information and thorough analysis. The search for this information is referred to as the research process. There maybe an already existing body of evidence (prior research, studies etc) you can make use of. If there is not, there is a need for research.

    2) Research is a process to discover or find new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    3) The definition of research as provided by John W. Creswell is “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue” This definition states that a research is a systematic way to find a solution of a problem and that solution helps in adding to the available knowledge.
    This step-by-step approach requires the following steps:
    *Formulation of a problem
    * Collecting data to solve that problem
    *Analyzing that data to reach the conclusion about that problem

    4) The three criteria to be adhered to so as to enable a process to be called research include:

    Currency:
    Is the information up-to-date enough for my topic?

    Rapid advancements in science necessitate looking for very current information when researching in this area. In other areas of study, older information may still be valued. Consult multiple sources to ascertain if there have been recent substantial developments in the field.

    Relevance:
    Does the information pertain to my topic and cover it in enough depth to meet my needs?

    Identifying a work’s intended audience can help in determining its depth of coverage. Information for the general public will vary in depth. Information for children will be simple, while information aimed at professionals may require advanced training to understand.

    Authority:
    Who is responsible for the content and what are their qualifications?

    The following reflect positively on an author’s authority to write about a subject;
    author of multiple books and articles about the topic;
    professor of a subject related to the topic
    affiliated with a recognized corporation, institution, or group in the field
    employed in a capacity related to the subject matter;
    Publication by a scholarly press or being subject to the peer review process before publication also reflect positively on a work’s authority.

    5). The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines.
    Conflicting results are often the consequence of doing research with inadequate sample sizes. As the sample size increases, the confidence interval tends to become smaller, meaning that the researcher can have greater confidence in the reliability of the findings.
    Conflicting results also result from significant differences in the population of interest. There is no obvious reason, for example, that a rural, white, American sample would produce the same findings as an urban, black American sample.
    Other apparently conflicting results can result from differences in the way variables are measured. Different instrumentation, even varying in tiny ways, can significantly effect the findings.

    Research findings are predicted by many factors. The research package (questions, methodology, analytical procedures) may be the same but factors such as the time of the research, the depth of the research probings, and the level of dedication to unearth the truth regarding the research questions may vary the findings in most cases. However, that is the richness associated with research- finding different perspectives of the same problem while finding different pragmatic solutions that can improve the quality of life.

    6). The purpose of research is the following-
    I. Exploration
    II. Description
    III. Causal Explanation
    IV. Prediction.
    Exploration is finding out about some previously unexamined phenomenon. It is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the course of the study. Through exploration, researchers – Develop concepts more clearly – Establish priorities – Develop operational definitions – Formulate research hypotheses, and – Improve the final research design. Explorative studies tend toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. One might think, for example, of initiating an exploratory research in the following situations – Crime is increasing in the city at an alarming rate, the reasons for which remain unknown. The problem is ambiguous and what is actually happening is to be cleared. A new product is to be marketed, the manufacturer remains in worry if the product will be accepted by the people or not.

    Description: Description refers to the data based information-gathering activities. The situations and events which are described through studies are referred to as descriptive studies. Descriptive studies try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where and sometimes how. A descriptive study may be feasible in the following cases – What are the characteristics of the people who are involved in city crime? Are they young? Middle aged? Poor?
    Who are the potential buyers of the new product? Men or women? Urban people or rural people?

    Causal Exploration: An explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to establish cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It explains the reason for the phenomenon that describes study observed. Thus, if a researcher finds that communities having higher family size have higher child death, s/he is performing a descriptive study. If researcher is explaining why it is so and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationship, s/he is performing an explanatory study. Such studies are also called causal studies.

    Prediction: Prediction seeks to answer when and in what situations the event will occur, if it can be provided plausible explanation for the vent in question. In addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, it will be able to predict when the event will occur.

    7). The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. The following are the main challenges or problems of research in developing countries:

    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.

    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.

    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

  54. Avatar OBASI SARAH CHINONSO says:

    Name: OBASI SARAH CHINONSO
    Reg : 2019/250357
    DEP: Economics Major
    Number 1
    We humans go about understanding things in a variety of ways, at times , we rely on traditional (the way we’ve always done things) and at other times, we rely on the opinions of people who are viewed as experts. A leading expert in the field says that this is what we should do, our own personal experiences and ability to generalize and make predictions based on these experiences provide us with much of our understanding.
    Research is the systematic application of a family of methods that are employed to provide trustworthy information about problems (lecture) and I would say it meant to answer questions about our observations and experiences in the world. It is a structured approach to gathering and interpreting information that will allow us to understand, theorize about, and explain our experiences.
    Number 2
    “Research is a creative process which initiates with  hypothesis and includes an inquiry or investigation,  discovery or invention or experimentation, during which substantial evidence is gathered to prove its final product. The chief aim of research is to know the truth. We can say that the research is a critical and extensive investigation or test which is aimed at reconsidering the accepted conclusions in the light of its newly discovered information.
     In simply, research is any investigation or discovery of fact or truth. Every kind of investigation that is based on the original sources of knowledge can be said to be research. Research is possible through the observation of new facts and through the formation of new ideas and thoughts.

    Number 3
    Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    I)How do you pose a research question?
    -Choose an interesting general topic. Most professional researchers focus on topics they are genuinely interested in studying
    -Search some preliminary research on your general topic.
    -Consider your audience
    -Start asking questions
    -Evaluate your question.
    II)How do you collect data to answer a question? There are many methods that a researcher can use to collect the information they need in order to answer their research question and to achieve their aims and objectives.
    Data collection can be done through Interviews, Observations, Focus group discussions, Delphi method, Case study, User-generated data.

    III) How to present an answer:The answers to these questions are your research findings. The methods you use or the experiments that you conduct are all directed at finding the answers to your research questions.

    Number 4
    The three criterias involved that enables a given process to be called research are:
    Philosophies :They include qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which one has been trained. These are approaches to research writing..For example, someone can be told to write a research paper using historical study approach or methodological study approach.
    Validity:.For example some procedures in research writing include Statement of Research Problem.Survey of Related Literature.Theoretical Model: Formulation of Hypothesis.Analysis of Data: Testing of Hypothesis.Write-up of Research Report.This means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question.
    Reliability : This is an essential part in research and it involves the value of measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    Number 5
    Each field or discipline comes with its own set of importance and its own set of procedures that are peculiar to that discipline.The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines.
    Number 6
    The purpose of research is clearly categorized by :
    Explanation : Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods,these are clearly stated reasons for conducting a research,it is used to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in.
    Prediction : Research is used to help asses a situation and predict what may happen in the future.This involves some level of probability.. We are able to say that it gives certain conditions then something is likely to happen.
    Monitoring : this means that money decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    Discovery : this entails finding out new situations.
    Hypothesis Testing : Research helps test theories about issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    Control : When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interest . Control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations,thus helping us to shape our environment.
    Number 7
    Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Multidimensional involves having several dimensions.While multifaceted means having many sides or having many different aspects or features. This means that the problems of social science research in developing countries aren’t just few and these problems are connected to other problems therefore causing a chain reaction in the societies of such developing countries. These problems include:shortage of time available for research,lack of available funding lack of planning,lack of moral and financial incentives,etc.

  55. Avatar Anyamadu Stephen Okechukwu 2019/249163 says:

    1.
    Research is as defined by Oxford dictionary is a “diligent inquiry or examination to seek or revise facts, principles, theories, applications, etc.; laborious or continued search after truth.” This goes to show that research as a concept can be carried out in various fields of study and human endeavors, this is because every human endeavor requires constant research to test and approve new fact and provide better ways in carrying out process/line of thinking. Research is systemic also, this means it follows a procedure, this procedure varies as applied in various fields of study. For example in sciences research procedure entails the basic steps of : Define a Question to Investigate – Make Predictions – Gather Data – Analyze the Data – Draw Conclusions. While it includes the following in social sciences; research question – form a hypothesis -test the hypothesis through empirical research – draw conclusions. This difference exist due to the difference in what is experimented on.
    However the differences, all research leads to providing a trustworthy information about the problem.
    2.
    As previously established, research is an inquiry to seek new facts or revise/review previous accepted fact. By extension research also expands the scope of study by asking new questions that address new problems. Particular to our course of study; Economics research, studies are carried out per-time to discover new methods to address new needs of man given that Man’s nature is not static, therefore, research is continuous.
    3.
    The three steps prescribed by Creswell are: Pose a question; Collect data to answer the question; Present an answer to the question.

    (A.) Pose a question: Every research begins with curiosity. Curiosity births questions, question of like what if the theory is tried in a different claim would it remain the same? How can the human mind be conditioned to demand for a particular product? Is poverty correlated to +tive in GDP? And other questions are the first step to research. Curiosity therefore doesn’t kill the cat, it makes it seek knowledge.

    (B)Collect data to answer the question: given the questions asked, researchers therefore go in search for answers by collecting data. Data are collected by: Questionnaires; Observation; Interviews etc.

    (C) Present an answer to the question: this step involve the analysis of the answers gotten from the collected data. The presented answer can be descriptive or predictive.
    4.
    In research, there are various criteria, however three are more important and if not included a research may be seen as invalid.
    The following are the criteria to a research process to possess inorder to qualify as a research – Carried out without a frame work of set philosophies; Validity and Reliability; Unbiased and Objectivity.
    5.
    Research is complicated process because of the rigorous process it entails. Research also differs in process across different fields because of the perculiarities involved and the agent studied. Like social sciences deal with humans and their character, while sciences deal with other animals and chemical reactions.
    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Purpose of research.
    1.Explanation. 2 Prediction. 3.Monitoring. 4.Discovering 5.Hypothesis Testing. 6 Control.

    1.Explanation: Entails the explicit written down reason why a research is carried out.
    2. Prediction: research is used to make predictions about future events. It tells what is likely to happen given the previous study undertaking.
    3.Monitoring: Research makes suggestions and gives solution to problems, when these solutions are implemented a research makes sure to monitor the effects of the process.
    4.Discovering: This is about finding out new solution.
    5.Hypothesis Testing: this is at the heart of research, because research relies on statistical proven facts.
    6. Control: it’s the the way the researcher control the environment to suit the interest of vast majority. It entails testing research results in a specific audience first before others
    7. The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are – insufficient data
    – illiteracy of the correspondence
    – insecurity
    – inaccessibility and poor road connection.
    – hidden sensitive information by government.
    – technical know how in handling some required packages

  56. Avatar Okoro-peter Ogoegbu Nnenna says:

    NAME:. OKORO-PETER OGOEGBU NNENNA
    REG NO:. 2019/243013
    DEPT:. COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES (ECO/POL)
    COURSE:. ECO391( INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH ECONOMICS)
    1.
    Research is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems, in other words, research is an art of systematic investigation. Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc. Research in simplest terms is searching for knowledge and searching for truth. In formal sense it is a systematic study of a problem attacked by a deliberately chosen strategy which starts with choosing an approach to preparing blue print (design) acting upon it in terms of designing research hypotheses, choosing methods and techniques, selecting or developing data collection tools, processing the data, interpretation and ends with presenting solution/s of the problem.
    2.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    3.
    Creswell analysed three process of research namely, qualitative, quantitative and mixed approach.
    QUALITATIVE INVESTIGATION
    Qualitative research encompasses an array of theoretical paradigms, and may employ a wide range of methods, methodologies, and research strategies. These include case studies, oral histories, participant observations, action research, ethnography, netnography, autoethnography, interviews, grounded theory and action research, to name but a few. However, such methods have some important features in common. Creswell (1994) defines qualitative research as “…an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem based on building a complex, holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants, and conducted in a natural setting” . Due to the richness of qualitative data, the quantity of data is often quite great despite the small sample sizes. Qualitative research is important for its ability to provide different knowledge through a deeper understanding of complexity and especially that of human behavior. For example, when conducting qualitative research, the researcher is concerned with providing a description of the phenomenon of interest rather than the measurement thereof . This description of said phenomenon can only occur by capturing the experience of the study participants for example, through observing them in their practice or by collecting their own accounts such as through interviews or diaries. This perspective gives value to what individuals can communicate through sharing their experiences and, in so doing, improve organizational communication and understanding by adding the content that these experiences lend to their interpretation and understanding of reality. As Creswell (1998) points out, due to the richness of qualitative data, the quantity of data is often quite great despite the small sample sizes.
    QUANTITATIVE INVESTIGATION
    Quantitative research in the context of the social sciences can be defined as “a type of empirical research into a social phenomenon or human problem, testing a theory consisting of variables which are measured with numbers and analyzed with statistics in order to determine if the theory explains or predicts phenomena of interest”. Ontologically, it assumes a static reality that is measurable and analyzable, especially using statistical means. Quantitative research aims to predict, measure, and control phenomena of interest by identifying relevant variables and measuring them. There is a wide range of methods, methodologies, and research strategies that can be employed in quantitative research, including but not limited to experimentation, randomized trials, and survey studies. These usually involve the use of large-scale, representative sampling with the aim of being able to generalize findings. These methods all fit well with the goal of improving organizational and management practices from the perspective of management but fall short if the organization wants to incorporate a range of perspectives.
    Thus, taken together, qualitative and quantitative methods and their underpinning philosophies can complement each other, rather than represent opposing viewpoints, and one of the best representations of this is the use of mixed methods.

    MIXED METHOD
    Increasingly, researchers are adopting a third paradigm approach using mixed methods, which has received support lately as it combines the strengths of each methodology and minimizes weaknesses. Thus, taken together, qualitative and quantitative methods and their underpinning philosophies can complement each other, rather than represent opposing viewpoints, and one of the best representations of this is the use of mixed methods.
    Toomela states that selecting mixed methods is needed to understand what information is coded in the ‘variable’ so the ‘interpretation’ is meaningful. Some have even argued that mixed methods offer a possible solution for the ongoing paradigm wars that seem to plague modern academic research. Mixed methods may be particularly needed “to answer research questions that include clearly interconnected qualitative and quantitative components. Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).
    4.
    The three criteria in that enables the process to be called “research” are: The philosophies, validity and reliability.
    i. Research philosophy deals with the source, nature and development of knowledge[1]. In simple terms, research philosophy is belief about the ways in which data about a phenomenon should be collected, analysed and used.
    Although the idea of knowledge creation may appear to be profound, you are engaged in knowledge creation as part of completing your dissertation. You will collect secondary and primary data and engage in data analysis to answer the research question and this answer marks the creation of new knowledge.
    ii. Reliability refers to how consistently a method measures something. If the same result can be consistently achieved by using the same methods under the same circumstances, the measurement is considered reliable.
    For example, you measure the temperature of a liquid sample several times under identical conditions. The thermometer displays the same temperature every time, so the results are reliable.
    iii. Validity refers to how accurately a method measures what it is intended to measure. If research has high validity, that means it produces results that correspond to real properties, characteristics, and variations in the physical or social world.
    High reliability is one indicator that a measurement is valid. If a method is not reliable, it probably isn’t valid.
    For example, if the thermometer shows different temperatures each time, even though you have carefully controlled conditions to ensure the sample’s temperature stays the same, the thermometer is probably malfunctioning, and therefore its measurement is not valid.
    5.
    Research is what propels humanity forward. It’s fueled by curiosity: we get curious, ask questions, and immerse ourselves in discovering everything there is to know. Learning is thriving. Without curiosity and research, progress would slow to a halt, and our lives as we know them would be completely different.

    What is Research
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.
    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:
    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”
    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.
    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    Also to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    7.
    In developing world like Africa, where the practice of journalistic publishing is still far from reaching the peak of its development. Morcos (1999) observed that most publications have a small readership and fewer advertisements, hence are strapped financially; this makes it difficult to keep up with changing technology.
    Lack of local scientific expertise, research education and investment in science in lower income countries. The number of researchers in high-income countries is generally greater than that in middle-and lowincome countries.
    These issues are further compounded in developing countries that had recently started considering knowledge a source of income which need to develop their communities (which may suffer from health problems different from those found in developed countries) and demonstrate the added value of publicly funded research.
    We can also see, language barrier as an object too, inability to communicate in the native language of the people is also a factor, insecurity, bad road network, inadequate data an so on.

  57. Name: Onyia Ugochukwu Sullivan
    Reg no: 2019/249490
    Department: Economics

    1. “Research” has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss

    Answer: Research is typically an ongoing process based on accumulated understandings and explanations that, when combined, lead to generalizations about educational issues and practice and, eventually, the development of theories.
    We humans approach understanding in a variety of ways. We sometimes rely on tradition. Why should I change the way I’ve always done things? At times, we rely on the opinions of people regarded as experts. According to a leading expert in the field, this is what we should do.
    Much of our understanding comes from our personal experiences and our ability to generalize and predict based on those experiences. We frequently use inductive and deductive reasoning to help us understand something.
    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Answer:
    “Research is that, “research is a creative process which initiates with hypothesis and includes an inquiry or investigation, discovery or invention or experimentation, during which substantial evidence is gathered to prove its final product. The chief aim of research is to know the truth. “
    We can say that the research is a critical and extensive investigation or test which is aimed at reconsidering the accepted conclusions in the light of its newly discovered information.
    In simply, research is any investigation or discovery of fact or truth.
    Every kind of investigation that is based on the original sources of knowledge can be said to be research.
    Research is possible through the observation of new facts and through the formation of new ideas and thoughts.
    Research broadens our understanding. The word ‘knowledge’ has two meanings: knowing what you have and knowing where you have it. The river of knowledge analogy improves wisdom through experience and sound judgment.
    The beginning of any research may appear small, but it adds dimension to the journey and progress.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Answer: Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.

    Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
    A research project could also be a continuation of prior work in the field. Research projects can be used to learn more about a subject or, in the case of a school research project, to hone a student’s research skills in preparation for future jobs or reports. Researchers may replicate elements of previous projects or the entire project to validate instruments, procedures, or experiments. The primary goals of basic research are the documentation, discovery, interpretation, or research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge (as opposed to applied research). Epistemologies underpin research approaches, which vary greatly within and between the humanities and sciences.
    4. Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

    Answer:
    A good study is repeatable, reproducible, and transparent.
    Some of the most important characteristics of research are replication, reproducibility, and transparency. A research study’s replicability is important because it allows other researchers to test the study’s findings. Replicability can also increase reader trust in the findings of a study (Understanding Health Research, 2020).

    Good research is also reproducible. Though replicability and reproducibility are often used interchangeably, research is reproducible if researchers achieve consistent results using the same data and analysis methods (Miceli, 2019). The reproducibility and replicability of a research study and its findings can confirm the study’s overall validity and credibility.
    For research to be replicable or reproducible, it must also be transparent or available to other researchers. Research must be written or presented in such a way that it provides comprehensive details on how data was collected and analyzed and how conclusions were reached (Baskin, 2015).
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Answer:
    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as “pure science,” is concerned with explaining the world around us and attempting to comprehend how the universe works. It is about discovering what already exists, with no greater goal in mind than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendant of philosophy, in which philosophers and scientists attempted to comprehend the fundamental principles of existence.

    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as ‘Is global warming avoidable?’ or ‘Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?’

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    Answer:
    1- Acquire Knowledge Efficiently through Research
    The most apparent reason to conduct research is to understand more. Even if you think you know everything there is to know about a subject, there is always more to learn. Research helps you expand on any prior knowledge you have of the subject. The research process creates new opportunities for learning and progress.
    2- Research Helps in Problem-solving

    The study’s goal is to broaden our understanding. Research provides us with the data and knowledge we need to solve problems and make decisions. To distinguish between research that seeks to advance our understanding and research that seeks to apply pre-existing knowledge to real-world situations. In this context, the goal of research is ‘problem-solving.’
    3- Research Provides the Latest Information
    Research enables you to seek out the most up-to-date facts. There is always new knowledge and discoveries in various sectors, particularly scientific ones. Staying updated keeps you from falling behind and providing inaccurate or incomplete information. You’ll be better prepared to discuss a topic and build on ideas if you have the most up-to-date information. With the help of tools and certifications such as CIRS, you may learn internet research skills quickly and easily. Internet research can provide instant, global access to information.
    4- Research Builds Credibility
    Research provides a solid basis for formulating thoughts and views. You can speak confidently about something you know to be true. It’s much more difficult for someone to find flaws in your arguments after you’ve finished your tasks. In your study, you should prioritize the most reputable sources. Your research should focus on the most reliable sources. You won’t be credible if your “research” comprises non-experts’ opinions. People are more inclined to pay attention if your research is excellent.
    5- Research Helps in Business Success
    Like any other technical work, a business demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proof and market research. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business. Businesses fail at a rate of close to 90% if proper research is not conducted. So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they have sensible owners who researched their product and the market research before launching it. Only if we pay attention to these nit-picks of a company and see the importance of research decision-making will there be a higher chance to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Answer:
    1. Nonexistence of Scientific Training
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    Financial issues
    At times, funding is insecure. Many Ph.D. students rely on their parents or friends for financial support, which makes finding new funding extremely stressful. Ideally, the research supervisors should be available to assist with this. To overcome this issue, it is recommended that scholars save money in case of a financial crisis.
    Lack of communication with the guide
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    Proper Time management
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.

  58. Avatar Hezekiah Joy Chiwonke says:

    HEZEKIAH JOY CHIWONKE
    2019/245662
    ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com
    1.
    Research basically is to find answers to questions. It is a way of innovative reasoning, innovative thinking so as to advance the current position of a discipline. Research has an end of instituting positive changes for more effectiveness when it comes to its application in various disciplines.
    It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. This implies that research involves methods that are systematically structured to bring about valid and reliable answers to problems. Research methods like analyzing historical records, documents, questionnaire, telephone survey as well as organizing a small group study of random behavior to help in the collection of data, establishing relationships amongst data, and also to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained.
    Hence, there are methods that have been structured to ensures that research conducted provide an accurate and reliable information about a given problem.
    2.
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    As a careful inquiry to discover new information or relationships it has to follow a systematic process, such that such findings follows a methodical presentation. So that at every stage of its findings there is no vague understanding because its validity and accuracy may fits into other body of knowledge.
    Research as a careful inquiry to verify an existing knowledge talks about logical consistency, logical coherence because there has to be an understanding of the very foundations that support any claim of knowledge, as well as an open air to critique such findings to solidify its validity and to clear any error that would have been made in previous generalizations like the case of Geocentrism held by the Church before the Corpenican System.
    Conducting a research to expand an existing knowledge talks about correspondence. In other words, the newly discovered knowledge has to logically correspond with the previous to form a body of knowledge.
    3.
    Creswell argues that, ‘Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue and it consists of three steps, which are;
    Pose a question
    In posing a question, a researcher has to be clear-minded on why the research is to be conducted and what answers are sought for, then he makes an hypothesis out of the defined problem. For instance, let’s say the defined problem is: What kind of strategies can a business implement to retain their customer base?
    Collect data to answer the question
    Here, the researcher would have to identify what type of data he would need, what will constitute his survey and where the data would come from?. The data may come from primary sources or in this case from the Internal data the company has, such as CRM software, E-mail marketing tools and so on. The data may also be fetched from Secondary sources or External sources, such as data from Government portals, International Organizations’ databases
    Present an answer to the question
    This requires the researcher to give his unbiased and objective view on the research conducted to form a generalization. And so he exposes the research decision to evaluation before they are implemented.
    4. There are three criteria that are sufficient to define the essence of a research study, and they are;
    The Research study is being conducted within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches)
    This implies that one’s philosophical exposure gives structure to the research study to be conducted. In other words, one’s philosophical exposure conditions.
    For instance, one’s academic discipline gives structure on the kind of research to be carried out. And so, to carry out a research on Agriculture in the Northern part of Nigeria, I will carry this out by reason of how I have studied a combination of Economics and Philosophy.
    The research study uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability.
    Such procedures, methods and techniques to be employed have been deemed justified by several indicators on their efficacy and also it could be employed in other researches without reducing it efficacy.
    And so, I could possibly employ the observation method, I would observe the farmers as they work and possibly engage them in a conversation while recording.
    The Research study is designed to be unbiased and objective
    An unbiased research study has no personal prejudice of the researcher, that is there are no preconceived opinion in the generalizations made. He has no ulterior intention as he conducts the research, while objectivity implies that a researcher’s thoughts pattern being engaged in the process of the research study is not conditioned or affected by his personality, for instance, his Philosophy, experience, social background and so on.
    While conducting this Research on the Northerners, I would not allow my experience with the Eastern farmers to affect my judgements. Knowing fully well that the climate is different, the soil texture, their culture are all different.
    5.
    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Research basically, is to find answers to questions. There are various ends for which a research is conducted as determined by the scientific fields and discipline. Hence, they are;
    To solve problems, this is common in the medical field as they constantly undergo researches to combat strange phenomena that plague the survival of mankind.
    To obtain academic degrees, it is held that no matter how intelligent a student is, such would not be awarded an academic degree if he fails a course on Research. Hence Research could be conducted as a part of an academic course work. Hence, in this wise, Research is carried out as a partial fulfilment for the award of a doctorate degree for example.
    To contribute to the existing body of knowledge, this is for the Educationists. They carry out Research studies to update the syllabus of learning to bring students to terms with what prevails in the society.
    Research institutions, they serve as stewards of data and information. They contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
    6.
    The Purpose of Research for any discipline is generally categorized into 6, which are;
    Explanation, this is the most common reason for conducting research. Here, the purpose is to unveil a truth that underlies a phenomenon. In this wise, research is carried out as an art of scientific investigation to understand the world. In a bid to explain certain phenomena faced by the world, an exploratory research studies is carried out.
    Prediction, another reason for conducting research studies is to be able to manipulate the future to work to the advantage of the society. This is feasible after by making perhaps a diagnostic research studies on a particular phenomenon, so as to predict a future occurrence and hence know how to install preventive measures if measures to manipulate the negative occurrence will not be obtainable.
    For instance Corpenicus’ celestial model helped to make accurate prediction of planetary positions.
    Monitoring, specifically Research studies are carried out to extend, correct or verify an existing body of knowledge. Hence, a particular body of knowledge is closely monitored for any update or extension. Also, research could also be carried to monitor the accuracy of a body of knowledge so as to discard any that is not accurate and aligns with reality.
    For instance, Polish theologian Nicolaus Corpenicus after a long time research, through observation from his Observatory, that took almost his entire life, devised a theory that the planets revolved around the Sun as opposed to Ptolemy who claimed the Sun revolved around the Earth. Galileo Galilei went ahead to make further research on Corpenicus’ claim and was able to validate it. However he was charged with heresy for advocating the Corpenican System.
    Discovery or New Improved Situation, research is also conducted for this purpose. Almost similar to the above, where the difference is that, for the purpose of Monitoring, it is to sustain an existing body of knowledge and guard against any error that may have occurred in making generalizations. But for the purpose of Discovery, it could be an offshoot from exercising the instinct of inquisitiveness.
    Hypothesis Testing, researchers engage statistical tools to evaluate an hypothesis to test, such tools as Chi-square test, F- test. When conducting research ,the researcher formulates an hypothesis and then tests it to see if there is any causal relationship between the variables.
    Control, here research is applied to real world situations, to see how control measures could be applied so as to manipulate the environment to the society’s interests.
    7.
    The problems of conducting Research in Developing countries arises due to the following:
    Funding, which is the major problem of developing countries. In the process of carrying out researches, specific tools, equipment, technology may be required to bring about an objective and accurate truth that was sought for by reason of engaging in the research. While carrying out an exploratory research in the sciences, a researcher might be faced with the need to obtain some materials, which could be used for experiments. And so for experiments, the researcher might be forced to purchase more of those materials, to avoid any form of biasness or error or material misstatements.
    For instance, a program was shown on Discovery Family channel in the DStv dish, how two groups were given five thousand dollars each to carry out a research on how to stop a moving vehicle that refuses to stop at a toll gate without any of the passengers being hurt. That amount I fear cannot be comfortably provided for such a problem in Developing countries.
    Incorrect Sampling, this could be an outgrowth from the lack of trained personnel who could carry out researches with expertise making use of the sophisticated tools and techniques for research. For instance, a researcher not understanding who to survey and thus selects a sample that is not representative of the population.
    Non-compliance from Correspondents, this could be a spin-off from the lack of awareness or say the ignorance of the correspondents especially in rural areas. When they are not adequately educated on the essence of such researches by the authority within their jurisdiction if not the National authority, then non-compliance is inevitable. This could also be an offshoot from their cultural beliefs. In some locales, there might be certain cultural beliefs that are held in high esteem which would conflict with any form of research carried within that vicinity.
    Actions of the Government, with the present Nigerian government as a case study, the leadership is very poor to the point that it hardly sponsors innovative researches, as her primary focus is on corruption. Notwithstanding, she dreads fearfully, capital projects, as her culture is to discard previous administration’s projects and take up new irrelevant ones. So taking up projects that may span across administrations may not be feasible.
    Insecurity, as there are undeveloped institutions so are there places that are undeveloped such that there is no internet connection for smooth communication. Hence, obtaining primary data in a field survey may prove abortive as there may be loss of lives, distorted data.

  59. Avatar Alozie Uche Daniel. says:

    NAME:ALOZIE UCHE DANIEL
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS MAJOR
    COURSE: RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT.
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    1.
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.

    In different fields of study,It is a vital tool for specified advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated.

    Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis

    2.
    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.

    3. Cress well’s steps in research.
    Cress well’s research steps included:
    1. Pose a question.
    2 Collect data to answer the question, and
    3. Present an answer for the question.
    1. Pose a question: Identify a research probkem,Specify a problem, Justify a problem, Suggest a need to study the problem for audiences.

    2.Collect data to answer for the question: select the individuals to study, Obtain permission, lay down data,take the data apart to look at individual responses.

    3. Present an answer for the question:
    Determine the
    research method, Determine the audience for the report,structure the report.

    4.
    The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used.
    2 The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained.

    3
    The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible.

    5.
    At the most basic level, scientific research can be split, loosely, into two types, ‘pure research’ and ‘applied research’.
    Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose.

    An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure maths is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied maths, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology and gravity.
    1. Applied research.
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    2. Pure research.
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.

    6.
    1.Information gathering

    2. Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring

    3. Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing

    4. Theory testing.

    5. Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations

    6. Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    7.
    1. Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. 

    2. Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research

    3. Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.  

    4. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. 

    5. Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

  60. Name: Onyia Ugochukwu Sullivan
    Reg no: 2019/249490
    Department: Economics

    1. “Research” has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss

    Answer: Research is typically an ongoing process based on accumulated understandings and explanations that, when combined, lead to generalizations about educational issues and practice and, eventually, the development of theories.
    We humans approach understanding in a variety of ways. We sometimes rely on tradition. Why should I change the way I’ve always done things? At times, we rely on the opinions of people regarded as experts. According to a leading expert in the field, this is what we should do.
    Much of our understanding comes from our personal experiences and our ability to generalize and predict based on those experiences. We frequently use inductive and deductive reasoning to help us understand something.
    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Answer:
    “Research is that, “research is a creative process which initiates with hypothesis and includes an inquiry or investigation, discovery or invention or experimentation, during which substantial evidence is gathered to prove its final product. The chief aim of research is to know the truth. “
    We can say that the research is a critical and extensive investigation or test which is aimed at reconsidering the accepted conclusions in the light of its newly discovered information.
    In simply, research is any investigation or discovery of fact or truth.
    Every kind of investigation that is based on the original sources of knowledge can be said to be research.
    Research is possible through the observation of new facts and through the formation of new ideas and thoughts.
    Research enhances knowledge. There are two sides to the word ‘knowledge’ – one is to know what you have and the other is to know where it is. The analogy of the river of knowledge enhances wisdom through experience and good judgment.
    The beginning of any research may seem small but it takes more dimension on a progress and journey.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Answer: Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.

    Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

    A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences
    4. Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

    Answer:
    Good research is replicable, reproducible, and transparent.
    Replicability, reproducibility, and transparency are some of the most important characteristics of research. The replicability of a research study is important because this allows other researchers to test the study’s findings. Replicability can also improve the trustworthiness of a research’s findings among readers (Understanding Health Research, 2020).
    Good research is also reproducible. Though replicability and reproducibility are often used interchangeably, research is reproducible if researchers achieve consistent results using the same data and analysis methods (Miceli, 2019). The reproducibility and replicability of a research study and its findings can confirm the study’s overall validity and credibility.
    For research to be replicable or reproducible, it must also be transparent or available to other researchers. Research must be written or presented in such a way that it provides comprehensive details on how data was collected and analyzed and how conclusions were reached (Baskin, 2015).
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Answer:
    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.
    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as ‘Is global warming avoidable?’ or ‘Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?’

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    Answer:
    1- Acquire Knowledge Efficiently through Research
    The most apparent reason to conduct research is to understand more. Even if you think you know everything there is to know about a subject, there is always more to learn. Research helps you expand on any prior knowledge you have of the subject. The research process creates new opportunities for learning and progress.
    2- Research Helps in Problem-solving

    The goal of the research is to broaden our understanding. Research gives us the information and knowledge to solve problems and make decisions. To differentiate between research that attempts to advance our knowledge and research that seeks to apply pre-existing information to real-world situations. The goal of research in this setting is ‘problem-solving.’
    3- Research Provides the Latest Information
    Research enables you to seek out the most up-to-date facts. There is always new knowledge and discoveries in various sectors, particularly scientific ones. Staying updated keeps you from falling behind and providing inaccurate or incomplete information. You’ll be better prepared to discuss a topic and build on ideas if you have the most up-to-date information. With the help of tools and certifications such as CIRS, you may learn internet research skills quickly and easily. Internet research can provide instant, global access to information.
    4- Research Builds Credibility
    Research provides a solid basis for formulating thoughts and views. You can speak confidently about something you know to be true. It’s much more difficult for someone to find flaws in your arguments after you’ve finished your tasks. In your study, you should prioritize the most reputable sources. Your research should focus on the most reliable sources. You won’t be credible if your “research” comprises non-experts’ opinions. People are more inclined to pay attention if your research is excellent.
    5- Research Helps in Business Success
    Like any other technical work, a business demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proof and market research. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business. Businesses fail at a rate of close to 90% if proper research is not conducted. So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they have sensible owners who researched their product and the market research before launching it. Only if we pay attention to these nit-picks of a company and see the importance of research decision-making will there be a higher chance to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Answer:
    1. Nonexistence of Scientific Training
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    Financial issues
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.
    Lack of communication with the guide
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    Proper Time management
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.

  61. Avatar UKAEGBU NNEOMA ROSELINE says:

    Name: UKAEGBU NNEOMA ROSELINE
    Ref number:2019/245510
    Department :ECONOMICS MAJOR

    1.Defintion of Research Discussed
    Some people consider research as a voyage of discovery of new knowledge,but in a more sophisticated sense research is a scientific approach to answering a research question, solving a research problem, or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of data to make research findings useful in decision-making.The word ‘research’ perhaps originates from the old French word “recerchier” which meant to ‘search again.’ It implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete; hence, a repeated search is called for.
    Also we can equally define research as the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.
    how does individuals and businesses collect and analyze data? Accurate and relevant research guides key business decisions, including marketing plans, staffing decisions and expansions, and critical data, like environmental impacts, health care, and social characteristics. Determining what data is most useful for your goals and finding the most effective ways to obtain it can help your company make successful long-term decisions the answer is research.
    In conclusion research, should have the potential to produce sufficiently relevant results to increase and synthesize existing knowledge or correct and integrate previous knowledge.A good reflective research produces theories and hypotheses and benefits any intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena.

    2.Research as a Tool for Getting New Knowledge from an Existing Knowledge
    Already perhaps originates from the old French word “recerchier” which meant to ‘search again.we also hve scholars explaining research to be systematized effort to gain new knowledge” Redman and Moray, Fred Kerlinger. “ Is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify existing knowledge”.
    Hence definition of research like the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Which could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    3.Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    4.Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called research, these three criteria are Philosophy, Validity and Reliability
    Philosophy is the belief about the way that data should be gathered, analyzed and used.
    The research philosophy can be identified via a number of ways, the concepts used, the conceptual and theoretical framework, the kind of authors cited as well, it is the philosophy that guides how research should be conducted based on ideas about the reality and the nature of the knowledge.
    It also depends on the way one thinks about the development of the knowledge whether it is the acceptable knowledge in the field of study or the nature of the reality and the value of the researcher in all stages of research process.
    So for instance if the question posed is “How does Artificial intelligence affect humans in their day to day activities”
    The philosophy imbibed would have to be determined by the researcher’s knowledge about Artificial intelligence or even what Artificial intelligence has been up to in reality, This would even affect how the researcher would create the research questions as well as the research objectives.
    The Validity of a research study refers to how well the results among the study participants represent true findings among similar individuals outside the study.
    This seeks to measure the accuracy of the measure so it has an impact of the tools used to get the data to be analysed. If a research has high validity, it means it produces results that correspond to real properties and characteristics and variation in the physical or social world.
    Still using the problem of the Artificial intelligence impact on humans, the researcher has to be sure that the results should play out as seen in the research test in the real world as seen in the test.
    The Reliability relates to the consistency of a measure, the researcher should have approximately the same response each time the research test is completed or carried out. The results have to be consistent and repeatable.
    When the researcher concludes on the impact of the artificial intelligence, the reliability of the conclusion and Analysis should be consistent regardless of how many times the research test is carried out with the validity of the research tools and data used.

    5.The Purpose of Research Varies in So Many Way According to Difference Discipline:
    What is research? Depending on who you ask, you will likely get very different answers to this seemingly innocuous question. As do the purpose for research, research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, which entail it various purposes
    . Research expands your knowledge base :The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject.
    . Research gives you the latest information: Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture.
    . Research helps you know what you’re up against :In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them.
    . Research builds your credibility :People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources
    . Research introduces you to new ideas :You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours.
    . Research helps with problem-solving :Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution
    . Research helps you reach people :Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    6. General Purposes For Research
    Explanation: possibility the mass citied reason for conducting research ,is to used it to explain why something is occurring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in research is concerned with aqurring new knowledge ,re establishing fact and developing new method
    Prediction: Research is use to help arises a situation and predict what may happen in future .we are able to say that for given certain future.We are able to say that given certain condition then this is likely to happen
    Monitoring : Many decision made must be monitor,to insure that goals are being attained
    Discovery: New improved situation ,finding out new situation
    Hypotheses testing: which is at the heart scientific research of statistical analysis to help evaluate and hypothesis
    Control: represent the way inwhich this can be applied to real problems and situation,this helping us to shape our environment,when we understand tge relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit our interest

    7. Following are the main challenges or problems of research in developing countries:
    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques.
    Lack of confidence and disclosure of information: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information, sometimes instead of helping this this make cause may cause confusion because of the contradicting data ,especially for a research that is not fully equipped .
    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. To simply put it, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  62. Avatar OKHUEIGBE CHARITY OMONYE says:

    OKHUEIGBE CHARITY OMONYE
    2019/244711
    ECONOMICS
    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss.
    Answer:
    Research is the formal, systematic application of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach to the study of problems, the systematic application of family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems, issues, and topics. Most researchers including undertake inquiry to gain understanding about some problem or topic that they don’t fully comprehend.
    Having a stake in the outcome of the research makes conducting it more interesting, useful, and satisfying for the researcher. Once research topics or problems are explained or understood, many secondary purposes of research come into play, such as helping others understand the research results, using results to improve teaching and learning, new topics or questions to study. Rarely, however, does a single research study produce the research is usually an ongoing process. based on accumulated understandings and explanation and ultimately, to the development of theories.
    We humans go about understanding things in a variety of ways. At times we rely on tradition: This is the way we have always done things; why change now! All other times we rely on the opinions of people who are viewed as experts: A leading expert in the field says that this is what we should do. Our own personal experiences and our ability to generalize and make predictions based on these experiences provides us with much of our understanding Often we use inductive and deductive reasoning to help us come to an understanding of something.
    Inductive reasoning is based on developing generalizations from a limited number of observations or experiences.
    Deductive reasoning is based on developing specific predictions from general principles ,observations and experiences.
    Scientific and disciplined inquiry is based on a systematic approach to examining educational issues and questions. It combines features of inductive and deductive reasoning with other characteristics to produce an approach to understanding that, though sometimes fallible. is generally more viable than relying on tradition, experts, personal experience, or inductive or deductive reasoning alone. Nonetheless, it is extremely difficult to totally remove the biases and beliefs in any research study. We can lessen but rarely eliminate errors in research studies that arise from the complexity and variability of humans and the contexts in which they act. Even the most extensive study cannot examine all the human and contextual factors that might influence a researchers findings. Although the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach cannot guarantee error-free research results. it does incorporate checks and balances to help minimize the likelihood that the researcher’s emotions or biases will influence research conclusions.
    One very important characteristic distinguishes scientific and disciplined inquiry from other ways of understanding. The researcher is expected to describe in detail the procedures used to conduct the research study and its conclusions, thus providing a basis for examining and verifying the research results. These checks and balances permit others to examine, understand, and critique the research in ways not available by tradition, experts, personal experience, or inductive or deductive reasoning alone
    At the heart of scientific and disciplined inquiry is an orderly process that, at a minimum, involves four basic steps:
    1. Recognize and identify a topic to study: A topic is a question, issue, or problem related to education that can be examined or answered through collecting and analyzing data.
    2. Describe and execute procedures to collect information about the topic being studied. The procedures include identifying the research participants, the strategies to collect data related to the topic, and the activities describing how, when, and from whom the data will be collected. The nature of the research topic influences the research method applied, for ex-ample, the choice of a deductive or inductive approach.
    3. Analyze the collected data: Analysis of the collected data is also related to the nature of the topic studied and to the data collected. Some research topics are best analyzed using quantitative, numerical data and a variety of statistical approaches. Other research topics are more qualitative in form and rely on data in the form of narratives, tape recordings, and field notes. Qualitative data are usually analyzed using interpretive rather than statistical analysis. Regardless of the kind of data collected, some form of analysis is necessary.
    4. State the results or implications based on analysis of the data: Conclusions reached in the research study should relate back to the original research topic. What can be concluded about this topic based on the results of the study?

    2.Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details.
    Answer:
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
    A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.

    3.Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps:  Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.
    Answer:
    John W. Creswell, states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    1.pose a question:A research question is a question that a study or research project aims to answer. This question often addresses an issue or a problem, which, through analysis and interpretation of data, is answered in the study’s conclusion. The primary importance of framing the research question is that it narrows down a broad topic of interest into a specific area of study (Creswell, 2014). Research questions, along with hypotheses, also serve as a guiding framework for research. These questions also specifically reveal the boundaries of the study, setting its limits, and ensuring cohesion. Moreover, the research question has a domino effect on the rest of the study. These questions influence factors, such as the research methodology, sample size, data collection, and data analysis (Lipowski, 2008). For Example: the Effect of Covid-19 to Financial Institutions.
    2.Collect data to answer the question: The process of gathering and analyzing accurate data from various sources to find answers to research problems, trends and probabilities, etc., to evaluate possible outcomes is Known as Data Collection. It is the process of gathering, measuring, and analyzing accurate data from a variety of relevant sources to find answers to research problems, answer questions, evaluate outcomes, and forecast trends and probabilities.During data collection, the researchers must identify the data types, the sources of data, and what methods are being used. Before an analyst begins collecting data, they must answer three questions first:
    What’s the goal or purpose of this research?
    What kinds of data are they planning on gathering?
    What methods and procedures will be used to collect, store, and process the information?.If your research aims at collecting quantifiable data, you will need to make use of quantitative research questions. On the other hand, qualitative questions help you to gather qualitative data bothering on the perceptions and observations of your research subjects. 
    3.present an answer to the question: These are the questions you explore through your research. The answers to these questions are your research findings. The methods you use or the experiments that you conduct are all directed at finding the answers to your research questions. Thus, we can say that the Results and Discussion sections include the answers to your research question. In the Results section, you include the findings of your experiments, and in the Discussion section, you analyze these findings and explain how they answer the research question that you started out with.

    4.Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    Answer:
    when you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question,you are implying that the process;
    1.Is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches). Philosophies means approaches eg qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. for instance, a researcher who wants to conduct a study on how the covid vaccines contributed to the amelioration of the pandemic will have to adopt several empirical observations, experiments and hypothesis to reach a conclusion about the question being asked.

    2.Uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.

    3.Is designed to be unbiased and objective, means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest(Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something).
    furthermore in other to be unbiased, the researcher will have to use valid techniques to analyse the data. The researcher will have to conduct an explicit survey of the hospitals and the number of patients, the number of vaccines produced and the number that recovered. At the same time, determine whether the recovery were as a result of the vaccine. He should use standardised tools or procedures to compile this data. This implies that his study must be reliable in case another researcher wants to reference his work.

    5.The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss 
    Answer:
    ① Research is guided by previously conducted research (purpose of your literature review is to find out what previous research has found, any limitations of past research that you are addressing, etc. Past research helps us learn about our topic and aids us in avoiding past mistakes .
    ② Research studies are replicated to ensure the results are valid.
    ③ The research process is examined and flaws or threats to validity are reported.
    ④ Past research helps us learn about our topic and aids us in avoiding past mistakes
    ⑤ Research provides for acceptance and rejection of hypothesis or tentative claim through deductive reasoning.
    ⑥ To contribute to the existing body of knowledge, this is mainly triggered by curiosity about a subject.
    ⑦ Research ends up back where it started with questions
    ⑧ New questions emerge based upon answers to previous questions
    ⑨ A research may be called upon to study a specifics phenomena by some higher authority.thus is enhances collaboration which higher authorities, even among peers
    ⑩ There is no such thing as perfect research, all research projects have limitations and those limitations should be reported, rather than hidden.
    ⑪ Generally, research projects should: 
    a) address an important question and
    b) advance knowledge
    Research begins with a problem/question, this can be the hardest part of research

    6.For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Answer:They include:
    1.Explanation:is a research method that explores why something occurs when limited information is available. It can help you increase your understanding of a given topic, ascertain how or why a particular phenomenon is occurring, and predict future occurrences.it answers “why” and “how” questions, leading to an improved understanding of a previously unresolved problem or providing clarity for related future research initiatives.

    2.prediction: In research, a prediction is an educated guess about what will happen in an experiment. It is based on previous observations and knowledge. A good prediction should be testable and specific. Predictions are important in research because they help scientists to focus their work and make the best use of their time and resources. Good predictions can also lead to new discoveries. A statement about what will be observed before the actual event, a foretelling of some future happening.
    3.Monitoring : is the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and using information to track a program’s progress toward reaching its objectives and to guide management decisions. Monitoring usually focuses on processes, such as when and where activities occur, who delivers them and how many people or entities they reach.It is the systematic and routine collection of information from projects and programs:To learn from experiences to improve practices and activities in the future;To have internal and external accountability of the resources used and the results obtained;To take informed decisions on the future of the initiative;To promote empowerment of beneficiaries of the initiative.Monitoring is a periodically recurring task already beginning in the planning stage of a project or program. Monitoring allows results, processes and experiences to be documented and used as a basis to steer decision-making and learning processes. Monitoring is checking progress against plans. The data acquired through monitoring is used for evaluation.
    4.Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines, discovery is the observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences. A discovery may sometimes be based on earlier discoveries, collaborations, or ideas. Some discoveries represent a radical breakthrough in knowledge or technology.New discoveries are acquired through various senses and are usually assimilated, merging with pre-existing knowledge and actions
    5.Hypothesis Testing: The purpose of statistical inference is to draw conclusions about a population on the basis of data obtained from a sample of that population. Hypothesis testing is the process used to evaluate the strength of evidence from the sample and provides a framework for making determinations related to the population, ie, it provides a method for understanding how reliably one can extrapolate observed findings in a sample under study to the larger population from which the sample was drawn. The investigator formulates a specific hypothesis, evaluates data from the sample, and uses these data to decide whether they support the specific hypothesis.The first step in testing hypotheses is the transformation of the research question into a null hypothesis, H0, and an alternative hypothesis, HA.
    6.Control:When conducting an experiment, a control is an element that remains unchanged or unaffected by other variables. It’s used as a benchmark or a point of comparison against which other test results are measured. Controls are typically used in science experiments, business research, cosmetic testing and medication testing.

    7.The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    Answer:
    Research in common parlance means a search for knowledge. We can also define research as a scientific and systematic hunt for pertinent information on a particular subject. Social science research cannot uncover facts outside of its field. Also, it only examines society for facts and It cannot investigate certain topics. Some examples of limitations are small samples, shortage of data, researcher biases, fluency, and access and many more.
    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Performing research in emerging countries has numerous obstructions comprising deficiency of planning, moral and financial motivations, and lack of time available for research. The following are the some problems:
    1.Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive).
    2.Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    3.Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    4.Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.
    5.Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    6.Library management: The proper management and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journal reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.
    7.Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.
    8.Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    9.Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

    References:
    https://www.discoverphds.com/blog/types-of-research

    https://www.manuscriptedit.com/scholar-hangout/challenges-faced-researchers-developing-countries/

    https://universalteacher.com/1/problems-of-research-in-developing-countries/

    https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/reliability-vs-validity/
    https://www.questionpro.com/blog/data-collection/

    https://www.formpl.us/blog/research-question

  63. Avatar UZOCHUKWU CHIDINMA VIVIAN says:

    NAME:- UZOCHUKWU CHIDINMA VIVIAN.
    REG NO:- 2017/250786 – TRANSFER STUDENT.
    DEPARTMENT:- ECONOMICS MAJOR.
    LECTURER:- DR TONY ORJI.

    ANSWERS.
    1) The term “research” is vastly used in various fields of study ranging from science to human development, man’s social environment, to Arts/crafts in the aspects of history and creations. It encompasses a wide range of processes and procedures employed to derive a fact or a theory afterwards. Research involves a systematic investigation and thorough study into and of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It undertakes creativity and systematic work to increase one’s stock of knowledge.
    It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence to increase the understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to control sources of bias and error. It is a very important concept that has aided human activities.

    2) Research is a careful inquiry or examination or investigation to discover new information or relationships through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge and also a movement from the known to unknown, vice versa. Inquiry is a broad process that involves different paths or procedures.

    3) Creswell outlined three steps to Research as:-
    a. Pose a question:- In research, once you have narrowed your topic,you need to come up with a research question. A specific question that you will then work to answer through your research. Generate a lot of questions beginning with What?, When?, Where? etc.
    It helps researchers to focus their research by providing a path through the research and writing process. The specificity of a well-developed research question helps writers avoid the “all-about” paper and work towards supporting a specific, arguable thesis.

    b. Collect Data to answer the question:- Surveys and questionnaires in their most foundational sense, are a means of obtaining data from targeted respondents with the goal of generalizing the results to a broader public.
    Interviews, Observations, Records and Documents and Focus Groups are other important sources of Data collection. Data collection is a systematic method of obtaining, observing, measuring and analyzing accurate information to support research conducted by groups of professionals regardless of the field where they belong.
    The most common risk is the inability to identify answers and draw correct conclusions for the study, as well as failure to validate if the results are correct. These risk may also result in questionable research which can greatly affect your credibility.

    c. Present an answer to the question:- At the end of launching your results and findings, and share them with your audience.
    Moreover, in an academia or basic research, when presenting a research results, no emotions and no opinion is expected just the facts. But in the world of business, it’s all about using the results to help us make good decisions. There are steps to greatly synthesize and summarize your results in a way that will help your audience easily process what the results mean and then make a sound decision basic on these results.

    4) The three criteria for a research result to be proven acceptable are:-
    a. Validity
    b. Reliability
    c. Unbiased and Objective

    a. Validity:- The validity of a research study refers to well the results among the study participants represent true findings among similar individuals outside the study. A valid measurement refers to how accurately a method measures what it is intended to measure. If research has high validity, that means it produces results that correspond to real properties, characteristics and variations in the physical and social world.

    b. Reliability:- This refers to how consistently a method measures something. If the same result can be consistently achieved by using the same methods under the same circumstances, the measurement is considered reliable.

    c. Unbias and Objective:- To be objective, a researcher must not allow their values, their bias or their views to impact on their research analysis or findings. For it to be unbiased, all the findings and conclusions are logically based on empirical data and no effort is made to alter the results of the research. Research employs hypothesis, this is to guide the investigation process.

    5) The purpose of research includes:-

    a. To address issues, such as practical issues facing society.
    b. The purpose of research is to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    c. The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    d. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    e. To add to the body of currently known information. 
    This was primarily brought on by a subject of curiosity.
    f. To ascertain unofficial or hidden connections. 
    It allows researchers to determine whether and how strongly certain variables are related to one another.
    g. A researcher can be asked by a superior authority to investigate a certain phenomenon. 
    This improves peer-to-peer collaboration as well as collaboration with higher authorities.
    h. As a partial fulfillment for the awarding of a doctoral degree, for example, to meet an academic requirement.
    i. To be informed of events and information 
    We can comprehend current phenomena thanks to the information we learn via research.

    6. The purposes of research include:-
    a. Explanation: The ability to assess circumstances and forecast future events. Given specific circumstances, we can state that this is likely to occur.
    b. Monitoring: To make sure that objectives are being met, many decisions must be watched carefully.
    c. Discovery:- Discovery is a pre-trial procedure in which each party can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as interrogatories, requests for production of documents, and depositions.
    d. Hypothesis: Research is useful in testing hypotheses regarding certain behaviors or problems. Scientific research’s central process, hypothesis testing, depends on statistical analysis to assess a hypothesis.
    e. Control: Control illustrates how research may be applied to actual issues and circumstances, assisting in the shaping of our environment. We may shape our surroundings to fit our needs when we comprehend how different variables interact.

    7) The problems of conducting social science research in Developing countries include:-
    a. Lack of Data:- A lack of data or of reliable data will likely require you to limit the scope of your analysis, the size of your sample, or it can be a significant obstacle in finding a trend and a meaningful relationship.
    b. Language barrier:- Language barriers are significant because they are often an impediment to building relationships with others. They can cause misunderstandings that lead to conflict, frustration, offense, violence, hurt feelings, and wasting time, effort, money, and lives of the people.
    c. Lack of Finance:- The lack of funding impacts the information’s quality,notably by reducing the ability of researchers to undertake investigative work and extensive research. The absence of material and protective resources to access the battlefield can be a barrier to completing their report successfully and adequately.
    d. Bias results:- Bias results in research can cause distorted results and wrong conclusions. Such studies can lead to unnecessary costs, wrong clinical practice and they can eventually cause some kind of harm.
    e. Non-compliance of respondents:- Researchers who conduct survey experiments often encounter respondents who do not pay sufficient attention.
    This lack of engagement may result in noncompliance with experimental protocols, threatening causal inferences.

  64. Avatar NWAKANMA CHISOM BLESSING says:

    Nwakanma chisom Blessing
    2019/241255
    Economics Department
    Research is”creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge.” It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. These activities are characterized by accounting for and controlling for biases. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and in between the humanities and sciences. . The scientific study of research practices is known as “meta-research.”
    2.According to Fred Kerlinger, “research is a careful inquiry or examination t.” This means that research has to deal with the search for new ideas so as to expand an already existing one. In other words, research helps in the expanding of the frontier of knowledge. Innovation and the discovery of new ways to do things are ensured by research, as is the interconnectedness of variables.
    3.One definition of research is provided by John W. Creswell: “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.” This definition states that research is a systematic way to find a answer to a problem, and that s

    answer helps add to the knowledge. This method necessitates the formulation of a problem, the collection of data required to solve that problem, and the analysis of that data to reach a conclusion about that problem. Problem formulation is the process of defining the scope of a problem, formulating one or more specific questions about it, and establishing the assessment methods needed to address the questions. . Data collection is the process of gathering and analyzing accurate data from various sources to find answers to research problems, trends, probabilities, etc., to evaluate possible outcomes. In this step, the researcher collects data relevant to the already-asked question for the purpose of analysis.  When analyzing data, there are multiple ways to make sense of the information. The method you choose depends on the questions you’re asking and the information you’re looking to get from your dataset. If you want to explain what has happened and why, descriptive and diagnostic analytics will come in handy. If the questions relate more to what could happen in the future, you’ll want to use predictive and prescriptive analytics.
    4.When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process: 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (research approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods, and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; and 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective. Philosophies mean approaches, e.g., qualitative, quantitative, and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity denotes that the proper procedures were used to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something.) Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called “research.” However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline, and so the meaning of “research” differs from one academic discipline to another.
    5.The purpose of research can be a complicated issue that varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be loosely split into two types: “pure research” and “applied research.” Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose. An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure mathematics is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied math, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real-life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology, and gravity. Pure Scientific Research: Some science, often referred to as “pure science,” is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about discovering what already exists, with no greater goal in mind than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence. While offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits that can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity. For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power, and silicon chips. Applied Scientific Research: Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example, medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer. The purpose of research is to test theories, often generated by pure science, and apply them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles. Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as “Is global warming avoidable?”
    6.For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6
    (a)Research provides the basics for the acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis or tentative claim made through deductive reasoning. Research enables us to dispose of or accept tentative and popular claims. For example, people claim that acquiring an immune deficiency virus is infectious, so those who are infected should be quarantined from other members of society. Others believe that body type and morphology affect temperaments and behavior, such that short people are believed to be aggressive, while fat people are believed to be easygoing, and so on. These societal opinions can only be proven to be acceptable or unacceptable after a comprehensive data collection in the investigation, experimentation, and analysis.
    (b)Data obtained through research enables us to understand existing phenomena. Understanding existing phenomenal deals begins with a thorough search of what is available.For example, how are the economic systems of capitalism and socialism operated in various countries?
    (c)Research can help provide an answer to a known problem. Because society is dynamic, it is frequently confronted with a slew of new problems. Economists and policymakers are confronted with rising poverty and unemployment levels, etc.
    (d)It enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationships between variables. In this society, many variables impact others positively or negatively in varying degrees. Knowledge of the extent of causality or correlation between variables is very useful for adequate control and manipulation of such variables during experimentation and policy-making.
    (e)Research can help provide an answer to a known problem. Because society is dynamic, it is frequently confronted with a slew of new problems. For example, information technology experts are confronted with how to grapple with new viruses and provide adequate security for data stored in computer networks, medical experts are always consulted with the escalation of new diseases erupting in different nations, and veterinary doctors need to conduct research to deal with new diseases, consulting the animal kingdom. Economists and policymakers are confronted with rising poverty and unemployment levels, etc.
    (f)Research enables us to exercise our cognitive science during the process of deductive or logical reasoning for the purpose of innovation. In research, the process of establishing cause-and-effect relationships and providing solutions to problems comes through a combination of experimentation, rational reasoning, intuition, and insight. These are the components required for innovation, which is the introduction of novel ideas into the field of knowledge.
    (g)Research provides us with data for extrapolation forecasting and policy, particularly when a similar event occurs or is expected to occur again. For example, if the socialist economic system has proven to be the best method for improving the welfare of its citizens in many countries, then we can expect the same positive result to occur in other countries that wish to embrace such doctrines, ceteris paribus. Another example can be borrowed from the psychologists, who have discovered that behavior is influenced by rewards and punishments. Implicitly, worker productivity can be increased through an improved salary and condition of service. Or if data shows that the demand for children’s goods increased during the past Christmas season, then we can expect an increase in demand for such goods during the Christmas season of subsequent years. Such information is quite useful for planning production targets and policymaking.
    (h)Research provides the basics for the acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis or tentative claim made through deductive reasoning. Research enables us to dispose of or accept tentative and popular claims. For example, people claim that acquiring an immune deficiency virus is infectious, so those who are infected should be quarantined from other members of society. Others believe that body type and morphology affect temperaments and behavior, such that short people are believed to be aggressive, while fat people are believed to be easygoing, and so on. These societal opinions can only be proven to be acceptable or unacceptable after a comprehensive data collection in the investigation, experimentation, and analysis.
    (i)Research assists us in developing theories that will enhance the school curriculum or expand the frontiers of knowledge. Information obtained through research enables us to accumulate a body of knowledge over a period of time, which is used to either extend or modify an existing theory or formulate a new one. For example, the trickle-down theory of development was formulated based on data obtained from countries that witnessed the positive impact of government development policies that increased per capita income and trickled down to the grassroots. Over the decade, history revealed that many countries with increased per capita income also recorded increases in squalor, poverty, malnutrition, etc. This led to the modification and emergence of development theories such as modernization theory, Marxian theory, and the social justice model of development. In another field of social sciences, for example, religion, research has enabled experts to explain the origins of religion through theories of evolution, rationalization, sociological theories, and psychological theories, while psychologists have attempted to explain the nature of personality through trait, body type, social learning, psychodynamic, and phenomenological theories after successive research.
    (j)Research enables us to exercise our cognitive science during the process of deductive or logical reasoning for the purpose of innovation. In research, the process of establishing cause-and-effect relationships and providing solutions to problems comes through a combination of experimentation, rational reasoning, intuition, and insight. These are the components required for innovation, which is the introduction of novel ideas into the field of knowledge.
    7. The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional and are discussed below.
    (a) The anthropocentric nature of the social sciences: The disciplines in the social sciences deal with the study of human behavior. Data collected by their researchers is in most cases subject to the feelings, idiosyncrasies, moods, or understandings of the research subjects. Such variables can change under different conditions. For example, demand is discovered to increase when prices fall, but it reacts differently when consumers are faced with the purchase of ostentatious goods, which has led to the formulation of the concept of exceptional demand. You are aware that some respondents may conceal their true feelings or provide incorrect information for research purposes for a variety of reasons.

  65. Avatar Udeogwu precious kosarachi says:

    Udeogwu precious kosarachi
    Economics/philosophy
    2019/244167
    Precious.udeogwu.244167@unn.edu.ng

    1.lResearch has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information. Discuss

    Research it involves the systematic application of family methods, which means that there are various methods one can use to get any information about a phenomenal occurrence, it is the avenue that allows you gain more knowledge on a topic, these means that Research applies to any systematic method or approach employed to provide a reliable information about problems.
    Research has so many mesning, it has over different definityion and various applications that points to the same direction and has the same function.

    These are some of the most common methods, known as Qualitative method:

    Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes.

    Questionnaire: personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations.

    Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people.

    Surveys: distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions.

    Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    According to what Research is or based on the definitions of research, it states that a thorough search, includes a carefully scrutiny or making enquiry about something, to be known, and the reason is to discover the truth about a hidden agenda and to verify the existing knowledge, all these makes up a RESEARCH.

    3 .Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Generate a question
    Collection of data
    Present the report writing.

    Generate a question

    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors surrounding this central phenomenon.

    Collection of data

    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and documentation, focus groups and so many others.

    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.

    An Example of such is the students research on the history of THE TV tribe
    Here first of all, the questions is Make a research on the history of THE TV tribe
    Having dissolved this question, the next step is to go into the collection of data… here a careful scrutiny would be employed and also making of enquiry on the topic, through the research methods, enough data will be gathered to help establish New facts and conclusion reached.

    4.lAdherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.

    It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    It is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    these are the three core rule one has to adhere to achieved a good Research.

    Having set-up your gears on your research journey, it should be in accordance to the adhere of a Good research.
    When making a research on a topic, it should be under the framework of philosophers.
    And it’s methods employed or used for the research must have be tested to be valid or trustworthy for the research.
    One ‘s research must be on the bench of solidarity, it must be fairly and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss.
    Research can be a complicated issue to the fact that ;
    The main purpose of research is to solve problems, including practical problems of the society, Research is used to solve unknown problems, it enables one to make a good decision in a difficult circumstances, it helps unveil the truth hidden about something, and get acquainted with the facts or happening around us. Research is use to fulfil an academic requirement, to generate theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones. It use for statistical references

    6 .For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    Discovery: finding a new situation
    Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

  66. Avatar NWAKANMA CHISOM BLESSING says:

    Nwakanma chisom Blessing
    2019/241255
    Economics Department
    Research is”creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge.” It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. These activities are characterized by accounting for and controlling for biases. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between the humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as “meta-research.”
    2.According to Fred Kerlinger, “research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and verify existing knowledge.” This means that research has to deal with the search for new ideas so as to expand an already existing one. In other words, research helps in the expansion of the frontier of knowledge. Innovation and the discovery of new ways to do things are ensured by research, as is the interconnectedness of variables.
    3.One definition of research is provided by John W. Creswell: “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.” This definition states that research is a systematic way to find a solution to a problem, and that solution helps add to the available knowledge. This method necessitates the formulation of a problem, the collection of data required to solve that problem, and the analysis of that data to reach a conclusion about that problem. Problem formulation is the process of defining the scope of a problem, formulating one or more specific questions about it, and establishing the assessment methods needed to address the questions. For instance, in Nigeria, insecurity has been bedeviling the progress of the economy as a whole, but to understand how this problem will be solved, various questions about the underlying cause of the insecurity in the country should be asked in order to properly understand the problem. Data collection is the process of gathering and analyzing accurate data from various sources to find answers to research problems, trends, probabilities, etc., to evaluate possible outcomes. In this step, the researcher collects data relevant to the already-asked question for the purpose of analysis.  When analyzing data, there are multiple ways to make sense of the information. The method you choose depends on the questions you’re asking and the information you’re looking to get from your dataset. If you want to explain what has happened and why, descriptive and diagnostic analytics will come in handy. If the questions relate more to what could happen in the future, you’ll want to use predictive and prescriptive analytics.
    4.When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process: 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (research approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods, and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; and 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective. Philosophies mean approaches, e.g., qualitative, quantitative, and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity denotes that the proper procedures were used to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something.) Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called “research.” However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline, and so the meaning of “research” differs from one academic discipline to another.
    5.The purpose of research can be a complicated issue that varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. At the most basic level, science can be loosely split into two types: “pure research” and “applied research.” Both of these types follow the same structures and protocols for propagating and testing hypotheses and predictions, but vary slightly in their ultimate purpose. An excellent example for illustrating the difference is by using pure and applied mathematics. Pure mathematics is concerned with understanding underlying abstract principles and describing them with elegant theories. Applied math, by contrast, uses these equations to explain real-life phenomena, such as mechanics, ecology, and gravity. Pure Scientific Research: Some science, often referred to as “pure science,” is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about discovering what already exists, with no greater goal in mind than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence. While offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits that can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity. For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power, and silicon chips. Applied Scientific Research: Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example, medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer. The purpose of research is to test theories, often generated by pure science, and apply them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles. Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as “Is global warming avoidable?” or “Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?”
    6.For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6
    (a)Research provides the basics for the acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis or tentative claim made through deductive reasoning. Research enables us to dispose of or accept tentative and popular claims. For example, people claim that acquiring an immune deficiency virus is infectious, so those who are infected should be quarantined from other members of society. Others believe that body type and morphology affect temperaments and behavior, such that short people are believed to be aggressive, while fat people are believed to be easygoing, and so on. These societal opinions can only be proven to be acceptable or unacceptable after a comprehensive data collection in the investigation, experimentation, and analysis.
    (b)Data obtained through research enables us to understand existing phenomena. Understanding existing phenomenal deals begins with a thorough search of what is available.For example, how are the economic systems of capitalism and socialism operated in various countries? How does the government tackle issue of poverty, inadequate social infrastructure, environmental pollution, and other factors that affect consumption behavior?
    (c)Research can help provide an answer to a known problem. Because society is dynamic, it is frequently confronted with a slew of new problems. For example, information technology experts are confronted with how to grapple with new viruses and provide adequate security for data stored in computer networks, medical experts are always consulted with the escalation of new diseases erupting in different nations, and veterinary doctors need to conduct research to deal with new diseases, consulting the animal kingdom. Economists and policymakers are confronted with rising poverty and unemployment levels, etc.
    (d)It enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationships between variables. In this society, many variables impact others positively or negatively in varying degrees. Knowledge of the extent of causality or correlation between variables is very useful for adequate control and manipulation of such variables during experimentation and policy-making. For example, research can assist us in determining the effects and degree of response of price or income in relation to demand and supply, as well as the impact of numerous government pro-poor policies on the rise of poverty among citizens.
    (e)Research can help provide an answer to a known problem. Because society is dynamic, it is frequently confronted with a slew of new problems. For example, information technology experts are confronted with how to grapple with new viruses and provide adequate security for data stored in computer networks, medical experts are always consulted with the escalation of new diseases erupting in different nations, and veterinary doctors need to conduct research to deal with new diseases, consulting the animal kingdom. Economists and policymakers are confronted with rising poverty and unemployment levels, etc.
    (f)Research enables us to exercise our cognitive science during the process of deductive or logical reasoning for the purpose of innovation. In research, the process of establishing cause-and-effect relationships and providing solutions to problems comes through a combination of experimentation, rational reasoning, intuition, and insight. These are the components required for innovation, which is the introduction of novel ideas into the field of knowledge.
    (g)Research provides us with data for extrapolation forecasting and policy, particularly when a similar event occurs or is expected to occur again. For example, if the socialist economic system has proven to be the best method for improving the welfare of its citizens in many countries, then we can expect the same positive result to occur in other countries that wish to embrace such doctrines, ceteris paribus. Another example can be borrowed from the psychologists, who have discovered that behavior is influenced by rewards and punishments. Implicitly, worker productivity can be increased through an improved salary and condition of service. Or if data shows that the demand for children’s goods increased during the past Christmas season, then we can expect an increase in demand for such goods during the Christmas season of subsequent years. Such information is quite useful for planning production targets and policymaking.
    (h)Research provides the basics for the acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis or tentative claim made through deductive reasoning. Research enables us to dispose of or accept tentative and popular claims. For example, people claim that acquiring an immune deficiency virus is infectious, so those who are infected should be quarantined from other members of society. Others believe that body type and morphology affect temperaments and behavior, such that short people are believed to be aggressive, while fat people are believed to be easygoing, and so on. These societal opinions can only be proven to be acceptable or unacceptable after a comprehensive data collection in the investigation, experimentation, and analysis.
    (i)Research assists us in developing theories that will enhance the school curriculum or expand the frontiers of knowledge. Information obtained through research enables us to accumulate a body of knowledge over a period of time, which is used to either extend or modify an existing theory or formulate a new one. For example, the trickle-down theory of development was formulated based on data obtained from countries that witnessed the positive impact of government development policies that increased per capita income and trickled down to the grassroots. Over the decade, history revealed that many countries with increased per capita income also recorded increases in squalor, poverty, malnutrition, etc. This led to the modification and emergence of development theories such as modernization theory, Marxian theory, and the social justice model of development. In another field of social sciences, for example, religion, research has enabled experts to explain the origins of religion through theories of evolution, rationalization, sociological theories, and psychological theories, while psychologists have attempted to explain the nature of personality through trait, body type, social learning, psychodynamic, and phenomenological theories after successive research.
    (j)Research enables us to exercise our cognitive science during the process of deductive or logical reasoning for the purpose of innovation. In research, the process of establishing cause-and-effect relationships and providing solutions to problems comes through a combination of experimentation, rational reasoning, intuition, and insight. These are the components required for innovation, which is the introduction of novel ideas into the field of knowledge.
    7. The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional and are discussed below.
    (a) The anthropocentric nature of the social sciences: The disciplines in the social sciences deal with the study of human behavior. Data collected by their researchers is in most cases subject to the feelings, idiosyncrasies, moods, or understandings of the research subjects. Such variables can change under different conditions. For example, demand is discovered to increase when prices fall, but it reacts differently when consumers are faced with the purchase of ostentatious goods, which has led to the formulation of the concept of exceptional demand. You are aware that some respondents may conceal their true feelings or provide incorrect information for research purposes for a variety of reasons.

  67. 1.) Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. It is also an ongoing process based on many accumulated understandings and explanations that when taken together lead to generalization about problems and the development of theories. Research is a careful application of different techniques or the specific procedure which helps the students to identify, choose, process, and analyze information about difficulties. The systematic and logical search for useful information or result is Research of a particular topic. To find a solution to the problem by performing systematic analysis, researchers initiate any research on the subject of their interest. They use different methods of Research like the basic research, applied research, problem solving research, qualitative and quantitative research, action reasearch, comparative research, etc. It is clear that for any research there are specific methods to be followed for good or say accurate results. Research is being used and applied in various field of studies and for enabling and empowering human development, through supporting services in health, education, entrepreneurship, employment, and training, and ensuring everyone can choose to participate without any hindrance in the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of society.

    2.)Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge involving recognition and identification of a topic to be studied(problem), description and execution of procedures in collection of information(method), objective data(analysis) and statements of finding (results). Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.It is a studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. Research is a systematic quest for knowledge that is characterized by disciplined enquiry. Efficient and effective approach to expand knowledge is the conduct of special, planned and structured investigations. In all definitions its stands out that research is an activity as characterized by
    an intellectual activity of a high order, an investigation of a phenomenon, event or activity and aims to discover data and facts and their interpretations.

    3.) Three steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue:
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question that’s the formulation of the problem, collect data to answer the question or solve the problem , and present an answer to the question which is reaching a conclusion about the problem .
    I) Pose a question: Steps in this subject area within which the study is to be undertaken.
    Without such knowledge it is difficult to clearly and adequately ‘dissect’ a subject area.
    *Identify a broad field or subject area of interest.
    * Disect the broad area into sub areas.
    *Select what is of most interest to the researcher.
    *Raise a research question
    *Formulate objectives.
    *Access your objectives.
    *Double check.
    As researcher narrows the research problem, similarly he/she need to decide very specifically who constitutes his/her study population, in order to select the appropriate respondents.
    ii) Collections of Data – There are two types of data:
    a. Primary data: These data are collected for the first time and are generally accepted as original data.
    There are several methods for collecting primary data like observation method, reiview method ,through questionnaires, through schedules.
    b.Secondary data: The secondary data is also known as published data. Data which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published sources and statistically processed are known as secondary data. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data. Usually published data are available
    in various publications of the central, state are local governments, various publications of foreign governments or of international bodies and their subsidiary organizations; The sources of unpublished data are many; they may be found in diaries, letters, unpublished biographies nd autobiographies. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data. Researcher must make a minute scrutiny because it is just possible that the secondary data may be unsuitable or may be inadequate in the context of the problem which the researcher wants to study.
    iii.) Answer the question: The heart of any research projects its problem. A research problem defines the goal of the researcher in clear terms. To answer a research problem, the researcher must be able to answer the following two questions:
    (a) What is the actual problem?
    (b) What is the best way to solve the problem?
    Researcher sees that research problem is a question. When researcher has really established what he/she wants to know, and how this relates to present insights, researcher has a clear research problem.

    4.) Three criteria that enables a given process to be called research:
    i) It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches),
    ii.)It’s procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested to their validity and reliability.
    iii.) It is designed to be unbiased and objective
    Philosophies mean approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained.
    Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question.
    Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something).
    Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called ‘research’. However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline and so the meaning of ‘research’ differs from one academic discipline to another.

    5.)The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss:
    The purpose of research is really an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses, which should lead to the acceptance of certain scientific truths.
    Whilst no scientific proof can be accepted as ultimate fact, rigorous testing ensures that proofs can become presumptions. Certain basic presumptions are made before embarking on any research project, and build upon this gradual accumulation of knowledge.
    Research findings are predicted by many factors.  The research package (questions, methodology, analytical procedures) may be the same but factors such as the time of the research, the depth of the research probings, the discipline under which the researcher is carrying the study. Different disciplines have different approaches which definitely determine the results,the knowledge and objectivity of the researcher, the context under which the study was done, the validity and reliability of the research methodology, the period when the study was done and the level of dedication to unearth the truth regarding the research questions may vary the findings in most cases. However, that is the richness associated with research- finding different perspectives of the same problem while finding different pragmatic solutions that can improve the quality of life. That is the beauty of research.
    The purposes of research include to solve the problem,to make a sound decision, to obtain academic degrees, to unveil the truth, to generate new theories and confirm existing ones, to fufil an academic requirement, etc.

    6.) 6 categorisation of the purposes of research :
    *Explanation:This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    *Prediction:Research is used to access a situation and predict what may happen in the future, we are able to say that give certain conditions, then this is likely to happen
    *Monitoring: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained
    *Discovery or new improved situation: Finding out a new situation and a more improved one
    *Hypothesis testing: Research helps to test theories about issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    *Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations ,thus helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables we are able to control our environment to suit interests.

    7.) The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly:
    Some of the problems are;
    Language barrier
    Problem of insecurity
    Unwillingness of respondents to give useful information
    Data problems
    Government police’s can hinder
    Bias opinion of the researcher
    Little or no access to funding: This means that the number of sources is small and sometimes these sources cannot be used. Lack of money – Majority of the resources need a lot of money which many of them find difficult to get.
    Incorrect sampling .
    Lack of corporation with the public.
    Insufficient data due to inadequate past records or data storage.

  68. Avatar Egbe Blessing Ngozika says:

    Name: EGBE BLESSING NGOZIKA
    REG NO; 2019/241024
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    NO 1
    Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and

    human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide

    trustworthy information about problems. Discuss.

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using

    scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a

    systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It

    involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Research is the process of collecting and analyzing information to increase

    Understanding of phenomena. research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand

    knowledge in specific research area.

    NO. 2
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and

    to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using

    scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a

    systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It

    involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed

    event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods

    are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    a. Identify potential and new customers

    b. Understand existing customers

    c. Set pragmatic goals

    d. Develop productive market strategies

    e. Address business challenges

    f. Put together a business expansion plan

    g. Identify new business opportunities.

    NO.3.

    Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information

    to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss

    these three steps with practical examples.

    a. Pose a question

    b. Collection of data

    c. Present the report writing.

    Pose a question

    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of

    study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I

    can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors

    surrounding this central phenomenon.

    Collection of data

    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that

    needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and

    documentation, focus groups and so many others.

    Present the report writing

    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be

    seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.

    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged

    Men in Nigeria

    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.

    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    NO.4

    Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these

    three criteria with practical examples.

    a. It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.

    b. Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability

    c. It is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in

    Nigeria.

    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set
    of philosophers.

    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested

    to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.

    It should be unbiased and objective.

    NO.5

    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific

    fields and disciplines. Discuss.
    The main purpose of research is to solve problems, including practical problems of the society,

    Research is used to solve unknown problems, it enables one to make a good decision in a

    difficult circumstances, it helps unveil the truth hidden about something, and get acquainted
    with the facts or happening around us. Research is use to fulfil an academic requirement, to

    generate theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones. It use for statistical

    references.

    NO.6

    For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly

    discuss these 6 categories.

    1.Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is

    concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.

    2. Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the

    future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.

    3. Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.

    4. Discovery: finding a new situation

    5. Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical

    analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.

    6 Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and

    situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship

    between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    No 7

    The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are

    multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research

    department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research

    institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast
    majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and

    inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This

    discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the

    contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer

    adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations

    responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems

    concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of

    resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a

    researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a

    researcher can take help.

  69. Avatar Eze Onyinye Juliet says:

    Eze Onyinye Juliet
    2019/249310
    Julietcatalina@gmail.com
    Economics department

    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss.

    Research is the the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

    Research is the process of collecting and analyzing information to increase
    Understanding of phenomena. research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge in specific research area.
    There are methods of research which are;
    These are some of the most common qualitative methods:

    Questionnaire: personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations.

    Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people.

    Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes.

    Surveys: distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions.

    Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Pose a question
    Collection of data
    Present the report writing.

    Pose a question

    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors surrounding this central phenomenon.

    Collection of data

    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and documentation, focus groups and so many others.

    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.

    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.

    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    4. 4. adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    It is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in Nigeria.

    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set of philosophers.
    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.
    It should be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss.
    The main purpose of research is to solve problems, including practical problems of the society, Research is used to solve unknown problems, it enables one to make a good decision in a difficult circumstances, it helps unveil the truth hidden about something, and get acquainted with the facts or happening around us. Research is use to fulfil an academic requirement, to generate theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones. It use for statistical references.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    Discovery: finding a new situation
    Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  70. Avatar 2019/245536 Nancy Okafor Economic and philosophy says:

    1.It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems because  there different  methods uses when conducting a research and the main aim or goal is for problem solving

    2.Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon.
    When  a research  has not been carried out it is still an hypothesis but when a research is carried out and proven it becomes a thoery and that theory is a new information

    3  Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    4. THREE CRITERIA: KNOWLEDGE, CONVICTION, AND SIGNIFICANCE.

  71. Avatar Anibodi Chiamaka Teska says:

    Name: Anibodi Chiamaka Tesla
    Reg No:2019/243747
    Department: Education Economics

    NO 1
    Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavors. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss
    Most researchers undertake inquiry to gain understanding about some problems or topics that they don’t fully comprehend. Once research topics or problems are explained or understood many secondary purpose of research comes into play such as helping others understand the research results, using results to improve teaching and learning and raising new topics or questions to study. All these are the methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.
    NO 2
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss in details
    No matter the knlind of research being carried out, the value of the research depends on how well it’s processes, inquires or examinations are being carried out. Research is different from other forms of discovering knowledge because it uses a systematic process called the scientific method and this method consist of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated predictions or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. Whith is map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results. All these are careful inquiry to discover new information or relationship and to expand and to verify the already existing information.
    NO 3
    Creswell argues that “Research is a process or steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue” it consist of themree steps with practical examples.
    The three steps invented by creswell are as follows:
    1. Pose a question
    2. Collect data to answer
    3. Present an answer to the question.
    1. Pose a question: This means choosing a topic to research on. Eg what effect does social media have on your mind.
    2. Collect data to answer: This is the gathering and measuring information on variable of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions. Eg writing questionnaires, interviews etc.
    3. Present an answer to the question: presenting answer to the question posed earlier on. Eg presenting the answer to “ what effect does social media have on your mind”. The distraction can lead to procastination, less retention of information and higher level of stress. One my also experience feelings of exclusion, loneliness or anxiety when you see posts of others enjoying a good time.
    NO 4
    Adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    The three criteria are as follows:
    1. Validity: means that correct procedures has been applied to find answers to a given question
    2. Reliability: refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    3. Unbiased and objective: that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest.
    NO 5
    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines discuss.
    1.To solve problems: research helps in solving problems including practical problems of the society.
    2. To make a sound decision: research helps in making sound decisions and it is very vital to our everyday decision making.
    3. To obtain academic degrees: if you want to obtain degrees, masters, PhD, you must be given a project or thesis and each are written through research.
    4 for assignment: some people enjoy the intellectual challenge of creative works.
    5 To contribute to the existing body of knowledge: This is mainly triggard by a curiosity about a subject
    6 To find oil casual/underlying relationship: it enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationship between variables.
    No 6
    For any discipline, the purpose of research may be generally catergorized into 6. Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    1. Explanation: possibly the most cited reason for conducting research is to use it to explain why something is occuring. This is the attempt to understand the world we live in. Research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    2. Predictions: Research is used to access questions and predict what may happen in future. We are able to say that given certain criteria condition then it is likely to happen.
    3. Monitor: many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    4. Hypothesis testing: research helps test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research, relies on statistical analysis to help educate a hypothesis.
    5. Control: control represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations, this helping us to shape our environment. When we understand the relationship between variables, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.
    6. Discovery: unveiling of new ideas.
    NO 7
    The problem os conducting social science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multi-dimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    Insufficient data or lack of data due to language barrier, illiteracy, inadequate pass of record or data storage. Another one is lack of co-operation from the public.

  72. Avatar Nwaigbo Nzubechukwu Victory says:

    NAME: NWAIGBO NZUBECHUKWU VICTORY
    REG NO: 2019/247274
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    AN ASSIGNMENT

    QUESTION 1
    Research has different meanings and various applications in different feilds of study and human endeavour. It is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems, Discuss.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. It involves a family of methods to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. A research being systematic means is searching, selecting and managing the best available evidence for research , according to a defined, planned and consistent method. Certain research procedures in which researchers engaged create trustworthiness within their research activity and their reports.
    Development research is focused on relevant, useful and important questions. If there is no question there is no research.
    QUESTION 2
    Research is a careful inquiry/ examination to discover new information/ relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details.
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws. Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
    Busha in his publication Research Methods in Librarianship says that Research is “a systematic quest for knowledge that is characterized by disciplined enquiry. Efficient and effective approach to expand knowledge is the conduct of special, planned and structured investigations.”
    Research studies are designed in a particular way to increase the chances of collecting the information needed to answer a particular question and often result is produced. Research is the process of discovering new knowledge, this knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. The research conclusions are shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to existing knowledghers new knowledge of data from primary/ firsthand sources, it is not research when one merely restates or merely reorganizes what is already known or what has been written, it places emphasis upon the discovery of a general principles.
    QUESTION 3
    Creswell argues that” Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic/ issues “. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with Practical examples.
    I, Pose a question: Once a research topic has been gotten, A researcher comes up with a research question, A specific question that is worked on to answer through the research process. A research question is the main question that your study sought or is seeking to answer. A clear research question guides research paper or thesis and states exactly what the researcher want to find our, given the reserach work a focus and objective.
    A research question must be clear and provide specific information so that its readers can easily understand the purpose, it should be relevant and concise and expresses main ideas in as few words as possible.
    II, Collect data to answer the question: There are many ways to collect information when doing research. Data collection is the procedure of collecting, measuring and analyzing accurate insights for research using standard validated techniques. A researcher can evaluate their hypothesis of collected data. In most cases, data collection is the primary and most important step for research, irrespective of the field of research.
    The approach of data collection is different for different fields of study, depending on the required information. The data collection methods that the researcher chooses will depend on the research question posed. Some data collection methods include surveys, interviews, tests, physiological evaluations, observations, reviews of existing records, and biological samples.
    III, Present an answer to the question: You have to be much more picky with sources to meet this need because only certain choices can do the job. Whether you can use quantitative or qualitative data depends on what your research question itself calls for. Only primary and secondary sources can be used to answer your research question and, in addition, those need to be professional and/or scholarly sources for most disciplines (humanities, social sciences, and sciences). But the arts often accept popular sources as primary or secondary sources to answer research questions.
    Primary sources are those created at the same time as an event you are researching or that offer something original, such as an original performance or a journal article reporting original research. Secondary sources analyze or otherwise react to primary and secondary sources. Because of the information cycle, the latest secondary sources are often the best because their creators’ have had time for better analysis and more information to incorporate.
    QUESTION 4
    Adherence to three Criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research ‘. Discuss these 3 Criteria with Practical examples.
    The three Criteria;
    When undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process: 1, is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches)
    2, Uses the procedures, methods and techniques that have been tasted for their validity and reliability.
    3, is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    1: is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies (approaches): The set of philosophies is a system of the researcher’s thought, following which new reliable knowledge about the research object is obtained. Scientific research philosophies involves the choice of research strategy, formulation of the problem, data collection, processing and analysis.
    In the feild of research, several philosophically approaches are possible; however according to the authors, more extreme approaches can be delimiting. Only intermediary philosophical approach allows the researcher to reconcile, philosophy methodology and the problem of research. Example: Each researcher is guided by their own approach to the research itself, it was said that Mill was the first who called representatives of social sciences to compete with ancient sciences, promising that I’d his advice was followed, the sudden maturity in these sciences would appear. Hitchcock and Hughes also claim that research stems from assumptions.
    There are four main trends of research philosophy that are Distinguished and discussed in the works of many actors: the positivist research philosophy, interpretive research philosophy, pragmatist research philosophy and realistic research philosophy.
    2: Uses the procedures, methods and techniques that have been tasted for their validity and reliability: Reliability and Validity are important concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique. or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure.
    It is important as a researcher to consider reliability and validity when you are creating your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your results, especially in quantitative research, failing to do so can lead to several types of research bias and seriously affect your work. The reliability of our results tells the extent to which the results can be reproduced when the research is repeated under the same conditions following the same procedures, while its validity tells the extent to which the results really measure what they are supposed to measure.
    The reliability of results helps in checking the consistency of results across time, across different observers, and across parts of the test itself. The reliability on its own is not enough to ensure validity. Even if a test is reliable, it may not accurately reflect the real situation.
    Example: The thermometer that you used to test the sample gives reliable results. However, the thermometer has not been calibrated properly, so the result is 2 degrees lower than the true value. Therefore, the measurement is not valid. Validity is harder to assess than reliability, but it is even more important.
    3: is designed to be unbiased and objective: Objectivity is a crucial characteristic of scientific research. Objectivity means being objective or impartial and not being influenced by personal experiences, value judgments, or preconceived notions. An objective research is free from all bias. In its purest sense, the idea of objectivity and unbiased in research assumes that truth or independent reality exists outside of any investigation or observations. The researcher’s task in this model is to uncover this reality without contaminating it in anyway. This notion- that a researcher can observe or uncover phenomena without affecting them is increasingly rejected, especially in social sciences.
    In quantitative research, a realistic aim is for the researcher to remain impartial; that is, ro be impartial to the outcome of the research, to acknowledge their own preconceptions and to operate in as unbiased and value- free way as possible. Example: An example of objectivity in research is adjusting a hypothesis proven to be incorrect. The adjustment is based on the collected data.
    QUESTION 5
    The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific feilds and discipline Discuss .
    Contemporary research is increasingly characterized by two contrasting trends, One is a process of increasing and continuous specialization, which requires scientists to attain a congruent degree of expertise in a particular area of research. This trend is reflected in the proliferation of new scientific disciplines, and their further division into subfields. The other trend, which developed over the past decades, is increasing cooperation not only at an intradisciplinary level, but also across and beyond disciplines: that is, multi‐, inter‐ and trans‐disciplinary research. The aim is to bring together scientists with different expertise and resources, with the possibility of cross‐fertilizing each other and to develop new, synthetic views.
    Since the makeup of the different branches is always in flux and since the history of any institutions of higher education is complicated you will likely find some overlapping and varying arrangement of disciplines. Different disciplines tend to recommend collecting different types of evidence from different research sources, example; biologists are typically required to do laboratory research. The lack of standards for assessing and safe guarding quality data is not only a problem for scientific quality per se, but also an ethical problem: poor methodology in empirical ethics may give rise to misleading ethical analyses, evalutions or recommendation not only depriving the study of scientific and social value bur also risking ethical misjudgement.
    QUESTION 6
    For any discipline, the purpose of research may be generally Categories into six, Clearly discuss these six categories.
    The Six Categories are: Explanation, Prediction, Monitoring, Discovery/ New improved Situation, Hypothesis Testing, Control.
    1, EXPLANATION : Explanation in research explores why something occurs when limited information is available. It can help in increasing your understanding of a given topic, ascertain how or why a particular phenomenon is occurring, and predict future occurrences. Explanatory research can also be explained as a “cause and effect” model, investigating patterns and trends in existing data that haven’t been previously investigated.
    Its main purpose is to investigate a phenomenon that had not been studied before or had not been well explained previously in a proper way. Explanation of a research is to provide details about where to find a small amount of information. Its results and conclusions constitute the deepest level of knowledge, according to author Fidias G. Arias. This purpose in reserach increase the understanding of a specific topic.
    2, PREDICTION: is a statement that uses existing data to forecast future events. A prediction is a statement that uses existing data to forecast future events. Predictions can be types of guesses, but they usually come directly from observation. Predictions in research typically comes from observation rather than a question.
    It is a statement of the expected results of the experiment based on the hypothesis, the prediction is often an if/ then statement.
    3, MONITORING: Monitoring is an essential element of study conduct designed to ensure ethical conduct, proper collection and documentation of study results, appropriate records of study procedures and subject interactions, and compliance with the approved protocol. Monitoring ensures the protection of subjects’ rights and safety, as well as the integrity and quality of the resulting data.
    It is the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and using information to track a programme’s progress toward reaching its objectives and to guide management decisions. Monitoring is conducted after a programme has begun and continues throughout the programme implementation period.
    4, DISCOVERY/ NEW IMPROVED SITUATION: Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines, discovery is the observation of new phenomena, new actions, or new events and providing new reasoning to explain the knowledge gathered through such observations with previously acquired knowledge from abstract thought and everyday experiences. A discovery may sometimes be based on earlier discoveries, collaborations, or ideas.
    It is acquired through various senses and are usually assimilated, merging with pre-existing knowledge and actions. The path scientists follow to discovery is never a straight line and is inspired by a deep desire to explore new ground. Fundamental discovery science provides intellectual freedom for scientists to flex their creative muscle and develop ideas or concepts that capture their curiosity but don’t have an immediate or obvious outcome.
    5, HYPOTHESIS TESTING: The purpose of statistical inference is to draw conclusions about a population on the basis of data obtained from a sample of that population. Hypothesis testing is the process used to evaluate the strength of evidence from the sample and provides a framework for making determinations related to the population, ie, it provides a method for understanding how reliably one can extrapolate observed findings in a sample under study to the larger population from which the sample was drawn.
    The first step in testing hypotheses is the transformation of the research question into a null hypothesis, H0, and an alternative hypothesis, HA. Hypothesis testing is used to access the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data.
    Statistical analyst test an hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analysed.
    6, CONTROL: When conducting an experiment, a control is an element that remains unchanged or unaffected by other variables. It’s used as a benchmark or a point of comparison against which other test results are measured. Developing a control for an experiment depends on the independent variables being tested.
    QUESTION 7
    The Problems of Conducting social sciences reserach in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional, Discuss this clearly and lucidly.
    1, INSUFFICIENT DATA: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.
    2, LACK OF CONFIDENCE: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.
    3, LACK OF SCIENTIFIC TRAINING: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    5, A QUATITY OF LITERATURE: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.
    6, NOT HAVING A DEFINITE DEADLINE: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.
    7, POOR INFRASTRUCTURAL MANAGEMENT:Another major problem of research in Nigeria is the poor state of infrastructure. The laboratories in some Nigerian schools are ill kept, mismanaged and under-maintained hence, discouraging and toting more heaviness on the workload of researchers in Nigeria.
    The best way to go about finding a possible solution to this problem is to encourage public-private infrastructural development to aid science and research; not just developing the infrastructures but also managing and maintaining what have been developed.
    8, INSECURITY: Insecurity generally is a problem in developing countries example in Nigeria. The improvised availability of published data from academic institutes, government agencies and other corporate agencies operating in Nigeria is a huge problem of research in Nigeria. Research facilities are not cheap to set up these days; neither is the cost of research equipment needed to conduct these research and then the need to properly manage these research facilities and apparatus effectively.
    Time also is a limiting factor of research in Nigeria because most professionals in Nigeria are either joggling two jobs or too occupied in one job to give time to research. For instance a university lecturer who is also a clinical psychologist.
    9, POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY: Any country with political uncertainty always find its developmental process really hard and unbearably slow. Political Uncertainty is arguably the catalyst for most of the problems of research in developing countries like the ineffective education systems, ineffective library system, poor infrastructural management and the poor technological advancement. Example of a developing country is Nigeria who has witnessed ineffective education system severally.
    10, IMPLEMENTING QUALITY OF WRITING WITHIN THE LITERATURE REVIEW: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

  73. Avatar Eze Onyinye Juliet says:

    Eze Onyinye Juliet
    2019/249310
    Julietcatalina@gmail.com
    Economics department

    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss.

    Research can be define as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Research is the process of collecting and analyzing information to increase
    Understanding of phenomena. research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge in specific research area.
    There are methods of research which are;
    These are some of the most common qualitative methods:

    Observations: recording what you have seen, heard, or encountered in detailed field notes.

    Questionnaire: personally asking people questions in one-on-one conversations.

    Focus groups: asking questions and generating discussion among a group of people.

    Surveys: distributing questionnaires with open-ended questions.

    Secondary research: collecting existing data in the form of texts, images, audio or video recordings, etc.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Pose a question
    Collection of data
    Present the report writing.

    Pose a question

    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors surrounding this central phenomenon.

    Collection of data

    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and documentation, focus groups and so many others.

    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.

    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.

    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    4. 4. adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    It is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in Nigeria.

    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set of philosophers.
    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.
    It should be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss.
    The main purpose of research is to solve problems, including practical problems of the society, Research is used to solve unknown problems, it enables one to make a good decision in a difficult circumstances, it helps unveil the truth hidden about something, and get acquainted with the facts or happening around us. Research is use to fulfil an academic requirement, to generate theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones. It use for statistical references.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    Discovery: finding a new situation
    Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  74. Avatar Okoye Stella ogochukwu says:

    Okoye Stella ogochukwu
    2019/250026
    stellaokoye050@gmail.com

    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss.

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Research is the process of collecting and analyzing information to increase
    Understanding of phenomena. research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge in specific research area.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    Pose a question
    Collection of data
    Present the report writing.

    Pose a question

    Central questions need to be broad and asked around a central phenomenon or concept of study. Creswell say a researcher should ask themselves, “what is the broadest question that I can ask n a study”. Qualitative researchers then seek to explore the complex set of factors surrounding this central phenomenon.

    Collection of data

    To collect and analyse data to answer a question, there are methods of data collection that needs to be carried out. Such as surveys and questionnaires, observation, interview, record and documentation, focus groups and so many others.

    Present the report writing
    Presenting the report work after crucial research has been made and documented, it can be seen as a report or a research work that can be used to solve problems in the future.

    For example someone wants to know or he or she was asked to find the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    Methods on collection of data such as survey, interviews with the students and so on.

    Presents valid data of the population of Aged Men in Nigeria

    4. 4. adherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    It is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers.
    Its procedures, methods and techniques must be tested for validity and reliability
    It is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    For example, one can be asked to make research on the population of Nursing women in Nigeria.

    Firstly to begin with the research a serial research is undertaken within the framework of a set of philosophers.
    The procedure of the research or the technique used to carry out such research must be tested to know if they can be reliable and produce valid results.
    It should be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss.
    The main purpose of research is to solve problems, including practical problems of the society, Research is used to solve unknown problems, it enables one to make a good decision in a difficult circumstances, it helps unveil the truth hidden about something, and get acquainted with the facts or happening around us. Research is use to fulfil an academic requirement, to generate theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones. It use for statistical references.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.
    Explanation: This is the attempt to understand the world we live in, research is concerned with acquiring knowledge, establishing facts and developing new methods.
    Prediction: Research is used or access a situation and predict what may happen in the future, we are able to say that gives certain conditions than it is likely to happen.
    Monitoring: Many decision made must monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.
    Discovery: finding a new situation
    Hypothesis Testing: Research helps to test theories about issue, it relies on a statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis.
    Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to stop problems and situation, this helping us to shape our environment, when we understand the relationship between variable, we are able to control our environment to suit our interest.

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  75. Avatar Nkeonye Oluchi says:

    Name: Nkeonye Oluchi Praise
    Reg no: 2019/250120
    Department: Economics

    1. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, Research is a “studious inquiry or examination, especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”. Research is a methodological process used in searching out information in whatever field of study. It is a term used to identify or acknowledge the thorough dig up and finding out of information (new and old) for study or new implementation in solving a desired problem. Yes, it has different meanings and applications but one main identification stands out. Finding out knowledge in a given field of study: this is what a doctor, philosopher, economist, or 10th-grade student understands as research. The extent or length to which research is carried out might differ as well as the research methodologies that are peculiar to every discipline. But it is all about finding trustworthy information that can be held onto in a discipline.

    2. The parallel question to this answer is the definition of research given by Francis Rummel.
    “Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships.” As stated in the previous answer, research is a princess of finding out information in a body of knowledge. Importantly, it is a careful inquiry. It has to follow acceptable methods and procedures that are used in finding out information for the benefit of enriching the body of knowledge. Research has to follow procedures. You cannot do wuruwuru to the answer in an attempt to find something. It has to be carefully derived. Any conclusion that comes from an inappropriate method or style can be harmful (especially in the medical field) or cause a huge problem in subsequent research.

    “…and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.”
    Not only is research used to find out new knowledge, but it is also used to expand or verify existing knowledge. So research is a two-step verification tool that confirms or verifies itself. You use research to find out if the conclusion derived from the research is true.

    3. The three steps proposed by Creswell include:
    a.Pose a question
    b.Collect data to answer the question
    c.Present an answer to the question
    Using an example, I will explain the steps as outlined above. If a hospital cannot diagnose the illness affecting a patient but shows evidential signs of being I’ll, a research doctor or someone from the hospital team can lose a question: What is causing this young man to develop this set of symptoms? This question can as well breed more questions that will help in solving the unknown case. This includes: Is the patient showing forth symptoms that are similar to other illnesses?

    Next, the doctor will collect data to answer the questions posed. This will include, x-rays, lab tests, a diagnostic report, old research on a similar matter, cardiac readings, and many other medical tools.

    And finally, the doctor will bring it all together in an attempt to answer the questions and put a name to the illness if it’s unknown. Although, his journey does not stop there. Finding out what the illness is is one part of the problem. He has to figure out a cure for it and this will take another bout of thorough research.

    4. a. Philosophies: This criterion involves approaches to carrying out research in the academic discipline in which you have been trained. It can be quantitative, qualitative, or any of the methodologies peculiar to your field of study.
    b. Reliability and Validity: Validity means that the correct procedures have been applied to find the answer to the research question. Reliability refers to the quality of the measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    c. Unbiased and Objective: Every conclusion gotten from a research process has to be unbiased without any form of personal preference to it. The results must be derived objectively and must be clear as a result of objective observation.

    5. Although research is all about finding out knowledge, it differs from discipline to discipline. The extent to which each discipline upholds all 3 criteria creates the difference in the process of research among them.

    6. The categories are
    a. Explanation: Research is man’s approach to understanding the world we live in and providing explanations for new or unknown occurrences.
    b. Prediction: Research can also be used to predict what might happen in the future
    c. Monitoring: Research is also used to monitor a case study or a recent development. This might as well lead to documentation.
    d. Discovery: This is one of the most useful purposes of research. Research can lead to discovery, the discovery of novel things
    e Hypothesis Testing: with research, you can also test certain hypotheses to make sure that they are true
    f. Control: Control represents how research can be applied to real problems and situations, thus helping us to shape our environment. When we under the relationship between variables we can control our environment to suit our interests

    7. Research process involves a lot of essential requirements. To carry out research, you need money, time, data, books and academic resources, etc. In developing countries, these requirements are difficult to get by. Money and financial resources are not so much in abundance as they are in the developed world. Here, the available Financial resource is used for other things deemed ‘fit’ for money.
    Again, data can be difficult to get. Especially in rural communities. And if these researchers get any data, it might not be accurate enough to lead to the right conclusion.

  76. Avatar UDEH MGBECHI MARY says:

    NAME: UDEH MGBECHI MARY
    REG. NO: 2019/251473
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Research generally implies an examination or enquiry or investigation or an experiment which is aimed at discovering facts or truths. It can also be said to be the discovering and interpretation of facts or problems that are widely believed to exist. This simply means that research in social sciences is different from research in bilological sciences and pure sciences. This is because the method of carrying out research in this two field of study is quite different. Research in pure sciences involves carrying out experiment in the laboratory using some specimen while In social sciences research can be done by carrying out a survey of the variables,and using the data extracted from the survey to carry out hypothesis to determine if there is a significant relationship between the variables been studied or not. Research in social sciences is more like a field work while research in pure sciences is more like a laboratory work. The main aim of the method adopted during a research work is to provide a trustworthy information about problems.
    (2) Research is a careful examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and verify the existing knowledge. It also aims to expand and verify knowledge or information that has been discovered. Knowledge already in existence can further be tested or researched on to strengthen and expand it potency.
    (3) According to Cresswell there are three steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. The three steps includes:
    (i) Pose a question(research questions): This Is a question that a research project sets out to answer. Research questions are raised from the defined research topic and statement of the problem. In every research, questions related to the variables or issues been studied is been asked. If for example, a research is been conducted on the topic “inflation”, questions like “what is the cause of inflation?”, “how can inflation be curbed?” etc can be asked
    (ii) Collection data to answer the question: In answering the questions posed,there is need to collect adequate and relevant data to answer the questions asked. In answering the questions “what are the causes of inflation?” , ” how can inflation be curbed?”, there will be need to collect adequate and relevant data such as Consumer Price index(CPI). This can further be used to provide answers to the questions above.
    (iii)Presenting an answer to the question: After making use of the collected data,an answer will be provided to the questions asked. For example if it is detected that there is inflation using the consumer price index as an indicator, the researcher can therefore profer that ” increase in taxation will help to curb inflation”
    (4) Adherence to the following three criteria enables a process to be called “research”:
    (i) Philosophies:This mean research approaches e.g qualitative, quantitative in the academic discipline in which you have been trained.
    (ii) Validity: This is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. An instrument is rarely 100% valid. Thus, it is usually measured in degrees (the extent). For example,in finding answers to the rate of unemployment in Nigeria, the valid data for the total working population will be needed and used to test for the rate of unemployment. The use of the known methods and procedures in doing this makes the result a valid one.
    (iii)Unbias and Objective: This means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. For example the data collected for researching on the importance of development should encompass a data that can clearly produce a valid result,not a data that will provide the result that suits your own interest as in purposive data sampling as an example.
    (5) The purpose of research includes the following:
    (i) To generate new theories,confirm existing ones or disapprove the previous ones
    (ii)To make a sound decision; it is very vital to our everyday decision making.
    (iii) Research provides for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims through deductive reasoning.
    (iv) Research helps to provide answers to unknown problems.
    (v)To acquaint with the facts/happening.
    (vi)To fulfil an academic requirement.
    (vii) To solve problems.
    (viii) To contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
    (ix) To find out underlying relationships.
    (x) To unveil the truth about underlying problems or events.
    (6) For any discipline,the purposes of research maybe generally categorized into 6,and they include:
    (i) Production: Research is used to access situations and predict what will happen in future. We are able to say that given certain conditons,then this is likely to happen.
    (ii) Explanation: The most cited reason for conducting a research is to give an in depth explanation as to why certain things happens.This is the attempt to understand the world we live in.
    (iii) Monitoring: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that the goals of the research are being attained.
    (iv) Discovery/New improved situation: Research helps us Find out new situations.
    (v) Hypothesis testing: Research helps to test theories about some issues. Hypothesis testing which is at the heart of scientific research,relies on statistical analysis to help evaluate a hypothesis
    (vi) Control: This represents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations,thus helping us to shape our environment.
    (7) The problems of conducting research in social sciences include the following:
    (i) Inadequate Fund: Many researchers face the problem of inadequate fund while carrying out research. Certain research work demands fund for getting for example econometric tools such as STATA etc, this tools are software, and without fund the researcher can not have access to acquiring it(software), if it is been sold online. This impedes research.
    (ii) Language barrier: Difference in Language can be an impediment during research. This is because people are unable to communicate effectively due to difference in language.
    (iii) Unbiased Data: The use of unbiased data probably to suite your own interest does not yield a valid result. It causes a serious problem to the validity of the result been gotten from the research.
    (iv) Illiteracy: Not having the technical know-how of how to conduct a research to get a valid result is also an issue or problem during research. Many researchers are not well equipped with the methods,process and techniques for carrying out a research work. This commonly is a problem experienced by student during the course of them carrying out research as a partial fulfilment of there academic discipline.
    (v) Insecurity: Insecurity is another dominant problem faced by researchers in areas experiencing wide range of insecurity. This is because the researchers life is at stake while carrying out survey to draft data for there research. The researchers at times due to insecurity lose their lives,get injured badly and even kidnapped.
    (vi)Lack of cooperation from the public: Many respondents are always unwilling to cooperate with researchers when they are been interviewed to get data for their research. This poses a problem in research.

  77. Avatar Abasilim Chisom Judith says:

    Name: Abasilim Chisom Judith
    Reg no: 2019/249128
    Department: Economics

    1 . Research is a systematic work or investigation undertaken to increase the existing stock of knowledge to establish facts and principles. It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic. However, there are different meaning of research as well it’s application in various field of study and they are;
    Research is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trust worthy information about problems.

    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship and to expand and verify the existing knowledge ( Rummel, J Francis 1964)

    Research according to crosswell is the process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue

    Research is a devoted attempt of finding out the truth

    2 . Research is a systematic work or investigation undertaken to increase the existing stock of knowledge to establish facts and principles. It involves the collection, organization and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic.

    It comprises the creation of ideas and the generation of new knowledge that leads to new and improved insights and the development of new materials, devices, products, and processes. In practice, ‘research’ refers to a scientific process of generating an unexplored horizon of knowledge, aiming at discovering or establishing facts, solving a problem, and reaching a decision.

    3 . According to creswell research consists of 3 steps and they are;
    Pose a question: a question that a researcher wants to get answers to must be available before conducting a research. You should have a goal or what you want to discover

    Collect data to answer the question: this means to collect any important information that will contribute to answering a research question.

    Present an answer to the question: this is after research has been conducted, answers concerning the research question will be presented.
    4 . The three criteria that enables a given process to be called research includes;
    i Research is being undertaken within a framework of set philosophies
    ii Uses procedures and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability
    iii Is being designed to be unbiased
    5 . The purpose of research varies across various scientific fields and disciplines that’s because people have various reasons why they conduct research.
    Some people conduct research to discover new ideas while some conduct research to give an explanation to a situation, some others conduct research to predict future situations and so on.
    For example; scientists conduct research to discover new ideas or situations as that is their duty whereas tutors conduct research to give an explanation to something.

    6 . Purpose of research
    Explanation: the most important reason for conducting research is to find out and explain why something may be occurring. This is done to have a better understanding of the world we live in.

    Discovering new or improved situation: research is conducted to discover new situations

    Prediction: research is used to access situations and predict what may happen in future.

    Hypothesis testing: research helps to test theories about some issues

    Control: control presents the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations thus helping us to shape our environment.

    Monitoring: many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being attained.

    7 . Lack of training: this is one of the problems. Of research in developing countries. There is scarcity of properly trained researchers. People who they allow to carry out research are not properly trained and they do not understand basic research techniques

    Shortage of resources: in developing countries, the government don’t provide enough resources for researchers to carry out research effectively

    Insufficient data: this occurs due to inadequate past records or data storage and this greatly affects research.

    Lack of cooperation from the public: most times people refuse to say what they know about a particular topic to researchers and this affects researchers because they unable to get correct and reliable information due to the lack of cooperation from the public

  78. Avatar Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka says:

    Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka
    2019/244559
    Economic education
    1. Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research can also be defined as a systematic way of obtaining information on a particularly problem/theory and also a means to verify existing theories. Research is carried out through different ways in different fields of study, like those in the sciences have a different way of conducting research, the process or method they use is different from our’s in the social sciences. Those in the sciences use the scientific method of research like wise the social sciences but the difference is that in the science, whenever you carry out an experiment, once you follow the correct process for carrying out that experiment you will always get the same answer but in the social science because we are dealing with humans and the society at large, the results cannot be predicted or constant because when you carry out a research or experiment on a particular group of people, you might not get the same responds when you repeat it on that same group of people.
    3. Research is conducted by following a specific step or criteria that will make it a “research”, because not every inquiry or examination of an issue /problem is called a research. The three steps used to collect and analyze information are:
    Pose a Question.
    Collect data to answer the Question.
    Present an answer to the Question.
    I. Pose a Question: when an individual is set to conduct a research, the first thing to do is to decide on a topic, then the next is to come up with a research question based on that topic. A research question is a specific inquiry which the research seeks to provide information/response to. eg: A consumer behavior makes a consumer to purchase a particular product.
    II. Collect data to answer the question: After coming up with the research question, the next step is to collect information or data on order to answer the question and achieve the goal of the research. There are various ways of collecting data during a research:
    a. Experiment
    b. Survey
    c. Interview/focus group
    d. Archival research
    Example: when you want to collect information on consumer behavior, the best method of collecting data will be through survey/questionnaires or interview, though the answers to a questionnaire are not always correct.
    III. Present an answer to the question: In this step, after you must have gotten all the data/information needed, the next step is to evaluate the information you have gotten and their sources to know if the acquired information are trustworthy. After evaluating the information, you make note of your findings and present the answer to the question.
    4. The three criteria that enables a process to be called a research are
    The process is been undertaken with a framework of a set of philosophies –This criteria demands that a researcher while carrying out his research must follow certain approaches /framework. For examples, he might decide to use the qualitative approach to source for information /data during the research.
    The process uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability –There are steps and procedures that needs to be followed while carrying out a research, many people before now have been carrying out research and there are methods and techniques that they used and have been using to validate /test information while carrying out their research.
    The process is designed to be unbiased and objective –While carrying out a research, the researcher is expected to be unbiased about the information he is presenting even if it is not favorable to him /her, example, an individual that is carrying out a research and finds information that is not favorable to him, might want to be biased about that information because even if revealing the correct information will help the society, it will affect him negatively but a true researcher is expected to present the information gotten from the research as it is without adding or removing anything.
    5. Research is very necessary and valuable in our lives and society, it has many purposes and use. It facilitate learning, it helps us to understand what is happening around us and why it is happening, it helps us to get new knowledge on our environment and to confirm or verify old knowledge, it helps to proffer solution to certain problems in the society and for some it is a way to exercise their mind.
    The purpose for research varies from one discipline to another, what a scientist is conducting a research for might be different from that of the social scientist or other discipline, but the end game is that the answers gotten from the research will help improve the lives of everyone in the society.
    6. The purpose of research.
    Explanation –One of the purpose of research is to explain what is going on around us, as humans we are always curious about different things, like why a particular thing the way it is, research gives us answers to those questions and help us to understand our environment more.
    Predictions –Research helps us to know what will happen in the future, like the issue of global warming, researchers were able to find out how we’re destroying the earth and also gave a prediction of the amount of time we have to save it, so research helps us to know what will happen in the future and how to avoid it.
    Monitoring –Research is conducted to proffer solutions to problems, so there should be a way of ensuring that the solution is being used to achieve their goals.
    Discovery – Research helps to find out new things that will help improve the lives of everyone, the way we live now is not the way people who lived before us 100 years ago used to and it will not be the same in the next 100 years, this is made possible by research.
    Hypothesis testing –Research does not only find / discover new things, it also helps us to verify if an already existing theory is correct /true.
    Control – solutions proffered by research should be applied in our daily lives to help us control what is happening around us. For example, scientists told us that if two individuals with genotypes AS get married and have children, there is a chance of them having a child with sickle cell anemia SS, but with this information we will be able to avoid such situation.
    7. There are many problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    Lack of data/information –When carrying out a research in developing countries, it is hard to get information, sometimes it is because there is no proper record of things and most times those people you are trying to research on are not willing to give out information because they are scared or do not have any knowledge on what a research is about and how it can help them.
    Lack of appreciation for the value of research – Most people in the developing countries do not appreciate the value of research because they feel it is not important to them, so they don’t see any reason to corporate with the researcher to achieve their goals and this is caused by lack of education on research and it’s importance.
    Shortage of funding –In the developing countries, the researchers find it hard to carryout their work because of funding, there are some research that needs more funding and the researcher alone can not provide all that money to carry out the research, they will need external assistance but because the country is struggling with other needs they might not be able to provide the money to help carry on with the research, this will make the researcher to put the work on hold or stop it entirely.

  79. Avatar MBAH JULIET EZINNE says:

    Name: MBAH JULIET EZINNE
    Reg No: 2019/241713
    Department: EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC
    1) Research is what propels humanity forward. It’s fueled by curiosity: we get curious, ask questions, and immerse ourselves in discovering everything there is to know. Learning is thriving. Without curiosity and research, progress would slow to a halt, and our lives as we know them would be completely different.
    2) Research is that, “research is a creative process which initiates with hypothesis and includes an inquiry or investigation, discovery or invention or experimentation, during which substantial evidence is gathered to prove its final product. The chief aim of research is to know the truth. “Research enhances knowledge. There are two sides to the word ‘knowledge’ – one is to know what you have and the other is to know where it is. The analogy of the river of knowledge enhances wisdom through experience and good judgment.
    3) Step 1 – Locating and Defining Issues or Problems
    This step focuses on uncovering the nature and boundaries of a situation or question that needs to be answered or studied. In defining the issues or problems, the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, what information is needed, and how it will be used in decision-making.
    Step 2 – Designing the Research Project
    This step is focused on creating a research plan or overall approach to how you are going to solve the issue or problem identified. A research plan or approach is a framework or blueprint for conducting a research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision-making.
    Step 3 – Collecting Data
    This step revolved around obtaining the information needed to solve the identified issue or problem. Data collection can involve experiments, observations, personal interviewing (in-home, mall intercept, or computer-assisted personal interviewing), from an office by telephone (telephone or computer-assisted telephone interviewing), or through the mail (traditional mail and mail panel surveys with recruited households). The two groups of researchers must provide data. Data collection techniques can include:
    Interviews: Asking people questions about their known information
    Observations: collecting data without asking questions.
    Questionnaires: Ask questions among a group of people
    Step 4 – Interpreting Research Data
    This step is focused on interpreting and examining the research data and coming up with a conclusion that solves the problem. Make sure the conclusion is easy to understand and well thought out based on the data collected.
    Step 5 – Report Research Findings
    The final step is to report the research findings to those who need the data to make decisions. The findings should be presented in a comprehensible format so that they can be readily used in the decision-making process. In addition, an oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance clarity and impact.
    4) Research Introduction Accord research is a
    logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. Here knowledge means information about matters. The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge. Only through research is it possible to make progress in a field. Research is done with the help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparison and reasoning. Research is in fact ubiquitous.
    When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process:
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    Philosophies mean approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained.
    Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. .Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called ‘research’. However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline and so the meaning of ‘research’ differs from one academic discipline to another. 5)
    5) At the most basic level, science can be split, lossely into two types pure research and applied research
    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.

    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    6) the purpose of research
    a) Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic.Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.
    b) Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.
    c) Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same. Given these statistics, you could start to develop an explanation for attitudes toward marijuana legalization.
    7) Research in common parlance means a search for knowledge. We can also define research as a scientific and systematic hunt for pertinent information on a particular subject. Following are the main challenges or problems of research in developing countries:
    a) Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality.
    b) Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    c) Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    d) Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    e) Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    f) Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

  80. Avatar Odo Philomina Chinasa. Reg No. 2020/244344 (2//3) says:

    Assigment on ECO 391 (RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS )
    NAME : ODO PHILOMINA CHINASA
    REG NO : 2020/244344 (2/3)
    1. Nwana (1981)defined research as a process of finding out the solution to a problem.
    Ogunne (1992) , research is defined as a careful or diligent search, studious and critical enquiry and examination aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge .
    According to Eboh (1998) research is a process of systematic inquiry by which we increase our knowledge of how things are, why things are the way they are and how they might be changed ; which involves an intensive and ordered study of subjects aimed at learning new facts and testing scientific proposition and ideas.
    Economics as a field of study , studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. One can set a researchable topic in Economics thus, the impact of commercial banks in the development of Nigerian economy. The topic can be researched through distribution of questionnaire, collection of data or information from questionnaire and analysing the data.
    Carlson and Basket (cited in Madueme 2010) defined psychology as the scientific study of the causes of behaviour and the application of the findings to the solution of problems. Psychology deals with man’s mental activities , the things that motivate to act the way he does and the factors that influence his behaviour. In psychology, a research can be done on this topic : The effect of drug abuse among the youths in Nigeria. This topic can be researched through distribution of questionnaire and analysing the data.
    Geography as afield of study, Ofomata ( 2011) defined it as a science which shows the interaction between man and his environment. In geography, one can research on the topic – factors that are responsible for desert encrochmet in Nigeria.
    Sociology as a field of study is defined as the scientific study of the society, groups, institutions and organisations and of the interrelationships between members of the society. Iffih (1989).
    Nwanunaobi and Igbo (1999) defined sociology as the use of scientific method to understand the behaviour of man as conditioned by collective measure and group influence.
    3. The three steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issues includes :
    a. Pose questions .
    b. Collect data to answer the question .
    c. Present an answer to the question.
    a. Pose questions : The researcher may ask this question thus: How did you raise money for setting up an industry?
    b. Collect data to answer the question : The researcher may create a table to collect data to answer the question. For example, the respondents give the following information as in the table below :

    S/N
    Source of fund
    No of respondents
    Percentages %

    2
    Personal savings
    11
    44%

    2
    Friends and relatives
    09
    36%

    3
    Commercial banks
    05
    20%

    4
    Money lenders
    00
    00%

    5
    Total
    25
    100%

    1 From the table above, it is observed that personal saving ranked highest with (44%) , followed closely by friends and relatives with (36%) , then commercial banks (20%) while the money lenders ranked lowest from our research data with zero percentage. This clearly shows that most firm owners raise their establishment fund through personal savings, friends , commercial banks, decreasing in that order. This may be due to the difficulty associated with obtaining bank loan and inherent uncertainties of business activities.
    4. The three criteria enables a given process to be called research.
    a. Approach : Commercial bank is a financial institution which accept deposit and other valuables from the public for safe keeping, with the sole aim of making profit.
    b. Method : The target audience are the public . Distribute questionnaire to the public and analyse data. For example, if you have approached any bank, did you get financial assistance from the bank?
    S/N
    Respondent ones
    No of respondents
    Percentages (%)

    1
    Yes
    05
    41. 67

    2
    No
    07
    58. 33

    3
    Sampling population
    12
    100%

    From the above table, 5 out of 12 respondents which is about 41. 67 percent answered to the affirmative (yes) . That is, they obtained bank loan while 7 out of 12 respondents answered to the negative (58. 33). For 5 firm owners out of 12 that approach commercial banks for loans to get their financial needs means that commercial banks do encourage small business enterprises and help in grassroot economic growth and poverty alleviation.
    The information is analysed according to the information obtained from the above table.
    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines .
    a. To solve problems (including practical problems of the society ) : Research according to Nwana (1981) defined research as a process of finding out the solution to a problem. Nigeria has an endemic corruption. Corruption has been the order of the day in Nigeria. Other problems of Nigeria include banditry, herdsmen invasion and so on. These problems can be researched, example ,the effect of inflation on Nigerian economy. Research help us to make a sound decision. It is very important to our everyday decision making for instance , the result obtained from questionnaire can help one to make a sound decision on a certain phenomena.
    Research also help people to obtain academic degree. For undergraduate submit a comprehensive research work as a presiquisite requirement for graduation. Those of higher degree (masters or PHD ) submit thesis or dissertation in addition to their caused work.
    Alll research work unveil the truth or phenomenon or phenomena.
    6. For any discipline, the purpose may be generally categorized into six :
    a. Explanation : Reason for conducting a research is to explain an occurance or existing problem. Research is carried out to explain a certain idea or phenomenon. After carrying out a research, one can explain the solution to a problem.
    b. Prediction : Research enable people to predict what will happen in future. For example, through research weather forecast, we can predict when there will be rainfall and when there will be cold.
    c. Monitor : After a research is made , the decision made by a researcher must be monitored to know the extent in which the objective have been achieved. That is, to make sure that he achieve his goal.
    d. Hypothesis : Research provides the basis for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims made through deductive reasoning. Research enable us to dispose or accept tentative and popular claims. For example, claims that corona virus is infectious therefore, people who are infected should be quarantined from other members of the society.
    e. Intellect : Research enables us to exercise our cognitive senses during the process of deductive or logic reasoning for the purpose of innovation . In research, the process of establishing cause – effect relationships and providing solutions to the problems comes through a combination of experimentations , rational reasoning, intuition or insight. The elements needed for innovation include introduction of novel ideas in the field of knowledge.
    f. Control : Control represent the way in which research can be applied to real problems and situations. Research help us to shape our environment. We are able to control our environment to suit our interest when we understand the relation ship between variables.
    7. The problem of Conducting Social Science research in developing countries are multifaceted and multidimensional.
    a. Insufficient data : Lack of information due to inadequate data storage . A researcher is able to carry out a research when there is data, but in the absence of data ,the research cannot be carried out. It is when there is data that a researcher can analyse data and be able to find a solution to a problem. Sometimes when series of data is needed , researchers are confronted with gaps in search for data for many months or years .
    b. Lack of co-operation from the public : This occurs when the members of the public refuse to co-operate with the researcher. For instance, a researcher may wish to collect information from members of the public, due to fear or corruption in the society, members of the public may give him wrong information or refuse to give him answer at all.
    c . Language barrier /illiteracy : This can be a problem. Sometimes researcher cannot hear the language of the people he had a contact with in his research. In this case, the researcher can be given wrong information.
    d. Insecurity : Insecurity can be a problem to a researcher. For instance, in Nigeria , we are littered with problems; kidnapping, bandits, unknown gunmen etc. Now, we don’t know who is who in Nigeria this time. When a researcher go to a community in search of information, people may not give them a correct information due to fear. Some may even run when the researcher go near them thereby creating problems for the researcher.
    e. Cooking result : This occurs when a researcher fabricate or forge result of his research by himself. Some researchers produce result of his findings the way they want or the way it will suit them.

  81. Avatar Odo chimdiuto joy...2019/241990 says:

    ODO CHIMDIUTO JOY
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    2019/2