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ECO. 361 Online Discussion/Quiz–12-12-2022 (Understanding the meaning of Development)

 

 

  1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss
  2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.
  3. In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details
  4. Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development
  5. Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function
  6. Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example
  7. Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
  8. Distinguish  between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development.

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Comments 307

  1. Avatar Metu Sandra Chiamaka says:

    Metu Sandra chiamaka
    2017/249526
    Eco major

    1. Development aims or looks into the quality of life of a nation. It takes account of the economic welfare and non-economic aspects of the people eg more leisure time, access to health and education, environment, freedom of social justice which has an indirect impact on the outcomes of the nation but positively enhance the people, workers and the large majority of the population causing a sustained increase in the country’s output of goods and services. Development aims at investment in the people, making them productive and to function well and will in turn raise the standards of living and outcomes of a nation.

    2.Economic development occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises, including both income and other dimensions like health and literacy, provision of resources, access to health, more leisure time, education, freedom of social justice, increase in shares, technological and institutional advancement, improvement of human welfare and is a necessary condition for the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and employment within a growing economy.

    3.I agree, development deals with the enhancing and improvement in all areas of human life not just income per capita as growth views.Since development does not majorly sort to increase the GDP of a nation at any means even if it means underemployment, exploitation of workers, low income and many more as growth base; development sorts in the improvement of the life quality and standards of the majority, investment and empowerment of the majority, raising their productivity output level.

    4.Women’s capacity to think and reason can make development thrive. Proper enlightenment of these women and provision or resources and funds will lead to a higher raite of self employment, personal investment which in turn provide better economically lly opportunities, employment opportunities, eliminate poverty and inequalities within a growing economy.

    5.• Being healthy
    • Being literate
    • Being able to live long
    • Being mobile
    •Being well-nourished

    6.• Sustenance
    •Self-esteem
    •Freedom of servitude

    7.Happiness is a pleasurable and satisfying experience of good fortune and prosperity. We can say that good fortune and prosperity are satisfied by more and more accumulation of wealth that can also be gotten from more and more income. Money used in satisfying wants and needs when scarce affects the mental, emotional and psychological health of people as their basic needs are scarcely met.

    8.Economic Growth is a narrower concept. GDP is a narrow measure of economic welfare that does not take account of important non-economic aspects eg. leisure time, access to health and education, etc. While; Economic Development is a broader concept. It involves steady decline in agricultural shares in GNP and continuous increase in shares of industries, trade, banking, construction and services.
    •Economic Growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output of a nation. While; Economic Development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income as well as the quality of life of the nation. It also involves changes in technological and institutional organization of production as well as in distributive pattern of incomes.
    •Economic growth is a short term process. While, Economic Development is a long term process which leads to progressive changes in the socio-economic structure of the economy

    • Nigeria is a DEVELOPING country.

  2. Avatar Metu Sandra Chiamaka says:

    Metu Sandra Chiamaka
    2017/249526
    Eco major
    1.Many economists were aware of Dudley Seer’s theory of development before it was released.
    According to this theory, development occurs when a nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grows at a rate of 5% to 7% above average and the increases are maintained over an extended period of time.
    They thought that a country had reached development when such increases took place.
    For them, growth was mostly based on material expansion. Additionally, the notion that economic development is attained when there is a shift in the composition of production and employment such that manufacturing and services account for an increasing share of GDP and employment, while agriculture declines. According to Todaro and Smith (2006), these ideas led development economists to place a greater emphasis on industrialization at the expense of agriculture. According to the theory, although many developing nations saw an increase in their GDP in the 1960s and 1970s, the average standard of living for the vast majority of people stayed the same.
    That is, improvements in growth (GDP) have no direct impact on people’s quality of life.
    These caused numerous economists to think twice about what progress

    2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.
    Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries. Both cross-country research and country case studies provide overwhelming evidence that rapid and sustained growth is critical to making faster progress towards the Millennium Development Goals – and not just the first goal of halving the global proportion of people living on less than $1 a day.
    Growth can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong growth and employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. This may lead to the emergence of a strong and
    growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. Strong economic growth therefore advances human development, which,
    in turn, promotes economic growth.
    But under different conditions, similar rates of growth can have very different effects on poverty, the employment prospects of the poor and broader indicators of human development. The extent to which growth reduces poverty depends on the degree to which the poor participate in the growth process and share in its proceeds. Thus, both the pace and pattern of growth matter for reducing poverty.
    A successful strategy of poverty reduction must have at its core measures to promote rapid and sustained economic growth. The challenge for policy is to combine growthpromoting policies with policies that allow the poor to participate fully in the opportunities unleashed and so contribute to that growth. This includes policies to make labour markets work better, remove gender inequalities and increase financial inclusion.
    Asian countries are increasingly tackling this agenda of ‘inclusive growth’. India’s most recent development plan has two main objectives: raising economic growth and making growth more inclusive, policy mirrored elsewhere in South Asia and Africa.

    3. In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states.
    Yes,
    Development means freedom, according to Amartya Sen, perhaps the greatest development thinker of our times.
    Over the centuries, there have been very many theories of development. According to 1998 Nobel prize winner, Amartya Sen, freedom is both the primary objective of development, and the principal means of development. The human being is an engine of change.
    Sen is both the first Indian and the first Asian to win the Nobel prize for economics. In winning the Nobel prize, Sen was praised by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences “for his contributions to welfare economics” and for restoring “an ethical dimension” to the discussion of vital economic problems.

    According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.
    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    4. Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development
    Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    5. Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function
    Sen contends that a person’s ability to do and be things determines how happy they are.
    He therefore concentrated on a more direct topic, such as the capacities and human functionings by which the quality of life is measured. In other words, a person’s talents provide a perspective from which his benefits and drawbacks may be fairly evaluated, which makes it extremely ideal for studying poverty.
    Functionings: Functionings are the true “doings and beings” of individuals. They are human accomplishments; they are “doings” or “beings.” All of these accomplishments—doings and beings—add value to life when considered collectively. The functions could be having access to food and housing, being able to work and rest, being literate or healthy, belonging to a community or group, being respected, etc.

    6. Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example:
    i. Sustenance:
    A subsistence economy is an economy directed to basic subsistence (the provision of food, clothing, shelter) rather than to the market. Henceforth, “subsistence” is understood as supporting oneself at a minimum level. The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.

    ii. Self-esteem – To be a person: Confidence in one’s own worth or abilities; self-respect. “assertiveness training for those with low self-esteem” . A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed
    III. Freedom from servitude, to be able to Choose: Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they ppremained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.

    7. Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with
    more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    “Happiness improves with income, to a degree,” is how I would sum it up.
    One of the most well-known conclusions from the economic study of happiness is that while overall pleasure rises with income, diminishing returns begin to take effect after a certain point.
    In other words, after a certain point, wealth and further income have little impact on one’s degree of happiness.
    After this, happiness presumably depends on other factors, such as health, free time, the caliber of friendships, and close family, rather than only income generating.
    Obi cubana, the man in Nigeria, is just one example. Although having money helps build up one’s life, family and friends are also a major source of happiness for obi cubana today.

    8)Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and
    development.
    Economic Growth and Economic Development.
    1) Economic growth is the improvement in economic indices.
    Economic development is the transformation in an economy on both a quantitative and qualitative level.
    2) The increase in the volume of products and services produced by an economy is referred to as economic growth.
    In the context of an expanding economy, economic development refers to the reduction and abolition of poverty, unemployment, and inequality.
    3) Increases in real national income and national output are indicative of economic growth.
    Improvements in life expectancy, health care, and other aspects of living standards are examples of economic progress.
    4) Economic growth is one-dimensional in nature because it only concentrates on people’s income.
    Due to its dual focus on increasing income and enhancing peoples’ quality of living, economic growth is multidimensional in nature.

    Nigeria as a nation is still experiencing economic growth and not development because the necessary conditions for growth have not yet been established. Additionally, the nation continues to struggle with economic instability, inflation and deflation, and political unrest.

  3. Avatar ODOH GLORY CHIDERA says:

    NAME: ODOH GLORY CHIDERA
    REG NO: 2091/244719
    DEPARTMENT: COMBINE SOCIAL SCIENCES ( ECONOMIC/ SOCIOLOGY).
    ECO 361 ASSIGNMENT.

    ( NO 1). Professor Dudley Seers is trying to prove a point that for development to occur or take place in any growing economy,there must be reduction and eliminations of poverty, inequality and unemployment in that particular economy.
    For instance,in a remote area or village,that there is a high increase in poverty and unemployment and also there is a case of inequality such village or economy can not witness development unless they retrace their steps by making sure that everyone is equal and that those who have made it suppose to look back and try to creat jobs/ employment for the youths by so doing the levels of poverty and unemployment of that village or economy will reduce drastically and before you know what is happening development will come into that village.
    Also our government have a great deal of work or responsibilities towards what Dudley Seers said.
    When the government creates job opportunities and poverty alleviation programs then development will surely happen in such economy.
    ( No 2).
    Economic development is a program, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community.
    What ” economic development” means to you will depend on the community you live in . Each community has its own opportunities, challenges and priorities.

    (No 3). I strongly believe with Amartya Sean’s assertion because when you remove all those unnecessary factors like tyranny, poverty,poor economic opportunities e.t.c.then you will see a very huge development and progress coming or happening in that country,state,or village.
    For instance,when a tyrant leader or king is removed from ruling the people or crowd, people will be happy and free to express themselves without fear of being tortured or beaten by the tyrant leader or his guards.
    Again when you remove unfreedom people will feel and enjoy freedom and they will live their normal lives ,so things with joy and happiness in their hearts.

    (No 4). The role of women in national development is very important in terms of women sharing intellectual ideas. Education helps to sharpen the intellectual minds of an individual so when women are educated,they can help in contributing the ideas and implementing possible solutions which will help foster the economic development of that nation.
    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organisation of the society changes,women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges.
    Women play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs,farmers,educators, entrepreneurs,teachers e.t.c.. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability,progress and long- term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.

    ( No 5).
    * Being healthy: To me health transcends the absence of diseases to include the physical, psychological and social well-being of a person. It means the empowerment of the individual,and is the foundation of a fulfilling life,it also means caring about the people who care about you and whom you care about.
    * Being mobile: If you are mobile, you can move or travel easily from place to place. For example, because you do not have a physical disability or because you have your own transport. I’m still very mobile.
    * Being well nourished: Having been provided with plenty of the material necessary for life and growth.
    * Being literate: Being literate means having the skills to be able to read, write and speak to understand and create meanings.

    ( No 6). The three core values of development are as follows:.
    1). Self-esteem: This is a confidence in one’s own worth or abilities. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself as well as emotional states such as triumph, despair pride and shame.
    For example, the feeling of I am or I’m loved and I’m worthy when everyone thinks about you as someone that is not loved or worthy of a particular post or something e.t.c
    2). Sustenance: This refers to ability of people to meet their basic needs because certain people have their own basic needs that without those needs life will be very difficult and impossible for them.
    These are the basic needs of man as a social animal: food, shelter ( where we have roof over our heads), health, clothing and protection from harm.
    3). Freedom from servitude: This involves an expanded range of choices for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom and other exploitative economic, social and political relationships.
    For example,when you are faced with so many things of life as a human being you have that freedom to choose the ones that suits or goes down well with you. You can choose to work or not,pay taxes or not pay at all.
    (No 7). Happiness has a direct correlation with income. Let’s look at our primary needs ,money comes with happiness, that’s very true. When there is money , you can eat a well cooked balance diet which will inturn nourish your body systems. When there is money,one can attend the best institution in the country,when there is money,one can receive the best medical treatment,so I strongly and totally agree that happiness has a direct correlation with income.

    ( No 8). Economic growth refers to an increase in gross production in an economy. That leads to an increase in incomes of the people,hence persuading them to spend more and increase their quality of living.
    Development economics is a branch of economics that focuses on improving fiscal, economic and social conditions in developing countries. Development economics considers factors such as health, education, working conditions, domestic and international policies and market conditions with a focus on improving conditions of living.
    Nigeria as a country is in a challenging and deteriorating economic situations with lowered growth projection.

  4. Avatar Omeje sharon Amarachi says:

    Omeje Sharon Amarachi
    2019/244241
    Eco/pol (css)
    Answers
    (1) The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.
    As discussed by Dudley Seers the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access to basic infrastructures
    (2). Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment. Development is visible and useful, not necessarily immediately, and includes an aspect of quality change and the creation of conditions for a continuation of that change.
    (3).l agree with Amartya sen.
    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives.
    (4). The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.
    Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education. This proliferation of capability literature has led to questions concerning what kind of framework it is (section 1); how its core concepts should be defined (section 2); how it can be further specified for particular purposes (section 3); what is needed to develop the capability approach into an account of social justice (section 4); how it relates to non-Western philosophies (section 5); and how it can be and has been applied in practice (section 6).

    (5).Enhancing women ‘ s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development. And yet, despite these known returns, women still face many barriers in contributing to and benefiting from development. The barriers begin with comparatively low investment in female education and health, they continue with restricted access to services and assets, and they are made worse by legal and regulatory constraints on women ‘ s opportunities. As a result, the worlwide progress in development over the last three decades has not translated into proportional gains for women. This paper points to actions that can help to turn around this inequitable situation. Evidence of what works is particularly strong in five areas: education, health, wage labor, agriculture and natural resource management, and financial services. The paper also suggests a broadening of the women in development approach toward a gender in development strategy that takes into account the relative roles and responsibilities of women and men and recognizes that, of effect long-term change in the conditions of women, the actions and attitudes of men must change.
    (6)(i) Life Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs:
    It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”. All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economic development and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby the helplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, health and protection could be removed.
    Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:
    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person is desirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ from country to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days that when the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in the distribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itself superior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferiority complex which leads to affect their efficiency.
    Freedom from Servitude, i.e., to be Able to Choose:
    The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs. As Arthur Lewis says:
    “Advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice”.
    (7).In order to adequately address this question, it is necessary to differentiate between ‘ideal’ happiness and ‘actual’ happiness.
    ‘Ideal’ happiness implies a way of being that is complete, lasting and altogether perfect… probably outside of anyone’s reach! (Kesebir & Diener, 2008). However, despite this, people can actually experience mostly positive emotions and report overall satisfaction with their lives and therefore be deemed ‘happy’.
    In fact, most people are happy. In a study conducted by the Pew Research Center in the US (2006), 84% of Americans see themselves as either “very happy” or “pretty happy” (Kesebir & Diener, 2008).
    Happiness also has an adaptive function. How is happiness adaptive? Well, positivity and wellbeing are also associated with people being confident enough to explore their environments and approach new goals, which increases the likelihood of them collecting resources.
    The fact that most people report being happy, and happiness having an adaptive function, leads Kesebir and Diener (2008) to conclude that yes people can, in fact, be happy.
    (8).Economic Growth:
    Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy.
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    Earlier, economic growth was only measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
    At present, it is measured in terms of GDP, Gross National Income (GNI) and Per Capita Income.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    Economic growth only looks at the quantitative aspect. It brings quantitative changes in the economy.
    Economic growth is concerned with increase in economy’s output.
    It focuses on production of goods and services.
    Economic growth is more relevant metric for assessing progress in developed countries.
    Economic growth is relatively narrow concept as compared to economic development.
    It is for short term/short period.
    It is a material/physical concept.
    Economic growth is measured in certain time frame/period.
    Economic Development:
    Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Economic development also refers to:
    provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    equal access to resources
    participation of all in economic activities
    equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    It refers to increase in productivity.
    Indicators of economic development are:
    Human Development Index (HDI)
    Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    Gini Coefficient
    Gender Development Index (GDI)
    Balance of trade
    Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Economic development is the ends of development.
    Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    It is more abstract concept.
    Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Nigeria current status in terms of growth and development;
    While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the World Bank’s 2020 Human Capital Index. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.
    Inequality, in terms of income and opportunities, remains high and has adversely affected poverty reduction. The lack of job opportunities is at the core of the high poverty levels, regional inequality, and social and political unrest. High inflation has also taken a toll on household’s welfare and high prices in 2020-2022 are likely to have pushed an additional 8 million Nigerians into poverty. So in all Nigeria is still battling with Economic growth.

  5. Avatar hezekiah joy says:

    Hezekiah Joy Chiwonke
    2019/245662
    Economics/Philosophy
    Development Economics
    Hezekiahjoy224@gmail.com
    1.
    Dudley Seers, a leading development Economist made an assertion that development is about OUTCOMES and not INCOMES, i.e. Development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. This assertion was necessitated by reason of the fact that though the economic growth in developing economies has been stressed in the UN’s first development program (1960-1970) such that the Economic growth targeted was exceded. However, there still indicators that stood as a defiance to the Economic growth that was attained, because the benefits did not spread to the poorer half of the population.
    Hence, Dudley claimed that there was more to Economic growth which he termed Economic development. He outlined 3 major indicators of a country’s Economic Development which are Poverty, Unemployment and Inequality. For him, if a country is able to take these 3 Central problems to a low degree, then such country has been undergoing a period of development.
    In his words, “ if one or two of these Central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result DEVELOPMENT, even if per capita income has soared” (Seers 1969,pp3-4). It is no wonder he posited that development is about Outcomes and not INCOMES.
    In more explicit terms, I would say that, Seers point of emphasis is that a country’s GNP could take a positive leap without a corresponding improvement in poverty, unemployment and Inequality. In other words, Economic Development is beyond Output growth, it boils down to the Improvement of the material well-being of the poorer half of the population. Considering Nigeria as a case study, during the time of Western Imperialism, Nigeria’s exports of cash crops greatly increased as there was a high demand of such in Europe. Thus there was a leap in our GNP. However, there was no transition into development. As one of the indications of Development is the decline in the Agricultural share of GNP compensated by a rise in the Industrial share of the country’s GNP.

    2.
    Apart from a rise in output, Economic development involves changes in the composition of output, shifts in the allocation of productive resources and elimination of or reduction of poverty, unemployment and Inequality.
    As an economy progresses, the composition of it’s output has to change. The composition depends on the type of products i.e. durable and non-durable goods, services) or the type of expenditures carried out within the economy, whether it is on consumer, investment or government spending. Changes in output composition must be considered as it determined the long-run stabilization of a Country’s output. The U.S. saw that sectors in which producers can postpone selling, consumers can postpone buying and sectors whose products are vulnerable to foreign demand and exchange rate fluctuations tend to have volatile output. Hence, the decline in their manufacturing and Agricultural sectors and the relative rise of their financial and services sectors.
    Furthermore, as an economy makes transition into development, its productive resources have to be allocated in relation to the composition of output in the economy. Resources have to be fully employed to avoid unemployment. Jack Ma pointed out that while technology advances, not to deprive them of their placein the labor force, but to reduce the extreme working conditions of the people. Technology was created for man, by man, an economy becoming more capital intensive would present opportunities of leisure after a couple of work has been done, hence as an effect of extending the life expectancy of its people. Resource allocation through the market mechanism or Economic Planning by the Government brings about equitable distribution of income thus reducing the inequality gap, seeing that a characteristic of a Less Developed country is the presence of a great divide between the high income earners and low income earners.
    Poverty does not only involve low income , it also encapsulates poor living standards, access to knowledge, a healthy lifestyle. Thus, as a nation progresses along the lines of development, there are improvements in these areas.

    3.
    Amartya Senposited that Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom such as the following:
    – Poverty as well as tyranny
    For Sen, poverty was seen as an absolute term. For he defined poverty as failure to achieve certain minimumcapabilities and according to him, the lack of capabilities is absolute. His point was, poverty is not determined by one’s lowness in income but it is a lack of individual capabilities to enjoy basic doings and beings of human life. Development also, for him, is enhanced by democracy not tyranny. Where there is freedom of speech, of the press, it will necessitate a good government. Development will not strive under a tyrannical rule.
    – poor Economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation
    For Sen, he saw that what people could achieve i.e. their capabilities, is influenced by economic opportunities. There has to be an enabling environment that provides good Economic opportunities for the people, such as encouraging innovation to compete well within the economy and still be relevant in the global space. This is development. There also have to unfreedom from systematic social deprivation, such that everyone has to be able to gain access or participate in the societal life that prevails without any form of inferiority. This is a pointer to reducing the inequality gap between the two extremes classes of the society. Though they could never be the same but to some degree, there should not be outrageous gap between them. Basically, in terms of educational and health services, development occurs when even the have-nots have access to these.

    – Neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states
    There are certain public infrastructure that has to be in place that would help the well-being of the people, such as electricity, water, good road networks. Also, repressive states or governments would do no good to ensure development, because they would stifle the liberty and initiative brought about its people, thinking they are trying to ensure submission and loyalty. Hence , the people are afraid to even think and as such the economy of such state remains stagnant.

    Conclusively, why do nations strive for Development, if not for freedom in implicit term. Freedom from unhealthy natural circumstances and even from ourselves. Life is a race, and it is only he that wins that would have the day. Being Developed gives the audacity to preside over crucial matters that would affect humanity. If only U.S. has the capacity to contend with Russia, I believe they would have supported Ukraine. Development is a contention for Dominion.

    4.

    It is argued that one of the problems of developing nations is the high population rate. Seeing that Development and Population rate are interacting variables, each affects the other. High rate of fertility has its own costs especially in developing countries, such as growing unemployment, high dependency ratio, as well as increased urbanization and congestion.
    And so, it is generally held that this increase in population is a natural outcome of women’s lack of economic opportunities. Hence, the motive to enlighten and empower the women.There is an opportunity cost of the mother’s time being lost in being an house wife. Hence, when they are enlightened and empowered sufficiently, there is a marginal contribution of income to the family and the economy. Also, women and children constituting the major clients in the health sector, there would be reduction if not utter elimination of expenditures channeled towards finding corrective measures in treating the mother and her child. As less would spent when enlightened women take precautions in their health and their children.
    Notwithstanding, in dealing with matters of National Development, the concept of Sustainability has to be brought in mind. It has to be sustained and by all means enhanced or improved as different civilizations emerge. It is to this end that women are considered as a team player in the issue of National Development. As they are the gateways through which the next generation are born, they are faced with the primary task of not only child-bearing but also child-rearing. And so they have to be sufficiently empowered and invested upon. As they are in the closest position to inculcate moral values, character, mindset, attitudes into the children. However, when the woman is living in depravity, which automatically forms part of her subconsciousness, then there’s no hope to even sustain the very foundations of National Development that the fathers have dug, how much more to sustain it.
    Also women endowed with the gift of multitasking, are able to manage their homes. Hence they could apply this skill when given a societal opportunity equal with the male counterpart, not exactly in competition.

    5.
    Amartya Sen saw Capabilities as the freedom that a person has in terms of the choice of Functionings, giving his personal features ( conversion of characteristics into Functionings ) and his command over commodities. In his bid to make contributions to human development, he posits that what matters for well-being, is not just the characteristics of commodities consumed, but what use the consumer can and does make of commodities. It is to this end he came up with the concept of Functionings, which is what people do or can do with the commodities of given characteristics that they come to possess or control.
    A functioning is a valued being or doing, i.e. those things that people have reason to value. And so he outlined several beings and doings that humans have reason to value. Of which are:
    – Being Healthy; Sen referred to those Countries with high levels of Income but poor health and education standards as cases ofGrowth without Development.It is believed that Health is Wealth in the sense that instead of channeling one’s resources to combat health issues that is Control measures less would have been spent in taking Preventive measures.
    – Being well nourished; eating balanced diets is essential for the well-being of a person. Individuals can differ greatly in their abilities to convert the same resources into valuable Functionings. In other words, what one considers worthwhile for his consumption will differ from another, still both are not deprived in any way from making their different choices of their Functionings.
    – Being well clothed; were a person has the capacity or freedom to appear in public without any sense of inferiority, complex or shame.
    – Being Literate; this implies being educated, getting access to information.It is education that brings about Innovation as such progress is being made in an economy. Poverty is not streamlined to only low income index, it also encapsulates deprivation of sound education not having access to information. There are different kinds ofknowledge for specific accomplishments.
    – Being able to live long; in advanced economies, workers are paid according to the hours worked. The Labor market is structured like that to give room for leisure, not without the compensation of a high labor rate. This is done knowing fully well that work stress reduces the life expectancy of people. Notwithstanding, Artificial Intelligence has also contributed to improve the living standards of the people. Hence, people are not deprived of gaining access to technologies that will reduce stress and as such extend life expectancy on Earth.
    – Being Mobile; in a sense implies occupational mobility such that the form of unemployment being considered would be Voluntary unemployment. In other words, being occupationally mobile means that there’s little or no difficulty in switching jobs as it suits one’s choice.
    – Being able to take part in the community life; this would not be difficult if there are certain commodities that would facilitate such ability. For instance, in the University space, there would be great difficulty to participate in it when there’s no ability to get access to the internet, since we are faced with a time or dispensation where Technology rules.

    6.
    Values are those principles, standards or qualities that a society or groups within it considers worthwhile or desirable. It has been aeons that mankind has been plagued with the question of What the good life consist? Hence has become a Philosophical Canon, which mankind has sought to answer in different civilizations.
    The validity of economic analysis and the correctness of economic prescriptions should always be evaluated in light of the underlying assumptions or value premises, as such three(3) core values have been isolated as the foundations for understanding the inner meaning of development. They are:
    – Sustenance, the ability to Meet basic needs.
    These basic needs are critical to the survival of mankind. They are food, shelter, health and protection. A situation wherebyany of these areabsent or critically in short supply indicates Absolute Poverty. At least, a basic function of economic activity is to provide sustenance, before other levels of development can be attained. Though a country should experience growth in its GDP, when this is not backed with a corresponding improvement in it’s provisions for sustenance to the least average person in it’s territory, then development is lacking.
    – Self esteem, to be a Person.
    This implies a sense of worth and self-respect. It is considered as having a sense of dignity, identity or recognition. Though, the nature and form of self-esteem may vary from society to society and from culture to culture. However as the world proliferates into a global economy, many societies in the Less Developed Countries (LDCs) seem to lose their economic identity or recognition. This is due to the ascendancy that the Developed countries have attained in both the economical and technological space.
    If an economy do not embrace technology advancement such is considered uncivilized and underdeveloped. For instance, in a particular society in the LDCs, thee could be no sense of Economic worth as almost all commodities are imported. Hence, in such location the people live with imported economic value. Even in the global sphere they have no identity, the LDCs have no identity, no personality to project in the Global market.

    – Freedom from Servitude, to be able to Choose.
    Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies and their members together with a minimization of external constraints in the pursuit of some social goal – development.
    The concept of freedom also encompasses various components such as Political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation, equality of opportunities and also economic freedom. For instance, the supposed technology shipped onto the LDCs from the Advanced economies are substandard, which a trader of electronics will not dare sell in those advanced Nations . Such act is referred to as Dumpling. These LDCs of course have no choice, since it demands a higher cost to acquire such commodities, of which majority of the poor masses would not dare think they could afford, and so they make do with the substandardsshipped in from those Economic lords.

    7.

    Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income. This they justified with severalreasons as follows:
    – They consider their income to be an end in itself. There are those that desire to have wealth just got the sake of having it, not that because a contingency may arise. And so they derive happiness fromhaving more income.
    – They believe money is the highest good any man can attain. As money is the primary commodity to obtain other commodities, so more income implies more commodities to obtain hence their happiness increases.
    While some other scholars argued that happiness does not have a perfect correlation with income as there are many factors affecting one’s happiness. Happiness is not solely determined by income but other factors such as :
    – Family relationship
    – Work Satisfaction
    – Community and friends
    – Personal freedom
    – Personal Value
    – Health and health care services
    Jack Ma once saidthat money should be seen as a means and not as an end.

    8.
    Economic growth must precede Economic development. Hence, Economic growth is a necessary condition for Economic development.
    The validity of measuring Economic growth could be recorded in at least one or two years. But for Economic development it takes longer to measure as there are a lot of indices by which this is measured.
    Economic growth is recorded when there has been a sustained increase in a country’s Output i.e. its GDP in a particular period. Economic Development on the other hand , is recorded when there has been an holistic survey of the economy as a whole with respect to certain indices like the standard of living, health, education.
    Economic growth does not take cognizance of non-economic indices as health, education, social and environmental freedom. However, Economic Development outlines all these.
    Economic growth is a narrow concept, as its index – the GDP- is a narrow measure of econmic welfare of am economy. Economic Development is a broadconceptas it involves changes in the composition of the economy’s output, shift in the allocation of productive resources as well as reduction if not elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Now where is my country in the light of Economic growth and development. Though the major composition of our Output of about 50% is The Service industry like the U.S., we are still no where compared to them. Industry and construction accounts for about 16%, so what would be the actual composition of Industry, seeing that Agriculture contributes 23%. Hence, for development we are no where, we are only riding on past glory which was not even development but Economic growth. Economic development encapsulates other non-economic indices which includes education, of which our educational sector has a lot of setbacks. There is still an outrageous gap between the high income earners and low income earners. Poverty cannot be overemphasized. What about the security situation ?. Nigeria is still developing or rather, underdeveloped.

  6. Avatar OKECHI PASCHAL MAKUO. REG NO:2019/247596 says:

    Name : Okechi Paschal makuo
    Dept: Library and information science
    Reg no:2019/247596
    1:Professor Dudley Seers’ argument is that development is about outcomes, specifically the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality, and unemployment within a growing economy. This argument suggests that development is not just about economic growth, but also about improving people’s lives by addressing social and economic challenges.

    Reducing poverty is essential for development as it allows individuals to access basic needs such as food, shelter, education, and healthcare. When people are lifted out of poverty, they are more likely to participate in economic and social activities, which can lead to further economic growth.

    Inequalities, such as income and wealth disparities, can create social tensions and limit opportunities for some individuals and groups. Addressing inequality can help to ensure that everyone has access to education, healthcare, and other opportunities, regardless of their background or economic status. This can also contribute to economic growth by increasing productivity and innovation.

    Unemployment can also be a significant obstacle to development, as it can limit individuals’ ability to access opportunities and contribute to economic growth. Addressing unemployment can involve investing in education and training programs, creating job opportunities, and supporting entrepreneurship.

    However, it is worth noting that development is a complex and multidimensional concept that encompasses more than just poverty, inequality, and unemployment. Other factors, such as environmental sustainability, governance, and human rights, also play a crucial role in development.

    Overall, Professor Dudley Seers’ argument highlights the importance of focusing on outcomes that improve people’s lives and promote sustainable economic growth. By addressing poverty, inequality, and unemployment, policymakers and stakeholders can work towards a more equitable and prosperous future for all.
    2: Economic development is a process that involves the improvement of the economic well-being of a society. It is a multifaceted process that goes beyond the mere increase in output. In addition to the rise in output, as you mentioned, economic development involves changes in the composition of output, a shift in the allocation of productive resources, and the elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities, and unemployment.

    One of the key components of economic development is the change in the composition of output. This means that the economy shifts from producing low-value-added products to high-value-added products. This shift can be achieved through the adoption of new technologies, the development of new industries, and the improvement of existing industries. The shift towards producing higher value-added products is important because it results in the creation of higher-paying jobs, and increased productivity and competitiveness.

    Another important component of economic development is the reallocation of productive resources. This involves the movement of resources from less productive to more productive sectors of the economy. For example, resources may be shifted from agriculture to manufacturing or from low-tech to high-tech industries. The reallocation of resources is important because it leads to higher productivity and greater efficiency.

    The elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities, and unemployment is also a critical component of economic development. Economic development should result in the creation of jobs and the improvement of living standards for all members of society. This can be achieved through the creation of a conducive business environment, the development of infrastructure, and the provision of education and training.

    In conclusion, economic development is a complex process that involves more than just an increase in output. It involves changes in the composition of output, a shift in the allocation of productive resources, and the elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities, and unemployment. These components are interrelated and must be addressed in a coordinated manner in order to achieve sustained economic growth and development.
    3:
    As an AI language model, I don’t have personal beliefs or opinions, but I can provide an analysis of the statement made by Amartya Sen.

    In his statement, Amartya Sen argues that development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, which includes both poverty and tyranny. Poverty refers to the lack of basic necessities needed for survival such as food, shelter, and healthcare, while tyranny refers to the abuse of power by those in authority, which can lead to the suppression of individual freedoms.

    Sen also points out that development requires the removal of other sources of unfreedom, such as poor economic opportunities and systematic social deprivation. Poor economic opportunities can lead to a lack of employment opportunities, which can result in persistent poverty. Systematic social deprivation refers to the exclusion of certain groups from accessing social and economic opportunities, which can lead to significant disparities in society.

    Furthermore, Sen argues that development requires addressing the neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states. Neglect of public facilities, such as inadequate healthcare, education, and infrastructure, can limit opportunities for people to improve their lives. Intolerance or overactivity of repressive states can lead to the violation of human rights and the suppression of freedom of expression, which can hinder development.

    In his statement, Sen emphasizes the importance of addressing a wide range of issues that contribute to unfreedom in order to achieve development. He recognizes that development is a complex process that requires the removal of multiple sources of unfreedom, including poverty, tyranny, poor economic opportunities, systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities, and intolerance or overactivity of repressive states.

    In conclusion, Amartya Sen’s statement highlights the need to address the root causes of unfreedom in order to achieve development. By removing these sources of unfreedom, individuals can have greater access to economic and social opportunities, which can lead to improved living standards and greater individual freedoms.
    4. Central Role of Women in National Development:
    The central role of women in national development cannot be overemphasized. Women make up half of the population and are responsible for raising the other half. They are major players in the development of any society, as they are involved in various roles such as caregivers, producers, and consumers. Women’s contributions to national development can be seen in areas such as education, health, agriculture, and entrepreneurship. When women are empowered, they can contribute to the economic growth of a nation, and their families and communities benefit from their increased income and improved standard of living. However, women’s empowerment is still a challenge in many parts of the world, where gender inequality persists.

    5. Beings and Doings in Capability to Function:
    The capability to function refers to an individual’s ability to achieve their goals and live a fulfilling life. Beings refer to the individual’s physical and mental capabilities, while doings refer to the actual activities they engage in. For example, an individual’s being may include their intelligence, physical health, and emotional well-being, while their doings may include their education, employment, and participation in social activities. Both beings and doings are important in the capability to function, as individuals need both the physical and mental capacity to engage in activities that lead to a fulfilling life.

    6. Core Values of Development:
    The three core values of development are equity, sustainability, and human rights. Equity refers to the fair distribution of resources and opportunities, regardless of factors such as gender, race, or economic status. Sustainability refers to the responsible use of resources to ensure that future generations can also benefit from them. Human rights refer to the protection of basic human rights, including freedom of speech, religion, and the right to a fair trial. For example, a development project that prioritizes equity would ensure that marginalized groups have access to the resources and opportunities that they need to thrive.

    7. Happiness and Income:
    The relationship between happiness and income is a complex and debated topic. While some scholars argue that higher income leads to greater happiness, others disagree, pointing to factors such as social relationships, health, and personal values as more important determinants of happiness. It is important to note that happiness is a subjective experience and can vary greatly among individuals and cultures.

    8. Economic Growth vs. Economic Development:
    Economic growth refers to an increase in a nation’s output of goods and services, usually measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP). Economic development, on the other hand, refers to the process by which a nation improves its standard of living, reduces poverty, and increases economic and social well-being. Economic growth can be a component of economic development, but it is not sufficient on its own. A nation can experience economic growth without achieving sustainable economic development. Currently, as a nation, the level of economic growth in a country can be measured by its GDP growth rate, while development can be assessed by indicators such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which includes factors such as life expectancy, education, and income.

  7. Avatar Amankwe victor ubachukwu says:

    Amankwe Victor Ubachukwu
    2019/242928
    Library and information science

    1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes i.e. development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss?
    Professor Dudley Seers’ argument that development is about outcomes is rooted in an outcome-based approach to development. This approach views development as a process of achieving specific goals or desired outcomes, rather than simply measuring the level of economic growth or industrialisation in a society. In this approach, development is only considered to have occurred when there is a measurable reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality, and unemployment within a growing economy.
    Accordingly, this argument is supported by the understanding that economic growth alone does not necessarily translate into development. For instance, a country may experience rapid economic growth but fail to leverage it in reducing poverty and inequality, which are essential elements of development. Therefore, the idea of measuring development based on outcomes rather than economic growth alone is an essential requirement for a more equitable and just society.
    Additionally, Professor Seers argues that the concept of development should be viewed holistically, encompassing economic, social, and environmental aspects. In this regard, the elimination of poverty and inequality needs to be coupled.

    2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.?
    Economic development is a complex and multi-dimensional process that involves various factors and outcomes. Among the key factors that contribute to economic development are changes in the composition of output, shifts in the allocation of productive resources, and the elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities, and unemployment.

    Changes in the Composition of Output

    Changes in the composition of output refer to the shift from traditional and less productive sectors of the economy to modern and more productive sectors. For instance, economic development involves a transition from an agrarian-based economy to a more diversified and technology-driven economy based on industry and services. This shift in focus leads to an increase in output and productivity, increased employment opportunities, and ultimately, higher standards of living for the community.

    Shifts in the Allocation of Productive Resources
    Shifts in the allocation of productive resources refer to the strategic placement and efficient use of financial, human, and natural resources in productive sectors. Economic development involves a systematic redistribution of these resources, with a focus on enhancing the productive capacity of the economy. This involves providing incentives and supportive policies to encourage investment, innovation, and entrepreneurship, and developing infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, schools, and communication networks. By optimizing the use of resources and promoting growth and development, economic development generates higher economic growth rates, reduces poverty, and enhances the prosperity of the population.

    Elimination or Reduction of Poverty, Inequalities, and Unemployment
    Economic development aims to reduce poverty, inequalities, and unemployment rates by creating employment opportunities, increasing productivity, and delivering a more equitable distribution of resources. This is achieved through various policies and programs such as education and training, social protection, healthcare, and financial support for small businesses. By creating equitable and inclusive economic systems, economic development contributes to social stability and cohesion, reduces crime rates, and enhances the overall wellbeing of the population.
    In summary, economic development is a complex and multi-faceted process that involves changes in output composition, shifts in resource allocation, and the reduction or elimination of poverty and inequality. It is a continuous and dynamic process that involves a range of actors, including governments, businesses, citizens, and international organizations. Economic development is also influenced by broader societal factors, including political stability, environmental sustainability, and cultural values.

    In recent years, the concept of sustainable economic development has gained increasing attention. This approach aims to promote economic growth while also addressing social and environmental sustainability challenges. This involves adopting practices that ensure the efficient use of resources, reducing carbon emissions, and promoting social welfare and self-sufficiency.
    Overall, economic development is an essential ingredient for sustained improvements in the standard of living for individuals and societies. It remains a crucial goal for policymakers and development practitioners around the world, and it requires a collaborative effort involving governments, the private sector, and civil society to achieve it.

    3.In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details?
    Amartya Sen’s statement suggests that development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, which includes poverty and tyranny, poor economic opportunities, systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities, intolerance, and overactivity of repressive states. Sen’s argument is based on the idea that development is not just about economic growth, but also about ensuring that individuals have the freedom to live the lives they value.
    Poverty is a major source of unfreedom, as it limits people’s ability to access basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. Poverty can also limit people’s opportunities for education and employment, which can further perpetuate the cycle of poverty. Therefore, reducing poverty is an important step towards promoting development.
    Tyranny, or the abuse of power by those in authority, can also limit people’s freedom. This can take many forms, including political oppression, censorship, and human rights abuses. A repressive state can limit people’s ability to express themselves, participate in the political process, and pursue their own goals. Therefore, promoting democracy and ensuring that individuals have access to basic human rights are important steps towards promoting development.

    Poor economic opportunities and systematic social deprivation can also limit people’s freedom. In many societies, certain groups are systematically excluded from economic and social opportunities, such as women, minorities, and people living in rural areas. This can perpetuate inequality and limit social mobility. Therefore, promoting equal access to economic and social opportunities is an important step towards promoting development.
    Neglect of public facilities, such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure, can also limit people’s freedom. Inadequate access to public facilities can limit people’s ability to access essential services and can perpetuate poverty and inequality. Therefore, investing in public facilities and ensuring that they are accessible to all is an important step towards promoting development.
    Finally, intolerance and overactivity of repressive states can also limit people’s freedom. Intolerance towards different groups can perpetuate discrimination and limit social cohesion. Additionally, an overactive repressive state can limit people’s ability to express themselves and participate in the political process. Therefore, promoting tolerance and limiting the power of the state are important steps towards promoting development.
    In conclusion, Amartya Sen’s statement suggests that development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, which includes poverty, tyranny, poor economic opportunities, systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities, intolerance, and overactivity of repressive states. By addressing these sources of unfreedom, societies can promote greater freedom for individuals and promote development.

    4.Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development?
    The central role of women in national development has become a widely accepted concept in recent years. Women make up a significant portion of the population and can contribute significantly to the economic, social, and political development of a country. However, despite the progress made in many countries towards gender equality, women continue to face significant barriers that limit their ability to fully participate in national development.
    One of the most significant barriers that women face is limited access to education and training. Without access to education, women are often unable to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to participate in the workforce and contribute to national development. This can perpetuate gender inequality and limit the economic potential of a country.
    Additionally, women often face discrimination in the workplace, including lower pay and limited opportunities for advancement. This can limit their ability to fully participate in the economy and contribute to national development.

    Another significant barrier that women face is limited access to healthcare. Women are often responsible for the health and well-being of their families, yet they may not have access to the resources needed to ensure their own health. This can limit their ability to participate fully in national development and can perpetuate gender inequality.
    Finally, women often face significant barriers to political participation. Despite the progress made in many countries towards gender equality, women are still underrepresented in political decision-making processes. This can limit their ability to advocate for their own needs and contribute to national development.
    Despite these challenges, there is substantial evidence to suggest that empowering women can have significant positive impacts on national development. For example, increasing women’s access to education and training can lead to increased economic growth and development. In addition, increasing women’s political participation can lead to more inclusive and effective decision-making processes.
    In conclusion, the central role of women in national development is an important concept that has gained widespread acceptance in recent years. While there are significant barriers that limit women’s ability to fully participate in national development, empowering women can have significant positive impacts on economic, social, and political development. Therefore, it is essential for governments and other stakeholders to prioritize gender equality and work towards removing the barriers that limit women’s participation in national development.

    5.Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function?
    The capability to function refers to an individual’s ability to achieve their goals and lead a fulfilling life. This concept is often used in discussions of development and human well-being, and focuses on both the “beings” and “doings” that contribute to an individual’s capability to function.

    Some important “beings” that contribute to an individual’s capability to function include:

    1. Health: Good health is essential for an individual’s capability to function. Without good health, individuals may be unable to pursue their goals or engage in activities that contribute to their well-being.

    2. Education: Education provides individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to achieve their goals and participate fully in society. Without education, individuals may lack the tools needed to achieve their full potential.

    3. Social connections: Social connections are essential for well-being and can provide individuals with support, resources, and opportunities for personal and professional growth.

    4. Identity and agency: An individual’s sense of identity and agency are important for their capability to function. A strong sense of self and the ability to make decisions and take action can help individuals pursue their goals and achieve their full potential.

    Some important “doings” that contribute to an individual’s capability to function include:
    I. Work: Work provides individuals with the opportunity to earn a living, contribute to society, and achieve a sense of purpose and identity.

    II. Leisure activities: Leisure activities, such as hobbies and sports, can provide individuals with a sense of enjoyment and satisfaction, and can contribute to their overall well-being.

    III. Civic engagement: Civic engagement, such as volunteering, participating in community organizations or political activities, can provide individuals with a sense of purpose and contribute to the well-being of their community.

    IV.. Family and personal relationships: Strong and healthy relationships with family and friends can provide individuals with emotional support, social connections, and a sense of belonging.
    In conclusion, the capability to function is a complex concept that involves both the “beings” and “doings” that contribute to an individual’s ability to achieve their goals and lead a fulfilling life. By focusing on these important elements, individuals and societies can work towards promoting human well-being and development.

    6. Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example?
    Development
    The definition of the term development underwent a change. Along with growth, the role of redistribution of wealth to reduce inequalities, alleviate poverty and reduce unemployment was emphasized. Focus shifted from just growth in per capita income to a more wide variety of social and political changes accompanied by growth. A multidimensional concept of development emerged to include certain necessary components for development. Denis Goulet suggested three core values necessary for the development of an economy:

    Sustenance
    Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.

    Self-esteem
    Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.

    Freedom
    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.

    7.Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    The relationship between income and happiness is a topic of ongoing debate among scholars. Some researchers argue that there is a direct correlation between income and happiness, while others argue that the relationship is more complex.
    There is some evidence to suggest that higher income is associated with higher levels of happiness. For example, studies have found that people in wealthier countries tend to report higher levels of life satisfaction than those in poorer countries. Similarly, within countries, people with higher incomes tend to report higher levels of life satisfaction than those with lower incomes.
    However, the relationship between income and happiness is not always straightforward. For example, some studies have found that beyond a certain income threshold, additional income does not lead to a corresponding increase in happiness. Other factors, such as social support, meaningful work, and a sense of purpose, have also been found to be important predictors of happiness.
    Furthermore, the relationship between income and happiness may be influenced by other factors, such as cultural norms and individual values. For example, some people may place more importance on material possessions and financial security than others, and may therefore derive more happiness from higher income.
    Overall, while there may be some correlation between income and happiness, it is important to consider the complexity of this relationship and the other factors that may influence individual well-being.

    8. Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development?
    Economic Growth is a narrower concept than economic development.It is an increase in a country’s real level of national output which can be caused by an increase in the quality of resources (by education etc.), increase in the quantity of resources & improvements in technology or in another way an increase in the value of goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. Economic Growth can be measured by an increase in a country’s GDP (gross domestic product).
    Economic development is a normative concept i.e. it applies in the context of people’s sense of morality (right and wrong, good and bad). The definition of economic development given by Michael Todaro is an increase in living standards, improvement in self-esteem needs and freedom from oppression as well as a greater choice. The most accurate method of measuring development is the Human Development Index which takes into account the literacy rates & life expectancy which affect productivity and could lead to Economic Growth. It also leads to the creation of more opportunities in the sectors of education, healthcare, employment and the conservation of the environment.It implies an increase in the per capita income of every citizen.
    Economic Growth does not take into account the size of the informal economy. The informal economy is also known as the black economy which is unrecorded economic activity. Development alleviates people from low standards of living into proper employment with suitable shelter. Economic Growth does not take into account the depletion of natural resources which might lead to pollution, congestion & disease. Development however is concerned with sustainability which means meeting the needs of the present without compromising future needs. These environmental effects are becoming more of a problem for Governments now that the pressure has increased on them due to Global warming.
    Economic growth is a necessary but not sufficient condition of economic development.

  8. Avatar Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette says:

    Dinyelu Chikaodili Lovette
    2019/245486
    Combined Social Science
    Economics/Political Science
    chikaodililovette@gmail.com

    1. Firstly, Development can be seen as a complex multi-dimensional concept involving improvements in human well being. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes, that is, development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. This is because to him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But, if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result development even if per capita income has soared. Based on Professor Dudley Seers arguments or statements, the following questions usually come to mind to know if really a nation is developed or not.
    -. What has been happening to poverty?
    _. What has been happening to unemployment?
    _. What has been happening to inequality?
    To Seer, if all three of these are declining, then beyond doubt, that nation is experiencing development. These means that true development happened when poverty is reduced or eliminated, unemployment declining and the levels of inequality is reducing. Of course, reduction in these three development indicators will in no doubt increases as the well being and quality of life of a nation’s citizens.

    2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic development involves changes in composition of output, shift in allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. This is possible because econmic development is the end point for every economy and cannot be achieved without this.

    3. I agree with Armatya Sen’s word which says development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny,poor econmic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states because Sen viewed development as freedom and the capability to function. According to him, for a person to be classified as poor and non-poor, it depends on the person’s capability to function. He defines capability as “the freedom that a person enjoyed in terms of choice to function, given his personal features and his command for commodities”. To Sen, poverty cannot be measured by income as conventionally understood. The important thing is not what a person has, but who he is, or maybe he did, or can do. According to Sen, development means to reduce deprivation or expand choice. Deprivation is a multidimensional phenomenon of poverty, which includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, impotence, lack of voice, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access to the foundation. For Sen, life consists in the effective freedom of man to achieve states of being and things. Therefore, freedom (not development) is the ultimate goal of economic life as well as the most efficient means of realizing general welfare. Overcoming deprivations is central to development.

    4. The central role of women in the national development. Firstly, to make the biggest impact on development, societies must empower and invest in women. Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    5. Some important “Beings” and “Doings” in capability to function include:
    (a). Being able to live long
    (b). Being well-nourished
    (c). Being healthy
    (d). Being literate
    (e). Being well clothed
    (f). Being mobile
    (g). Being able to take part in the life the community

    6. The three core values of development with relevant examples include;
    (a). Sustenance:Sustenance is the ability of people to meet the basic needs without which life will be impossible. These needs include food, shelter, health and protection. “Absolute underdevelopment” is when any of these is absent or in critically short supply. Without livelihoods and continuous economic progress, the realization of human potential will be much more difficult.
    (b) Self-Esteem: This value talked about a sense of worth and self respect, a sense of not being used as a tool by others for their own selfish ends. It is believed that development is an important way of gaining self-esteem. Self-esteem is nowadays increasingly conferred only on countries and individuals that possess economic wealth, especially in Nigeria. True development should accord self-esteem to her every of her citizen whether they posses economic power or not.
    (c). Freedom from servitude (ability to choose): This is the third core value which states that “freedom should be in form of being freeing from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, misery and dogmatic beliefs, especially that poverty is predestination”. To be able to make political and economic choice that does not infringe on someone’s rights.

    7. Some scholars argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree because there is not a perfect correlation between happiness and per capita income as people could be poor, but happy, rich, but and unhappy. Scholars have extensively studied whether people with higher levels of income are happier. These scholars have demonstrated a correlation between higher incomes and greater happiness. However, the opposite question has not been well studied: To what extent do happier people earn greater income? It is assumed that higher incomes cause greater happiness. However, this causation has not been proven. It is possible that innately happier people earn higher incomes than people who are not as happy. If happier people do earn greater incomes, then this research could have far reaching implications that affect how companies across the globe treat their employees. Over the last 5 decades, the income–happiness correlation has increased, not decreased, in the USA and several European countries. The income–happiness correlation tends to get higher when both GDP per capita and income inequality are high, whereas it tends to get lower when GDP per capita and/or income inequality are low. These findings suggest the importance of accounting for income inequality as well as national wealth in understanding the role of money in happiness.
    Once per capita income increases above $10000 to $20000, the percentage of people who say they are happy tends to increase.

    8. The differences between economic growth and economic development includes the following;
    1). Economic growth refers to increase in the monetary ( income) or output growth of a nation in a particular period. It takes place when there is a sustained (ongoing for at least 1-2 years) increase in a country’s output of goods and services meanwhile economic development refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth. It occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises, including both income and other dimensions like health and literacy.
    2). Economic growth is a narrower concept that economic development. GDP is a narrow measure of economic welfare that does not take account of non- economic aspects like more leisure time, access to health and education, environment, freedom or social justice meanwhile, economic development is a broader concept that economic growth. It involves steady decline in agricultural shares in GNP and continuous increase in shares of industries, trade banking construction and services.
    3). Economic growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output ( economic growth) of the nation, meanwhile, economic development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quality of life of the nation. It also involves changes in technological and institutional organization of production as well as in distributive pattern of income.
    4). Economic growth is a short term process while economic development is a long term process which leads to progressive changes in the socio-economic structure of a country.
    5). Economic growth is about income ( GDP,GNP,GNI) meanwhile economic development is about outcomes ( Human development indicators, industrial development, improved standard of living
    6). Economic growth is a necessary but insufficient condition for economic development meanwhile economic development is a necessary and sufficient condition for improvement if human welfare, raising of living standards and reduction of poverty
    Where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development aimed to achieve the macroeconomic objectives of economic stability, low unemployment, low inflation and balanced of payment equilibrium; but the internal problems of insecurity, insurgency and banditry,terrorism, corruption, mismanagement and religion intolerances in Nigeria have hampered and slowed the country’s goals and objectives. Since 1960 that Nigeria gained independence, she seeks to achieve economic development which could translate to the well being of her people interms of quality of life but the problems enumerated above have negated achieving these objectives. Nigeria has experienced economic growth over the years and yet no development.
    For instance, our economic growth kept on increasing from -1.6% in 2016 to 0.8% in 2017, 1.9% in 2018 and has increase to 2.29% in 2019 which is the most increased growth since 2015 (CBN bulletin). It is sad to note that despite these growths, the citizens are still experiencing low standard of living and low quality of life. The levels of poverty, unemployment and inequality are increasing every day.

  9. Avatar NDUUL MICHAEL TERUNGWA 2019/246514 says:

    Name: NDUUL MICHAEL TERUNGWA
    Reg no: 2019/246514
    ECONOMICS MAJOR

    Answers
    No 1
    Dudley Seers suggests that development is when a country experiences a reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment. Seers was a staunch structuralist, arguing that development economists should focus on poverty, inequality, and unemployment in addition to topline measures like GDP per capita growth. But by his death in 1983, the neoclassical school was on the ascent. During the Cold War, development economists in the West had begun favoring free-market, private sector-led growth strategies. In the 1980s and 1990s, these approaches coalesced into the Washington Consensus, which prioritized a standard policy regimen of low inflation, balanced budgets, free trade, and privatization. But by the early 2000s, many contested the Washington Consensus, and argued that economic development was a far more complex process. What is development economics? Several decades after its emergence as an academic discipline, this question still inspires spirited debate. While the prevailing orthodoxy continues to evolve, certain thinkers and their ideas have proved enduring. One such pioneer was Dudley Seers, a British economist whose insights about the development process were far ahead of their time. In the early 1960s, Seers was a visiting fellow at Yale’s Economic Growth Center (EGC), where he produced two landmark papers that still resonate today. 
    No 2
    economic development, the process whereby simple, low-income national economies are transformed into modern industrial economies. Although the term is sometimes used as a synonym for economic growth, generally it is employed to describe a change in a country’s economy involving qualitative as well as quantitative improvements. The theory of economic development—how primitive and poor economies can evolve into sophisticated and relatively prosperous ones—is of critical importance to underdeveloped countries, and it is usually in this context that the issues of economic development are discussed.It is well to consider some of the statistical and conceptual difficulties of using the conventional criterion of underdevelopment before analyzing the causes of underdevelopment. The statistical difficulties are well known. To begin with, there are the awkward borderline cases. Even if analysis is confined to the underdeveloped and developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, there are rich oil countries that have per capita incomes well above the rest but that are otherwise underdeveloped in their general economic characteristics. Second, there are a number of technical difficulties that make the per capita incomes of many underdeveloped countries (expressed in terms of an international currency, such as the U.S. dollar) a very crude measure of their per capita real income. These difficulties include the defectiveness of the basic national income and population statistics, the inappropriateness of the official exchange rates at which the national incomes in terms of the respective domestic currencies are converted into the common denominator of the U.S. dollar, and the problems of estimating the value of the noncash components of real incomes in the underdeveloped countries. Finally, there are conceptual problems in interpreting the meaning of the international differences in the per capita income levels.
    No 3
    According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government. He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”. Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”. Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment. Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”. Sen calculates that if women in Asia and North Africa were given the same health care and attention, the world would have 100 million more women.
    For Sen, “capability deprivation” is a better measure of poverty than low income. While higher GDP does produce improvements in most measures of the quality of life, but there are exceptions. Some places with low GDP/capita like Sri Lanka, China and the India state of Kerala have higher life expectancies and literacy rates than richer countries like Brazil, South Africa and Namibia. And Afro-Americans have a lower life expectancy than males in China and parts of India, although their average real income is far higher.Some see freedom as a potential disturbance to political stability and development. They recommend repressive interventions of the state in stifling liberty, initiative and enterprise, and in crippling the working of the individual agency and cooperative action. Sen attacks Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew and his theories of Asian values which are used to justify political repression. For Sen there is no such thing as Asian values in a continent with vastly disparate populations and traditions, and containing 60 per cent of the world’s population. And as Dani Rodrik said, the economic performance of authoritarian regimes is either very good or very bad – and usually very bad. Most democracies occupy the middle ground.
    No 4
    There is an adage that says; ̳ ̳behind every successful man is a woman‘‘. Women have been regarded as fragile hence, be subordinate to the man. In the recent times we know that some women can play very important role for the betterment of the society more than their male counterpart. Their supposedly fragile nature has made them to have domineering influence over men on many occasions in the history of mankind. For instance during the pre-colonial era women played a very significant role in history for instance, in the ancient Zaria in the North, there were records of women who held titles and offices like the ̳Iya, Magajiya, and Mardanni‘, before the 1804 jihad. These women titleholders held outstanding positions in the societies. Just as their male counterparts, they wielded power in the administration of their towns.
    The modern city of Zaria was founded in the first half of the 16th century by a woman called Queen Bakwa Turuku she had a daughter called Amina who later succeeded her as queen. Queen Amina of Zaria was a great and powerful warrior, she became famous because of her widespread conquests. She built high walls around Zaria in other to protect the city from invasion.
    According to Onabajo and M‘Bayo (2009), says ̳national development should be man oriented and not institution oriented, that is, individually in collectiveness and not individual. To Elugbe, (1994), ̳national development refers among other things, to the growth of the nation in terms of unity, education, economic well-being and mass participation in government. In summary development entails the provisions of all the necessary materials and equipment that will guarantee that man in every society make a living and essence out of life.
    Anaeto and Anaeto (2010) citing Todaro and Smith (2003), identified three objectives of development which are;
    1. Increase availability and widen the distribution of basic life sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection.
    2. To raise levels of living in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and human values, all of which will serve not only to enhance material well-being but also to generate greater individual and national self esteem and
    3. To expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nation by freeing them from servitude and dependence, not only in relation to other people and nation states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.
    Development is the socio-cultural, political, economic and the spiritual well being of a society. In a truly developed state there is assurance of good quality of life, exercise of all human rights, and freedom to participate in the democratic process. From the foregoing, development implies enhanced quality of life, equity and justice, as it takes into consideration the wellbeing, growth and advancement of individuals within the society.
    No 5
    The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms. Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education. This proliferation of capability literature has led to questions concerning what kind of framework it is (section 1); how its core concepts should be defined (section 2); how it can be further specified for particular purposes (section 3); what is needed to develop the capability approach into an account of social justice (section 4); how it relates to non-Western philosophies (section 5); and how it can be and has been applied in practice 
    No 6
    Sustenance: Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.
    Self-esteem: Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    Freedom: Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.
    No 7
    “In the simplest terms, this suggests that for most people larger incomes are associated with greater happiness,” says Killingsworth, a senior fellow at Penn’s Wharton School and lead paper author. “The exception is people who are financially well-off but unhappy. For instance, if you’re rich and miserable, more money won’t help. For everyone else, more money was associated with higher happiness to somewhat varying degrees.”
    Mellers digs into this last notion, noting that emotional well-being and income aren’t connected by a single relationship. “The function differs for people with different levels of emotional well-being,” she says. Specifically, for the least happy group, happiness rises with income until $100,000, then shows no further increase as income grows. For those in the middle range of emotional well-being, happiness increases linearly with income, and for the happiest group the association actually accelerates above $100,000.
    No 8
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Ceteris paribus, we would expect economic growth to enable more economic development. Higher real GDP enables more to be spent on health care and education.
    However, the link is not guaranteed. The proceeds of economic growth could be wasted or retained by a small wealthy elite.
    Economic development: Development looks at a wider range of statistics than just GDP per capita. Development is concerned with how people are actually affected. It looks at their actual living standards and the freedom they have to enjoy a good standard of living.
    Measures of economic development will look at:
    Real income per head – GDP per capita
    Levels of literacy and education standards
    Levels of healthcare e.g. number of doctors per 1000 population
    Quality and availability of housing
    Levels of environmental standards
    Life expectancy.

  10. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI
    2018/242416
    Economics

    1 Dudley Seers, first Director of IDS, argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development” and recommended “redefining how development was measured”. In this article, he made policy recommendations that focused on education, population growth, and political independence in order to better handle development issues.According to Seers, “there is no real ‘growth'” when the advantages of progress and technology exclusively benefit a select group of individuals in the industrialized world who are already affluent.Additionally, “statistics agencies would provide more suitable information if governments become more interested in social metrics” Evidently, the Indian government wanted to include such policies in its National House.

    2 The government budget, as well as the nation’s policies for reducing poverty, must be supported in a sustainable, noninflationary way to preserve macroeconomic stability.Iterative methods are used in the creation and integration of a nation’s macroeconomic policy and strategy for reducing poverty.Prior to costing and financing poverty reduction strategies within the overall budget in a noninflationary way, poverty reduction strategies must first be articulated (which means the objectives and policies must be specified).However, the amount of financing, much of which will be on favorable terms, is not always set during this process:In the same way that capital projects undertaken by the government increase employment and income for the people, thereby reducing poverty, and provide productive and social amenities and resources to the people in an economy, leading to economic development, efficient resource allocation from area of surplus to area of deficit ensures an increase in the standard of living.

    3 yes
    The process of increasing human freedom is development.The improvement of freedoms that enable people to lead lives in which they have a cause to live” is what it is.Thus “progress involves the removal of key sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, low economic possibilities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public amenities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive authorities”.

    4 The central place of women in society has always safeguarded a country’s stability, advancement, and long-term growth.They play the function of – Mothers: Women, particularly mothers, have the most influence on dietary and meal decisions for the family.Women also self-report taking more action to maintain the health and nutrition of their children.
    _ caretakers:Primary guardians of children and the elderly exist in every nation on earth.
    ._Farmers:Women make up 43% of the agricultural labor force globally, with certain nations seeing a climb to 70%.
    _Educators:Unquestionably, women played a role in a society’s shift from a pre-literate to a literate state.
    _Workforce:Nowadays, women make up 45.4% of the worldwide workforce on average. A community can become a participant in the national economy by utilizing the official and informal work of women, which can change it from a largely autonomous society.
    _Entrepreneur and teachers:It has long been recognized that women contribute significantly to societal advancement and the stability, development, and long-term growth of nations. In the house, women are often the decision-makers.
    5. A theoretical framework known as the capacity approach makes the following two normative claims:
    _first :The idea that having the choice to pursue happiness has moral priority.
    _second:The capabilities and functioning of persons should be considered when defining well-being.The doings and beings that people can achieve if they so desire include things like being well-fed, getting married, educated, and traveling, as well as being well-clothed and mobile and able to participate in community life. As opposed to merely formal rights and freedoms, capabilities denote the freedoms that have been freed from any potential barriers. They are also referred to as real or substantive freedoms
    6 There are three core values of development:
    (i) sustenance
    (ii) self- esteem
    .(iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the capacity to satisfy a person’s fundamental requirements. Without a few essential requirements, life would be impossible for everyone.Food, housing, health, and security are among these fundamental need.
    Self-esteem is the belief in one’s own abilities or value. Self-esteem includes one’s self-perceptions as well as emotional states including joy, anguish, pride, and shame.
    Self_esteem: Self-esteem, or the conviction that one is not deserving of being treated as a tool by others to further their own objectives, is a second essential element of a good existence. Owing to the importance placed on material values in developed nations, developed nations are now increasingly the only ones who are considered worthy and seen as technologically and economically powerful.

    Freedom from Servitude: As he came to the conclusion that “the advantage of economic expansion is not that riches promotes happiness, but that it widens the range of human choice,” Arthur Lewis emphasized the connection between economic progress and freedom from servitude.A person who is wealthy may be able to exert more control over the natural world and his or her physical surroundings than one who is still in poverty.They also have more discretionary freedom as a result.
    7. We’ve all heard the adage that happiness is something you can’t buy. However a recent study in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life suggests that your perspective on wealth and materialism may have a big impact on how content and happy you are in life.Buying into “happiness materialism” — the idea that having money indicates having a happy life — is usually problematic because it diverts time, resources, and money from other areas of life that are crucial to current life satisfaction, like family, work, and health, according to the study’s authors.
    But according to experts, focusing on “success materialism”—the notion that having money indicates success—increases people’s “economic motivation,” or their desire to work and raise their standard of living.People may feel happier with their current life and more optimistic about the future if they view success through that perspective.The way people view success and their lives may change as a result of this straightforward mentality change, but there are undoubtedly other factors at work as well. For instance, although the particular impact of income on life satisfaction was not examined in this study, scholars concur that this factor affects people’s happiness as well.According to a 2010 Princeton University study, happiness and wealth are correlated up to a point of around $75,000 per year. The study discovered that while happiness does not rise with income above $75,000 per year, it does so with income below that level.
    Jiao noted in the press release that it’s crucial to remember the things that make you happy but don’t cost money most of all. She listed them: “Family, friends, your health, lifelong learning, and new experiences.

    8 Economic development is a broader idea than economic growth. It is an increase in a nation’s actual level of national output, which can be brought on by improvements in resource quality (through education, for example), resource quantity, technological advancements, or, in another way, the value of the goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. A country’s GDP growth can be used to gauge economic growth (gross domestic product).Economic development is a normative term, meaning that it pertains to people’s moral sensibilities (right and wrong, good and bad). According to Michael Todaro, economic progress entails higher living standards, better self-esteem requirements, freedom from persecution, and more options.
    The Human Development Index, which takes into consideration life expectancy and literacy rates that have an impact on productivity and may contribute to economic growth, is the most accurate way to gauge development.Additionally, it results in the expansion of opportunities in the fields of employment, education, healthcare, and environmental preservation. It suggests a rise in each citizen’s per capita income.
    The scale of the informal economy is not taken into consideration by economic growth.The black economy, which is unrecorded economic activity, is another name for the informal economy. Those with low standards of living are helped by development to find decent work and housing. Economic growth ignores the use up of natural resources, which can result in pollution, congestion, and sickness.Yet, development focuses on sustainability, which involves addressing existing needs without jeopardizing those of the future. With rising pressure from global warming, these environmental repercussions are becoming a bigger issue for governments.
    Economic development requires economic growth, but it is not a sufficient prerequisite in and of itself. With this, I can assert that progress in Nigeria is incredibly slow and the country is underdeveloped.

  11. Avatar Nnaji Lovelyn Chinwe. 2019/247502 says:

    Development is about growing. A country that is experiencing growth is experiencing development as well. Therefore, to experience growth, there had to be a reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment which in turn brings about development.
    2. Economic development does not only occur when there’s increase in output. We can say that an economy is undergoing economic development when there is an efficient and effective distribution of productive resources. Also, an increase in output generates more income and which in turn increases employment.
    3. Yes I do agree. Development comes when there is security. Development also comes when individuals have the freedom to make choices and exercise their reasoning.
    4. Normally, women perform the role of wife, organizer, administrator, economist, mother, disciplinerian, teacher, etc, therefore, to make a big impact on development societies must empower and invest in women.
    5. (a). Being healthy by ensuring you eat well, take adequate exercise and by going for regular medical checkups.
    (b). Being literate by attending seminars and being open to new ideas and also by being open to acquiring more knowledge.
    (c). Being well clothed. You dress to cover up your body. You dress for protection and you dress to give yourself confidence.
    6. (a). Sustenance: the ability to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, health and protection. When any of these is critically short of supply, underdevelopment tends to exist.
    (b). Self-esteem: to be a person. Self-esteem is a sense of worth and self-respect. With these, development is bound to dwell.
    (c). Freedom from servitude: to be able to choose. The advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness but that it increases the range of human choice. Wealth can enable a person to gain control over his physical environment. Wealth also gives a person the freedom to choose greater leisure.
    7. There is no perfect correlation with happiness and per capital income. Poor people can be happy and also rich people can be unhappy.
    8. Economic growth is a unidimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output that is the economic growth of a Nation.
    Economic development is a multidimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quality of life of the Nation

  12. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI
    2018/242416
    Economics

    1 Dudley Seers, first Director of IDS, argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development” and recommended “redefining how development was measured”. In this article, he made policy recommendations that focused on education, population growth, and political independence in order to better handle development issues.According to Seers, “there is no real ‘growth'” when the advantages of progress and technology exclusively benefit a select group of individuals in the industrialized world who are already affluent.Additionally, “statistics agencies would provide more suitable information if governments become more interested in social metrics” Evidently, the Indian government wanted to include such policies in its National House.

    2 The government budget, as well as the nation’s policies for reducing poverty, must be supported in a sustainable, noninflationary way to preserve macroeconomic stability.Iterative methods are used in the creation and integration of a nation’s macroeconomic policy and strategy for reducing poverty.Prior to costing and financing poverty reduction strategies within the overall budget in a noninflationary way, poverty reduction strategies must first be articulated (which means the objectives and policies must be specified).However, the amount of financing, much of which will be on favorable terms, is not always set during this process:In the same way that capital projects undertaken by the government increase employment and income for the people, thereby reducing poverty, and provide productive and social amenities and resources to the people in an economy, leading to economic development, efficient resource allocation from area of surplus to area of deficit ensures an increase in the standard of living.

    3 yes
    The process of increasing human freedom is development.The improvement of freedoms that enable people to lead lives in which they have a cause to live” is what it is.Thus “progress involves the removal of key sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, low economic possibilities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public amenities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive authorities”.

    4 The central place of women in society has always safeguarded a country’s stability, advancement, and long-term growth.They play the function of – Mothers: Women, particularly mothers, have the most influence on dietary and meal decisions for the family.Women also self-report taking more action to maintain the health and nutrition of their children.
    _ caretakers:Primary guardians of children and the elderly exist in every nation on earth.
    ._Farmers:Women make up 43% of the agricultural labor force globally, with certain nations seeing a climb to 70%.
    _Educators:Unquestionably, women played a role in a society’s shift from a pre-literate to a literate state.
    _Workforce:Nowadays, women make up 45.4% of the worldwide workforce on average. A community can become a participant in the national economy by utilizing the official and informal work of women, which can change it from a largely autonomous society.
    _Entrepreneur and teachers:It has long been recognized that women contribute significantly to societal advancement and the stability, development, and long-term growth of nations. In the house, women are often the decision-makers.
    5. A theoretical framework known as the capacity approach makes the following two normative claims:
    _first :The idea that having the choice to pursue happiness has moral priority.
    _second:The capabilities and functioning of persons should be considered when defining well-being.The doings and beings that people can achieve if they so desire include things like being well-fed, getting married, educated, and traveling, as well as being well-clothed and mobile and able to participate in community life. As opposed to merely formal rights and freedoms, capabilities denote the freedoms that have been freed from any potential barriers. They are also referred to as real or substantive freedoms
    6 There are three core values of development:
    (i) sustenance
    (ii) self- esteem
    .(iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the capacity to satisfy a person’s fundamental requirements. Without a few essential requirements, life would be impossible for everyone.Food, housing, health, and security are among these fundamental need.
    Self-esteem is the belief in one’s own abilities or value. Self-esteem includes one’s self-perceptions as well as emotional states including joy, anguish, pride, and shame.
    Self_esteem: Self-esteem, or the conviction that one is not deserving of being treated as a tool by others to further their own objectives, is a second essential element of a good existence. Owing to the importance placed on material values in developed nations, developed nations are now increasingly the only ones who are considered worthy and seen as technologically and economically powerful.

    Freedom from Servitude: As he came to the conclusion that “the advantage of economic expansion is not that riches promotes happiness, but that it widens the range of human choice,” Arthur Lewis emphasized the connection between economic progress and freedom from servitude.A person who is wealthy may be able to exert more control over the natural world and his or her physical surroundings than one who is still in poverty.They also have more discretionary freedom as a result.
    7. We’ve all heard the adage that happiness is something you can’t buy. However a recent study in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life suggests that your perspective on wealth and materialism may have a big impact on how content and happy you are in life.Buying into “happiness materialism” — the idea that having money indicates having a happy life — is usually problematic because it diverts time, resources, and money from other areas of life that are crucial to current life satisfaction, like family, work, and health, according to the study’s authors.
    But according to experts, focusing on “success materialism”—the notion that having money indicates success—increases people’s “economic motivation,” or their desire to work and raise their standard of living.People may feel happier with their current life and more optimistic about the future if they view success through that perspective.The way people view success and their lives may change as a result of this straightforward mentality change, but there are undoubtedly other factors at work as well. For instance, although the particular impact of income on life satisfaction was not examined in this study, scholars concur that this factor affects people’s happiness as well.According to a 2010 Princeton University study, happiness and wealth are correlated up to a point of around $75,000 per year. The study discovered that while happiness does not rise with income above $75,000 per year, it does so with income below that level.
    Jiao noted in the press release that it’s crucial to remember the things that make you happy but don’t cost money most of all. She listed them: “Family, friends, your health, lifelong learning, and new experiences.

    8 Economic development is a broader idea than economic growth. It is an increase in a nation’s actual level of national output, which can be brought on by improvements in resource quality (through education, for example), resource quantity, technological advancements, or, in another way, the value of the goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. A country’s GDP growth can be used to gauge economic growth (gross domestic product).Economic development is a normative term, meaning that it pertains to people’s moral sensibilities (right and wrong, good and bad). According to Michael Todaro, economic progress entails higher living standards, better self-esteem requirements, freedom from persecution, and more options.
    The Human Development Index, which takes into consideration life expectancy and literacy rates that have an impact on productivity and may contribute to economic growth, is the most accurate way to gauge development.Additionally, it results in the expansion of opportunities in the fields of employment, education, healthcare, and environmental preservation. It suggests a rise in each citizen’s per capita income.
    The scale of the informal economy is not taken into consideration by economic growth.The black economy, which is unrecorded economic activity, is another name for the informal economy. Those with low standards of living are helped by development to find decent work and housing. Economic growth ignores the use up of natural resources, which can result in pollution, congestion, and sickness.Yet, development focuses on sustainability, which involves addressing existing needs without jeopardizing those of the future. With rising pressure from global warming, these environmental repercussions are becoming a bigger issue for governments.
    Economic development requires economic growth, but it is not a sufficient prerequisite in and of itself. With this, I can assert that progress in Nigeria is incredibly slow and the country is underdeveloped.

  13. Avatar Sesugh Lucy Ngufan says:

    Sesugh Lucy Ngufan
    2016/235894
    Economics/Philosophy.
    Dudley Seers suggests that development is when a country experiences a reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    According to Seers, (1969) Development means if the level of poverty, unemployment and inequality have decline over a period, then development can said to have occurred. Then it is likely that the standard of living of individuals has improved, it is clear then, that economic progress is essential. According to Seers true development lay in the elimination of poverty, increase in literacy and improvement in the health system as opposed to the increase of per capita output.
    Since independence in 1960, the overarching goal of Nigeria’s economic development has been to achieve stability, material prosperity, peace and social progress. But a variety of internal problem have persisted in slowing down the country’s attainment of these growth and development objectives. These include inadequate human development, primitive agricultural practices, weak infrastructure, and uninspiring growth of the manufacturing improvements in well-being, social sector, a poor policy and regulatory environment and mis-management and misuse of resources.
    In this discussion, I made an attempt to relate Nigerian situation with Dudley Seer theory of development specifically by using his key performance indicators (poverty rate, unemployment, and inequality) for measuring development based on his theory.
    Dudley Seers was a Cambridge trained development theorist who stressed the significance of social development in developing countries before moving to economic development seeing that in order for economic development to reach its maximum potential social development has to occur first. Seers was highly critical of using indexes such as unemployment and inflation when referring to Third World countries.
    In other words to Seers true development lay in the elimination of poverty, increase in literacy, improvement in the health system as opposed to the increase of per capita output. Thus one may conclude that the whole concept behind the HDI lies within Seers notion of development.
    QUESTION TWO
    Before Dudley Seer propounded his theory of development, many economists believed that development is achieved when a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases are sustained over a long period of time.
    They believed that when such increases occurred, then that country has achieved development. To them, development was based mainly on material increase. Also, it was believed that economic development is
    achieved when there is a change in the structure of production and employment so that the share of agriculture in GDP and in employment declines, while that of manufacturing and services increases. These
    believe made development economists to focus more on industrialization at the expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith, 2006). Based on the believe, many
    developing countries in the 1960s and1970s experienced increased in their Gross DomesticProduct but the general levels of living of the masses remained unchanged. That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do
    not have any direct effect on quality of life of the people. These made many economists to
    reconsider what development really is and
    hence glamour for direct attack on widespread of poverty, increasing inequality in income distribution and rising unemployment. To them development
    should have a “human face”. That is, it should be something that should be seen in the lives of the people. Amongst these economists seeking for a direct approach on development was Dudley Seer, a British .
    Economist who specialized in development economics. He came up with a concept that replaced the growth fetishism with a social development. According to Seer (1969), development is about the level of poverty, unemployment and inequality in a nation. To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these
    variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared1.2.
    Nigeria as a country aimed to achieve the macroeconomic objectives of economic stability, low unemployment, low inflation and balanced of payment
    equilibrium; but the internal problems of insecurity, insurgency and banditry, terrorism, corruption, mismanagement and religion intolerances in Nigeria have hampered and slowed the country’s goals and objectives. Since 1960 that Nigeria gained independence, she seeks to achieve economic development which could translate to the well being of her people in terms of quality of life but the problems
    enumerated above have negated achieving these objectives. Nigeria has experienced economic growth over the years and yet no development in the context of Seer’s theory.
    For instance, our economic growth kept on increasing from -1.6% in 2016 to 0.8% in 2017, 1.9% in 2018 and has increase to 2.29% in 2019 which is the most increased growth since 2015 (CBN bulletin). It is sad
    to note that despite these growths, the citizens are still experiencing low standard of living and low quality of life. The levels of poverty, unemployment and inequality are increasing every day. For instance, Nigeria overtook India as the leading country with population of 86.9 million people living in extreme poverty accordto the (World Poverty Clock Report, 2018). This constitutes 46.4% of the estimated
    195.6 million total populations. Likewise, in
    2019, the figure increased to 93.7 million while in the first quarter of 2020, the figure further increased to 95.9 million people living in extreme poverty. Both figures of 2019 and 2020 (first quarter) constitute 48%
    of the total population of Nigeria in the respective years.
    QUESTION THREE
    Amartya Sen’s concept of Development As Freedom (1999) is highly acclaimed. He argues that human development is about the expansion of citizens capabilities.
    I Agree because for Sen, freedom means increasing citizens access and opportunities to the things they have reason to value. Sen challenges the mainstream concept of measuring development by economic growth (Evans 2002).
    Sen does acknowledge that increases in poor people’s incomes do contribute to the expansion of their freedoms. However, he recognises that increase of income alone “has at best uneven and at worst has detrimental impacts on the majority of a country’s population, and radical redistributive measures are necessary for the poor to benefit from growth” (Selwyn 2011:69).
    Sen alerts the reader that poverty, unfulfilled
    elementary needs, the occurrence of famines, the violation of political freedoms and neglect of the agency of women remain today despite ‘unpredented opulence’ (1999). He makes it clear that previous strategies to reduce these catastrophes are erroneous. His approach focuses on human flourishing as the entry point to the problem of poverty and global inequality rather than economic growth (Reid-Henry 2012). Sen (1999) contends that all human beings are equally entitled to enjoy a life that they value.
    If pursuing freedom-for-all is about expanding citizens’ capabilities, the focus should not be exclusively on making up for what people lack (Reid-Henry 2012). “Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency” (Sen 1999:xii). Sen defines the major factors that limit freedom as ‘poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states” (Sen 1999:1). He argues for the removal of these major factors. Sen focuses on crucial instrumental freedoms: economic opportunities, political freedoms, social facilities, transparency guarantees and protective security. These, he argues, need to be interconnected. Social facilities involve institutions such as the state and the market. Sen asserts societal arrangements should be investigated “in terms of their contribution to enhancing and guaranteeing the substantive freedoms of individuals, seen as active agents of change rather than as passive recipients of dispensed benefits” (Sen 1999:xii). Social facilities should aim to provide opportunities that increase the well-being of the population.
    QUESTION FOUR
    They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations.
    Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.
    Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    Although women are still lagging behind men worldwide, the historic and current role of women is indisputable. Michelle Bachelet, the Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women notes that “when women are empowered and can claim their rights and have access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economic growth, food security are enhanced and developmental prospects are improved for current and future generations.
    The role of women as volunteers in local and international organizations for development has global collective recognition. The global Volunteers Community Development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the development and direction of local leaders, women volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools and educate children and women through programmed extension works.
    Some of the notable women achievers in the world include Jane Austen(1775-1817); Anne Frank(1929-1945); Maya Angelou(1928-2014); Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603); Catherine the Great(1729-1796); Rosa Parks(1913-2005)and; Malala Yousafzai(1997 to date.
    Amartya Sen’s concept of Development As Freedom (1999) is highly acclaimed. He argues that human development is about the expansion of citizens capabilities.
    to date.
    QUESTION FIVE
    Capability to function then finally refers to a person’s set of achievable functioning vectors. It is the ultimate measure of well-being for a person in Sen’s framework as it reflects the substantive (positive) freedoms and opportunities an individual enjoys in life.
    The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.
    Capability, functionings, and resources are the three core concepts in Amartya Sen’s capability approach (Sen, 1985a, 1985b). They form the basis to understand individual well-being and quality of life in a broader fashion than the standard economic account of well-being. Through resources, conceived in a broad fashion and including market as well as nonmarket goods and services, the individual derives well-being. Well-being here does not refer simply to preference satisfaction, utility, or happinessbut is constituted by the achievement of valuable functionings, which are multiple aspects of a person’s life, what the person is and does. Based on an individual’s resources, monetary, and nonmonetary constraints, as well as the individual’s preferences over different life goals, the individual will select and reach a certain amount of functioning achievement.
    QUESTION Six
    Three Core Values of Development:
    These core values are consisted of (i) Sustenance, (ii) Self – Esteem, (iii) Freedom.They relate to fundamental human needs of all the societies at all the times.
    (i) Life Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs:
    It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”.
    All the persons have certain basic needswhich are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health andprotection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it wouldrepresent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economicdevelopment and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby thehelplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, healthand protection could be removed. Therefore, if due to economic development the qualityof life is improved, it would really represent economic development. Therefore, if percapita income increases, absolute poverty is eliminated, greater employmentopportunities are created and income inequalities are lessened, such all wouldconstitute the , necessary though not the sufficient condition of economic development.
    (ii) Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:
    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth andself-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It alsomeans that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person isdesirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ fromcountry to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days thatwhen the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in thedistribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itselfsuperior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferioritycomplex which leads to affect their efficiency.Therefore, economic development should aim at removing such like unhealthy socialand economic situation. When the man will be considered man and he is given dueplace he will be able to contribute well to economic development. Moreover, in additionto such domestic situation, such an atmosphere should be created at international levelthat both rich and the poor countries could stand side by side. If despite remarkablegrowth attained by UDCs they are looked down upon by the DCs, it will not representeconomic growth.
    (iii) Freedom from Servitude, i.e., to be Able to Choose:
    The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with humanfreedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions oflife and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions anddogmatic beliefs.
    QUESTION SEVEN
    Do people who have more money feel happier during their daily activities? Some prior research has found no relationship between income and daily happiness when treating income as a continuous variable in OLS regressions, although results differ between studies. We re-analyzed existing data from the United States and Germany, treating household income as a categorical variable and using lowess and spline regressions to explore nonlinearities. Our analyses reveal that these methodological decisions change the results and conclusions about the relationship between income and happiness. In American and German diary data from 2010 to 2015, results for the continuous treatment of income showed a null relationship with happiness, whereas the categorization of income showed that some of those with higher incomes reported feeling less happy than some of those with lower incomes. Lowess and spline regressions suggested null results overall, and there was no evidence of a relationship between income and happiness in Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) data. Not all analytic approaches generate the same results, which may contribute to explaining discrepant results in existing studies about the correlates of happiness. Future research should be explicit about their approaches to measuring and analyzing income when studying its relationship with subjective well-being, ideally testing different approaches, and making conclusions based on the pattern of results across approaches.
    Does having more money make someone feel happier? The answer to this longstanding question has implications for how individuals live their lives and societies are structured. It is often assumed that more income brings more happiness (with happiness broadly defined herein as hedonic feelings, while recognizing closely related constructs, including satisfaction and eudaimonia; Tiberius, 2006; Angner, 2010; Dolan and Kudrna, 2016; Sunstein, 2021). In many aspects of policy, upward income mobility is encouraged, and poverty can result in exclusion, stigmatization, and discrimination by institutions and members of the public. More income provides people with opportunities and, sometimes, capabilities to consume more and thus satisfy more of their preferences, meet their desires and obtain more of what they want and need (Harsanyi, 1997; Sen, 1999; Nussbaum, 2008). These are all reasons to assume that higher income will bring greater happiness—or, at least, that low income will bring low happiness.

    Some research challenges the assumption that earning more should lead to greater happiness. First, because people expect that more money should make them happier, people may feel less happy when their high expectations are not met (Graham and Pettinato, 2002; Nickerson et al., 2003) and they may adapt more quickly to more income than they expect (Aknin et al., 2009; Di Tella et al., 2010). Second, since the 1980s in many developed countries, the well-educated have had less leisure time than those who are not (Aguiar and Hurst, 2007) and people living in high-earning and well-educated households report feeling more time stress and dissatisfaction with their leisure time (Hamermesh and Lee, 2007; Nikolaev, 2018). The quantity of leisure time is not linearly related to happiness, with both too much and too little having a negative association (Sharif et al., 2021). Evidence also shows that people with higher incomes spend more time alone (Bianchi and Vohs, 2016). The lower quality and quantity of leisure and social time of people with higher incomes may, in turn, negatively impact their happiness, especially given there are strong links between social capital or “relational goods” and well-being (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004; Becchetti et al., 2008).
    At the same time, some—but not all—evidence suggests that working class individuals tend to be more generous and empathetic than more affluent individuals (Kraus et al., 2010; Piff et al., 2010; Balakrishnan et al., 2017; Macchia and Whillans, 2022), and such kindness toward others has been associated with higher well-being (Dunn et al., 2008; Aknin et al., 2012). Relatedly, psychological research suggests that people with lower socioeconomic status have a more interdependent sense of self (Snibbe and Markus, 2005; Stephens et al., 2007). It is, therefore, possible that people high in income have lower well-being because they experience less of the internal “warm glow” (Andreoni, 1990) benefit that comes along with valuing social relationships and group membership. In theory, therefore, there are reasons to suppose that high income has both benefits and costs for well-being, and empirical evidence can inform the debate about when and whether these different perspectives are supported.
    QUESTION EIGHT
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care. Ceteris paribus, we would expect economic growth to enable more economic development.
    Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy.
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    Earlier, economic growth was only measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
    At present, it is measured in terms of GDP, Gross National Income (GNI) and Per Capita Income.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    Economic growth only looks at the quantitative aspect. It brings quantitative changes in the economy.
    Economic growth is concerned with increase in economy’s output.
    It focuses on production of goods and services.
    Economic growth is more relevant metric for assessing progress in developed countries.
    Economic growth is relatively narrow concept as compared to economic development.
    It is for short term/short period.
    It is a material/physical concept.
    Economic growth is measured in certain time frame/period.
    Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Economic development also refers to:
    provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    equal access to resources
    participation of all in economic activities
    equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    It refers to increase in productivity.
    Indicators of economic development are:
    Human Development Index (HDI)
    Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    Gini Coefficient
    Gender Development Index (GDI)
    Balance of trade
    Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Economic development is the ends of development.
    Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    It is more abstract concept.
    Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.

  14. Avatar Udeogwu precious kosarachi says:

    Udeogwu precious kosarachi
    Economics/philosophy
    2019/244167
    ECO 361 QUIZ
    Precious.udeogwu.244167@unn.edu.ng

    1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss

    What Professor Dudley means here is that we can’t have a positive development in an economy without the elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment. According to him,when an economy have a higher percentage of unemployment level,there will be no way for economic growth or development. The higher the opportunity for equality, the higher the chances of development. Ceteris paribus. Although certain factors hinders the development of a country such as political factors,when the government of a country is not being productive, even if there’s a growth in the economy, there eill still be a stagnation of development and their will be nothing to geer up development. Hence development and growth are not the same thing.
    Seer went further to highlight some of the objectives for the development and growth of an economy. These are;
    That family incomes should be adequate to provide a subsistence package of food, shelter, clothing, and footwear.
    That jobs should be available to all family heads, not only because this will ensure that distribution of income will generally achieve subsistence consumption levels, but also because a job is something without which personality cannot develop.
    That access to education should be increased and literacy ratios raised.
    That the populace should be given an opportunity to participate in government.
    That national independence should be achieved in the sense that the views of other governments do not largely predetermine one’s own government’s decisiions

    2)Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.
    Economic development is a critical component that drives economic growth in an economy, creating new job opportunities and facilitating an improved quality of life that includes increased access to opportunities created by economic growth for existing and future residents
    When we talk of economic development, we are not just talking about growth alone but a larger increments in sustenance of man and his environment.economic development as a shift in the location of productive resources and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment,it is under that when an economy when there is a development in an economy the productive resources is diversified in the sense that it is no longer in one angle but various aspects of the economy tends to benefit from it. again as a reduction in poverty level when an economy develop wealth it is multiplied and more job opportunities are created, thereby ushering in enough room for employment which hereby makes all labour efficient for employment.
    Inequality amongst government and the people is one of the Major contributors of a decrease in productivity of a country in an economy.added with mismanagement of fund by the government or a system of governance where rulership is by the Minorities,who are wealthy,this brings About Nothing Else but stagnation in economic growth and development. So as professor Dudley has stated total elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment who bring about development and the country gross national product will be multiplied.

    3. In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details
    Yes I agree.
    When we talk development we talk freedom an economy can only develop Wendy Matthews are able to exercise their right it is an expression of one’s right that man becomes creative and thereby limit the possibilities of unemployment according to amartya sen it is because people were deprived of some starting right and privileges that brings about under development for an example countries like Asia and North Africa their is capability deprivation of women involvement in political and some socio economic affairs, if this is so, it means that the larger population which comprises of women are not participants in the general activities of the country making them to becomes a liability to the country instead of profit.because an asset when un-used make use of to get a better outfit .so when these women are being deprived of some certain rights and privileges to exercise themselves to be creative to be proactive the end of being a burden to the male gender thereby promotion of poverty ,less freedom and unemployment.

    4) Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development

    Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.

    5) Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function

    Sen argues that people’s well-being depends upon what they are actually capable of doing and being. Thus, he focused on something more direct such as human functionings and capabilities in terms of which the quality of life is analyzed. In other words, a person’s capabilities offer a perspective in terms of which his advantages and disadvantages can be reasonably assessed – that makes it highly appropriate for analyzing poverty.
    Functionings: Functionings are what people really “do and are”. They are achievements of people: they are ‘doings’ or ‘beings’. Taken together, these doings and beings – achieved functionings – give value to life. The functioings may include being well-nourished, having shelter, able to work, rest; or being literate or healthy; being part of a community or group; being respected, and so on.

    Achieving a functioning (for example, being adequately nourished) with a given bundle of commodities (say, bread or rice) depends on a range of personal and social factors (e.g. age, gender, activity levels, health, access to medical services, nutritional knowledge and education, climatic conditions, and so on). A functioning therefore refers to the use a person makes of whatever is at his/her command.

    Capabilities: Capabilities are options to achieve valuable functionings; it reflects his freedom to choose. So, capabilities refer to the set of valuable functionings that a person has effective access to. They are best thought to be the equivalent of a person’s opportunity set. In nutshell, capabilities are made up of two things: functionings and the freedom to choose from them.

    6)
    Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example

    The three core value of Economic development was postulated by Denis Goulet.

    They are;
    SUSTENANCE
    SELF ESTEEM
    FREEDOM from SERVITUDE
    Sustenance
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.

    Self-esteem:

    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.” … Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.6

    Freedom from Servitude:

    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.

    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.

    7)
    Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.

    For me,I would say “Happiness increases with income, to a point”
    One of the most well-known findings in the economic study of happiness is that, on average, happiness increases with income, but at a certain point diminishing returns set in.
    In other words, money can only buy health care.
    4) It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.

    5)Economic growth focuses on production of goods and services.
    Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.

    6)Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    Economic development relates to growth of human capital indexes and decrease in inequality.It is concerned with how people are affected.

    7) Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Hence,Nigeria as a country is still in the level of economic growth and not the developmental aspect because the components of growth has not established in the country,the country still battles with instability in the economy, inflation and deflation and political instability.

  15. Avatar Ugwu Oluchi Jacintha (Education/ Economics) says:

    Ugwu Oluchi Jacintha
    2020/250319(2/3)
    Social science education
    Education/ Economics

    Dudley Seers, first Director of IDS, argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development” and recommended “redefining how development was measured”. In this article, he made policy recommendations that focused on education, population growth, and political independence in order to better handle development issues.According to Seers, “there is no real ‘growth’” when the advantages of progress and technology exclusively benefit a select group of individuals in the industrialized world who are already affluent.Additionally, “statistics agencies would provide more suitable information if governments become more interested in social metrics” Evidently, the Indian government wanted to include such policies in its National House.

    2 The government budget, as well as the nation’s policies for reducing poverty, must be supported in a sustainable, noninflationary way to preserve macroeconomic stability.Iterative methods are used in the creation and integration of a nation’s macroeconomic policy and strategy for reducing poverty.Prior to costing and financing poverty reduction strategies within the overall budget in a noninflationary way, poverty reduction strategies must first be articulated (which means the objectives and policies must be specified).However, the amount of financing, much of which will be on favorable terms, is not always set during this process:In the same way that capital projects undertaken by the government increase employment and income for the people, thereby reducing poverty, and provide productive and social amenities and resources to the people in an economy, leading to economic development, efficient resource allocation from area of surplus to area of deficit ensures an increase in the standard of living.

    3 yes
    The process of increasing human freedom is development.The improvement of freedoms that enable people to lead lives in which they have a cause to live” is what it is.Thus “progress involves the removal of key sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, low economic possibilities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public amenities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive authorities”.

    4 The central place of women in society has always safeguarded a country’s stability, advancement, and long-term growth.They play the function of – Mothers: Women, particularly mothers, have the most influence on dietary and meal decisions for the family.Women also self-report taking more action to maintain the health and nutrition of their children.
    _ caretakers:Primary guardians of children and the elderly exist in every nation on earth.
    ._Farmers:Women make up 43% of the agricultural labor force globally, with certain nations seeing a climb to 70%.
    _Educators:Unquestionably, women played a role in a society’s shift from a pre-literate to a literate state.
    _Workforce:Nowadays, women make up 45.4% of the worldwide workforce on average. A community can become a participant in the national economy by utilizing the official and informal work of women, which can change it from a largely autonomous society.
    _Entrepreneur and teachers:It has long been recognized that women contribute significantly to societal advancement and the stability, development, and long-term growth of nations. In the house, women are often the decision-makers.
    5. A theoretical framework known as the capacity approach makes the following two normative claims:
    _first :The idea that having the choice to pursue happiness has moral priority.
    _second:The capabilities and functioning of persons should be considered when defining well-being.The doings and beings that people can achieve if they so desire include things like being well-fed, getting married, educated, and traveling, as well as being well-clothed and mobile and able to participate in community life. As opposed to merely formal rights and freedoms, capabilities denote the freedoms that have been freed from any potential barriers. They are also referred to as real or substantive freedoms
    6 There are three core values of development:
    (i) sustenance
    (ii) self- esteem
    .(iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the capacity to satisfy a person’s fundamental requirements. Without a few essential requirements, life would be impossible for everyone.Food, housing, health, and security are among these fundamental need.
    Self-esteem is the belief in one’s own abilities or value. Self-esteem includes one’s self-perceptions as well as emotional states including joy, anguish, pride, and shame.
    Self_esteem: Self-esteem, or the conviction that one is not deserving of being treated as a tool by others to further their own objectives, is a second essential element of a good existence. Owing to the importance placed on material values in developed nations, developed nations are now increasingly the only ones who are considered worthy and seen as technologically and economically powerful.

    Freedom from Servitude: As he came to the conclusion that “the advantage of economic expansion is not that riches promotes happiness, but that it widens the range of human choice,” Arthur Lewis emphasized the connection between economic progress and freedom from servitude.A person who is wealthy may be able to exert more control over the natural world and his or her physical surroundings than one who is still in poverty.They also have more discretionary freedom as a result.
    7. We’ve all heard the adage that happiness is something you can’t buy. However a recent study in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life suggests that your perspective on wealth and materialism may have a big impact on how content and happy you are in life.Buying into “happiness materialism” — the idea that having money indicates having a happy life — is usually problematic because it diverts time, resources, and money from other areas of life that are crucial to current life satisfaction, like family, work, and health, according to the study’s authors.
    But according to experts, focusing on “success materialism”—the notion that having money indicates success—increases people’s “economic motivation,” or their desire to work and raise their standard of living.People may feel happier with their current life and more optimistic about the future if they view success through that perspective.The way people view success and their lives may change as a result of this straightforward mentality change, but there are undoubtedly other factors at work as well. For instance, although the particular impact of income on life satisfaction was not examined in this study, scholars concur that this factor affects people’s happiness as well.According to a 2010 Princeton University study, happiness and wealth are correlated up to a point of around $75,000 per year. The study discovered that while happiness does not rise with income above $75,000 per year, it does so with income below that level.
    Jiao noted in the press release that it’s crucial to remember the things that make you happy but don’t cost money most of all. She listed them: “Family, friends, your health, lifelong learning, and new experiences.

    8 Economic development is a broader idea than economic growth. It is an increase in a nation’s actual level of national output, which can be brought on by improvements in resource quality (through education, for example), resource quantity, technological advancements, or, in another way, the value of the goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. A country’s GDP growth can be used to gauge economic growth (gross domestic product).Economic development is a normative term, meaning that it pertains to people’s moral sensibilities (right and wrong, good and bad). According to Michael Todaro, economic progress entails higher living standards, better self-esteem requirements, freedom from persecution, and more options.
    The Human Development Index, which takes into consideration life expectancy and literacy rates that have an impact on productivity and may contribute to economic growth, is the most accurate way to gauge development.Additionally, it results in the expansion of opportunities in the fields of employment, education, healthcare, and environmental preservation. It suggests a rise in each citizen’s per capita income.
    The scale of the informal economy is not taken into consideration by economic growth.The black economy, which is unrecorded economic activity, is another name for the informal economy. Those with low standards of living are helped by development to find decent work and housing. Economic growth ignores the use up of natural resources, which can result in pollution, congestion, and sickness.Yet, development focuses on sustainability, which involves addressing existing needs without jeopardizing those of the future. With rising pressure from global warming, these environmental repercussions are becoming a bigger issue for governments.
    Economic development requires economic growth, but it is not a sufficient prerequisite in and of itself. With this, I can assert that progress in Nigeria is incredibly slow and the country is underdeveloped.

  16. Avatar NDUUL MICHAEL TERUNGWA ( 2019/246514) says:

    NDUUL MICHAEL TERUNGWA
    2019/246514
    ÉCO MAJOR

    Question 1.

    Michael Todaro specified three objectives of development:
    1.Life sustaining goods and services: To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection.
    2.Higher incomes: To raise levels of living, including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and human values, all of which will serve not only to enhance material well-being but also to generate greater individual and national self-esteem
    3.Freedom to make economic and social choices: To expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation-states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.
    Note the emphasis placed on cultural and human values, self-esteem and freedom from ignorance; it is important to remember that development is about more than advancing economic growth. Many economists believe development should be less about growth, more about inclusive well-beingand about building capacities and resilience in a fast-changing and unpredictable world.The most common measurement of development is the Human Development Index published each year by the United Nations Development Programme .Dudley Sears has defined development as “the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy”

    question 2.

    The HDI is a summary measurement of basic achievement levels in human development. The computed HDI of a country is an average of indexes of each of the life aspects that are examined: knowledge and understanding, a long and healthy life, and an acceptable standard of living. Each of the components is normalized to scale between 0 and 1, and then the geometric mean of the three components is calculated.2
    The health aspect of the HDI is measured by the life expectancy, as calculated at the time of birth, in each country, and normalized so that this component is equal to 0 when life expectancy is 20 and equal to 1 when life expectancy is 85.3
    Education is measured on two levels: the mean years of schooling for residents of a country, and the expected years of schooling that a child has at the average age for starting school. These are each separately normalized so that both 15 mean years of schooling and 18 years of expected schooling equal 1, and a simple mean of the two is calculated.3
    The economic metric chosen to represent the standard of living is GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP), a common metric used to reflect average income. The standard of living is normalized so that it is equal to 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and equal to 0 when GNI per capita is $100

    question 3.

    After World War II a number of developing countries attained independence from their former colonial rulers. One of the common claims made by leaders of independence movements was that colonialism had been responsible for perpetuating low living standards in the colonies. Thus economic development after independence became an objective of policy not only because of the humanitarian desire to raise living standards but also because political promises had been made, and failure to make progress toward development would, it was feared, be interpreted as a failure of the independence movement. Developing countries in Latin America and elsewhere that had not been, or recently been, colonies took up the analogousbelief that economic domination by the industrial countries had thwarted their development, and they, too, joined the quest for rapid growth. At that early period, theorizing about development, and about policies to attain development, accepted the assumption that the policies of the industrial countries were to blame for the poverty of the developing countries. Memories of the Great Depression, when developing countries’ terms of trade had deteriorated markedly, producing sharp reductions in per capita incomes, haunted many policymakers. Finally, even in the developed countries, the Keynesian legacyattached great importance to investment.
    In this milieu, it was thought that a “shortage of capital” was the cause of underdevelopment. It followed that policy should aim at an accelerated rate of investment. Since most countries with low per capita incomes were also heavily agricultural (and imported most of the manufactured goods consumed domestically), it was thought that accelerated investment in industrialization and the development of manufacturing industries to supplant imports through “import substitution” was the path to development. Moreover, there was a fundamental distrust of markets, and a major role was therefore assigned to government in allocating investments. Distrust of markets extended especially to the international economy.

    question 4.

    1.Job creation
    Economic developers provide critical assistance and information to companies that create jobs in our economy. We help to connect new-to-market and existing companies with the resources and partners needed to expand, such as industry partners like CareerSource Central Florida and the Florida High Tech Corridor, utilities, and local government partners.
    2. Industry diversification
    A core part of economic development works to diversify the economy, reducing a region’s vulnerability to a single industry. While tourism plays an important role in creating jobs in the Orlando region, economic development efforts help to grow industries outside of tourism, including advanced manufacturing, aerospace and defense, aviation, autonomous vehicles, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, business services, gaming, entertainment technology, financial technology, life sciences and healthcare, logistics and distribution, medical technology, and innovative technology.
    3. Business retention and expansion
    A large percentage of jobs in the Orlando economy are created by existing companies that are expanding their operations. The Partnership’s economic development team executed numerous business retention and expansion visits to local companies just last year to assist with their operational needs.
    4. Economy fortification
    Economic development helps to protect the local economy from economic downturns by attracting and expanding the region’s major employers. For example, when the COVID-19 pandemic heavily impacted the global leisure and hospitality industry, many technology companies transitioned focus to clients in the region’s modeling, simulation and training sector.
    5. Increased tax revenue
    The increased presence of companies in the region translates to increased tax revenue for community projectsand local infrastructure. Economic development can also support major job creation initiatives such as the semiconductor research and development campus NeoCity, positioning the 500-acre development opportunity for critical funding for domestic semiconductor research and manufacturing through advocacy for the CHIPS and FABS Acts.
    6. Improved quality of life
    Better infrastructure and more jobs improve the economy of the region and raise the standard of living for its residents. Quality of place is more important than ever to attract a large talent pool in the era of increased remote workers. in addition, inclusive economic development works to support the community’s quality of life through initiatives such as supporting the regional transportation network, affordable housing, innovation and entrepreneurshipas well as upskilling opportunities for the local workforce. These initiatives help to provide access and capabilities for the existing workforce to take advantage of the new high-wage job opportunities created by economic development efforts.

    Question 5

    Alfred Sauvy (31 October 1898 – 30 October 1990)[1] was a demographer, anthropologist and historian of the French economy. Sauvy coined the term Third World (“Tiers Monde”) in reference to countries that were unaligned with either the Communist Soviet bloc or the Capitalist NATO bloc during the Cold War.
    These other terms have been criticized for a lack of accuracy and political correctness, too. For example, if some countries are “advanced,” then are other countries “backward” or “behind”? If some countries are describes as  “emerging,” what are they emerging from, and what are they becoming? When countries were referred to as “developing,” it sometimes seemed to be more of an optimistic outlook than an actual description, and referring to countries with rich and lengthy cultural, political and human inheritances as “undeveloped” seemed to put economic values ahead of all others. 
    Others have used acronyms “From BRICs to  MINTs” (February 24, 2014), but looking at clusters of four countries, whether it’s Brazil, Russia, India, and China or Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey, doesn’t capture the breadth of the economic shift that is occurring.
    Woetzel describes how the global economy is changing in response to four shifts: the rapid march of technological progress; the emerging “superstar” phenomenon, which is exacerbating inequalities; the rapidly changing dynamics of China’s economy; and the evolving nature of globalization itself. He draws on a report that he co-authored with Jacques Bughin, “Navigating a world of disruption” (McKinsey Global Institute, January 2019),  which describes the range and scope of economic success stories in countries around the world.

    Question 6

    Sustenance: Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.
    Self-esteem: Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    Freedom: Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.

    Question 7

    Does money buy happiness? This question has received extensive empirical attention since Richard Easterlin’s seminal work in 1974 (e.g. 1–3; see 4–5for reviews). Easterlin (6) looked at results from 30 national surveys in 20 countries and concluded that “there is a clear indication that income and happiness are positively associated” (p. 99), and that “in every single survey, those in the highest status group were happier, on the average, than those in the lowest status group” (p. 100). Diener and Oishi (7) examined the income–happiness correlation in 40 countries and found that the mean income–happiness correlation was 0.13. According to Diener and Biswas-Diener (4), the income–happiness correlation in a national survey ranged from 0.12 to 0.18 in the USA, 0.06 to 0.15 in West Germany, and 0.17 to 0.27 in the Russian Federation. A recent meta-analysis of 335 studies found that the mean income–happiness correlation was 0.23 (8). Inglehart and colleagues (9) analyzed data from 52 countries and found that the income–happiness correlation was stronger in poorer countries than in richer countries. That is, money seems to buy more happiness in poorer countries than in richer countries. In this light, it is interesting to note that the income–happiness correlation was 0.45 among 83 residents in the slums of Calcutta (10). The main idea is that among those who are struggling to meet their basic needs, more money means greater access to basic goods (e.g. drinking water, food, shelter). In contrast, it is believed that once the basic needs are met, more money does not necessarily help increase one’s happiness (9, 11).Interestingly, recent research on money and happiness found that money seems to buy more happiness even among wealthy individuals whose basic needs are met. For instance, Killingsworth (12) analyzed the experience sampling data (i.e. momentary reports of happiness) from 33,391 employed, working-age adults living in the USA and found that self-reported happiness continues to increase as the participants’ household income increases, even beyond $120,000. Moreover, Jebb and colleagues (13) analyzed the data from 164 countries and found that the income–happiness correlation was larger in wealthier countries rather than in poorer countries.

    Question 8

    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Ceteris paribus, we would expect economic growth to enable more economic development. Higher real GDP enables more to be spent on health care and education.
    However, the link is not guaranteed. The proceeds of economic growth could be wasted or retained by a small wealthy elite.
    What is Economic Growth?
    Economic growth can be referred to as the increase that is witnessed in the monetary value of all the goods and services produced in the economy during a time period. It is a type of quantitative measure that reflects the potential increase in the number of business transactions taking place in the economy.
    It can be measured in terms of the increase in the aggregate market value of additional goods and services produced by using economic concepts such as GDP and GNP.
    Economic growth is a narrow concept when compared to economic development.
    Also Check: Human Capital on Economic Growth
    What is Economic Development?
    Economic development refers to the process by which the overall health, well-being, and academic level of the general population of a nation improves. It also refers to the improved production volume due to the advancements of technology.
    It is the qualitative improvement in the life of the citizens of a country and is most appropriately determined by the Human Development Index (HDI). The overall development of a country is based on many parameters such as the creation of job opportunities, technological advancements, standard of living, living conditions, per capita income, quality of life, improvement in self-esteem needs, GDP, industrial and infrastructural development, etc.

  17. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    Name:UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI
    Reg no:2018/242416
    Department: Economics

    1 Dudley Seers, first Director of IDS, argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development” and recommended “redefining how development was measured”. In this article, he made policy recommendations that focused on education, population growth, and political independence in order to better handle development issues.According to Seers, “there is no real ‘growth'” when the advantages of progress and technology exclusively benefit a select group of individuals in the industrialized world who are already affluent.Additionally, “statistics agencies would provide more suitable information if governments become more interested in social metrics” Evidently, the Indian government wanted to include such policies in its National House.

    2 The government budget, as well as the nation’s policies for reducing poverty, must be supported in a sustainable, noninflationary way to preserve macroeconomic stability.Iterative methods are used in the creation and integration of a nation’s macroeconomic policy and strategy for reducing poverty.Prior to costing and financing poverty reduction strategies within the overall budget in a noninflationary way, poverty reduction strategies must first be articulated (which means the objectives and policies must be specified).However, the amount of financing, much of which will be on favorable terms, is not always set during this process:In the same way that capital projects undertaken by the government increase employment and income for the people, thereby reducing poverty, and provide productive and social amenities and resources to the people in an economy, leading to economic development, efficient resource allocation from area of surplus to area of deficit ensures an increase in the standard of living.

    3 yes
    The process of increasing human freedom is development.The improvement of freedoms that enable people to lead lives in which they have a cause to live” is what it is.Thus “progress involves the removal of key sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, low economic possibilities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public amenities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive authorities”.

    4 The central place of women in society has always safeguarded a country’s stability, advancement, and long-term growth.They play the function of – Mothers: Women, particularly mothers, have the most influence on dietary and meal decisions for the family.Women also self-report taking more action to maintain the health and nutrition of their children.
    _ caretakers:Primary guardians of children and the elderly exist in every nation on earth.
    ._Farmers:Women make up 43% of the agricultural labor force globally, with certain nations seeing a climb to 70%.
    _Educators:Unquestionably, women played a role in a society’s shift from a pre-literate to a literate state.
    _Workforce:Nowadays, women make up 45.4% of the worldwide workforce on average. A community can become a participant in the national economy by utilizing the official and informal work of women, which can change it from a largely autonomous society.
    _Entrepreneur and teachers:It has long been recognized that women contribute significantly to societal advancement and the stability, development, and long-term growth of nations. In the house, women are often the decision-makers.
    5. A theoretical framework known as the capacity approach makes the following two normative claims:
    _first :The idea that having the choice to pursue happiness has moral priority.
    _second:The capabilities and functioning of persons should be considered when defining well-being.The doings and beings that people can achieve if they so desire include things like being well-fed, getting married, educated, and traveling, as well as being well-clothed and mobile and able to participate in community life. As opposed to merely formal rights and freedoms, capabilities denote the freedoms that have been freed from any potential barriers. They are also referred to as real or substantive freedoms
    6 There are three core values of development:
    (i) sustenance
    (ii) self- esteem
    .(iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the capacity to satisfy a person’s fundamental requirements. Without a few essential requirements, life would be impossible for everyone.Food, housing, health, and security are among these fundamental need.
    Self-esteem is the belief in one’s own abilities or value. Self-esteem includes one’s self-perceptions as well as emotional states including joy, anguish, pride, and shame.
    Self_esteem: Self-esteem, or the conviction that one is not deserving of being treated as a tool by others to further their own objectives, is a second essential element of a good existence. Owing to the importance placed on material values in developed nations, developed nations are now increasingly the only ones who are considered worthy and seen as technologically and economically powerful.

    Freedom from Servitude: As he came to the conclusion that “the advantage of economic expansion is not that riches promotes happiness, but that it widens the range of human choice,” Arthur Lewis emphasized the connection between economic progress and freedom from servitude.A person who is wealthy may be able to exert more control over the natural world and his or her physical surroundings than one who is still in poverty.They also have more discretionary freedom as a result.
    7. We’ve all heard the adage that happiness is something you can’t buy. However a recent study in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life suggests that your perspective on wealth and materialism may have a big impact on how content and happy you are in life.Buying into “happiness materialism” — the idea that having money indicates having a happy life — is usually problematic because it diverts time, resources, and money from other areas of life that are crucial to current life satisfaction, like family, work, and health, according to the study’s authors.
    But according to experts, focusing on “success materialism”—the notion that having money indicates success—increases people’s “economic motivation,” or their desire to work and raise their standard of living.People may feel happier with their current life and more optimistic about the future if they view success through that perspective.The way people view success and their lives may change as a result of this straightforward mentality change, but there are undoubtedly other factors at work as well. For instance, although the particular impact of income on life satisfaction was not examined in this study, scholars concur that this factor affects people’s happiness as well.According to a 2010 Princeton University study, happiness and wealth are correlated up to a point of around $75,000 per year. The study discovered that while happiness does not rise with income above $75,000 per year, it does so with income below that level.
    Jiao noted in the press release that it’s crucial to remember the things that make you happy but don’t cost money most of all. She listed them: “Family, friends, your health, lifelong learning, and new experiences.

    8 Economic development is a broader idea than economic growth. It is an increase in a nation’s actual level of national output, which can be brought on by improvements in resource quality (through education, for example), resource quantity, technological advancements, or, in another way, the value of the goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. A country’s GDP growth can be used to gauge economic growth (gross domestic product).Economic development is a normative term, meaning that it pertains to people’s moral sensibilities (right and wrong, good and bad). According to Michael Todaro, economic progress entails higher living standards, better self-esteem requirements, freedom from persecution, and more options.
    The Human Development Index, which takes into consideration life expectancy and literacy rates that have an impact on productivity and may contribute to economic growth, is the most accurate way to gauge development.Additionally, it results in the expansion of opportunities in the fields of employment, education, healthcare, and environmental preservation. It suggests a rise in each citizen’s per capita income.
    The scale of the informal economy is not taken into consideration by economic growth.The black economy, which is unrecorded economic activity, is another name for the informal economy. Those with low standards of living are helped by development to find decent work and housing. Economic growth ignores the use up of natural resources, which can result in pollution, congestion, and sickness.Yet, development focuses on sustainability, which involves addressing existing needs without jeopardizing those of the future. With rising pressure from global warming, these environmental repercussions are becoming a bigger issue for governments.
    Economic development requires economic growth, but it is not a sufficient prerequisite in and of itself. With this, I can assert that progress in Nigeria is incredibly slow and the country is underdeveloped.

  18. Avatar UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI - 2019/243039 says:

    UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

    FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    AN ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILOMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE: UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF DEVELOPMENT (ECO 361)

    BY
    UCHEAMA CALISTA NGOZI
    2019/243039

    TOPICS:
    NO. 1 – ACCORDING TO PROF. MICHAEL TODARO, THE THREE OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT INCLUDE, PRODUCING MORE LIFE SUSTAINING NECESSITIES SUCH AS FOOD, SHELTER AND HEALTH CARE AND BROADENING THEIR DISTRIBUTION, PRAISING STANDARDS OF LIVING AND INDIVIDUAL SELF-ESTEEM, AND EXPANDING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHOICE AND REDUCING FEAR. DISCUSS ELABORATELY.

    NO. 2 – MEASURING DEVELOPMENT IS A TEDIOUS PROCESS AND MANY DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES HAVE TRIED TO DEVELOP INDICATORS TO MEASURE DEVELOPMENT ACCURATELY. AGAINST THIS BACKGROUND, CLEARLY DISCUSS THE SET OF INDICES DEVELOPED BY THE UN AND OTHER GLOBAL AGENCIES ON HOW TO MEASURE DEVELOPMENT.

    NO. 3 – DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS EMERGED AS A BRANCH OF ECONOMICS BECAUSE: ECONOMISTS AFTER WORLD WAR II BECOME CONCERNED ABOUT THE LOW STANDARD OF LIVING IN SO MANY COUNTRIES OF LATIN, AMERICA, AFRICA AND ASIA. DISCUSS.

    NO. 4 – MANY FOLKS STUDY DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS FOR MANY REASONS. DISCUSS.

    NO. 5 – THE FRENCH DEMOGRAPHER ALFRED SAUVY COINED THE EXPRESSION (“TIERS MONDE” IN FRENCH) IN 1952 BY ANALOGY WITH THE “THIRD ESTATE,” (THE COMMONERS OF FRANCE BEFORE AND DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION) – AS OPPOSED TO PRIESTS AND NOBLES, COMPRISING THE FIRST AND SECOND ESTATES RESPECTIVELY. LIKE THE THIRD ESTATE, WROTE SAUVY, THE THIRD WORLD IS NOTHING, AND IT “WANTS TO BE SOMETHING”. CLEARLY DISCUSS AND ANALYSE THIS ASSERTION IN DETAILS.

    JANUARY, 2023.
    NO. 1

    Economic development is a broad term that does not have a single, unique definition. In this introductory study note we look at some interpretations of the meaning of economic development. Economist Michael Todaro specified three objectives of development:
    Life sustaining goods and services: To increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection.
    Higher incomes: To raise levels of living, including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and human values, all of which will serve not only to enhance material well-being but also to generate greater individual and national self-esteem
    Freedom to make economic and social choices: To expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation-states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery.

    Note the emphasis placed on ‘cultural and human values’, ‘self-esteem’ and freedom from ignorance; it is important to remember that development is about much more than advancing economic growth.

    Development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of entire economic and social system
    Development is process of improving the quality of all human lives with three equally important aspects.

    The field of economic development is versatile and has much to contribute regarding these differing scenarios. Thus the text also underlines common features exhibited by a majority of developing nations using the insights of the study of economic development. The few countries that have essentially completed the transformation to become developed economies such as South Korea are also examined as potential models for other developing countries to follow. Both theory and empirical analysis in development economics have made major strides, and the Eleventh Edition brings these ideas and findings to students.

    Development is the process of structural transformation. Development must therefore be conceived of as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty. Development, in its essence, must represent the whole gamut of change by which an entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and evolving aspirations of individuals and social groups within that system, moves away from a condition of life widely perceived as unsatisfactory toward a situation or condition of life regarded as materially and spiritually better. No one has identified the human goals of economic development as well as Amartya Sen, perhaps the leading thinker on the meaning of development.

    NO. 2
    There are many ways to distinguish between developing and developed countries and measuring development. However, the issue of measuring development has been controversial and our thinking has evolved over time.

    The first approach uses indicators and official data to measure progress against a number of internationally agreed commitments (section 5.1). Hence, whether a trend is considered to be good progress depends primarily on the level of ambition in the original goal/target setting, which is not necessarily rooted in scientific or objective criteria.

    The second approach is based on aggregate indicators of sustainable development progress that have been suggested by analysts and scientists. This approach is also primarily based on official data. The aggregate indicators differ greatly in terms of their focus, reflecting the different perspectives and values of the individual analsts that created them. This report illustrates and quantifies a progress index that is a simple and minimal adjustment to the GDP.

    The third approach complements the first and the second approaches. It complements official data from surveys with highly spatially disaggregated and temporally frequent non-official data from a variety of sources such as remote sensing, mobile telecommunication devices, road traffic, and user-based crowdsourcing. The third approach has cheaper marginal costs as it uses data already available and can more easily and more quickly fill data gaps in the poorest regions, but it is technically the most demanding (section 5.3).

    Measuring sustainable development requires both simple measures that inform decision-makers about major trends and issues as well as more detailed measures to support in-depth analysis. Attention should be given to the “supply side” – how statistics and related indicators can best be constructed – as well as to the “demand side” – how these indicators can be interpreted and used most appropriately. And frameworks are needed to assess sustainability at different levels – local, national, regional and global. A popular measurement approach to sustainable development is to select and enumerate a number of indicators for each of the three dimensions – economic, environmental and social.

    NO. 3

    Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low- and middle- income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels. Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. This may involve restructuring market incentives or using mathematical methods such as intertemporal optimization for project analysis, or it may involve a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. Common topics include growth theory, poverty and inequality, human capital, and institutions.

    Development economics is the study of transformation of economies: transformation of agrarian and rural economies to urban and modern economies, one with dominant traditional sector to one with dominant modern sector, one with population of low skills to one with high skills and one with underdeveloped and informal markets and institutions to one with developed and formal markets and institutions. It analyzes factors constraining and inhibiting the process of structural transformation and studies policies and strategies which can facilitate such transformation.

    After World War II a number of developing countries attained independence from their former colonial rulers. One of the common claims made by leaders of independence movements was that colonialism had been responsible for perpetuating low living standards in the colonies. Thus economic development after independence became an objective of policy not only because of the humanitarian desire to raise living standards but also because political promises had been made, and failure to make progress toward development would, it was feared, be interpreted as a failure of the independence movement. Developing countries in Latin America and elsewhere that had not been, or recently been, colonies took up the analogous belief that economic domination by the industrial countries had thwarted their development, and they, too, joined the quest for rapid growth.

    At that early period, theorizing about development, and about policies to attain development, accepted the assumption that the policies of the industrial countries were to blame for the poverty of the developing countries. Memories of the Great Depression, when developing countries’ terms of trade had deteriorated markedly, producing sharp reductions in per capita incomes, haunted many policymakers. Finally, even in the developed countries, the Keynesian legacy attached great importance to investment.

    In this milieu, it was thought that a “shortage of capital” was the cause of underdevelopment. It followed that policy should aim at an accelerated rate of investment. Since most countries with low per capita incomes were also heavily agricultural (and imported most of the manufactured goods consumed domestically), it was thought that accelerated investment in industrialization and the development of manufacturing industries to supplant imports through “import substitution” was the path to development. Moreover, there was a fundamental distrust of markets, and a major role was therefore assigned to government in allocating investments. Distrust of markets extended especially to the international economy.
    Experience with development changed perceptions of the process and of the policies affecting it in important ways. Nonetheless, there are significant elements of truth in some of the earlier ideas, and it is important to understand the thinking underlying them.

    NO. 4

    Development economics is fascinating because it shows how economic analysis can help us to understand the big themes of the 21st century – poverty and inequality, globalisation and trade, and the contrasting experience of success and failure in the economies of different regions of the world. One of the most striking characteristics of the world economy in recent decades has been the growing inequality in the distribution of resources between different parts of the world. China, the most populous country in the world, has experienced economic growth at an unprecedented rate, and India has also made substantial progress. Meanwhile, countries in sub-Saharan Africa have stagnated, and the gap in living standards continues to widen.

    Development economics attempts to explore some of the economic challenges peculiar to some of the poorest countries in the world. By studying development economics, you will have the opportunity to apply the tools of economic analysis to the problems and challenges facing less-developed countries, and to begin to understand why some countries have been able to go through a process of economic and human development whilst others have languished.

    Development economics refers to the analysis of challenges and opportunities in transforming an emerging economy into a developed one. Its purpose is to help developing nations identify and overcome hurdles in economic growth, such as poverty, inequality, and market failure.
    The economic analysis of a low-income country seeks to improve its fiscal, economic, and social situations. It explores several strategies and theories to develop and implement policies to put the economy on the path of development. Besides focusing on the economic growth of a developing economy, it addresses problems in the healthcare, education, and employment sectors through industrial and social infrastructure development.

    Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low- and middle- income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels.
    Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. This may involve restructuring market incentives or using mathematical methods such as intertemporal optimization for project analysis, or it may involve a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. Common topics include growth theory, poverty and inequality, human capital, and institutions.
    • Development economics means studying economic aspects of a low-income country, such as healthcare, education, labor conditions, and market changes.
    • It further analyzes ways to improve fiscal, economic, and social conditions allowing an emerging economy to become a developed economy.
    • It also helps developing countries identify and overcome hurdles in economic growth, such as poverty, inequality, and market failure.
    • Development economists focus on developing methods and policies for the economic development of a poor economy. They analyze population growth, structural transformations and provide ways to achieve sustainable development.
    • As stated already, it provides policymakers with an opportunity to analyze economic challenges faced by developing countries. This analysis primarily considers economic indicators
    • Assess factors like education, healthcare, and employment conditions
    • Promote international trade (import and export) among world nations
    • Develop ways to achieve sustainable development
    • Evaluate an economy, fix problems in it, and predict economic development
    • Understand the economic effects of pandemics and natural disasters

    NO. 5

    Sauvy was making an analogy with the ‘third estate’, the commoners of pre-revolutionary France. Thus, the term implied that the Third World was exploited, as much as the third estate was exploited, and that, like the third estate, its destiny was a revolutionary one. A European man dividing the world in his own image does seem like a source for trouble, but Alfred Sauvy wasn’t the white chauvinist one might expect him to be when he coined the term in his 1952 essay “Trois mondes, une planète.” Inspired by the anti-colonial struggles and global peace building efforts, Sauvy recognized in the then largely colonized Tiers Monde a revolutionary bloc which could contest the existential struggle between the Cold War powers of the capitalist First World and the socialist Second World. This Third World, having the momentum of history, he described as “the most important” world, even being the “first in the chronology.” It was only this Third World which could replace “preparation for war” with “world hunger” as the number one global concern.

    Next to the obvious demand of independence, the Third World wanted peace and development, but also dignity, recognition and planetary democracy. Importantly, Sauvy derived his term ‘Third World’ from the ‘Third Estate’ of pre-revolutionary France. The monarchy of the French Ancien Régime used to divide the general assembly into three estates: the First Estate representing the clergy, the Second Estate representing the aristocracy, and the Third Estate representing everyone else. While representing over 90% of the French population, the Third Estate would always be outvoted by the other estates which had equal electoral weight. Not accepting this systemic political farce, the ‘commoners’ of the Third Estate would turn against the Kingdom and form the National Assembly, signalling the beginning of the French Revolution.

    Sauvy ends his essay claiming that “this Third World, ignored, exploited, despised like the Third Estate, also wants to be something.” This, he later stated, was not only in homage to the French Revolution, but was in fact a direct transposition of the famous lines in Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès’ 1789 pamphlet What is the Third Estate?:

    Likewise, with the process of decolonization just taking off, the Third World was still only a concept. Like the Third Estate before the French revolution, Sauvy’s ‘Third World’ was not yet really existing in the political order, but was a future projection, a positively charged potentiality of an inevitable collective uprising. Resonating Frantz Fanon, who would later in The Wretched of the Earth proclaim that the “Third World today faces Europe like a colossal mass,” Sauvy writes: Don’t you hear on the French Riviera, the cries reaching us from the other end of the Mediterranean, from Egypt or Tunisia? Do you think it is just palace revolutions or the growls of the ambitious few, in search of space? No, no, the pressure is constantly increasing in the human boiler.

  19. Avatar Ugwu Chinaza Bridget (2019/241712). Social Science Education (economics education) says:

    1.Research has different meanings and various applications in different fields of study and human endeavor. lIt is the systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems. Discuss

    Research may be broadly described as any systematic endeavors or striving towards the understanding, on perceiving certain complex situational problem of more than immediate personal concern and stated in a problematic form. (Heros, 1960). Travers (1969) has described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. The goal is to discover general principles or interpretations of behaviour, to explain, predict and control events in everyday life situations.For instance leedy (1997) defines research as the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to him research is not:Mere information gathering Mere transformation of facts from one location to another
    Merely rummaging information.Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically, and with the support of data, the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon.

    2. Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Discuss this in details

    According to Rajasekar et. al. (2006), research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge. Only through research is it possible to make progress in a field. Research is done with the help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparison and reasoning. More precisely, research seeks predictions of events and explanations, relationships and theories for them. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process:
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective.
    Philosophies mean approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interest. (Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight something). Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above enables the process to be called ‘research’. However, the degree to which these criteria are expected to be fulfilled varies from discipline to discipline and so the meaning of ‘research’ differs from one academic discipline to another. The difference between research and non-research activity is, in the way one finds answers: the process must meet certain requirements to be called research.

    3. Creswell argues that “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Clearly discuss these three steps with practical examples.

    1. Pose a question
    Make the research question as specific and concise as possible to ensure clarity. Avoid using words or terms that don’t add to the meaning of the question.
    2. collect data to answer the question
    3. present ananswer to the question.

    4.lAdherence to three criteria enables a given process to be called ‘research’. Discuss these three criteria with practical examples.
    1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( research approaches);
    2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability;
    3. is designed to be unbiased and objective.

    5. The purpose of research can be a complicated issue and varies across different scientific fields and disciplines. Discuss

    Pure Scientific Research
    Some science, often referred to as ‘pure science’, is about explaining the world around us and trying to understand how the universe operates. It is about finding out what is already there without any greater purpose of research than the explanation itself. It is a direct descendent of philosophy, where philosophers and scientists try to understand the underlying principles of existence.
    Whilst offering no direct benefits, pure research often has indirect benefits, which can contribute greatly to the advancement of humanity.
    For example, pure research into the structure of the atom has led to x-rays, nuclear power and silicon chips.
    Applied Scientific Research
    Applied scientists might look for answers to specific questions that help humanity, for example medical research or environmental studies. Such research generally takes a specific question and tries to find a definitive and comprehensive answer.
    The purpose of research is about testing theories, often generated by pure science, and applying them to real situations, addressing more than just abstract principles.
    Applied scientific research can be about finding out the answer to a specific problem, such as ‘Is global warming avoidable?’ or ‘Does a new type of medicine really help the patients?’
    Generating Testable Data
    However, they all involve generating a theory to explain why something is happening and using the full battery of scientific tools and methods to test it rigorously.
    This process opens up new areas for further study and a continued refinement of thehypotheses.Observation is not accurate enough, with statistically testable and analyzable data the only results accepted across all scientific disciplines. The exact nature of the experimental process may vary, but they all adhere to the same basic principles.Scientists can be opinionated, like anybody else, and often will adhere to their own theories, even if the evidence shows otherwise. Research is a tool by which they can test their own, and each others’ theories, by using this antagonism to find an answer and advance knowledge.
    The purpose of research is really an ongoing process of correcting and refining hypotheses, which should lead to the acceptance of certain scientific truths.
    Whilst no scientific proof can be accepted as ultimate fact, rigorous testing ensures that proofs can become presumptions. Certain basic presumptions are made before embarking on any research project, and build upon this gradual accumulation of knowledge.

    6. For any discipline, the purposes of research may be generally categorized into 6 Clearly discuss these 6 categories.

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions,
    implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    arch purposesResearchinvolves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:
    1.Information gathering and/or
    2.Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering,gaining some familiarity with a topic, discovering some of itsmain dimensions, and possibly planning further, more structured research.
    3.Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing.Some research has the purpose ofdescription,as in the Censusreport on how many Zimbabweans there are, a political poll predicting who will win anelection.
    4.Theory testing
    5.Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relationsFinally, research often has the aimofexplanation. In addition to knowing which candidates voters favor, we may go the next step to askwhy?What kinds of voters–men or women, young or old–prefer which candidates and why?
    6.Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    7. The Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are multifaceted and multidimensional. Discuss this clearly and lucidly.

    Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including: lack of planning, lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research; underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding.

  20. Avatar Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka says:

    Aniebonam Juliana Nneamaka
    2019/244559
    Economics education.
    1. The objectives of Development economics is to provide access to the basic necessities of life and improve the standard of living of the people and to boost their self esteem, an individual that is unable to provide these basic necessities for themselves find it hard to participate in what others are doing because this can make a person have low self esteem. Another objective of development economics is also to expand economic and social choice available to an individual or nation, this will help an individual or nation to be free to decide what or what not to do, but when an individual or nation is bound to do something because they don’t have other choices, it means that they are not free to choose or make decisions that are conducive for them that is why this development economics is needed to help individuals/nations that are not yet developed.
    2. The UN came up with a set of indices
    * The human development index (HDI)— the HDI is a summary composite measure of a country’s average achievement in three basic aspect of human development: health, knowledge and standard of living. It is a measurement of a country’s average achievement in three dimensions of human development. A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth knowledge, as measured by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling and a decent standard of living, as measured by GNI per Capital in PPP terms. The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimensions, called”goalpost” then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalpost, the higher a country’s human development, the higher the HDI value.
    * The human poverty index(HPI)— is a composite index of poverty that focuses on deprivation in human lives, aimed at measuring poverty as a failure in capabilities in multiple dimensions, in contrast to the conventional head count measure focused on low income. The HPI was introduced in the united nations development program human development report 1997 and concentrated on deprivation in basic dimensions of life. The general index allows the calculation of percentage contribution of deprivation in different dimensions and hence to identify the dimensions whose failure affect the overall deprivation. This is important from a policy perspective. We also provide an empirical illustration of the characterized indices using cross country data for the three basic dimensions and the anthropometric indicators birth weight, height of age and nourishment.
    4. The study of development economics gives us the opportunity to apply economic analysis theories and practices to develop and implement policies aimed at puting a less developed economy on the path of development. It focuses on economic variables such as G.D.P, supply and demand and market rivalry .

  21. Avatar Udeogwu precious kosarachi says:

    Department: Economics/philosophy
    Reg.number: 2019/244167

  22. Ihediohamma Gloria Chiamaka
    Economics
    2019/246443
    1. Many less developed countries including Nigeria experienced continues economic growth over the years but the such growth does not have a positive reflection in the lives of the people in terms of quality of life. Seer shifted away from such believes and propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument.
    That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development. This study thus used these indicators to critically assess the Nigeria development situation. It was discovered that all, the three indicators were all increasing instead of decreasing as Seer propounded. The study recommends that the Nigeria government should provide loans to the rural areas for investment into the agricultural sector.
    Government should provide entrepreneurship program to the urban youth to tackle poverty. Also, taxing policy should be made to tax the poor more to provide infrastructures to the citizens. Investment in child’s education and also invest in
    These mean that true development happened when poverty is reduced or eliminated, unemployment declining and the levels of inequality is reducing. Of course, reduction in these three development indicators will in no doubt increases the well been and quality of life of a nation’s citizens.

    2. Shift in the allocation of production resources determines the rewards of the factor services. It brings about an equitable distribution of income by causing resources to be allocated in right directions. It works to ration out the existing supplies of goods and services, utilizes the economy’s resources fully and provides the means for economic development and growth.

    the initial levels of economic development and income inequality matter for the reduction of poverty.
    We showed that the growth elasticity of poverty decreases monotonically with the initial level of development. That is to say, under the distribution neutral assumption the higher initial level of development leads to a greater reduction in poverty at a given rate of growth.

    Economic growth and development generates job opportunities and hence stronger demand for labour, the main and often the sole asset of the poor. In turn, increasing employment has been crucial in delivering higher growth.

    Economic development involves inequalities and unemployment thus government should as a matter of urgency create more employment opportunities in order to absorb the teeming population of the unemployed work force in the country through modernization of the agricultural sector, bring in modern equipment in the facilities of agriculture to make the sector more attractive to all citizens despite one’s qualifications and profession. More so, the study recommends that government should apply its appropriate legislative functions to discourage gender discrimination in the labour market in order to encourage females to participate actively in the labour market. Similarly, economic diversification policies should be pursued by government as a way of creating employment opportunities and promoting economic growth of the country.

    3. Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.
    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”. Sen calculates that if women in Asia and North Africa were given the same health care and attention, the world would have 100 million more women

    Some see freedom as a potential disturbance to political stability and development. They recommend repressive interventions of the state in stifling liberty, initiative and enterprise, and in crippling the working of the individual agency and cooperative action. Sen attacks Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew and his theories of Asian values which are used to justify political repression. For Sen there is no such thing as Asian values in a continent with vastly disparate populations and traditions, and containing 60 per cent of the world’s population. And as Dani Rodrik said, the economic performance of authoritarian regimes is either very good or very bad – and usually very bad. Most democracies occupy the middle ground.

    4 Nowadays, the role of women in the public sector as well as in supporting the welfare of the family is gaining much more attention. The objective of this lecture is to determine the role of women in the public sector and its impact on the welfare of the family. In other words, this paper is about the role and extent of women involvement in national development process. The paper examines the contributions of women to national development using examples from the civil service. Indeed, today there are a number of women in different administrative capacity. My findings reveal that women dominate in teaching and nursing professions in the country and form more than 35% of workers in other professions. The future of the civil service, especially education and health in the country seems to depend on women. However, by a contribution of factors women could contribute more to national development if deliberate efforts are made to encourage them.

    In the three arms of our government, for example, we have women making major contributions in moving Nigeria forward. We have in the legislature women councillors and local government chairpersons, elected to lead the people. Also in the National Assembly we have elected women senators andwomen House of Representative members contributing in the lawmaking process. In the executive arm of government we have some ministers who are women. In the same vein there are women special advisers and special assistants to Mr. President. Likewise in the Judiciary we have women. Not long ago, the Chief Justice of the Federation was Justice Maryam Muktar Alooma. Of course, there are women justices at state and federal levels. In addition we have women lawyers, magistrates and others serving in various capacities in the judiciary. And looking at the civil service in general, we have women permanent secretaries, directors and top civil servants working hand in hand with men. Also in various ministries and local government councils women are appointed in various positions.

    In various sectors of our economy we have women employed as Doctors and Nurses including auxiliary staff contributing to our health development. That is not all; we have women in our world bodies, e.g. WHO, UNESCO, UNDP, etc playing prominent roles.

    In the education sector, we have had women Vice Chancellors, women Registrars, uncountable women Professors, Senior Lecturers, teachers, administrators, all contributing to educational development of the country as part of our effort in nation building.

    Don’t forget that in the security set-up, we have women as army commanders, police officers, officers in SSS (State Security Service). We have women as Customs and Immigration officers, and so on. We also have women journalists serving in the mass media: television, radio, newspapers, magazines and other communication agencies. Also there are female workers in the private sector: banks, insurance companies and other agencies. Indeed, there is hardly any public sector where women’s presence is not felt.

    5. Functionings (being and doing)simply denotes those capabilities that have been achieved whether voluntarily or by chance. For example, someone might have the real freedom to vote but chooses not to do so and thus does not have the functioning of voting.
    The various things a person may value and have reason to value doing or being
    intuitive
    intrinsically valuable to the person
    intrinsic value (have reason to value)
    so avoids adaptive preferences
    ’doings and beings’ is our focal space

    Functionings allow for different interpersonal conversion factors
    Resources – Capability – Functionings Utility

    Bike. -Able to ide around -rode around

    Food. – Able to be nourished. -nourished

    6. Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs:
    It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”. All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economic development and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby the helplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, health and protection could be removed. Therefore, if due to economic development the quality of life is improved, it would really represent economic development. Therefore, if per capita income increases, absolute poverty is eliminated, greater employment opportunities are created and income inequalities are lessened, such all would constitute the, necessary though not the sufficient condition of economic development. The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.

    Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:
    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person is desirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ from country to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days that when the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in the distribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itself superior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferiority complex which leads to affect their efficiency.
    Therefore, economic development should aim at removing such like unhealthy social and economic situation. When the man will be considered man and he is given due place he will be able to contribute well to economic development. Moreover, in addition to such domestic situation, such an atmosphere should be created at international level that both rich and the poor countries could stand side by side. If despite remarkable growth attained by UDCs they are looked down upon by the DCs, it will not represent economic growth.
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.

    Freedom from Servitude: i.e., to be Able to Choose:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.

    7. Mechanisms by which income affects happiness
    There are two major mechanisms which explains the impact of income to our happiness – adaptation and social comparison.

    Adaptation mechanism says that if you’re given a one-off increase in your income, your happiness temporarily increases – until you get used to it then you begin to aspire for more. At first, when you’re earning a meager income, your focus is on buying yourself your daily needs. As your income increases, so does your standard of living. You purchase goods of higher quality. You begin to want better products and services – a better car, a bigger house, etc. Very rarely are we satisfied with what we have, if we see that there are better things available.
    In the social comparison mechanism, people evaluate their income by comparing it to other people. This is where the keeping up with the joneses mentality comes from. Here, we evaluate our happiness by how much more we have as compared to other people. Although you already have a nice house, a good car, or the latest gadgets, if your neighbor has better stuff, you will cease to be contented with what you have. And you will blame the disparity and your discontent on your income. You say to yourself, I must earn more.

    Facts on How Income Affects Happiness
    Here are what studies say about the link between our income and our happiness:
    The happiness of people living in poverty increases when they’re given a higher income. It eases their burdens and helps them escape from poverty. But once they experience freedom from the deprivation, the link between their increased income and happiness starts to dissipate.
    Richer nations tend to be happier than poorer nations. In our society, the richer people are generally happier than the poor.
    In the Easterlin paradox study of 1995, despite the growth in the income in the past decades, people’s self-reported level of happiness and satisfaction didn’t improve.
    In the USA, the average income increased by 300% from 1970 to 1990 but the Americans’ sense of well-being didn’t improve with the increase in their pay checks.
    Amidst the significant increase in income, people have been focused on strengthening their purchasing powers rather than on personal improvement. For example, a janitor at present can be considered richer than a doctor three decades ago, but he is still a janitor.
    According to Sonja Lyubomirsky, the author of The How of Happiness, the set point of your happiness level is determined by several factors, which include genetics, your individual circumstances – such as your looks, income and marital status – and by the things or activities you choose to do to make yourself happy.

    8. Economic growth is the increase in goods & services produced by an economy or nation, considered for a specific period of time. The rise in the country’s output of goods and services is steady and constant and may be caused by an improvement in the quality of education, improvements in technology, or in any way if there is value addition in goods and services which is produced by every sector of the economy.
    It can be measured as a percentage increase in real gross domestic product. Where a gross domestic product (GDP) is adjusted by inflation. GDP is the market value of final goods & services which is produced in an economy or nation.

    Economic Development is the process focusing on both qualitative and quantitative growth of the economy. It measures all the aspects which include people in a country become wealthier, healthier, better educated, and have greater access to good quality housing. Economic Development can create more opportunities in the sectors of education, healthcare, employment, and the conservation of the environment. It indicates an increase in the per capita income of every citizen. The standard of living includes various things like safe drinking water, improve sanitation systems, medical facilities, the spread of primary education to improve literacy rate, eradication of poverty, balanced transport networks, increase in employment opportunities, etc. Quality of living standard is the major indicator of economic development. Therefore, an increase in economic development is more necessary for an economy to achieve the status of a Developed Nation.
    It can be measured by the Human Development Index, which considers the literacy rates & life expectancy which affect productivity and could lead to Economic Growth.

    Nigeria is a developing country.
    Statistics
    GDP rank -26th (nominal, 2021) 24th (PPP, 2021)
    GDP growth -2.2% (2019) -3.0% (2020 est.) 1.5% (2021 est.)
    GDP per capita -$2,432 (nominal, 2021 est.) $5,280 (PPP, 2021 est.)
    GDP per capita rank 162nd (nominal, 2021) 172nd (PPP, 2021)

  23. Avatar Udeh Mgbechi Mary says:

    Name: Udeh Mgbechi Mary
    Reg. No.: 2019/251473
    Department: Economics
    Email: maryudeh2m@gmail.com
    Course: Eco 361 (Development Economics 1)
    ANSWER
    1. Development is a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structure, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty. Growth is not the same as development. The process of development is far more extensive. Development is therefore defined as the whole process of desirable change in addition to economic growth must be present.
    2. Economic development came to be redefined, in the 1970s, in terms of the reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within the context of a growing economy. If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development of the country concerned. If one or two of these central problem have been growing worse, especially if all three have, then it would be strange to call the result development even if per capita income doubled. Development is a human problem on how to ensure a progressively rising standard of living. Recently, the concept of economic development does not only involve reduction in poverty, unemployment and inequality but has been widened to include improvement in quality of life with cleaner environment, good health care and nutrition, better education and equality of opportunities (employment).
    3. Yes. For a country to develop there must be removal of sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social depreciation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive state.
    4. Women plays a vital role in the society. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers etc. Women play a significant role in societal development and ensure the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Women contributes to agricultural development. They lead in finding solution to the problems occassioned by change of political and economic organizations in countries. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    5. Some important “beings” and “doings” in capability of function are:
    A. Being able to live long: A lot of things kill people before their time. People need to stay safe, be conscious and and stay away from trouble. Do what makes you happy and live a healthy life.
    B. Being healthy: A healthy man is a wealthy man. Always take good care of your health; eat balanced diet, do exercise and go for regular chech up. C. Being well-nourished
    D. Being literate: Being versatile. Educate yourself by reading good books, when you read you tend to learn more and pick the good ones and practice.
    E. Being well-clothed: The way you dress is the way you will be addressed. We should dress properly when in public places. Being well-clothed is one dressing in a way that he/she will be recognized in terms of the occupation that person does, that is, a doctor cannot wear a mechanic coverall and boot to work in a hospital.
    F. Being mobile: We talk about freedom of movement.
    G. Being able to take part in the life of the community: One should not show apathy in his community development. If their is need for contribution and support one should partake to the communitys development.
    6. The core values of development are:
    i. Sustenance: This is the ability to meet up with the provisions of basic needs of food, shelter, clothing and security for the improvement in the quality of life.
    ii. Self-esteem: This is the feeling of being a person, worthiness, self-respect, independence and not being used by others. This may differ among countries, societies and culture. The importance of the natural feeling of worthiness, self esteem is measured by economic wealth and technological power. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equates with higher worthiness. One may consider individual worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    iii. Freedom from servitude: This is the freedom of choice and the elimination of all forms of dogmatic beliefs, oppressive institutions and the removal as much as possible all external constraints in the pursuit of developmental goals, gaining control over issues. It is freedom from three evils of want, ignorance and squalor. Human freedom; the ability to choose is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choice for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom f bondage, serfdom and other expliotative economic, social and political relationship.
    7.There is not a perfect correlation between happiness and income: people could be poor but happy, and be rich and unhappy. Oncw per capita income increases from 1000 to 5000 naira the percentage of people who say they are happy tends to increase. I agree with this assertion because their is nobody that does not want happiness and money. People tened to be happy when they have money especially the poor ones and the rich will also be happy seeing their money increase. People will be happy if they have money because it will solve some of their problems while those that have money will not be happy because the solution to their problem is beyond monetary value. When one has the passion to learn a skill and not being able to afford for the training that person won’t be happy.
    8. a. Economic growth refers to increase in the monetary or output growth of a nation in a particular period. While, economic development refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth.
    b. Economic growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output of the nation, while economic development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quantity of life of the nation.
    c. Economic growth is a narrow concept than economic development and GDP is used to measure economic growth. While, economic development is a broader concept than economic development, it involves steady decline in agricultural shares in GNP and continuous increase in shares of industries.
    d. Economic growth is about income. GDP, GNP, GNI are used to measure economic growth while economic development is about outcomes. Standard of living, industrial development and human development indicator are use in measuring economic development
    e. Economic growth is a short term process while economic development is a long term process.
    f. Economic growth is a quantitative sustained increase in the country’s per capita income while, economic development is a qualitative increase in the economic, social political and general welfare of the people. However, for development to take place economic growth is a necessary condition.
    Nigeria is underdeveloped country (backward country) because it is characterized by mass absolute poverty, low per capita income and GDP, under-developed natural resources, high rate of unemployment, high dependency on imported goods, high population (high birth rate), large rural population and rapid urban migration, lower level of human capital development (health, education and skills).

  24. Avatar UZOCHUKWU CHIDINMA VIVIAN says:

    NAME:- UZOCHUKWU CHIDINMA VIVIAN.
    REG NO:- 2017/250786 -(TRANSFER STUDENT).
    COURSE:- ECO 361.
    LECTURER:- DR TONY ORJI.

    ANSWERS.

    1) There is a great contrast between living standards of people inhabiting in developing countries and developed countries. People in developing countries have low income, live in poor conditions and lack access to reliable and good health and education facilities. Many people in these countries are even deprived of basic amenities of life such as food, good shelter and safe drinking water. Whereas, in the developed countries,most of them take basic amenities of life such as food, shelter, access to education and health services for granted.
    a) Raising people’s living levels i.e incomes and consumption, levels of food, medical services, education through relevant growth processes.
    b) Creating conditions conducive to the growth of peoples self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignity and respect.
    c) Increasing peoples freedom to choose by enlarging the range of their choice variables e.g: varieties of goods and services.
    Some economists emphasize on these factors as a means to measure development. As such that,Development thrives to make progress when these factors listed out by Michael Todaro are put in place adequately and sufficiently for the betterment of the general public/citizenry.

    2) The set of indices developed by the UN Development Programme in 1990, the first human development report outlined a new approach to development, focused on people and their opportunities rather than economic growth rate. These are:-
    a) The Human Development Index is statistically formulated and collaborated to compute numerous countries social and economic development levels in the United Nations. The HDI was established to focus and emphasize that individuals and their potential ought to be the final criteria for measuring the development of a country not economic growth alone.
    The HDI by the UN provides a better picture of a nation’s development because it incorporates primary, social and economic factors. Also it emphasizes the importance of individuals and their ability to unleash their maximum potential. It provides a richer picture of progress than GDP, which relates to a country’s wealth or even GDP per capita which tells us something about an individual’s means but nothing about their life outcomes. Nevertheless, the HDI has its limitations which is that it omitts several factors that can have a significant influence on quality of life such as environmental degradation, industrial pollution and deforestation. But all indices have limitations. Overall, the HDI has the potential to provide a simple impression of development that can be unpacked to indicate progress with respect to the SDG’s. It can be used to complement alternative measures of development. These factors are relatively simple forms of data are very important indicators of social welfare and freedom.

    b) The UN’s Human Poverty Index(HPI):- This is a composite index of poverty that focuses on deprivations in human lives aimed at measuring poverty as a failure in capabilities in multiple dimensions, in contrast to the conventional headcount measure focused on low incomes. It is developed by United Nations Development program which also publishes indices like HDI. It was considered to better reflect the extent of deprivation in deprived countries compared to the HDI. The HPI concentrates on the deprivation in the three essential elements of human life already reflected in the HDI which are:- longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living.

    3) Development Economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low and middle income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population,for example, through health, education and workplace conditions whether through public or private channels.
    Development economics encourages the economic and social growth of low income countries and attempts to improve the conditions and wellbeing of the poorest economies by developing standards, structures and policies that help low income countries develop into modern and developed countries. Therefore, this field of economics focuses on transforming the poorest economies into the most prosperous nations of the world.

    4) By studying development economics, you will have the opportunity to apply the tools of economic analysis to the problems and challenges facing less-developed countries and to begin to understand why some countries have been able to go though a process of economic and human development whilst others have languished.
    Development economics attempts to explore some of the challenges peculiar to some of the poorest countries in the world. It tends to investigate and answer such questions as:-
    a) To what extent does rapid population growth help or hinder development?
    b) Is it necessary for economies to go through a process of structural transformation and how does this take place?
    c) What is the role of education and health care provision in contributing to the process of development?
    d) How important is it for countries to engage in international trade in the context of a globalising economy?
    e) How can less-developed countries achieve sustainable development?
    f) What effects has the HIV/AIDS epidemic have on economic and human development?

    5) Alfred Sauvy referred to the “third world” as the height of the Cold War and applied it to the developing countries that remained outside the two power blocs but belonged to the non-communist world.
    The term therefore implies that the third world is exploited, much as the third estate was exploited and that, like the third estate its destiny is a revolutionary one. It conveys as well as a second idea, also discussed by Sauvy, that of non-alignment, for the third world belongs neither to the industrialized capitalist world nor to the industrialized communist bloc.

    REFERENCES.
    Hayley Lashmar, Administrative Assistant, United Nations association – UK, 19th March, 2018. SDG ACTION.

    UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME : Human Development Reports.

    University of Bristol, Royal Economic Society, Scottish Economic society, Dr Peter Smith, University of Southampton.

  25. Avatar ONYEKPEREM URUDINACHI VICTORY 2019/241536 says:

    ECO 361 ASSIGNMENT

    i. Poverty – The United Nations – UN
    (1995) defined poverty in absolute and
    relative term. They examined absolute
    poverty as a state made up by serious denial
    of basic human needs including food,
    shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation
    facilities, health, education and information.
    To them, absolute poverty does not depend
    only on income but also on access to life.
    Relative poverty was defined by the UN in
    terms of minimum acceptable standard of
    living within a society in which a particular
    person lives. The UN (2010) adopted a
    Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), to
    measure poverty using three key dimensions
    and 10 indicators. The key dimensions are:
    living standard, education and health, which
    are: nutrition, child mortality, years of
    schooling, school attendance, cooking fuel,
    sanitation, drinking water, electricity,
    housing and asset. The cut off for poverty
    according to the MPI is 33.33% of which
    Nigeria MPI is 0.303% which is not up to
    the cut-off mark. This is in line with the
    Human Development Index (HDI) which
    assessed the progress of a country in terms
    of a long and healthy life, access to
    knowledge and a decent standard of living.
    According to the (World Poverty
    Clock Report, 2018), Nigeria overtake India
    as the number one country with the highest
    number of population in the world living in
    extreme poverty with 86.9 million people.
    This is about 45% of the Nigeria’s
    population. The report indicated that Nigeria
    is among the 18 countries that extreme
    poverty is increasing. According to (World
    Poverty Clock Report, 2019 and 2020 (first
    quarter)), the estimated population of
    Nigeria stands at 196,842,992 million 2019
    in 2019. Out of this population, 93,742,875
    million (48%) are living in extreme poverty.
    The figure further increased to 95,903,776
    million people in the first quarter of 2020. It
    could be seen that the number of people
    living in extreme poverty keeps on
    increasing. Based on the new figure,
    2,160,901 million people have joined the
    poverty club between 2019and first quarter
    of 2020. This means that almost half of
    Nigerians are living below a dollar per day
    in accordance with the World Bank
    definition of extreme poverty. The report
    further estimated that with the week outlook
    for poverty alleviation in Nigerians, 120
    million people would slip into extreme
    poverty by the year 2030. Despite the rapid
    growth experienced in Nigeria for the past
    years, the number of people going into
    poverty keeps on increasing daily.
    ii. Inequality: The United Nations defined
    inequality as the state of not being equal,
    especially in status, rights and opportunities
    (UN, 2015). Development theory was
    concern with inequalities in standard of
    living, such as inequalities in
    income/wealth, education, health and
    nutrition. Nigeria is Africa’s largest
    economy, yet inequality has reached
    extreme level that the country’s five riches men worth $29.9 billion could end extreme
    poverty at national level, yet a lot are facing
    hunger Oxfam report (2017). Nigeria’
    economy has been growing in terms of GDP
    but without creating adequate opportunities
    for the broader population. Resources are
    unevenly distributed, resulting in persistent
    inequalities. The rich are increasing in their
    riches while the poor are getting more
    poorer. It is pertinent to know that almost
    everything in Nigeria has some elements of
    inequalities. Nigeria richest man Aliko
    Dangote earns about 8,000 times more in
    one day than a poor Nigerian will spend on
    basic needs in one year. Up to halve of
    Nigerians are living in poverty, yet the same
    richest man in Nigeria would have to spend
    $1 million a day for 42 years to exhaust his
    fortune. This is inequality in the distribution
    of income.
    When it comes to distribution of jobs
    in Nigeria, there is great inequality.
    Children of the rich get the juicy and
    lucrative white collar jobs while that of the
    poor gets the non lucrative jobs. Even in the
    Armed Forces of Nigeria, children of the
    rich are dominant in the Nigeria Defence
    Academy (NDA) and eventually
    commissioned into the officer’s cadre while
    that of the poor gets the non-commissioned
    cadre which are all indicators of
    inequalities. When it comes to health and
    schooling opportunities, there are
    inequalities. The rich sends their children to
    the best schools while that of the poor
    attends public schools with little or no
    infrastructures. In fact, in some areas
    students sits under the trees as their
    classrooms to learn without food to eat as
    depicted in the diagram below. But almost
    every rich man in Nigeria sends their
    children to school abroad in one of the
    developed countries while the poor cannot
    afford to pay the school fee of the public
    schools their children attend. This is one of
    the reasons why the rate of drop out from
    school in Nigeria is on the rise.
    Nigeria primary school students learning
    under a tree.
    In terms of health, the rich have
    access to better medical care and even go
    abroad for medical matters while the poor
    don’t have the opportunities (though in the
    interim, the Corona Virus Pandemic has
    stopped the rich travelling abroad for
    medical matters). In 2017, the maternal
    mortality rate in Nigeria has been 917
    deaths per 100,000 live births. According to
    UNISEF (2016), Nigeria is the second
    largest contributor to the under-five and
    maternal mortality rate in the world
    accounting for 14% of the world’s maternal
    mortality deaths (the highest in West and
    Central Africa). Also, Infant mortality rates
    in Nigeria are high because majority of
    those that could not have access to better
    health facilities are the poor. Infant
    mortality rate is the amount of baby dying
    before getting to one year of age, per 1,000
    live births in a given year. In 2018, infant
    mortality rate for Nigeria was 75.7 deaths
    per 1,000 live births and decreased to
    60.662 in 2019. This is a sign of
    improvement in that aspect.
    Poverty and inequality in Nigeria are
    not due to a lack of resources, but due to the
    ill-use, misallocation and misappropriation
    of such resources. At the root of all is the
    culture of corruption combined with
    political elite out of touch with the daily
    struggles of average Nigerians. The United
    Nations used the Human Development
    Index (HDI) to measure the basic human
    development achievements in a country. It
    shows inequality in the distribution of
    human development across the population
    of a country in three dimensions of health of
    the people, their level of education and their
    standard of living. The 2019 Human Development Report showed that Nigeria
    HDI is 0.534, which ranked Nigeria 158 out
    of 189 countries with high rate of
    inequalities. Between 2005 and 2018, our
    HDI value have increased from 0.467 to
    0.534, which is an increased of 14.4%.
    Instead of decreasing, the rate keeps on
    increasing. The HDI was 0.467 in 2005,
    0.484 in 2010, 0.527 in 2015, 0.528 in 2016,
    0.533 in 2017 and 0.534 in 2018. Based on
    Seer’s assertion on development, the
    inequality should be falling and not rising
    for a country to experience development.
    The UN (2010) introduced the
    Inequality Human Development Index
    (IHDI) to cater for inequalities in the three
    dimensions of the HDI. According to them,
    the loss in human development due to
    inequalities is given by the difference
    between the HDI and the IHDI. The IHDI
    for 2018 is 0.341 while the human
    inequalities average is 34.5%. Also
    introduced by the UN (2014) is the Gender
    Development Index (GDI) to measure
    gender inequalities in health, education and
    in economic resources. For health, the GDI measures female and male life expectancy at
    birth. It measures female and male expected year of schooling for children and mean year for adult aged 25 years and above for
    education. For economic resources, the GDI measures female and male estimated GNI
    per capita. The female GDI value for
    Nigeria in 2018 is 0.492 while that of male
    is 0.567.
    3.3 Unemployment: The International
    Labor Organization (ILO) defined
    unemployment as all persons of working
    age (15 years and above) who were not in employment but are engaging seeking
    employment during a particular period and
    were currently available to take up
    employment given a job opportunity. The
    United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
    defined unemployment as person (s) who do
    not have job, have actively looked for work in the prior 4 weeks, and are currently
    available for work. Rate of unemployment
    is the number of people actively looking for job as a percentage of the labor force. The
    rate of unemployment in Nigeria especially
    among the active labor force (youth) is very alarming According to the Nigeria National
    Bureau of Statistics (2019) report, youth
    unemployment rate averaged 23.63% from 2014 until it reaches an all time high of 38% in the 2nd quarter of 2018. During the 3rd
    quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate was 39.7% which is the combination of 23.1% unemployment rate and 16.6%
    underemployment rate. The Bureau
    projected that if the rising trend of
    unemployment is not urgently curtailed, the unemployment rate will reach 33.5% by
    2020.
    While inaugurating the National Employment Council (NEC) in 2018, the Nigeria minister of labor and productivity
    charged the council to bring out policy
    measures that will reverse the increasing unemployment trend in Nigeria. He noted
    that despite the fact that 14 different
    programs were implemented by the federal government from 1972 till date to reduce unemployment and eradicate poverty, the unemployment rate and poverty levels are still increasing which indicates high
    resilience against the intervention programs.
    This rising trend of unemployment is in
    contrast with Dudley Seer’s assertion on
    development. Those figures on
    unemployment shows that Nigeria as a
    nation is not experiencing development. The
    unemployment rate has been increasing
    from 9.0% in 2015 to 23.1% in 2018. These
    show that the unemployment rate has been increasing with no sign of going down. In fact, it has been projected that by 2020, the
    unemployment rate would have reached
    33.5% (NBS, 2018). Therefore, according to
    Seer’s question on unemployment, Nigeria is not experiencing development.

    2) Specific country analysis of the binding constraints on growth and the policy actions
    likely to overcome them is essential in forming a growth strategy. As the latest research
    from sub-Saharan Africa shows, ‘the diverse history, opportunities and current growth
    conditions in different African countries, and how these make any growth strategy, [are]
    first and foremost, a country-specific task.’41
    While there is no ‘one right answer’ in terms of policy, there is wide agreement on the
    essential, if not sufficient, pillars likely to underpin a successful growth strategy in low￾income countries. Although a diversity of conditions and history precludes even a broad
    strategy that fits all low-income countries, the latest research from regions such as sub￾Saharan Africa show that it is possible to narrow the scope of the process of searching
    for the most binding constraints and deciding what to do about them. There are some
    areas that need to be addressed, even if the way of addressing them depends on
    individual circumstances.
    Growth is ultimately about investment in capital and labour and improving the
    productivity of these factors of production through the processes of innovation and
    technological absorption. The most pertinent question for low-income regions, such as
    sub-Saharan Africa, is therefore how to boost the low levels of investment and
    productivity growth that are characteristic of underperforming countries.
    Common binding constraints that may need to be addressed include:
    I. Physical capital
    Growth requires investment in physical capital – the plants, machinery, raw materials,
    etc. that are central to production – and investment at all scales requires financial
    capital. Every country that has achieved sustainable growth has managed a significant
    increase in the levels of both domestic and foreign investment as a percentage of GDP.
    Significant technology is usually embodied in capital goods such as plants and
    machinery that help to support a country’s move up the technological ladder.
    Restricted or expensive access to finance is a brake on such investment, particularly for
    small and medium-sized enterprises and for the informal sector. A well-functioning
    financial sector enhances economic growth through ensuring that capital is not left idle,
    that it is directed to where it is most beneficial, and that risks are borne efficiently.
    The quality of investment matters alongside the quantity. Poorly targeted subsidies
    have the capacity to hamper growth by redirecting capital away from where it is most
    productive.
    II. Human capital
    Investment in education and skills can be as important as investment in machinery and
    plants in delivering growth. Investment in this ‘human capital’ is especially appealing as
    it directly leads to improved human development as well as helping to drive growth The costs of this investment are both direct (for example, the cost of school equipment
    and books) and indirect (the opportunity costs of the wages lost from remaining in
    education). Amelioration of these, together with raising the return on education (the
    wages for skilled workers) is likely to increase educational investment.
    A wide range of labour skills are needed to catalyse and sustain economic growth,
    including education at all levels from primary schools through to universities, and
    including technical and vocational training as well as ‘learning by doing’. Unfortunately,
    progress in overcoming shortages of skilled and trained manpower in the world’s
    poorest countries has been disappointingly slow.
    Although basic education is widely considered to be critical for reducing poverty, there
    is emerging evidence that secondary and higher education are more significant in
    raising long-term growth rates and income levels as they play a key role in the creation
    and application of new knowledge and technologies.42 This effect occurs primarily
    through people’s improved capabilities to absorb technological advances.
    III. The rule of law
    The business environment needs to have safeguards that ensure that the returns of
    investment will be collected by investors. Political instability, corruption and crime can
    all threaten potential returns and make investment unattractive and thus damage the
    prospects for growth. The cost of crime and the cost of security as a percentage of
    sales are particularly high in low-income regions such as sub-Saharan Africa.
    Recent surveys of the investment climate in low-income countries identify the costs of
    legal enforcement of contracts and compliance with regulation as having the biggest
    negative impact on business profitability. Strengthening the capacity of relevant public
    institutions for protecting property rights can often therefore be important. Equally,
    evidence from Africa suggests that particular attention should be given to the
    prevention of corruption.
    As well as curtailing domestic investment, poor property rights are likely to divert foreign
    investment elsewhere. This may substantially reduce the scope for technology transfer
    that will increase productivity and ultimately growth.
    IV. Competitive markets
    Competition typically ensures that consumers are able to obtain more goods at lower
    prices than under a monopoly. Judicious use of regulation will help foster a competitive
    environment. It is important that this is applied by an independent body that is not
    susceptible to capture by any particular interest group. While certain industries (such as
    utilities) do not readily lend themselves to competition due to the vast cost savings they
    possess if they are large, this does not apply in most cases.

    3) Yes

    This is becauseThe lack of substantive freedoms relates directly to economic poverty, which robs people of the freedom to satisfy hunger, or to achieve sufficient nutrition, or to obtain remedies for treatable illness, or the opportunity to be adequately clothed or sheltered, or to enjoy clean water or sanitary facilities.

    This is a crucial point since a lack of development is often correlated with a lack of democracy and freedom. Popular uprisings that demand more freedom often ignite because of economic poverty.

    One of the most crucial components of this text is Mr. Sen’s definition of freedom. In his eyes, freedom is central to the process of development for two distinct reasons. The first one is the evaluation reason: which is the assessment of progress that must be done primarily in terms of whether the freedoms that people have are enhanced; and the second is the effectiveness reason: which refers to the achievement of development, which is thoroughly dependent on the free agency of people.

    To conclude, Mr. Sen’s text provides us with a rubric of how to evaluate freedom, development, and quality of life. The text identifies crucial links between freedom and development, and it identifies how unfreedom leads to malnourished and unequal societies.
    The brilliant and prescient insights provided in the text gives policy makers the tools to nourish societies and minimize harm. This text imagines a world free of tyranny, corruption and unfreedom ­– and it dreams of a world full of development that leads to equitable outcomes. Mr. Sen has a simple way of achieving this utopia. Promote freedom he says. Then human flourishing will follow.

    4) Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity. The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    The theme for International Women’s Day 2019 “Think Equal, Build Smart, Innovate for Change”, was chosen to identify innovative ways to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, accelerating the 2030 agenda, which is ” Building Momentum for the Effective Implementation of the New U.N Sustainable Development Goals.
    Although women are still lagging behind men worldwide, the historic and current role of women is indisputable. Michelle Bachelet, the Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women notes that “when women are empowered and can claim their rights and have access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economic growth, food security are enhanced and developmental prospects are improved for current and future generations.
    The role of women as volunteers in local and international organizations for development has global collective recognition. The global Volunteers Community Development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the development and direction of local leaders, women volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools and educate children and women through programmed extension works.
    Some of the notable women achievers in the world include Jane Austen(1775-1817); Anne Frank(1929-1945); Maya Angelou(1928-2014); Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603); Catherine the Great(1729-1796); Rosa Parks(1913-2005)and; Malala Yousafzai(1997 to date).

    5) At the core of the capability approach is a normative commitment to conceptualize well-being in terms of capabilities and functionings. Functionings are ‘doings and beings’, that is, various states of human beings and activities that a person has achieved, such as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling, while capabilities are the real, or substantive, opportunity that they have to achieve these doings and beings. A person’s ‘capability-set’ denotes the set of capabilities that he or she can choose from, while the term ‘basic capabilities’ refers either to “the innate equipment of individuals that is necessary for developing the more advanced capabilities”, such as the capability of speech and language, which is present in a newborn but needs to be fostered (Nussbaum 2000, 84), or to the freedom to do some basic things considered necessary for survival and to avoid or escape poverty or other serious deprivation (Sen 1992, 45, fn. 19). The relevance of basic capabilities is “not so much in ranking living standards, but in deciding on a cut-off point for the purpose of assessing poverty and deprivation” (Sen 1987b, 109).
    Recently, there has been a discussion within the capability literature about whether capabilities and functionings should be limited to only encompass positively valued doings and beings — such as according to a normative theory, those that we have reason to value, or those which promote some ultimate normative aim, such as human dignity or agency — or whether capabilities and functionings are value-neutral concepts that encompass not only normatively positive but also negative and neutral doings and beings.
    Why is the value-laden definition of capabilities problematic, according to its critics? First, if what counts as a capability is – by definition – normatively valuable then it risks ignoring that the value of a certain set of capabilities and functionings may also crucially depend on what it does not allow one to do or be or if it allows one to realize morally bad functionings, such as committing murder or polluting (Carter 2014; Dowding and Van Hees 2009). The value-laden conception of capabilities analytically excludes such non-normatively valued doings and beings from consideration, even though they may be just as important for the valuation of a capability-set as positively valued doings and beings.
    The second reason why the value-laden definition might be problematic is because it excludes applications of the capability framework that are not concerned with what is valuable or not, and in some cases are concerned with morally bad capabilities. Two such capability applications are the conceptualization of phenomena and empirical purposes. For example, an empirical study that investigates the prevalence of domestic violence in a society would be concerned with whether husbands have capability (and functioning) of exercising such violence – a clear-cut case of a morally bad, yet highly relevant, capability. Thus, if the definition of capabilities and functionings is limited to only encompass normatively valuable or positive doings and beings, it excludes applications of the capability approach that are concerned with morally bad doings and beings and capability applications that are not concerned with whether capabilities are valuable or not.
    In contrast to the value-laden definition, proponents of the value-neutral definition of capabilities and functionings hold that doings and beings can be both positively and negatively valued as well as normatively neutral. A capability, according to this definition, is simply the freedom that people have to do or be certain things. Examples of capabilities that are usually evaluated positively are being well-nourished, sheltered, and educated, while examples of capabilities that are usually negatively valued are the ability to kill (Stewart and Deneulin 2002, 67), the ability to rape, being vulnerable to natural hazards, and being able to pollute (Holland 2008, 418; Nussbaum 2006, 166). Because both positively and negatively valued capabilities determine how well-off we are, it is necessary that capabilities are defined in a way that includes both.
    Other capabilities, meanwhile, are morally ambiguous or morally neutral. An example of a morally ambiguous capability is the capability to care or provide care, which can at different times either be rewarding, for example for parents caring for a child, and a burden, especially for women who often face societal pressure to take on the brunt of care activities. An example of a morally neutral capability is the ability to choose between two equally effective and sustainable brands of washing liquid (Williams 1987). On the face of it, whether we can choose between different brands of washing liquid is of little relevance if our purpose is to conceptualize healthcare or if we are interested in measuring a rural community’s access to infrastructure. However, that is not to say that prima facie irrelevant doings and beings cannot become relevant. If, for example, one brand of washing liquid were shown to have a positive or negative effect on health, then it would be relevant for a capabilitarian conceptualization of health to include the capability to choose between different brands of washing liquid. No doings and beings are a priori irrelevant and, according to its proponents, only a value-neutral definition of capabilities can accommodate for this fact.
    Lastly, it should be noted that it is only necessary to adopt the value-neutral definition at the level of the capability approach as a general framework. Although the concept of capabilities is value-neutral, for more particular purposes and theories it will be useful and probably necessary to further specify by which criteria we make a selection of capabilities, according to that purpose or theory, and whether it will only focus on valuable doings and beings or also take bad capabilities into account (see section 3.2 for a discussion of the selection of capabilities).

    6) Sustenance
    Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.
    Self-esteem
    Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    Freedom
    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.

    7) Most of us have heard that money can’t buy happiness. But the way you view wealth and materialism may have a significant effect on how satisfied and happy you are with your life, according to a new study published in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life.

    “[M]oney can be a tool to motivate you to achieve major milestones in your life, which can make you feel happier in the long run,” Jenny Jiao, study author and assistant professor of marketing at Binghamton University School of Management, said in a press release. After analyzing results from a survey of over 7,500 German adults for the study, researchers at the Binghamton University School of Management found that people’s feelings about materialism tend to be nuanced. Specifically, there’s a difference between “happiness materialism” and “success materialism,” the researchers found.

    Buying into “happiness materialism” — the belief that wealth is an indicator of a happy life — tends to be problematic because it takes “much time, energy and money away from other life domains that make an important and positive contribution to present life satisfaction,” such as family, work and health, the study authors wrote.

    However, researchers believe focusing on “success materialism” — the idea that wealth signifies success — enhances people’s “economic motivation,” or their drive to work and improve their standard of living. Thinking about success through that lens could make individuals more satisfied with their present lives and hopeful about the future.

    This simple mindset shift could make a difference in the way people view success and their lives, but of course there are other variables at play. For example, while this study didn’t cover how income specifically affects life satisfaction, researchers agree that it also impacts people’s happiness. A 2010 study out of Princeton University found that there’s a correlation between happiness and wealth, to a point of about $75,000 per year. When people make more than $75,000 a year, their happiness doesn’t increase, but the lower their income is the worse they feel, the study found.

    Jiao added in the press release that, above all, it’s important to keep in mind the things that bring you happiness that don’t come with a price tag. “These include family, friends, your health, continual learning and new experiences,” she said.

    8) Economic Growth is a narrower concept than economic development.It is an increase in a country’s real level of national output which can be caused by an increase in the quality of resources (by education etc.), increase in the quantity of resources & improvements in technology or in another way an increase in the value of goods and services produced by every sector of the economy. Economic Growth can be measured by an increase in a country’s GDP (gross domestic product).
    Economic development is a normative concept i.e. it applies in the context of people’s sense of morality (right and wrong, good and bad). The definition of economic development given by Michael Todaro is an increase in living standards, improvement in self-esteem needs and freedom from oppression as well as a greater choice. The most accurate method of measuring development is the Human Development Index which takes into account the literacy rates & life expectancy which affect productivity and could lead to Economic Growth. It also leads to the creation of more opportunities in the sectors of education, healthcare, employment and the conservation of the environment.It implies an increase in the per capita income of every citizen.
    Economic Growth does not take into account the size of the informal economy. The informal economy is also known as the black economy which is unrecorded economic activity. Development alleviates people from low standards of living into proper employment with suitable shelter. Economic Growth does not take into account the depletion of natural resources which might lead to pollution, congestion & disease. Development however is concerned with sustainability which means meeting the needs of the present without compromising future needs. These environmental effects are becoming more of a problem for Governments now that the pressure has increased on them due to Global warming.
    Economic growth is a necessary but not sufficient condition of economic development.

    Nigeria is in Economic Growth stage 3. This is manageably so just because of Nigeria’s ability to produce many wares and it’s industrial productivity or engagement

  26. Avatar OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS says:

    NAME:OZONWU CHUKWUEBUKA SILAS
    REG NO:2019/244686
    EMAIL: ozonwuchukwuebuke@gmail.com
    1.
    Dudley Seers suggests that development is when a country experiences a reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment.The study analyses the Dudley Seer’s theory of development on the Nigeria economy. Before the emergence of Seer’s theory, there was a general believe amongst economists that development occurred when a country has a sustained economic growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Many less developed countries including Nigeria experienced continues economic growth over the years but the such growth does not have a positive reflection in the lives of the people in terms of quality of life. Seer shifted away from such believes and propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development.
    2.A change process characterized by increasing productivity equalization in the distribution of the social product and the emergency of an indigenous institution whose relation without file world and particularly with developed centers of international economics are characterized by equality rather than dependence and submission. Reducing unemployment is one of the main causes of eliminating poverty and inequality. Moreover, a reduction in inequality will correspondingly reduce poverty. The classical argued that inequality is essential to generate
    savings and investment and thus to promote economic growth, which savings are, of course, also affected by thevabsolute level of income, but the explanation must also lie in the high consumption levels of the rich designed to maintain standard so important in an unequal society. Similarly, the rich in most countries tend to have extremely high propensities, not merely to spend, but to spend on goods and services with high foreign exchange content, and countries suffering from an acute foreign exchange bottle neck; this is a major obstacle to development.
    3.Sen does acknowledge that increases in poor people’s incomes do contribute to the expansion of their freedoms. However, he recognises that increase of income alone “has at best uneven and at worst has detrimental impacts on the majority of a country’s population, and radical redistributive measures are necessary for the poor to benefit from growth” (Selwyn 2011:69). Sen alerts the reader that poverty, unfulfilled elementary needs, the occurrence of famines, the violation of political freedoms and neglect of the agency of women remain today despite ‘unpredented opulence’ (1999). He makes it clear that previous strategies to reduce these catastrophes are erroneous. His approach focuses on human flourishing as the entry point to the problem of poverty and global inequality rather than economic growth (Reid-Henry 2012). Sen (1999) contends that all human beings are equally entitled to enjoy a life that they value. If pursuing freedom-for-all is about expanding citizens’ capabilities, the focus should not be exclusively on making up for what people lack.
    Sen defines the major factors that limit freedom as ‘poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states” (Sen 1999:1). He argues for the removal of these major factors. Sen focuses on crucial instrumental freedoms: economic opportunities, political freedoms, social facilities, transparency guarantees and protective security. These, he argues, need to be interconnected. Social facilities involve institutions such as the state and the market. Sen asserts societal arrangements should be investigated “in terms of their contribution to enhancing and guaranteeing the substantive freedoms of individuals, seen as active agents of change rather than as passive recipients of dispensed benefits” (Sen 1999:xii). Social facilities should aim to provide opportunities that increase the well-being of the population.
    4. Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability. At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing. As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre- literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    5. This aforementioned approach straightly stresses the quality of life that people are actually ABLE TO ACHIEVE. The quality of life we’re referring is analyzed in terms of the core concepts of “FUNCTIONINGS” and “CAPABILITY”. “Capability to function” is what really matters for status as a poor or non-poor person. It stated that it is not only the potential to gain something (consumable or non-consumable) through money but rather the ability to do, make, or create something. And the concept enlightens us that money is not the most essential into development goals and achievements yet it gives emphasis to the being of people. It focuses more on people, its function, on what it can do with its characteristics rather than the wealth it possesses. Functioning is simply the state of doing, being or working. Take note that there is a significant distinction between commodities employed and functioning, to further elaborate this, examples are provided. Driving a car is distinguishable from having a car. Bicycling is distinguishable from having a bike. Capability refers to the set of VALUABLE functioning that a person has EFFECTIVE ACCESS TO. Therefore, a person’s capability symbolizes the right to exercise “EFFECTIVE FREEDOM” of people to choose between different functioning combinations- been different kinds of life, that THEY HAVE REASONS TO VALUE. This allows analysis to focus on sets of functioning related to particular aspects of life. capabilities approach offers a comprehensive perspective of development where everything revolves around enhancing people’s well-being. The concept of “capabilities to function” tells us that money is not enough because resources and goods alone do not ensure that people are able to convert them into actual doings and beings.
    Through this concept, people who are liberally capable of what people are, or can be- does, or can do will vitally plays a major role into development goals and achievement. Since CAPABILITY is tied with DEVELOPMENT and ACHIEVEMENT. Let now move on to the follow up question which is “is money enough to help us gain insight into development goals and achievement? Why or why not?” Sen asks us to consider two persons with the same set of resources. Yet, one person suffers from a disability. This disability makes her unequal to the able-bodied person in two regards, which cannot be captured by a sole focus on resources. First of all, the disabled person is unequal in terms of what she can do or be with her resources compared with the physically able person. She may, for example, be confined to a wheelchair and thus restricted to places that are wheelchair-accessible. Secondly, the disabled person may even be doubly worse off because she only gets the same number of resources even though she has more expenses in order to correct for her disability. That is, because the disabled person needs to spend a considerable amount of her resources on a wheelchair merely to move around, she has fewer resources available to pursue other goals than the able- bodied person who can spend all her resources on pursuing her valued ends. Thus, in order to evaluate people’s well- being, we need to not only consider the number of resources they have, but also what they are able to do and be with those resources.
    6. The three core values of development are:
    1. sustenance
    2.self esteem
    3. Freedom
    1.Sustenance this means the ability to meet the basic necessities of life which is necessary to sustain an average human being. Such basic necessities are food, shelter, good health, protection, etc. Without these basic needs, living will be impossible. When any of these is absent or in short supply, absolute underdevelopment exists. Therefore, the basic function of any society is to provide a means of overcoming the helplessness and misery arising from lack of these basic needs. To this extent, we may say that economic development is a necessary condition for the improvement in the quality of life of the people.Without sustained and continuous economic progress, the realization of the human potential would not be possible because one has to have enough in order to have more. Rising per capita income and elimination of absolute poverty, greater employment opportunities, lessening income inequalities therefore constitutes the necessary but not the sufficient condition for measuring/ determining economic growth.
    2. Self-esteem this means the sense of worth and self-respect of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. All societies seek some basic form of self-esteem which may be called identity, dignity, respect, recognition, etc. It should be noted that the level of self-esteem varies from societies to societies and from cultures to cultures. However, with proliferation of the modernizing values of developed nations, many developing countries suffer from serious cultural confusion when they come in contact with economically and technologically advanced societies.
    3. Freedom from Servitude this means the ability to choose. Freedom here has to do with the sense of emancipation from undesirable conditions of life such as oppressive institutions, misery, dogmatic beliefs, etc.
    7. However, there is another measure of happiness: do people evaluate their lives as satisfactory? By this definition, Deaton and Kahneman found no limit to the uses of money: extra income, at any level, was correlated with higher levels of life satisfaction. More recently, psychologists Paul Bain and Renata Bongiorno changed the focus: instead of asking how much money was enough, they invited survey participants to envisage their absolutely ideal life. Then they asked how much money would be required to achieve that life, if it came in the form of a lottery win. Those lottery prizes ranged from $10,000 (for those whose absolutely ideal life involves replacing the curtains and upholstery) to $100bn (for those whose absolutely ideal life involves a great deal of drama about buying Twitter). Most people, however, did not favour the top prize. A $10mn lottery prize was a popular choice. Why? One possibility is that nobody really has a clue how to answer the survey question, and $10mn was the central answer, a thousand times more than the minimum and a thousand times less than the maximum.
    8.Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life- expectancy and health care.
    In terms of growth and development Nigeria has been stagnant.

  27. Avatar Omeje Sharon Amarachi says:

    Answers
    (1) The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.
    As discussed by Dudley Seers the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access to basic infrastructures
    (2). Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The purpose of development is a rise in the level and quality of life of the population, and the creation or expansion of local regional income and employment opportunities, without damaging the resources of the environment. Development is visible and useful, not necessarily immediately, and includes an aspect of quality change and the creation of conditions for a continuation of that change.
    (3).l agree with Amartya sen.
    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives.
    (4). The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.
    Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education. This proliferation of capability literature has led to questions concerning what kind of framework it is (section 1); how its core concepts should be defined (section 2); how it can be further specified for particular purposes (section 3); what is needed to develop the capability approach into an account of social justice (section 4); how it relates to non-Western philosophies (section 5); and how it can be and has been applied in practice (section 6).

    (5).Enhancing women ‘ s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development. And yet, despite these known returns, women still face many barriers in contributing to and benefiting from development. The barriers begin with comparatively low investment in female education and health, they continue with restricted access to services and assets, and they are made worse by legal and regulatory constraints on women ‘ s opportunities. As a result, the worlwide progress in development over the last three decades has not translated into proportional gains for women. This paper points to actions that can help to turn around this inequitable situation. Evidence of what works is particularly strong in five areas: education, health, wage labor, agriculture and natural resource management, and financial services. The paper also suggests a broadening of the women in development approach toward a gender in development strategy that takes into account the relative roles and responsibilities of women and men and recognizes that, of effect long-term change in the conditions of women, the actions and attitudes of men must change.
    (6)(i) Life Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs:
    It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”. All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economic development and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby the helplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, health and protection could be removed.
    Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:
    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person is desirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ from country to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days that when the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in the distribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itself superior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferiority complex which leads to affect their efficiency.
    Freedom from Servitude, i.e., to be Able to Choose:
    The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs. As Arthur Lewis says:
    “Advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice”.
    (7).In order to adequately address this question, it is necessary to differentiate between ‘ideal’ happiness and ‘actual’ happiness.
    ‘Ideal’ happiness implies a way of being that is complete, lasting and altogether perfect… probably outside of anyone’s reach! (Kesebir & Diener, 2008). However, despite this, people can actually experience mostly positive emotions and report overall satisfaction with their lives and therefore be deemed ‘happy’.
    In fact, most people are happy. In a study conducted by the Pew Research Center in the US (2006), 84% of Americans see themselves as either “very happy” or “pretty happy” (Kesebir & Diener, 2008).
    Happiness also has an adaptive function. How is happiness adaptive? Well, positivity and wellbeing are also associated with people being confident enough to explore their environments and approach new goals, which increases the likelihood of them collecting resources.
    The fact that most people report being happy, and happiness having an adaptive function, leads Kesebir and Diener (2008) to conclude that yes people can, in fact, be happy.
    (8).Economic Growth:
    Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy.
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    Earlier, economic growth was only measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
    At present, it is measured in terms of GDP, Gross National Income (GNI) and Per Capita Income.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    Economic growth only looks at the quantitative aspect. It brings quantitative changes in the economy.
    Economic growth is concerned with increase in economy’s output.
    It focuses on production of goods and services.
    Economic growth is more relevant metric for assessing progress in developed countries.
    Economic growth is relatively narrow concept as compared to economic development.
    It is for short term/short period.
    It is a material/physical concept.
    Economic growth is measured in certain time frame/period.
    Economic Development:
    Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Economic development also refers to:
    provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    equal access to resources
    participation of all in economic activities
    equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    It refers to increase in productivity.
    Indicators of economic development are:
    Human Development Index (HDI)
    Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    Gini Coefficient
    Gender Development Index (GDI)
    Balance of trade
    Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Economic development is the ends of development.
    Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    It is more abstract concept.
    Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Nigeria current status in terms of growth and development;
    While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the World Bank’s 2020 Human Capital Index. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.
    Inequality, in terms of income and opportunities, remains high and has adversely affected poverty reduction. The lack of job opportunities is at the core of the high poverty levels, regional inequality, and social and political unrest. High inflation has also taken a toll on household’s welfare and high prices in 2020-2022 are likely to have pushed an additional 8 million Nigerians into poverty. So in all Nigeria is still battling with Economic growth.

  28. Avatar Okoro-peter Ogoegbu Nnenna says:

    No. 1
    Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes, that is development occurs with the reduction of poverty, unemployment and inequality with in a growing economy. It is true of course that both poverty and unemployment are associated in various ways with per capita income. If per capita incomes are falling, in absolute poverty can hardly be reduced much, not can unemployment. But certainly increases in per capita income are far from enough, as the experiences of petroleum economies shown, to achieve either of these objectives. The questions to ask about a coutry’s development are therefore: What has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? If all these have declined from high levels then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned.
    No. 2
    Inequality and poverty might interrelate, having a negative impact on economic growth. As Bui and Nguyen (2017) concluded, an inequality can destabilize institutional efficiency that spreads economic security. Economic growth estimation, including control for inequality and incomes but not poverty, might not successfully capture drawback that reduces the growth. The impact of poverty can be distinct along with the effects of inequality. Furthermore, Ravallion (2002) argued that poverty negatively impacted consumption growth, and consequently, less poverty decreases with economic growth.

    No. 3
    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.
    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”.
    Moreover, freedom deficits still exist in so-called developed countries, and the situation may be moving backwards. Political freedoms are compromised by vested interest politics in the US, and oligarchic powers in Japan and much of Europe. Protectionism of large enterprises, especially in Europe and Japan, limit the economic freedom of small and medium size enterprises. Social opportunities are constrained in most countries as the rich have much better access than the poor to health and education services. Sen does us all a good service in raising the issue of cultural freedoms. The more these issues are discussed the better. But progress will require massive changes in attitudes.
    More fundamentally, Sen does not address the issue of how individual freedoms should be nested into society, where we all have to forego some freedom in order to live together peace.

    No. 4
    Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    Although women are still lagging behind men worldwide, the historic and current role of women is indisputable. Michelle Bachelet, the Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women notes that “when women are empowered and can claim their rights and have access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economic growth, food security are enhanced and developmental prospects are improved for current and future generations.
    The role of women as volunteers in local and international organizations for development has global collective recognition. The global Volunteers Community Development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the development and direction of local leaders, women volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools and educate children and women through programmed extension works.

    No. 5
    i Being healthy
    Health capability is the ability to be healthy; it integrates health functioning and health agency. Health capability helps us understand the conditions that facilitate and barriers that impede health and the ability to make healthy choices. Health capability has the effect of creating a virtuous circle; developing people’s health capability enables them to create and support the conditions for their own and other’s.

    ii.Being literate
    Wellbeing literacy is defined as a capability to comprehend and compose wellbeing language, across contexts, with the intention of using such language to maintain or improve the wellbeing of oneself, others or the world. Wellbeing literacy is underpinned by a capability model (i.e., what someone is able to be and do), and is based on constructivist (i.e., language shapes reality) and contextualist (i.e., words have different meanings in different contexts) epistemologies.

    No. 6
    Sustenance:
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    Self-esteem:
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.
    Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.” … Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.

    Freedom from Servitude:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.
    No. 7
    Social scientists often recommend that measures of subjective well-being should augment the usual measures of economic prosperity, such as GDP per capita. But how can happiness be measured? Here is a preview of what the data reveals.
    Surveys asking people about life satisfaction and happiness do measure subjective well-being with reasonable accuracy.
    Life satisfaction and happiness vary widely both within and among countries. It only takes a glimpse at the data to see that people are distributed along a wide spectrum of happiness levels.
    Richer people tend to say they are happier than poorer people; richer countries tend to have higher average happiness levels; and across time, most countries that have experienced sustained economic growth have seen increasing happiness levels. So the evidence suggests that income and life satisfaction tend to go together (which still doesn’t mean they are one and the same).
    One of the earliest theories on the relationship between money and happiness was outlined by Richard Easterlin. He’s an economics professor at the University of Southern California (USA).
    Professor Easterlin found that countries with higher median incomes are generally happier than countries with lower levels. In fact, he discovered that, as long as citizens have enough income to meet their basic needs, they tend to be happy.
    Easterlin argued that life satisfaction rises with average income, but only up to a point. Beyond that, the marginal gain in happiness decreases. In a nutshell, the happiness-income paradox is as follows: At one point, both between and within nations, happiness varies directly with income but, over time, happiness doesn’t increase when a country’s income increases.Having more money buys satisfaction with life, but not happiness. However, low income is linked to both low emotional well-being and low evaluation of life.When people make a lot of money they feel more satisfied with the outcome of their life and less irritable, but that doesn’t mean they feel happy.
    As a matter of fact, the peace of mind that comes with having one’s basic needs covered has more to do with human rights than with the scope of the feeling of happiness. Obviously, if you don’t have basic needs such as shelter or food, it’ll be extremely difficult to experience peace of mind and, thus a feeling of general happiness.
    A study conducted by Elizabeth W. Dunn, Lara B. Aknin, and Michael I. Norton and published in 2008 in Science, concluded that money buys happiness, but only if it’s spent on someone else. In fact, the study discovered a direct correlation between the amount people spent on gifts for others and an increase in their feelings of accomplishment.
    For a second study, the team surveyed employees at a company who’d just received profit-sharing bonuses. The amount of this bonus that workers spent on others predicted their happiness six to eight weeks later. On the other hand, the part of the bonus they spent on themselves had no effect on their happiness.
    In a third study, the team gave research participants between five and 20 dollars and instructed them to spend the money on themselves or others. Then, their happiness was determined. The study found that those who spent their money on others were happier than those who didn’t.
    It’s not how much you earn, but how you spend it
    While researchers may have looked at this age-old question from various angles, they generally agree that happiness doesn’t depend so much on how much we earn, but on how we choose to spend it.
    Therefore, can it be said that money buys happiness? Maybe, depending on how we spend it.
    For instance, in your own life, you may have noticed that getting a raise or bonus didn’t make you happier in the long run. The initial euphoria quickly dissipated as you got used to the new pay.
    Or, perhaps you found that buying the new smartphone or the latest gadget didn’t do much for your happiness. That doesn’t mean that it didn’t give you enjoyment, but that has nothing to do with your happiness in the medium-long term.
    Keys to spending money as an investment in our well-being
    Science claims that there are a few ways money can be spent that are guaranteed to give longer-lasting pleasure:
    Buying more time
    A UCLA study of 4,400 Americans showed that people who value time more than money are generally happier than those who don’t believe that having more time is better than having more money.
    People mistakenly believe that buying things that last longer and even appreciate in value will keep them happy much longer than experiences. Nevertheless, in reality, you quickly get used to the new designer winter boots you once obsessed over. Although you might still enjoy wearing them, that initial rush of happiness you experienced in the first few weeks quickly fades.
    However, a great experience like a vacation on an exotic island will remain in your memory for life. You’ll always remember those moments as a wave of pleasure. Indeed, experiences may be fleeting, but the joy they bring will last a long time. They’re the kinds of sensations and memories that can cheer you up when you’re feeling down and encourage you to organize similar experiences.
    Spending on friends and family
    You’ll feel greater satisfaction when you spend time and money on the people who really matter to you. After all, we’re all social animals and having healthy relationships with others is essential for our physical and mental health.
    Spending money on experiences is more rewarding because you often share those good times with a spouse, friend, or family. Even going shopping together is more fun than doing it alone.
    Why does it make us happy to spend money on others? Psychologists say it’s because it makes us feel good about ourselves. Giving to others enhances a loving and generous image of ourselves that makes us happy. It helps us connect more with them, and people with strong social ties are generally happier than people without.
    To a certain extent, money contributes considerably to feelings of well-being. However, beyond that point, more money doesn’t necessarily translate into a happier person. Nonetheless, with conscious and correct spending, money can, indeed, buy a certain amount of happiness.
    Money And Happiness Don’t Always Go Together
    No. 8
    Economic Development refers to an overall development of the quality of life in a nation, which includes economic growth. Increase in the volume of goods and services produced and consumed along with improved living circumstances, with equitable distribution, improved healthcare service outcomes, by making education accessible to all, by enhancing the overall quality of personal, social and professional conditions and most importantly without environmental degradation.. Economic Development refers also to a process of gradual transformation and improvement in the level of functioning of an economy.

    Economic Growth refers to an increase in the monetary (income) or output growth of a nation. It is an increase in size evident through physical change.
    However, since the country has failed to manage its resources properly, there has been a slow rate of growth and development for over 60 years of independence.
    Following the pandemic induced recession in 2020, Nigeria’s economic growth recovered but macroeconomic stability weakened. Amidst global commodity shocks, a depreciating currency, trade restrictions, and monetization of the deficit, inflation is surging and pushing millions of Nigerians into poverty. Since 2021, Nigeria is also unable to benefit from the surging global oil prices, as oil production has fallen to historic lows and petrol subsidy continues to consume a larger share of the gross oil revenues.
    In 2018, 40% of Nigerians (83 million people) lived below the poverty line, while another 25% (53 million) were vulnerable. With Nigeria’s population growth continuing to outpace poverty reduction, the number of Nigerians living in extreme poverty is set to rise by 7.7 million between 2019 and 2024.
    While the economy is projected to grow at an average of 3.2% in 2022-2024, the growth outlook is subject to downside risks including further declines in oil production and heightened insecurity. Meanwhile, continued scarcity of foreign exchange and tighter liquidity could affect the economic activity in the non-oil sector and undermine the overall macroeconomic stability. The uncertainty is also expected to be accompanied by high inflation and continued fiscal and debt pressures.
    While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the World Bank’s 2020 Human Capital Index. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.
    Inequality, in terms of income and opportunities, remains high and has adversely affected poverty reduction. The lack of job opportunities is at the core of the high poverty levels, regional inequality, and social and political unrest. High inflation has also taken a toll on household’s welfare and high prices in 2020-2022 are likely to have pushed an additional 8 million Nigerians into poverty.

  29. Avatar Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka reg no: 2019/246458 economics says:

    Answers:
    1.Before the emergence of Seer’s theory, there was a general believe amongst economists that development occurred when a country has a sustained economic growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Many less developed propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development. This propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development.To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared.

    2. Economic development describes all involvement that makes an economy to develop as well as when output increase in terms of poverty reduction (that is all the citizens of an economy/country are living above a dollar daily)
    when these happen in relation to its sustainability, we say that the poverty level will tend to reduce and if output is equally distributed or there is elimination of inequality in terms of output, the economy will tend towards development.

    3. Freedom is the ultimate goal of economic development as well as most efficient means of realizing welfare, overcoming deprivation is central to development. Unfreedom includes hunger, famine, ignorance, an unsustainable economic life, unemployment, barriers to fulfilment by women by minority communities, premature death.

    4.Women are known for keeping the home first, Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. It is very important for the nations development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations.

    5. Being able to live long: if citizens of an economy tend to live longer, it will directly boast the productivity of the economy as there will be enough manpower needed for productive activities
    Being well nourished: good nourishment (not food) is very vital for the development of an economy, if citizens has the right type of nourishment it will show in their economic development
    Being well clothed: the productivity of citizens of an economy can also be affected by the clothing they have on at seasons of production. i.e. wearing of light and well covered cloth in summer than wearing of thick clothing can boast productivity
    Being able to take part in the life of the community.

    6. Sustenance: when one has the ability to afford basic necessities. i.e. an employed salary earner who can afford his need with his income without borrowing aver a long period of time can directly affect how the economy develops.
    Self-esteem: having trust in oneself can go a long way on how productivity will be attained. i.e. when one take risks and boast investment in businesses
    Economic development can be reached easily.
    Freedom from servitude: To be able to choose how you live in your productivity can go a long way in determining economic development
    i.e. citizens that have freedom to work where their productivity is higher.

    7. Income generates happiness if it is steady enough to purchase necessities. If the income earned from output is good enough for purchase and good livelihood, it will bring happiness

    8.
    Economic growth
    This refers to increase in the monetary(income) growth of a nation in a particular period. It takes place when there is a sustained (ongoing for at least 1-2 years) increase in a country output of goods and services.
    Economic development
    It refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth. It occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises, including both income and other dimensions like health and illiteracy.

  30. Avatar Ogbodo Emmanuel Chukwuemeka says:

    Answers:
    1.Before the emergence of Seer’s theory, there was a general believe amongst economists that development occurred when a country has a sustained economic growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Many less developed propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development. This propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development.To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared.

    2. Economic development describes all involvement that makes an economy to develop as well as when output increase in terms of poverty reduction (that is all the citizens of an economy/country are living above a dollar daily)
    when these happen in relation to its sustainability, we say that the poverty level will tend to reduce and if output is equally distributed or there is elimination of inequality in terms of output, the economy will tend towards development.

    3. Freedom is the ultimate goal of economic development as well as most efficient means of realizing welfare, overcoming deprivation is central to development. Unfreedom includes hunger, famine, ignorance, an unsustainable economic life, unemployment, barriers to fulfilment by women by minority communities, premature death.

    4.Women are known for keeping the home first, Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. It is very important for the nations development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations.

    5. Being able to live long: if citizens of an economy tend to live longer, it will directly boast the productivity of the economy as there will be enough manpower needed for productive activities
    Being well nourished: good nourishment (not food) is very vital for the development of an economy, if citizens has the right type of nourishment it will show in their economic development
    Being well clothed: the productivity of citizens of an economy can also be affected by the clothing they have on at seasons of production. i.e. wearing of light and well covered cloth in summer than wearing of thick clothing can boast productivity
    Being able to take part in the life of the community.

    6. Sustenance: when one has the ability to afford basic necessities. i.e. an employed salary earner who can afford his need with his income without borrowing aver a long period of time can directly affect how the economy develops.
    Self-esteem: having trust in oneself can go a long way on how productivity will be attained. i.e. when one take risks and boast investment in businesses
    Economic development can be reached easily.
    Freedom from servitude: To be able to choose how you live in your productivity can go a long way in determining economic development
    i.e. citizens that have freedom to work where their productivity is higher.

    7. Income generates happiness if it is steady enough to purchase necessities. If the income earned from output is good enough for purchase and good livelihood, it will bring happiness

    8.
    Economic growth
    This refers to increase in the monetary(income) growth of a nation in a particular period. It takes place when there is a sustained (ongoing for at least 1-2 years) increase in a country output of goods and services.
    Economic development
    It refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth. It occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises, including both income and other dimensions like health and illiteracy.

  31. Ogili Edmond Onyedikachi
    2019/244358
    Economics/philosophy
    C.S.S.

    CONTINUATION

    4. Traditionally the role of women just revolved around taking care of household but now they have evolved into take various professional jobs in the civil service like teaching, nursing, clerical jobs which depends greatly on wemen and actively participating in the development of the society at large. Now let us discuss the role of women in education. First of note that the first form of education a child encounters is from the mother right from the moment he/she starts to use his senses. From the basics knowledge and use of language to the consequences of every action they take. Women in the family are the ones that actually encourage their children to go to school to get a better education which the adversely increase literacy rate in the nation . And now due to the decrease in gender inequality they have increased the number of labour force and also approach the world with innovative mind set.
    As it is said that “show me a successful man and I will show you the woman by his side”. For me I interpret this a PEACE, for what everyman desires is peace of mind and when he lacks this their can not be progress in his life.
    Now relating this to the bigger picture, women are an advocate of peace by giving teaching their children good morals and values which help in reducing crime rate in a nation while maintaining orderliness.
    Due to the way they are emotional sensitive they help to bring out moderate governmental policies when in political positions or authorities.
    The role of women in the society is tantamount to the development of a notion.

    5

    6. According to the Noble Laureate Dr. Amartaya Sen. There three core values of development are which are; Sustenance, Self-esteem, and Freedom from servitude.
    Now sustenance is the ability to provide or afford the basics necessities of life. They are things we need to survive and they are classified as “needs” not “wants”. These should be made available for the people regardless of status or class in other to improve the standard of living. For a man who is hungry can not perform well and may end up involving himself in social vices. Examples of these are food, shelter, health, protection/security, electricity.
    Self-esteem varies from one culture to another in certain areas it could be identified by wealth and prosperity while in some, it could be through intellectual achievement. Which ever one it is indicates the presence of development and if they are found in almost every home, then the nation is on the part to economic development.
    Lastly, freedom from servitude has to do with liberty to speak, engage in productive activities, mobility, and in politics as well. When the people of a certain nation have the power to decide on how the system should be run (positively) and whom authority is giving to, only then can their internet be represented rightly. And that is what we are about to facing now in Nigeria, and Peter Obi seems to be the only light at the end of the tunnel.

    7. Yes the level of income has a good influence on the level of happiness of the people. Because those In poverty can no escape the trouble associated with it , they can now provide security for their families, good house, better education and so on and that is where the well-being; of life evaluation in been seen. While on the other hand the happiness that comes from emotional well-being is dependent on the activities you engage in not for money gain’s but for your own personal growth. In all happiness in highly relative depending on what it is associated with.
    But just so you know an increase in income will surely affect my level of happiness.

  32. Avatar OGBONNA MMESOMA RITA says:

    Ogbonna Mmesoma Rita
    Social science education/Economics
    2019/243578

    Answer
    1: Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development.

    4: Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    The role of women as volunteers in local and international organizations for development has global collective recognition. The global Volunteers Community Development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the development and direction of local leaders, women volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools and educate children and women through programmed extension works.

    5: Being literate is a vital human capability that enables people to make choices in area that matter.
    # Being healthy is being in good health or having or living in relationships with others to which they have real access.
    # Being nourished is having been provided with or sustain with food or nutrient; supply with that is necessary for life,health and growth.
    # Being mobile is if you are mobile,you can move or travel easily from place to place.

    6: Sustenance(ability to meet basic needs): according to Goulet it is the ability of people to meet the basic needs without which life will be impossible. These needs includes food,shelter,health and protection without livelihood and continuous Economic progress,the realization of human potential will be much more difficult.
    • Self esteem: This value talked about a sense of worth and self respect, a sense of not being used as a tool by others for their own selfish ends.self esteem is nowadays increasingly conferred only on countries and individual that posses economic wealth.especially Nigeria.
    • Freedom of servitude(ability to choose): Freedom here’s should be in form of being free from alienating material condition of life and from servitude to nature, ignorance misery and logmatic beliefs, especially that poverty is predestination. To be able to make political and economic choice that does not infringe on someone’s right. Unfortunately,this does not happen in Nigeria,the citizen don’t have the ability to choose, especially their leaders during elections because of lots of anomalies such as rigging of election accompanied by such election.

    7: Some scholars believes that all forms of well-being continued rising with income,your income can impact your happiness levels.they believes that financial stability helps people escape the every day hassles of life while others that disagree with the assertions believes that happiness comes from within,not from possession that can be bought. Beyond the ability to pay your bills, happiness is a state of mind that is short-lived when you base it on physical objects and members in an investment portfolio.

    8: Economic growth refers to increase in monetary or output growth of a nation in a particular period,it takes place where there is sustained(ongoing for at least 1-2 years)increase in a country’s output,goods and services.
    While Economic development refers to the overall development (increase)in the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth.it occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises including both human and other dimensions like health and literacy .
    # Economic growth it is a short term process while Economic development is a long term process which leads to progressive changes in a socio-Economic structure of a country.
    # Economic growth is s necessary but insufficient condition for Economic development while Economic development is a necessary and sufficient condition for improvement of human welfare,raising of living standard and reduction of poverty.

    In 2018, 40% of Nigerians (83 million people) lived below the poverty line, while another 25% (53 million) were vulnerable. With Nigeria’s population growth continuing to outpace poverty reduction, the number of Nigerians living in extreme poverty is set to rise by 7.7 million between 2019 and 2024.

    While the economy is projected to grow at an average of 3.2% in 2022-2024, the growth outlook is subject to downside risks including further declines in oil production and heightened insecurity. Meanwhile, continued scarcity of foreign exchange and tighter liquidity could affect the economic activity in the non-oil sector and undermine the overall macroeconomic stability. The uncertainty is also expected to be accompanied by high inflation and continued fiscal and debt pressures.

    Development Challenges

    While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the World Bank’s 2020 Human Capital Index. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.

    Inequality, in terms of income and opportunities, remains high and has adversely affected poverty reduction. The lack of job opportunities is at the core of the high poverty levels, regional inequality, and social and political unrest. High inflation has also taken a toll on household’s welfare and high prices in 2020-2022 are likely to have pushed an additional 8 million Nigerians into poverty.

  33. Avatar Odo Philomina Chinasa. Reg No. 2020/244344 (2/3) says:

    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    1. Development occurs with the reduction of and elimination of poverty, inequality answer employment within a growing economy .
    This is so because, development lift people out of poverty. 689 million people around the world live in extreme poverty, defined as living on less than 1.90 USD a day. As countries develop, their economies grow and living standards rise. This reduces the rate of poverty and allows more people to provide for themselves and their families and to live in dignity.
    Inequality : Development also reduces inequality. All of the most unequal countries in the world are in the developing world. In comparison, all of the least unequal countries are among the most developed.
    Unemployment : Development brings reduction of unemployment. Developed countries do not engage so much in importation of goods from other countries. Most of the goods they use are manufactured in their country. Importation of goods can lead to unemployment because, continued Importation of cheaper products from foreign countries may reduce the level of production of local industries producing similar products and this may result in retrenchment of workers .
    Economic development may be defined as the process whereby the level of national production (that is ,national income ) or per capital income increases over a period of time. The main purpose of economic development is to raise the standard of behaviour and the general well being of the people in an economy (Ande 2008).
    2 . Economics development is the economics study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-beingand quality of life of a nation, religion, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.
    Economic development lay emphasis on improvements in the general welfare as a result of of more equitable distribution of the increased output of goods and services among individuals. Economic development reveals all aspects of economic activities and emphasises a more even distribution of facilities between various areas.
    Economic development, and measure of it can be achieved by a fairer distribution of existing goals and services even if there is no substantial increase in output . Development implies a reduction in the level of unemployment.
    Economic development, when there is a quitable distribution of income in a country, there will be reduction of poverty and unemployment. Again, where there is equitable distribution in any country, the gap between the rich and the poor will reduce.
    3. In the word of Amartya Sen , “development requires the removal of major source of unemployment, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of regressive state.
    Development brings employment opportunities in a country. Developed countries have equitable infrastructure distribution such as good roads, schools, water etc. Having such mentioned infrastructure, people will enjoy facilities in those places. These improve the living standards of the population. These infrastructures facilitate investments and building of industries which creates employment opportunities to the population. This also brings a reduction of poverty level of citizens. In terms of tyranny, developed countries law and order. Unlike undeveloped countries like Nigeria, many people no longer obeys laws and order. Laws are only obeyed by poor masses. Rich ones do whatever they like.
    In developed countries, there is freedom of movement, worship, speech etc. People have rights to say their opinion, worship with any choice of religion , move from one place to another as they like without any harm or hindrance. But it is not so in Nigeria. Non- politicians cannot say their opinion and go free. In terms of movement , people in Nigeria cannot move to anywhere they like due to the activities of terrorists, bandits herdsmen and unknown gunmen sponsored by the interest seekers of the populance.
    4. The central Role Of Women In National Development
    QWomen are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    5. Some important of “being and doing “in capability to function
    A. Able to live long : before you be able to fuction, you must be alive. And when you will be capable to function.Dead person cannot perform any function. Therefore dead country must not be a developed country.
    B. Being to be literate :Those who are educated have capability to function well in the society. They are the people who can reason well,Slow in taking offence, live life worthy of emulation, lead others etc. Any developed country has literatecitizens
    C. Being healthy: People that have capability to function are those that are healthy. Sick people are not capable to function. Healthy countries are developed countries q
    6. The three core values of development :
    A. Sustainance : Ability to meet basic needs. People in developed countries are more likely to live longer and happier lives . They are also generally more economically productive, hold better jobs, live in better quality housing and have access to better education and healthcare. All these factors contribute to a better standard of living for people in developed countries.
    As countries become more developed, they are better able to meet the needs of their citizens. They are not likely to be affected by crime, armed violence or political instability.
    B. Freedom of servitude : In developed countries, the condition of being forced to obey another person is not obtainable. Development reduces inequality. All of the most unequal countries in the world are in the developing countries. In comparison, all of the least unequal countries are among the most developed. As countries become more prosperous, inequality reduces.
    C. Self esteem : Development Increases access to
    Education and Education gives a person a chance of comanding position, honour, respect.in the society. Development improves the education system.

    7. Some scholars have argued that happiness has direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    Diener and Oishi examined the income – happiness correlation in 40 countries and found that the mean income – happiness correlation was 0.13. According to Dienerand Biswas-Diener, the income – happiness correlation in a national survey ranged from 0.12 to 0.18 in the USA, 0.06 to 0.15 in West Germany and 0.17 to 0.27 in the Russian Federation.
    Inglehart and colleagues (9)analyzed data from 52 countries and found that the income – happiness correlation was stronger in poorer countries than in richer countries. That is, money seems to buy more happinessin poorer countries than in richer countries. In this light, it is interesting to note that the income – happiness correlation was 0.45 among 83 residents in the slums of Calcutta (10). The main idea is that among those who are struggling to meet their basic needs, more money means greater access to basic goods (e.g drinking water, food, shelter ). In contrast, it is believed that once the basic needs are met, more money does not necessarily help increase one’s happiness(9,11).
    Based on Inglehart and colleagues findings (9) , the end of materialism hypothesis predicts that the income – happiness correlation should get smaller as a society gets richer. This is because most people in a wealthy society are presumably no longer concerned about money per say, and instead are concerned about non-material issues such as self-expression. Under such a condition, self-expression should become a stronger predictor of happiness than money per say. For example, in Nigeria, in the typical Igbo society, more income does not mainly bring income – happiness correlation but love and peace leaching to the popular saying that where there is love, there is peace and where there is peace there is happiness.
    8. DIFFERENT BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
    Economic growth is measured in certain time frame/period.
    quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic developmment refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Economic development also refers to:
    provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    equal access to resources
    participation of all in economic activities
    equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    It refers to increase in productivity.

  34. Avatar Izuagba Benjamin says:

    1. Development is an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation. Inorder for this to take place, alot has to be put in place which wouy require time,mental energy, money and other necessities. Its evaluation must therefore take into account three linked economic criteria which are reduction in poverty, unemployment and inequality.

    2. Economic development is the growth of the standard of living of a nation’s people from a low-income economy to a high-income economy, scarce resources are allocated to the unlimited want of the people, there is reduction of unemployment and equality in the allocation of scarce resource.
    Economic development has to do with growth in a country’s production level etc.

    3. poverty needs to be reduced for development to take place. There should be freedom from poverty, tyranny, inequality, poor economic opportunity etc. Nigeria is seen as an underdeveloped county today because of the rate at which it’s citizens are held captive by poverty and many other factors affecting economic development. Development consists of the removal of various types of unfreedoms that leave people with little choice and little opportunity of exercising their reasoned agency.

    4. women play the role of mothers, affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries.

    5. The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.
    The Capability Approach was first articulated by the Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen in the 1980s, and remains most closely associated with him. It has been employed extensively in the context of human development.

    6.Sustenance. This refers to the capacity to meet basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter. Lack of even one of these means that a person’s life is not progressive. A country develops if its citizens have enough or more than enough for their basic necessities, there is growth of income, extreme poverty is addressed, and there is equality among members of society.

    self-esteem The quality of life is good when there is respect, trust, and self-value. Each person has needs which can be achieved through the presence of respect, dignity, and a good reputation in society. A person’s worth as an individual cannot simply be measured by the ownership of material things which is often given emphasis by progressive capitalist countries such as the United States. In the Philippines, material wealth is not the only important thing but the love for one’s family, the family’s reputation, and a person’s dignity and self-esteem. A country is developed if this unique need of the people is addressed.

    Freedom from Servitude. This freedom is drawn from liberation from oppressive systems in society, poverty and abuse, slavery, ignorance, and the absence of the freedom to choose one’s culture or religion. This freedom can be seen in the range of choices in a society. What is good about development is not only the joy of being free from poverty but also the availability of a wide range of choices. In general, freedom prevails if people live a comfortable life, if they have the freedom to choose their religion, to vote and to express their opinion about administration and governance, and if they enjoy equal opportunities for education and employment.

    7. Money is a double edged sword,it is true that happiness has a direct core relation with higher income and it is also true that it doesn’t. Many people are living fine and happy because they have money to solve their problem but remember that the rich also cry, they also die. Despite the fact that the income of the people is increased which may make them happy, there are other factors affecting their happiness and they can be unsatisfied working condition, rich people are always insecure etc. Money doesn’t solve all issues but it’s essential.

    8. Economic growth is an automatic action. It means that it happens on its own. It does not need the involvement of economic development to increase. But for economic development to increase according to quality, economic growth is compulsory to occur. This happens because economic growth is a small yet significant role that it plays in economic development. Economic growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output of a nation while Economic development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quality of life of the nation.
    In Nigeria, While the economy is projected to grow at an average of 3.2% in 2022-2024, the growth outlook is subject to downside risks including further declines in oil production and heightened insecurity also Worldwide gross domestic product in 2021 was at about 12.259 USD per capita. GDP in Nigeria, on the other hand, reached USD 2.085 per capita, or 440.78 billion USD in the whole country. Nigeria is therefore currently ranked 30 of the major economies and last but not the least Nigeria can be classified as a Stage 3 in Rostow’s Modernization Model and Nigeria is an LDC. Nigeria can be classified as a Stage 3 because of its biggest industries, such as footwear, chemicals, cement and other construction materials, printing, ceramics, and textiles.

  35. Avatar EDWIN-UGODU STEPHEN CHIDI says:

    Edwin-Ugodu Stephen Chidi
    2019/251264
    Economics major

    Answers:
    1. As discussed by Dudley Seers, the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access
    The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.
    2. Economists use the term “potential output” or “potential GDP” to describe the economy’s maximum sustainable level of economic activity. Growth in potential GDP is determined by growth in the potential labor force (the number of people who want to be working when the labor market is strong) and growth in potential labor productivity. The potential labor force, in turn, grows through native population growth and immigration, while potential labor productivity grows through business investment in tangible capital (machines, factories, offices, and stores) as well as investments in R&D and other intangible capital. Improvements in labor quality due to education and training can also boost productivity, as can improvements in managerial efficiency or technology that allow businesses to produce more with the same amount of labor and capital.
    Well-conceived tax, regulatory, and public investment policies can complement labor force growth and private investment in expanding potential GDP. They can also reap public benefits that GDP does not necessarily capture, such as distributional fairness and health and safety protections. Poorly conceived policies, of course, can impede growth and hurt national economic welfare.
    Potential GDP represents the economy’s maximum sustainable level of economic activity. Actual GDP falls short of potential GDP in a recession, when aggregate demand is weak; it can temporarily exceed potential GDP in a boom, when aggregate demand is strong. But, over longer periods, actual GDP and potential GDP tend to grow together.The Great Recession produced a large output gap between actual and potential GDP, which narrowed only slowly over the next several years as the economy recovered from the recession. CBO projects that the remaining gap will be closed by the end of 2018 and that the major constraint on economic growth going forward will be the growth rate of potential output rather than weak aggregate demand.
    3. Everybody wants to be able to meet their full potential. The increase in economic opportunities that development brings to a country shows how vital it can be.  Every child has the right to access quality education. Poorer countries often fail to meet the education needs of their young people. Increased development would improve the education systems of many poorer nations. A more educated population also improves the economic position of a country as people are able to move into more highly skilled jobs and create more innovative businesses. Better infrastructure helps a country immensely. Improving roads, railways, airports, communications and utilities makes a country more efficient. It allows people to move and send information more easily, as well as transport goods and provide services more widely. Better infrastructure improves a countries economy, which in-turn allows countries to spend more on better infrastructure. People in developed countries are more likely to live longer and happier lives. They are also generally more economically productive, hold better jobs, live in better quality housing and have access to better education and healthcare. All these factors contribute to a better standard of living for people in developed countries.
    As countries develop, their economies grow and living standards rise. This reduces the rate of poverty and allows more people to provide for themselves and their families and to live in dignity. The more a country develops the more jobs are created. This gives more people access to quality, stable work and to be able to provide for themselves and their families. Better economic opportunities have been shown to reduce violence and crime, as well as reduce the likelihood of conflict. Better jobs are also related to improved quality of life for people. As well as creating better jobs, development is important for a country because it improves business and trade. As countries develop more international companies move in and trade with other countries grows. This further improves the countries economy and also further increases the range of good jobs on offer.
    4. At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity. The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability
    5. The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.

    6.According to Prof. Goulet, at least three basic components as core values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. These core values – sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom – represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies’? They relate to fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.
    (a) Sustenance:
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    (b) Self-esteem:
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed. Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.”
    (c) Freedom from Servitude:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.
    7. More income bring more happiness because; money is important to happiness. Ask anyone who doesn’t have it. Having a higher income, for example, can give us access to homes in safer neighborhoods, better health care and nutrition, fulfilling work, and more leisure time
    > Money reduces intense stress: There was no significant difference in how often the participants experienced distressing events—no matter their income, they recorded a similar number of daily frustrations. But those with higher incomes experienced less negative intensity from those events.
    > More money brings greater control: Those with higher incomes felt they had more control over negative events and that control reduced their stress. People with ample incomes felt more agency to deal with whatever hassles may arise.
    >Higher incomes lead to higher life satisfaction: People with higher incomes were generally more satisfied with their lives.
    8. Economic growth versus economic development:
    (I) Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy, while Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    (ii) Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy, while Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    (iii) Economic growth means an increase in real national income or national output, while Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.

    (iv) It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income, while* Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    (v) Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people, while Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.

  36. Avatar Okafor Roseline Chugo 2019/248202 says:

    1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss
    Dudley Seers suggests that development is when a country experiences a reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment. For him it is important to look at the different diversities of individual if we seek to enhance their capabilities. To this Seers goes on to identify a number of objectives for development for developing countries:
    a. That family incomes should be adequate to provide a subsistence package of food, shelter, clothing, and footwear.
    b. That jobs should be available to all family heads, not only because this will ensure that distribution of income will generally achieve subsistence consumption levels, but also because a job is something without which personality cannot develop.
    c. That access to education should be increased and literacy ratios raised.
    d. That the populace should be given an opportunity to participate in government.
    e. That national independence should be achieved in the sense that the views of other governments do not largely predetermine one’s own government’s decisions.
    Seer explains that the above objectives are very crucial in determining the success of individual in actualizing the kind of life he or she may have reason to value.There is explicitly in Seers a sequent aspect to this. As progress is made towards the economic goals, that is ‘undernourishment, unemployment and inequality dwindle’.. ‘educational and political aims become increasingly important objectives of development’.
    2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.
    Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community. What “economic development” means to you will depend on the community you live in. Each community has its own opportunities, challenges, and priorities. Your economic development planning must include the people who live and work in the community.
    Though economic development priorities vary, economic development strategies often aim for common, positive results, such as:
    Creating more jobs and more job variety
    Keeping businesses and getting new ones
    A better quality of life
    More people and businesses paying taxes
    More productive use of property
    Promoting your community’s assets
    Making and selling more local products
    Getting more skilled workers living in your community

    3. In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details
    According to Send freedom is both the primary end and the principal means of development. Insofar as many of us have been critical of approaches to development that emphasize growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), rising personal incomes, industrialization, technological advance, or social modernization, freedom is also of important to development.
    Sen gives two reasons why freedom should be the primary element of development: first, the only acceptable evaluation of human progress is primarily and ultimately enhancement of freedom; second, the achievement of development is dependent on the free agency of people. Many people will agree with the first assertion, as long as the definition of freedom is wide enough to include freedom from material or spiritual want, which it does for Sen. The second assertion is more controversial within mainstream economics and popular discourse: the reason usually given by economists to cut back on public expenditures, including education, housing, healthcare and social welfare, is that poor economies cannot afford such expenditures and that development (in terms of economic growth) must happen first and only then can societies afford to look after the social welfare of their people (for a classic version of this ‘stage’ thesis, see Rostow, 1960). Sen breaks with this orthodoxy, providing evidence that high incomes do not necessarily lead to wellbeing (for instance, in terms of life expectancy), and arguing that welfare expenditures can be a spur to rather than a drain on economic growth, especially since they are labor-intensive and since labor is so cheap in poor countries. Thus, he argues against the ‘Lee Thesis’, named for President Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore, which states that denying political and civil rights is acceptable if it promotes economic development and the general wealth of the population (Sen, 1999:15). He rightly insists that we should approach political freedoms and civil rights not through the means of eventually achieving them (GDP growth) but as a direct good in their own right. Freedom is also good because it creates growth.
    4. Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development
    Women play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    5. Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function
    The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.
    6. Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example
    There are three main basic components or core values that serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the inner meaning of development. These core values are;

    Sustenance
    Self-esteem and
    Freedom
    These core values relate to the fundamental human needs and also represents common goals sort by all individuals and societies.

    Sustenance this means the ability to meet the basic necessities of life which is necessary to sustain an average human being. Such basic necessities are food, shelter, good health, protection, etc. Without these basic needs, living will be impossible. When any of these is absent or in short supply, absolute underdevelopment exists. Therefore, the basic function of any society is to provide a means of overcoming the helplessness and misery arising from lack of these basic needs. To this extent, we may say that economic development is a necessary condition for the improvement in the quality of life of the people.Without sustained and continuous economic progress, the realization of the human potential would not be possible because one has to have enough in order to have more. Rising per capita income and elimination of absolute poverty, greater employment opportunities, lessening income inequalities therefore constitutes the necessary but not the sufficient condition for measuring/ determining economic growth.

    Self-esteem this means the sense of worth and self-respect of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. All societies seek some basic form of self-esteem which may be called identity, dignity, respect, recognition, etc. It should be noted that the level of self-esteem varies from societies to societies and from cultures to cultures.

    However, with proliferation of the modernizing values of developed nations, many developing countries suffer from serious cultural confusion when they come in contact with economically and technologically advanced societies.
    Freedom from Servitude this means the ability to choose. Freedom here has to do with the sense of emancipation from undesirable conditions of life such as oppressive institutions, misery, dogmatic beliefs, etc.
    7. Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    While most people believe that having more income would make them happier, some researchers have found that the link is greatly exaggerated and mostly an illusion.
    People surveyed about their own happiness and that of others with varying incomes tended to overstate the impact of income on well-being, according to a new study. Although income is widely assumed to be a good measure of well-being, the researchers found that its role is less significant than predicted and that people with higher incomes do not necessarily spend more time in more enjoyable ways. For those that disagreed, “The belief that high income is associated with good mood is widespread but mostly illusory,” People with above-average income are relatively satisfied with their lives but are barely happier than others in moment-to-moment experience, tend to be more tense, and do not spend more time in particularly enjoyable activities. While to those that agreed with the assertion, Financial stability helps people escape the everyday hassles of life, When we wonder whether money can buy happiness, we may consider the luxuries it provides, like expensive dinners and lavish vacations. But cash is key in another important way: It helps people avoid many of the day-to-day hassles that cause stress, new research shows. Money can provide calm and control, allowing us to buy our way out of unforeseen bumps in the road, whether it’s a small nuisance, like dodging a rainstorm by ordering up an Uber, or a bigger worry, like handling an unexpected hospital bills.

    8. Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development.
    The differences between Economic growth and Economic development are:
    Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy. While Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy. Whereas Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. While Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic growth refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. While Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic growth focuses on production of goods and services. While Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports. Whereas Economic development relates to growth of human capital indexes and decrease in inequality.It is concerned with how people are affected.

    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people. Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development. It is the subset of economic development. While Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Indicators of economic growth are: GDP, GNI, Per capita income
    While the Indicators of economic development are: Human Development Index (HDI), Human Poverty Index (HPI), Gini Coefficient, Gender Development Index (GDI), Balance of trade and Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Nigeria’s output growth is at 3.4 percent in 2022 which marked the seventh consecutive quarter of growth driven by various services sectors, especially information technology, trade, and finance. Oil production has been on the decline since mid-2020, reflecting low investment and significant leakages associated with poor maintenance and theft. There’s a hike in prices of goods and services today because of fall in value of our currency in the international market. We’re among the underdeveloped countries in the world.

  37. Avatar EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM REG NO; 2019/245390 says:

    EZUGWU JOHNSON CHINECHEREM
    2019/245390
    ECONOMICS
    NUMBER ONE
    Before Dudley Seer propounded his theory of development, many economists believed that development is achieved when a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases are sustained over a long period of time. They believed that when such increases occurred, then that country has achieved development. To them, development was based mainly on material increase. Also, it was believed that economic development is achieved when there is a change in the structure of production and employment so that the share of agriculture in GDP and in employment declines, while that of manufacturing and services increases. These believe made development economists to focus more on industrialization at the expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith, 2006). Based on the believe, many developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s experienced increased in their Gross Domestic Product but the general levels of living of the masses remained unchanged. That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do not have any direct effect on quality of life of the people. These made many economists to reconsider what development really is and hence glamour for direct attack on widespread of poverty, increasing inequality in income distribution and rising unemployment. To them development should have a “human face”. That is, it should be something that should be seen in the lives of the people. Amongst these economists seeking for a direct approach on development was Dudley Seer, a British Economist who specialized in development economics. He came up with a concept that replaced the growth fetishism with a social development. According to Seer (1969), development is about the level of poverty, unemployment and inequality in a nation. To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared Seersto the (World Poverty Clock Report, 2018). This constitutes 46.4% of the estimated 195.6 million total populations. Likewise, in 2019, the figure increased to 93.7 million while in the first quarter of 2020, the figure further increased to 95.9 million people living in extreme poverty. Both figures of 2019 and 2020 (first quarter) constitute 48% of the total population of Nigeria in the respective years. This study therefore seeks to employ the Dudley Seer’s theory of development by particularly using Seer’s key development indicators of poverty, unemployment, and inequality to measure Nigeria’s development situation, with a view of proffering solutions to the problem.
    NUMBER TWO
    Income inequality, poverty, and economic growth are defined as an economy’s exposure to exogenous shocks arising out of poverty. The study used various econometric estimations to measure the effect of inequality and poverty on economic development during 1990 to 2016 in Vietnam. Various econometric estimation tests confirmed the presence of a long-run association between inequality and poverty, and economic growth is the matter of poverty headcount ratio in Vietnam. When we added the investment-to-GDP ratio and the number of years in education, it decreases by -0.144. This is reduced to -0.05 when log population growth rate was added while the employment, the coefficient decreases to -0.04 and becomes statistically insignificant. We found a negative impact of poverty and we reassess the hypothesis’s emphasis on inequality and poverty and their combining effect of inclusive economic growth. Interestingly our results verify the previous findings that inequality and poverty show a negative impact on economic growth. The negative impact of poverty and inequality on economic growth appears to be concentrated at the high poverty level. These findings recommend that poverty reduction policies should be beneficial in encouraging economic growth even if they do not decrease income inequality. Economic development is a critical component that drives economic growth in an economy, creating new job opportunities and facilitating an improved quality of life that includes increased access to opportunities created by economic growth for existing and future residents. The Orlando Economic Partnership’s economic development team works to attract and retain jobs for the Orlando region as well as grow existing industry sectors. The Partnership also works to align the region with a vision for the region’s growth that increases participation in the local economy (a vision the Partnership has termed While the work of economic developers often falls under the radar, building and sustaining the regional economy is a critical component to a successful community.
    These are the top six reasons why economic development plays a critical role in any region’s economy.
    1. Job creation
    Economic developers provide critical assistance and information to companies that create jobs in our economy. We help to connect new-to-market and existing companies with the resources and partners needed to expand, such as industry partners like Career Source Central Florida and the Florida High Tech Corridor, utilities, and local government partners.
    2. Industry diversification
    A core part of economic development works to diversify the economy, reducing a region’s vulnerability to a single industry. While tourism plays an important role in creating jobs in the Orlando region, economic development efforts help to grow industries outside of tourism, including advanced manufacturing, aerospace and defense, aviation, autonomousvehicles, biotechnologyandpharmaceuticals, business services, gaming, entertainment technology, financial technology, life sciences and healthcare, logistics and distribution, medical technology, and innovative technology.
    3. Business retention and expansion
    A large percentage of jobs in the Orlando economy are created by existing companies that are expanding their operations. The Partnership’s economic development team executes numerous business retention and expansion visits to local companies just last year to assist with their operational needs.
    4. Economy fortification
    Economic development helps to protect the local economy from economic downturns by attracting and expanding the region’s major employers. For example, when the COVID-19 pandemic heavily impacted the global leisure and hospitality industry, many technology companies transitioned focus to clients in the region’s modeling, simulation and training sector.
    5. Increased tax revenue
    The increased presence of companies in the region translates to increased tax revenue for community projects and local infrastructure. Economic development can also support major job creation initiatives such as the semiconductor research and development campus NeoCity, positioning the 500-acre development opportunity for critical funding for domestic semiconductor research and manufacturing through advocacy for the CHIPS and FABS Acts.
    6. Improved quality of life
    Better infrastructure and more jobs improves the economy of the region and raises the standard of living for its residents. Quality of place is more important than ever to attract a large talent pool in the era of increased remote workers.
    In addition, inclusive economic development works to support the community’s quality of life through initiatives such as supporting the regional transportation network, affordable housing, innovation and entrepreneurship as well as upskilling opportunities for the local workforce. These initiatives help to provide access and capabilities for existing workforce to take advantage of the new high-wage job opportunities created by economic development efforts.
    The Orlando Economic Partnership joins with other economic development organizations to celebrate International Economic Development Week. International Economic Development Week, hosted by the International Economic Development Council, is dedicated to creating awareness for economic development programs that impact the community and increase the quality of life. Learn more on the International Economic Development

    NUMBER THREE

    Development means freedom, according to Amartya Sen, perhaps the greatest development thinker of our times.

    Over the centuries, there have been very many theories of development. According to 1998 Nobel prize winner, Amartya Sen, freedom is both the primary objective of development, and the principal means of development. The human being is an engine of change.

    Sen is both the first Indian and the first Asian to win the Nobel prize for economics. In winning the Nobel prize, Sen was praised by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences “for his contributions to welfare economics” and for restoring “an ethical dimension” to the discussion of vital economic problems.

    According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.

    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.

    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”. Sen calculates that if women in Asia and North Africa were given the same health care and attention, the world would have 100 million more women.

    For Sen, “capability deprivation” is a better measure of poverty than low income. While higher GDP does produce improvements in most measures of the quality of life, but there are exceptions. Some places with low GDP/capita like Sri Lanka, China and the India state of Kerala have higher life expectancies and literacy rates than richer countries like Brazil, South Africa and Namibia. And Afro-Americans have a lower life expectancy than males in China and parts of India, although their average real income is far higher.

    Some see freedom as a potential disturbance to political stability and development. They recommend repressive interventions of the state in stifling liberty, initiative and enterprise, and in crippling the working of the individual agency and cooperative action. Sen attacks Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew and his theories of Asian values which are used to justify political repression. For Sen there is no such thing as Asian values in a continent with vastly disparate populations and traditions, and containing 60 per cent of the world’s population. And as Dani Rodrik said, the economic performance of authoritarian regimes is either very good or very bad – and usually very bad. Most democracies occupy the middle ground.

    So how did the dynamic economies of East Asia develop so rapidly? Sen highlights “social opportunities” provided by government in the form of schooling, basic health care, basic land reform, and microcredit. These economies were riding on the success of the individual entering the market. While many of these economies were not democratic, some like Korea, Taiwan, Thailand became more democratic over time.

    Sen has been instrumental in the thinking of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on human development, including the creation of the human development index (HDI) which is a composite index that measures the average achievement in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined gross enrolment ration for primary, secondary and tertiary schools; and a decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita in purchasing power parity US dollars. While the concept of human development is much broader than any single composite index can measure, the HDI offers a powerful alternative to income as a summary measure of human well-being.

    Sen worked closely with the UNDP on its Human Development Report 2004, “Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World”. This report argues that an essential element of human development is cultural freedom, namely the freedom to choose one’s identity and to exercise that choice without facing discrimination or disadvantage.

    Cultural freedoms should be embraced as basic human rights and as necessities for the development of the increasingly diverse societies of the 21st century. All people should have the right to maintain their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identities. The adoption of policies that recognize and protect these identities is the only sustainable approach to development in diverse societies. Economic globalization cannot succeed unless cultural freedoms are also respected and protected, and the xenophobic resistance to cultural diversity should be addressed and overcome.

    Very few people would quibble with what Sen has to say. In fact, many observers find his views somewhat trite. But the real challenge is how to transform a state that does not accord freedom to its citizens into state that does so. Sen has very little advice for us here.

    Moreover, freedom deficits still exist in so-called developed countries, and the situation may be moving backwards. Political freedoms are compromised by vested interest politics in the US, and oligarchic powers in Japan and much of Europe. Protectionism of large enterprises, especially in Europe and Japan, limit the economic freedom of small and medium size enterprises. Social opportunities are constrained in most countries as the rich have much better access than the poor to health and education services. Sen does us all a good service in raising the issue of cultural freedoms. The more these issues are discussed the better. But progress will require massive changes in attitudes.

    More fundamentally, Sen does not address the issue of how individual freedoms should be nested into society, where we all have to forego some freedom in order to live together peacefully.
    NUMBER FOUR
    There is an adage that says; behind every successful man is a woman‘‘. Women have been regarded as fragile hence, be subordinate to the man. In the recent times we know that some women can play very important role for the betterment of the society more than their male counterpart. Their supposedly fragile nature has made them to have domineering influence over men on many occasions in the history of mankind. For instance during the pre-colonial era women played a very significant role in history for instance, in the ancient Zaria in the North, there were records of women who held titles and offices like the Iya, Magajiya, and Mardanni‘, before the 1804 jihad. These women titleholders held outstanding positions in the societies. Just as their male counterparts, they wielded power in the administration of their towns. The modern city of Zaria was founded in the first half of the 16th century by a woman called Queen Bakwa Turuku she had a daughter called Amina who later succeeded her as queen. Queen Amina of Zaria was a great and powerful warrior, she became famous because of her widespread conquests. She built high walls around Zaria in other to protect the city from invasion. She extended her influence to Nupe, built many cities, and received tributes from many powerful Hausa leaders (Okonjo, 1975). The people of Kano and Kastina paid tributes to her. She turned Zaria into a very prominent commercial center. Yet again another vital role played by women in historyin the early colonial era was the Aba Women‘s Riots also known as the Women‘s War, it was an insurrection in British Nigeria which occurred in November 1929. The revolt broke out when thousands of Igbo women from Umuahia and other places in eastern Nigeria travelled to the town of Oloko to protest against the warrant Chiefs because of the obnoxious taxes imposed on them by the colonial masters. The protest encompassed women from six ethnic groups (Ibibio, Andoni, Ogoni, Bonny, Opobo, and Igbo) it was organized and led by rural women of Owerri and Calabar province. Essentially, the riot was a response to the women‘s economic and political suppression during the colonial period in Nigeria, (Uchendu, 1993:37). The one million naira question is not whether or not women should be involved in national development, but rather to what extent and at what levels should they be involved? At first sight, this question seems naive and overly simplistic. But on a more sober reflection, the import of the question appears as an albatross on the landscape of unimaginative thought. Women, it must be admitted, have crucial role to play in any society that of ensuring the perpetuation of the human race. Although, obviously men are crucial partners with the women in this noble enterprise, there is no gain saying the fact that women have more direct, more enduring, and more challenging responsibility in the entire process of societal regeneration. It is, perhaps, in recognition of this very important role of women in the perpetuation and development of the human race that educationists have averred, ―educate a man and you educate an individual, but educate a woman, you educate a nation‖. A women does not only bring a child into this world, in partnership with a man, she outlays the man in this wonderful and sacred game by appropriating or monopolising a larger part of the socialization function, a vital process in the up-bringing of the child. Needless to say, this role is both natural and social. The first face a child recognises is that of the mother. In the process of breast feeding, the child fixes its tender and innocent eyes on the mother‘s face, it not only recognized the face and appreciates it, somehow, along the line, and an organic link strewn with reciprocal love develops between the mother and the child. This is the natural and, if you like, the divine role of women in the process of human perpetuation. The first language a child learns and speaks is that of the mother, hence the expression ―Mother-tongue‖. And invariably, the first word a child speaks is ―mama‖ or words to that effect. From then on, other words that child learns and speaks are drawn from the mother‘s lexical reservoir. Infact, what the child later learns and knows about its society is derived from its (the child‘s) mother. This is the societal or social role of women in the process of societal perpetuation. It is, therefore, clear, even if by an unkindness extension of the arguments above, that women have enormous responsibilities, first to God, then to man, and finally to society, in the entire process of human creation, socialisation and betterment. For want of a better expression, we shall refer to these tripartite functions as the great tripod of women‘s role in national development.
    NUMBER FIVE
    At the core of the capability approach is a normative commitment to conceptualize well-being in terms of capabilities and functionings. Functionings are ‘doings and beings’, that is, various states of human beings and activities that a person has achieved, such as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling, while capabilities are the real, or substantive, opportunity that they have to achieve these doings and beings. A person’s ‘capability-set’ denotes the set of capabilities that he or she can choose from, while the term ‘basic capabilities’ refers either to “the innate equipment of individuals that is necessary for developing the more advanced capabilities”, such as the capability of speech and language, which is present in a newborn but needs to be fostered (Nussbaum 2000, 84), or to the freedom to do some basic things considered necessary for survival and to avoid or escape poverty or other serious deprivation (Sen 1992, 45, fn. 19). The relevance of basic capabilities is “not so much in ranking living standards, but in deciding on a cut-off point for the purpose of assessing poverty and deprivation” (Sen 1987b, 109).
    Recently, there has been a discussion within the capability literature about whether capabilities and functionings should be limited to only encompass positively valued doings and beings — such as according to a normative theory, those that we have reason to value, or those which promote some ultimate normative aim, such as human dignity or agency — or whether capabilities and functionings are value-neutral concepts that encompass not only normatively positive but also negative and neutral doings and beings (Byskov 2020; Robeyns 2017).
    Why is the value-laden definition of capabilities problematic, according to its critics? First, if what counts as a capability is – by definition – normatively valuable then it risks ignoring that the value of a certain set of capabilities and functionings may also crucially depend on what it does not allow one to do or be or if it allows one to realize morally bad functionings, such as committing murder or polluting (Carter 2014; Dowding and Van Hees 2009). The value-laden conception of capabilities analytically excludes such non-normatively valued doings and beings from consideration, even though they may be just as important for the valuation of a capability-set as positively valued doings and beings.
    The second reason why the value-laden definition might be problematic is because it excludes applications of the capability framework that are not concerned with what is valuable or not, and in some cases are concerned with morally bad capabilities. Two such capability applications are the conceptualization of phenomena and empirical purposes. For example, an empirical study that investigates the prevalence of domestic violence in a society would be concerned with whether husbands have capability (and functioning) of exercising such violence – a clear-cut case of a morally bad, yet highly relevant, capability. Thus, if the definition of capabilities and functionings is limited to only encompass normatively valuable or positive doings and beings, it excludes applications of the capability approach that are concerned with morally bad doings and beings and capability applications that are not concerned with whether capabilities are valuable or not.
    In contrast to the value-laden definition, proponents of the value-neutral definition of capabilities and functionings hold that doings and beings can be both positively and negatively valued as well as normatively neutral. A capability, according to this definition, is simply the freedom that people have to do or be certain things. Examples of capabilities that are usually evaluated positively are being well-nourished, sheltered, and educated, while examples of capabilities that are usually negatively valued are the ability to kill (Stewart and Deneulin 2002, 67), the ability to rape, being vulnerable to natural hazards, and being able to pollute (Holland 2008, 418; Nussbaum 2006, 166). Because both positively and negatively valued capabilities determine how well-off we are, it is necessary that capabilities are defined in a way that includes both.
    Other capabilities, meanwhile, are morally ambiguous or morally neutral. An example of a morally ambiguous capability is the capability to care or provide care, which can at different times either be rewarding, for example for parents caring for a child, and a burden, especially for women who often face societal pressure to take on the brunt of care activities. An example of a morally neutral capability is the ability to choose between two equally effective and sustainable brands of washing liquid (Williams 1987). On the face of it, whether we can choose between different brands of washing liquid is of little relevance if our purpose is to conceptualize healthcare or if we are interested in measuring a rural community’s access to infrastructure. However, that is not to say that prima facie irrelevant doings and beings cannot become relevant. If, for example, one brand of washing liquid were shown to have a positive or negative effect on health, then it would be relevant for a capabilitarian conceptualization of health to include the capability to choose between different brands of washing liquid. No doings and beings are a priori irrelevant and, according to its proponents, only a value-neutral definition of capabilities can accommodate for this fact.
    Lastly, it should be noted that it is only necessary to adopt the value-neutral definition at the level of the capability approach as a general framework. Although the concept of capabilities is value-neutral, for more particular purposes and theories it will be useful and probably necessary to further specify by which criteria we make a selection of capabilities, according to that purpose or theory, and whether it will only focus on valuable doings and beings or also take bad capabilities into account.
    NUMBER SIX

    According to Todaro, Development must, therefore, be conceived of as a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty.
    Development, in its essence, must represent the whole gamut of change by which an entire social system, tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and social groups within that system, moves away from a condition of life widely perceived as unsatisfactory, toward a situation or condition of life as materially and spiritually “better”.
    According to Prof. Goulet, at least three basic components as core values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. These core values – sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies’? They relate to fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.

    Sustenance:
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    Self-esteem:
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed. Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment. Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.
    Freedom from Servitude:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.

    NUMBER SEVEN
    Most of us have heard that money can’t buy happiness. But the way you view wealth and materialism may have a significant effect on how satisfied and happy you are with your life, according to a new study published in the journal Applied Research in Quality of Life.
    Money can be a tool to motivate you to achieve major milestones in your life, which can make you feel happier in the long run,” Jenny Jiao, study author and assistant professor of marketing at Binghamton University School of Management, said in a press release.
    After analyzing results from a survey of over 7,500 German adults for the study, researchers at the Binghamton University School of Management found that people’s feelings about materialism tend to be nuanced. Specifically, there’s a difference between “happiness materialism” and “success materialism,” the researchers found.
    Buying into “happiness materialism” the belief that wealth is an indicator of a happy life tends to be problematic because it takes “much time, energy and money away from other life domains that make an important and positive contribution to present life satisfaction,” such as family, work and health, the study authors wrote.
    However, researchers believe focusing on “success materialism”the idea that wealth signifies success enhances people’s “economic motivation,” or their drive to work and improve their standard of living. Thinking about success through that lens could make individuals more satisfied with their present lives and hopeful about the future.
    This simple mindset shift could make a difference in the way people view success and their lives, but of course there are other variables at play. For example, while this study didn’t cover how income specifically affects life satisfaction, researchers agree that it also impacts people’s happiness. A 2010 study out of Princeton University found that there’s a correlation between happiness and wealth, to a point of about $75,000 per year. When people make more than $75,000 a year, their happiness doesn’t increase, but the lower their income is the worse they feel, the study found.
    Jiao added in the press release that, above all, it’s important to keep in mind the things that bring you happiness that don’t come with a price tag. “These include family, friends, your health, continual learning and new experiences,” she said
    NUMBR EIGHT
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and healthcare
    The fundamental differences between economic growth and development are explained in the points given below:
    1. Economic growth is the positive change in the real output of the country in a particular span of time economy. Economic Development involves a rise in the level of production in an economy along with the advancement of technology, improvement in living standards, and so on.
    2. Economic growth is one of the features of economic development.
    3. Economic growth is an automatic process. Unlike economic development, which is the outcome of planned and result-oriented activities.
    4. Economic growth enables an increase in the indicators like GDP, per capita income, etc. On the other hand, economic development enables improvement in the life expectancy rate, infant mortality rate, literacy rate, and poverty rates.
    5. Economic growth can be measured when there is a positive change in the national income, whereas economic development can be seen when there is an increase in real national income.
    6. Economic growth is a short-term process that takes into account the yearly growth of the economy. But if we talk about economic development it is a long-term process.
    7. Economic Growth applies to developed economies to gauge the quality of life, but as it is an essential condition for development, it applies to developing countries also. In contrast, economic development applies to developing countries to measure progress.
    8. Economic Growth results in quantitative changes, but economic development brings both quantitative and qualitative changes.
    9. Economic growth can be measured in a particular period. As opposed to economic development is a continuous process so that it can be seen in the long run.
    Nigeria is still a developing country, and definitely cannot be classified as developed. The major problems in Nigeria are poor health care, infant mortality, corruption, and high illiteracy rates, among many others.

  38. Avatar Chidubem Joshua says:

    1. Development is an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation. Inorder for this to take place, alot has to be put in place which wouy require time,mental energy, money and other necessities. For a growing economy that needs development in different sectors, there should be creation of Jobs which will later lead to employment there by leading to a reduction in poverty,by in such situations there shouldn’t be inequality is order for proper balance to be carried on.

    2. Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community. The end goals of this policies is to bring a positive change in the composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources elimination or reduction of poverty and a reduction in inequalities and unemployment.
    These policies are aimed towards making this possible

    3.Yes I agree
    If we take a look at the U.S economy we would discover that the run a federalism system
    Which means that the state submit allocations the federal government
    Which means that in order for each state to have a substantial economy the must work hard,this also creates a positive competition among states. This system has given the citizens of the state freedom to express their ideas, allowing men to chase their dreams and aim for the stars.

    4. women play the role of mothers, affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries.

    5. The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.
    The Capability Approach was first articulated by the Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen in the 1980s, and remains most closely associated with him. It has been employed extensively in the context of human development.

    6.Sustenance. This refers to the capacity to meet basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter. Lack of even one of these means that a person’s life is not progressive. A country develops if its citizens have enough or more than enough for their basic necessities, there is growth of income, extreme poverty is addressed, and there is equality among members of society.

    self-esteem The quality of life is good when there is respect, trust, and self-value. Each person has needs which can be achieved through the presence of respect, dignity, and a good reputation in society. A person’s worth as an individual cannot simply be measured by the ownership of material things which is often given emphasis by progressive capitalist countries such as the United States. In the Philippines, material wealth is not the only important thing but the love for one’s family, the family’s reputation, and a person’s dignity and self-esteem. A country is developed if this unique need of the people is addressed.

    Freedom from Servitude. This freedom is drawn from liberation from oppressive systems in society, poverty and abuse, slavery, ignorance, and the absence of the freedom to choose one’s culture or religion. This freedom can be seen in the range of choices in a society. What is good about development is not only the joy of being free from poverty but also the availability of a wide range of choices. In general, freedom prevails if people live a comfortable life, if they have the freedom to choose their religion, to vote and to express their opinion about administration and governance, and if they enjoy equal opportunities for education and employment.

    7. it is true that happiness has a direct core relation with higher income and it is also true that it does that. Many be are living fine and happy because they have money to solve their problem but remember that the rich also cry, they also die. Despite the fact that the income of the people is increased which may make them happy, there are other factors affecting their happiness and they can be unsatisfied working condition, rich people are always insecure etc.

    8. Economic growth is an automatic action. It means that it happens on its own. It does not need the involvement of economic development to increase. But for economic development to increase according to quality, economic growth is compulsory to occur. This happens because economic growth is a small yet significant role that it plays in economic development. Economic growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output of a nation while Economic development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quality of life of the nation.
    In Nigeria, While the economy is projected to grow at an average of 3.2% in 2022-2024, the growth outlook is subject to downside risks including further declines in oil production and heightened insecurity also Worldwide gross domestic product in 2021 was at about 12.259 USD per capita. GDP in Nigeria, on the other hand, reached USD 2.085 per capita, or 440.78 billion USD in the whole country. Nigeria is therefore currently ranked 30 of the major economies and last but not the least Nigeria can be classified as a Stage 3 in Rostow’s Modernization Model and Nigeria is an LDC. Nigeria can be classified as a Stage 3 because of its biggest industries, such as footwear, chemicals, cement and other construction materials, printing, ceramics, and textiles.

  39. Avatar Chidiebere James Chiwendu says:

    Name: CHIDIEBERE JAMES CHIWENDU
    Reg no: 2019/249120
    Department: COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES [ECONOMICS & SOCIOLOGY]

    1.The word ‘development’ as clearly stated is widely used to refer to a specified state of advancement or growth in the economy with the reduction and elimination of poverty and unemployment. Professor Dudley Seers argues right because development is the write home of a good growing economy, development highlights that an economy is growing and in the right direction so yes development is the outcome.

    2.Economic development does not only revolve around a rise in output but also most changes i.e Changes in Composition of Output.
    This chapter develops a set of functions that describe in a stylized way the components of output: consumption, investment, government expenditure, gross exports, and imports that the economy utilizes in the best results.
    Shift in the allocation of productive resources is the process of assigning and managing productive resources in a manner that supports an economy’s strategic planning goals. While eliminating and reducing poverty and unemployment is the standard outcome of a growing economy.

    3.Yes I total agree,
    Sometimes the lack of the substantive freedoms relates directly to economic poverty, which robs people of the freedom to satisfy hunger, or to achieve sufficient nutrition, or to obtain remedies for treatable illnesses, or the opportunity to be adequately clothed or sheltered, or to enjoy clean water or sanitary facilities.
    In still other cases, the violation of freedom results directly from a denial of political and civil liberties by authoritarian regimes and from imposed restrictions on the freedom to participate in the social, political and economic life of the community. achievement of development is thoroughly dependent on the free agency of people.

    Political freedoms, in the form of free speech and elections, help to promote economic security.

    Social opportunities, in the form of education and health facilities, facilitate economic participation

    Economic facilities, in the form of opportunities for participation in trade and production, can help to generate personal abundance as well as public resources for social facilities

    With adequate social opportunities, individuals can effectively shape their own destiny and help each other.

    4.They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.
    And also this has created awareness among the women but failed to bring drastic change as per expectations. It suffers from some serious drawbacks such as illiteracy, lack of knowledge, non-availability of able women, corrupt leadership and Bias towards Elites and middle class.

    5.Functionings are ‘doings and beings’, that is, various states of human beings and activities that a person has achieved, such as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling,
    -marriage, a legally and socially sanctioned union, usually between a man and a woman, that is regulated by laws, rules, customs, beliefs, and attitudes that prescribe the rights and duties of the partners and accords status to their offspring (if any).
    -Being educated, the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
    -Traveling, go from one place to another, typically over a distance of some length.

    6.Sustenance:

    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    Example includes food, shelter, health and protection.

    Self-esteem:

    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed. Example includes political organizations you belong, or a social group you belong

    Freedom

    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development. Example freedom of speech.

    7:Happiness could be said to increase as the income increases but it isn’t said to be agreed by all scholars who states that there are some factors affecting happiness i.e Health, personal freedom, personal values, community and friends e.t.c

    8:Economic Growth refers to the increase in monetary income or output growth of a state in a particular period of time probably a year or two.
    Economic development refers to the overall performance of the quality of life in nation which also includes economic growth.
    Nigeria as a country is said to be undergoing development and could be referred to as an underdeveloped country in terms of development and as of growth we are still growing.
     

  40. Avatar AMAECHI EMMANUELLA ATHANASIUS says:

    AMAECHI EMMANUELLA ATHANASIUS
    2019/242299
    Economics Education

    ANSWER:
    1. Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries.it makes sense that poverty rates are related to the overall health of the economy. As the economy grows, so do opportunities for employment and growth. stronger labor markets and higher income levels tend to help families living in poverty move above the poverty threshold. while availability of work opportunity helps to eliminate unemployment and inequality within a growing economy.

    2. i Economic Development involves changes in composition of output. public expenditure improve economic growth by increasing productive capacity, as well as, gross product of the local economy in critical economy sectors. nonetheless, increased public expenditures will also lead to inflation and reduce government budget,thereby inflicting detrimental influence on the economy.
    ii. Economic Development involves shift in the allocation of productive resources. productivity is the key aspect of economic growth. However, it is also important to choose what should be produced with the growing importance of taking into account the issue of ecology, care for the protection of the natural environment.

    3. I agree with the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. The high rate of poverty as well as tyranny in the economy, keeps the economy stagnant and also poor economic opportunities. poor economic opportunities in-terms of job or unemployment opportunities,poor economic rejuvenation, leads to under or un-development in the economy.

    4.They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.

    5.capabilities approach is a normative approach to human welfare that concentrates on the actual capability of person to achieve lives they value rather than solely having a right or freedom to do so. capability is a possibility of a person in a deeply poverty-stricken area to find employment and support a family. However, such a possibility may not be real considering external circumstance for example, no food, clothing or shelter.

    6. There are three core values of development: (i) sustenance, (ii) self- esteem, and (iii) freedom. Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection. People should have access to these basic needs.
    Self-Esteem: Sense of worth and self-respect and feeling of not being marginalized are extremely important for individual’s well being. All peoples and societies seek some form of self-esteem (identity, dignity, respect, honor etc.). The nature and form of self-esteem may vary from on culture to another and from time to time. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equated with higher worthiness. One may consider individuals worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    Freedom from Servitude: Human freedom, the ability to choose, is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom, and other exploitative economic, social, and political relationships.

    7. happiness has a direct correlation with more income, cause looking the society and the economy standard of the society, we cant possibly do anything nowadays without money. so when our happiness is derived from things that cost us money. So therefore, our happiness is deprived from how much we earn or how much income we generate,to fulfill our desire want (our happiness). So, the more income we earn the more we can satisfy that desire want (our happiness).

    8.Economic growth is an increase in the production of goods and services in an economy. Increases in capital goods, labor force, technology, and human capital can all contribute to economic growth. while
    Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community. What “economic development” means to you will depend on the community you live in. Each community has its own opportunities, challenges, and priorities.
    we are where we are as a nation,in terms of growth and development, as result of the greedy and selfish desire which has kept the nation in perpetual economical want. The greedy selfish desire of our leaders has cause lack of adequate production of goods and services in an economy, availability of technology for production, and also their inability to create more jobs opportunity.

  41. Avatar ILOH+CHIOMA+SANDRA.+2019/244155 says:

    1. Poverty entails more than the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Development can be achieved in growing countries when these outcomes are achieved. Inequality means the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people. it also means the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities. Development can be improved when they eliminate discriminatory laws, policies and practices, government intervention in reduction of taxes. unemployment, the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find any work. Development can be improved when job opportunities, training and job campaign are open for individuals and youth who are willing and able to work.
    2. Composition of output is a stylized way the components of output: consumption, investment, government expenditure, gross exports, and imports. Development can be achieved when consumption, investment, expenditure and gross exports and imports are utilized efficiently.Allocation of scared resources to individuals who have unlimited wants should be well effective to promote development. Development which also involves reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment, and inequality, there positive outcomes can lead to development for growing countries..
    3. development requires removal of major sources of unfreedom. unfreedom means the absence of freedom, which involues lack of education, lack of ethic centricity, intolerance, lack of security, poverty, malnutrition, tyranny, etc leads to development in that, citizens or individuals who had freedom, good economic opportunities, free social participation in activities, and tolerance can bring about a well and exclusive developed country.
    4. The central role of women in national development involves recognition of the importance of the roles and status of women in development proces. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Women’s productive role includes all tasks that enhance the income and economy of the household and the community, e.g. crop and livestock production, handicrafts production, marketing and wage employment. invisible efforts to feed, clothe and nurture their families are the actions that sustain their communities.
    5. a)Being able to live long is one of the most important being and doing for capacity to function.
    b) being well nourished is another way where individuals look healthy and fit.
    c) being literate.
    d) being healthy.
    e)being well clothed
    f) being mobile.
    6. a) sustenance. b)self esteem. c) freedom from servitude.
    a) Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs includes food, shelter, health and protection.
    b) Self-esteem is satisfaction, confidence, and belief in yourself without seeking the validation of others to justify your belief in yourself.
    c) freedom means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs.
    7. there is no perfect coleration between happiness and perfect capital income, people could be poor but happy and rich but unhappy.
    8. a) Economic growth is the increase in the monetary and output growth in a nation within a particular period of time.
    while
    Economic development is the overall increase in the quality of life in a nation.
    b) Econonic growth is a narrower concept than economic growth.
    while
    Economic development is a broader than economic growth. it involves steady decline in agricultural GDP.
    c) Economic growth is a uni dimensional approach which deals with the increase in output of the nation.
    while
    Economic development is a multi dimension approach that looks into the income and as well as the quality of life of a nation.
    d) Economic growth is a short term process
    while
    Economic development is a long term process
    currently nigeria has a weakening economy, rising insecurity and violent conflicts threaten progress made in its democratic development. Amid deepening distrust in government and institutions, Nigeria has significant work to do in improving national, state and local security and governance. and in my opinion I will say that currently nigeria is not a developed country rather in Growth.

  42. Avatar Gabriels Sharon Chisom says:

    Gabriels Sharon Chisom
    2019/241572
    Sharongabriels123@gmail.com

    1- Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes i.e development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. He argues this because according to his speculations, these are indicators of development in an economy. A developing economy reduces or completely eliminates poverty among majority of the population living in the nation, they are able to afford the basic necessities needed to live healthy lives. Also, there are available jobs for all those who are willing and able to work, the rate of unemployment is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. All these are indicators that show an increase in the quality of life of those living within the economy of a nation. When these indicators are present, we can agree that development occurs in the economy.

    2- Economic Development involves changes in
    a) composition of output: the type of output should be considered when a nation seeks development
    .
    b) shift in the allocation of productive resources: for development to occur, productive resources are allocated for their best possible use. This increases efficiency thereby resulting in development
    c) elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment:
    Poverty and economic inequality must be reduced or totally eliminated. Government should invest in nation building projects that would create employment opportunities for its citizens. These would cause an increase in the incomes of the working class people and also increase the quality of their lives

    3- I agree with the words of Amartya Sen and which says that “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states”. Explaining the situation of removing unfreedom, development in an economy should expand the freedom that people enjoy. These unfreedom leaves people with little choices or opportunities that affect ability to live lives that they value.
    If a nation wants to be developed, it has to include the factor of good leadership because leaders play a major role in policy making decision which control the rate at which a nation develops. Bad leadership significantly slows down the development process of a country. These are the few things among the many that must be eliminated.

    4- women play major roles in national development when they are educated and invested in. Their ideas would cause the establishment of new businesses which would lead to an increase in employment rate, thereby increasing the per capita income of the populations where they reside. Also, empowering women would have a rippling effect because these women would empower other women who would go on to empower other women, thereby resulting in economic development.

    5- Being well-nourished : the ability to have access to good food and nutrition in an economy or nation.
    Being healthy – to have access to health and healthcare facilities in a nation 
Being literate – to have access to education and educational tools in a nation
    Being well-clothed – to have access to the right clothing’s suitable for the right weather conditions in an economy

    6- The three core values of development are; sustenance which is the ability to meet basic needs, self-esteem which is being a person and freedom from servitude which is being able to choose.

    7- I agree with the assertion that happiness has a direct correlation with more income because an increase in income leads to an increase in purchasing power. The increase in purchasing power would result In solving financial problems that might have led to depression or stress. Also, when an individual the ability to provide more of their basic needs such as food, it improves their mood. To refer to the popular saying that, a hungry man is an angry man is to conclude that a well fed man is a happy man.

    8- There are multiple differences between economic growth and economic development . To begin, let us define economy growth. Economic growth is an increase in the output level or monetary income of a nation while economic development is an increase in the standard of living of a greater population in a nation. Economic growth is a unidimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output but unlike economic growth, Economic Development uses a multidimensional approach that includes income as well as the quality of life of the population in a nation. In addition, the indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNP, GNI etc. While the indicators of economic development are industrial developments, standard of living, Human development indicators. To round up, it is important to note that economic growth is a short term process while economic development is a long term process.
    As a nation, we currently experience significant economic growth, which is an increase in our output but the level of economic development remains unchanged. The quality of life of the Nigerian people doesn’t seem to improve if anything else, it’s deteriorating. It’s a situation that should be looked into and corrected.

  43. Avatar Ogbaga stella chinwendu 2019/241733 says:

    1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss.
    FThe study analyses the Dudley Seer’s theory of development on the Nigeria economy. Before the emergence of Seer’s theory, there was a general believe amongst economists that development occurred when a country has a sustained economic growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Many less developed countries including Nigeria experienced continues economic growth over the years but the such growth does not have a positive reflection in the lives of the people in terms of quality of life. Seer shifted away from such believes and propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument.That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development. This study thus used these indicators to critically assess the Nigeria development situation. It was discovered that all, the three indicators were all increasing instead of decreasing as Seer propounded. The study recommends that the Nigeria government should provide loans to the rural areas for investment into the agricultural sector. Governmentshould provide entrepreneurship program to the urban youth to tackle poverty. Also, taxing policy should be made to tax the poor more to provide infrastructures to the citizens. Investment in child’s education and also invest in health.

    2.Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion
    Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries. Both cross-country research and country case studies provide overwhelming evidence that rapid and sustained growth is critical to making faster progress towards the Millennium Development Goals – and not just the First goal of halving the global proportion of people living on less than $1 a day. Growth can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong growth and employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. This may lead to the emergence of a strong and growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. Strong economic growth therefore advances human development, which, in turn, promotes economic growth. But under different conditions, similar rates of growth can have very different effects on poverty, the employment prospects of the poor and broader indicators of human development. The extent to which growth reduces poverty depends on the degree to which the poor participate in the growth process and share in its proceeds. Thus, both the pace and pattern of growth matter for reducing poverty. A successful strategy of poverty reduction must have at its core measures to promote rapid and sustained economic growth. The challenge for policy is to combine growthpromoting policies with policies that allow the poor to participate fully in the opportunities unleashed and so contribute to that growth. This includes policies to make labour markets work better, remove gender inequalities and increase financial inclusion. Asian countries are increasingly tackling this agenda of ‘inclusive growth’. India’s most recent development plan has two main objectives: raising economic growth and making growth more inclusive, policy mirrored elsewhere in South Asia and Africa. Future growth will need to be based on an increasingly globalised world that offers new opportunities but also new challenges. New technologies offer not only ‘catch-up’ potential but also ‘leapfrogging’ possibilities. New science offers better prospects across both productive and service sectors. Future growth will also need to be environmentally sustainable. Improved management of water and other natural resources is required, together with movement towards low carbon technologies by both developed and developing countries. With the proper institutions, growth and environmental sustainability may be seen as complements, not substitutes. DFID will work for inclusive growth through a number of programmes and continues to spend heavily on health and education, which have a major impact on poor people’s ability to take part in growth opportunities. More and better research on the drivers of growth will be needed to improve policy. But ultimately the biggest determinants of growth in a country will be its leadership, policies and institutions
    Research that compares the experiences of a wide range of developing countries finds consistently strong evidence that rapid and sustained growth is the single most important way to reduce poverty. A typical estimate from these cross-country studies is that a 10 per cent increase in a country’s average income will reduce the poverty rate by between 20 and 30 per cent
    3.In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details
    Yes I agree. The removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states fosters economics growth which in the long-run brings about economic development.
    Government should make favorable economic policies, provide employment opportunities and welfare programs to elevate the her people from poverty,ensure good governance.increase economic opportunities through industrialization and technology, easy access to social opportunities, maintenance of public goods, and ensure zero tolerance for undue favouritism and nepotism especially in a heterogeneous State like Nigeria. These are various steps to attain economic development.
    4. Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development
    Women play a pivotal role in the society right from the time they are born till the time they die. Their role starts with taking care of their children and guiding them in the right direction. They teach them the values of life and help them grow into responsible citizens. Women are also responsible for the overall development of the society. They contribute towards the economic, social and political development of the society.
    5.Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function
    Amartya Sen’s capability theory approach is a theoretical framework that involves two core normative claims. First, the assumption that freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance. And second, that freedom to achieve well-being must be understood in terms of people with capabilities.
    Ie the capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance “beings”and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings “doings”
    6.Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example
    i.Sustenance: Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.
    ii. Self-esteem: Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    iii.Freedom: Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development
    7. Development with relevant example Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    .Researchers concluded that having more money has a direct relationship with increased overall life satisfaction. However, this relationship is not a straight line. As income increases after a certain point, its impact on happiness tends to reduce. And those with little money felt happier with increased income since they will be able to satisfy their new wants.
    8.Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development
    Economic growth refers to an increase over time in a country`s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. Development relates to growth of human capital indexes, a decrease in inequality figures, and structural changes that improve the general population’s quality of life
    Economic growth and economic development compared:
    Implications
    Economic development implies an upward movement of the entire social system in terms of income, savings and investment along with progressive changes in socioeconomic structure of country (institutional and technological changes). Economic growth refers to an increase over time in a country`s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    Factors
    Development relates to growth of human capital indexes, a decrease in inequality figures, and structural changes that improve the general population’s quality of life. Growth relates to a gradual increase in one of the components of Gross Domestic Product: consumption, government spending, investment, net exports.
    Measurement
    Economic growth measures Qualitative.HDI (Human Development Index), gender- related index (GDI), Human poverty index (HPI), infant mortality, literacy rate etc.economic development measures Quantitative Increases in real GDP.
    Effect
    Economics development Brings qualitative and quantitative changes in the economy while economic growth Brings quantitative changes in the economy
    Relevance
    Economic development is more relevant to measure progress and quality of life in developing nations. Economic growth is a more relevant metric for progress in developed countries. But it’s widely used in all countries because growth is a necessary condition for development.
    Scope
    Economic development is Concerned with structural changes in the economy while economic Growth is concerned with increase in the economy’s output.

  44.                       Eco 361
           DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS.
    1)  Prof Dudley seer argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy.
    Seer suggested that family incomes should be adequate to provide a subsistence package of food,shelter,clothing and footwear.
    That jobs should be available to all family heads,not only because this will Ensure that distribution of income will generally achieve subsistence consumption levels.
    That Access to Education should be increased and development literacy ratio raised.and also the populace should be given an opportunity to participate in government.
    2)     Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources and elimination or reduction of poverty, and inequality and unemployment.

       Economic development also involves creating job opportunities,stronger demand for labour.
    Economic development is fundamentally Expanding the substantive freedoms that people value and these freedoms are strongly associated with improvement in general living standards,such as greater opportunities for people to become healthier and live longer.
    Economic development generates Virtuous Circle of prosperity and opportunity,strong growth and Employment opportunities improve incentives for families to invest I. Education by sending their children to school.
    3)  in the words of Amartya Sen ” Development requires the removal of major sources of freedom,poverty as well as tyranny,poor Economic opportunity as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states.
    (Yes) I would  agree with him because Development is not solely centered on the welfare of the Economy, as individuals also need to develop.
    And if there is no removal of unfreedom,it restrain individuals to move about to acquire higher levels of Education,high income and good wage rate.
    And so the removal of Major sources of Unfreedom,poverty,as well as tyranny,poor Economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as  well as intolerance or over activity or repressive states is necessary for the Economy to Develop.
    4)     Critically Discuss the Role of Women in National Development.
           They play the role of mothers,caretakers,in family affairs l,farmers,Educators,Entrepreneurs,Teachers. Women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability progress and long term development of nations.
    Globally women. Contribute immensely to 
    agricultural development Comprising about 43% of the world’s labor force.
    As Educators the role or contribution of Women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant.
    Basic Education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs.it is Evident that Education helps to improve Agricultural output.
    The role of Women is at the front end of the chain of improvement,leading to the family and community long term capacity.
    5)   Clearly Discuss some important “beings ” and  “Doings” Capability to function.
    Capability to function refers to a person’s set of achievable functioning vectors.
    Accordingto sen,people’s well-being depends upon what they are actually Capable of doing and being.
    “Beings” and “Doings” Capability to function is about the  achievements of Valuable functioning,which are multiple aspects of a person’s life,what the person is and does.and is Based on an individuals resources,monetary, and non monetary Constraints,as well as the individuals Preferences over Different life Goals,the individual will select and reach a certain amount of functioning achievements.
    6)  Discuss the three  core values of Development .
    A)        Sustenance
    Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people,All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible the Basic needs include food,shelter.

          Prt 2.
    Self -Esteem
    Freedom from servitude.
    Self-esteem.
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.
            Freedom from servitude.
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.

    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality
     
    7)    some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    I would say “YES” To an extent.Happiness do have a direct correlation with higher income.
       

     8)  Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.

  45. Avatar NNEWUBELU CHUKWUEBUKA JOSHUA 2019/247241 says:

    NNEWUBELU CHUKWUEBUKA JOSHUA
    2019/247241
    COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE ( ECONOMICS/PSYCHOLOGY)

    ANSWER:
    1. Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries.it makes sense that poverty rates are related to the overall health of the economy. As the economy grows, so do opportunities for employment and growth. stronger labor markets and higher income levels tend to help families living in poverty move above the poverty threshold. while availability of work opportunity helps to eliminate unemployment and inequality within a growing economy.

    2. i Economic Development involves changes in composition of output. public expenditure improve economic growth by increasing productive capacity, as well as, gross product of the local economy in critical economy sectors. nonetheless, increased public expenditures will also lead to inflation and reduce government budget,thereby inflicting detrimental influence on the economy.
    ii. Economic Development involves shift in the allocation of productive resources. productivity is the key aspect of economic growth. However, it is also important to choose what should be produced with the growing importance of taking into account the issue of ecology, care for the protection of the natural environment.

    3. I agree with the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. The high rate of poverty as well as tyranny in the economy, keeps the economy stagnant and also poor economic opportunities. poor economic opportunities in-terms of job or unemployment opportunities,poor economic rejuvenation, leads to under or un-development in the economy.

    4.They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.

    5.capabilities approach is a normative approach to human welfare that concentrates on the actual capability of person to achieve lives they value rather than solely having a right or freedom to do so. capability is a possibility of a person in a deeply poverty-stricken area to find employment and support a family. However, such a possibility may not be real considering external circumstance for example, no food, clothing or shelter.

    6. There are three core values of development: (i) sustenance, (ii) self- esteem, and (iii) freedom. Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection. People should have access to these basic needs.
    Self-Esteem: Sense of worth and self-respect and feeling of not being marginalized are extremely important for individual’s well being. All peoples and societies seek some form of self-esteem (identity, dignity, respect, honor etc.). The nature and form of self-esteem may vary from on culture to another and from time to time. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equated with higher worthiness. One may consider individuals worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    Freedom from Servitude: Human freedom, the ability to choose, is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom, and other exploitative economic, social, and political relationships.

    7. happiness has a direct correlation with more income, cause looking the society and the economy standard of the society, we cant possibly do anything nowadays without money. so when our happiness is derived from things that cost us money. So therefore, our happiness is deprived from how much we earn or how much income we generate,to fulfill our desire want (our happiness). So, the more income we earn the more we can satisfy that desire want (our happiness).

    8.Economic growth is an increase in the production of goods and services in an economy. Increases in capital goods, labor force, technology, and human capital can all contribute to economic growth. while
    Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community. What “economic development” means to you will depend on the community you live in. Each community has its own opportunities, challenges, and priorities.
    we are where we are as a nation,in terms of growth and development, as result of the greedy and selfish desire which has kept the nation in perpetual economical want. The greedy selfish desire of our leaders has cause lack of adequate production of goods and services in an economy, availability of technology for production, and also their inability to create more jobs opportunity.

  46. Okarfor Charles chidozie
    2019/248121
    Combined social science
    Economic/political sciences
    300l

    Answers
    (1 )Before Dudley Seer propounded his
    theory of development, many economists
    believed that development is achieved when
    a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases
    are sustained over a long period of time.
    They believed that when such increases
    occurred, then that country has achieved
    development. To them, development was
    based mainly on material increase. Also, it
    was believed that economic development is
    achieved when there is a change in the
    structure of production and employment so
    that the share of agriculture in GDP and in
    employment declines, while that of
    manufacturing and services increases. These
    believe made development economists to
    focus more on industrialization at the
    expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith,
    2006). Based on the believe, many
    developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s
    experienced increased in their Gross
    Domestic Product but the general levels of
    living of the masses remained unchanged.
    That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do
    not have any direct effect on quality of life
    of the people.
    The section tends to examine and analyze
    the three development indicators as
    propounded by Dudley Seer and relate it to
    the present situation concerning Nigeria’s
    Development.

    i. Poverty – The United Nations – UN
    (1995) defined poverty in absolute and
    relative term. They examined absolute
    poverty as a state made up by serious denial
    of basic human needs including food,
    shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation
    facilities, health, education and information.
    To them, absolute poverty does not depend
    only on income but also on access to life.
    Relative poverty was defined by the UN in
    terms of minimum acceptable standard of
    living within a society in which a particular
    person lives.

    ii. Inequality: The United Nations defined
    inequality as the state of not being equal,
    especially in status, rights and opportunities
    (UN, 2015). Development theory was
    concern with inequalities in standard of
    living, such as inequalities in
    income/wealth, education, health and
    nutrition. Nigeria is Africa’s largest
    economy, yet inequality has reached
    extreme level that the country’s five richestmen worth $29.9 billion could end extreme
    poverty at national level, yet a lot are facing
    hunger Oxfam report (2017). Nigeria’
    economy has been growing in terms of GDP
    but without creating adequate opportunities
    for the broader population. Resources are
    unevenly distributed, resulting in persistent
    inequalities.

    iii. Unemployment: The International
    Labor Organization (ILO) defined
    unemployment as all persons of working
    age (15 years and above) who were not in
    employment but are engaging seeking
    employment during a particular period and
    were currently available to take up
    employment given a job opportunity. The
    United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
    defined unemployment as person (s) who do
    not have job, have actively looked for work
    in the prior 4 weeks, and are currently
    available for work. Rate of unemployment
    is the number of people actively looking for
    job as a percentage of the labor force. The
    rate of unemployment in Nigeria especially
    among the active labor force (youth) is very
    alarming. According to the Nigeria National
    Bureau of Statistics (2019) report, youth
    unemployment rate averaged 23.63% from
    2014 until it reaches an all time high of 38%
    in the 2nd quarter of 2018. During the 3rd
    quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate was
    39.7% which is the combination of 23.1%
    unemployment rate and 16.6%
    underemployment rate. The Bureau
    projected that if the rising trend of
    unemployment is not urgently curtailed, the
    unemployment rate will reach 33.5% by
    2020.
    (2)In a country’s economic development the role of economic factors is decisive. The stock of capital and the rate of capital accumulation in most cases settle the question whether at a juven point of time a country will grow or not. There are a few other economic factors which also have some bearing on development but their importance is hardly comparable to that of capital formation. The surplus of foodgrains output available to support urban population, foreign trade conditions and the nature of economic system are some such factors whose role in economic development has to be analyzed.
    Economists generally agree that economic development and growth are influenced by four factors: human resources, physical capital, natural resources and technology.
    3) I would agree to this assertion because,Development as Freedom is Amartya Sen’s first book after receiving the Nobel and the most widely read of all of his works. Based on the author’s World Bank Fellow Lectures in 1996, this descriptive, non-technical overview of welfare economics argues that ‘development’ should be viewed not in terms of economic measures (e.g. GDP growth, average annual income) but in terms of the real ‘freedoms’ that people can enjoy such as economic facilities and social opportunities. Sen describes human freedom as both the primary end objective and the principle means of development; economic measures are merely the means to this end.
    4)Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life.
    5)As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%.
    6)Sustenance
    Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.

    Self-esteem
    Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.

    Freedom
    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.
    >Money reduces intense stress: There was no significant difference in how often the participants experienced distressing events—no matter their income, they recorded a similar number of daily frustrations. But those with higher incomes experienced less negative intensity from those events.

    >More money brings greater control: Those with higher incomes felt they had more control over negative events and that control reduced their stress. People with ample incomes felt more agency to deal with whatever hassles may arise.

    >Higher incomes lead to higher life satisfaction: People with higher incomes were generally more satisfied with their lives.
    “It’s not that rich people don’t have problems,” Jachimowicz says, “but having money allows you to fix problems and resolve them more quickly.”
    8)The term economic growth is defined as the process whereby the country’s real
    national and per capita income increases over a long period of time.
    This definition of economic growth consists of the following features of economic
    growth:
    Economic Growth implies a process of increase in National Income and
    Per-Capita Income. The increase in Per-Capita income is the better measure
    of Economic Growth since it reflects increase in the improvement of living
    standards of masses.

    Economic Growth is measured by increase in real National Income and
    not just the increase in money income or the nominal national income. In
    other words the increase should be in terms of increase of output of goods and
    services, and not due to a mere increase in the market prices of existing goods.

    Increase in Real Income should be Over a Long Period: The increase of real
    national income and per-capita income should be sustained over a long period
    of time. The short-run seasonal or temporary increases in income should not
    be confused with economic growth.

    Increase in income should be based on Increase in Productive Capacity:
    Increase in Income can be sustained only when this increase results from some
    durable increase in productive capacity of the economy like modernization or
    use of new technology in production, strengthening of infrastructure like
    transport network, improved electricity generation etc.

    While on the other hand,Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
    Sustainable development includes the protection of future economic growth and
    future development. In other words, it means a better quality of life for everyone,
    now and for generations to come.Sustainable development includes the protection
    of future economic growth and future development. Growth is essential, but
    sustainable development requires it to be different. It must become more concerned
    about the physical environment not only to present generation, but to the future
    generation also. It means that the current consumption cannot be financed for long
    by increasing economic debt and ecological imbalance which future generation
    will pay.Sustainable development constantly seeks to achieve social and economic
    progress in ways that will not exhaust the earth’s finite natural resources.
    Sustainable development is a process of development in which economic and other
    policies are designed to bring about development which is economically, socially
    and ecologically sustainable. The concept thus is pro-people, pro-job and pro-nature. It gives highest priority to poverty reduction, productive employment,
    social integration and environmental regeneration.

  47. Avatar Nsan Manasseh Osaminen says:

    Name: Nsan Manasseh Osaminen
    Reg no.: 2019/249517
    Email address: manassehnnoel@gmail.com

    1. The World Bank (1991) keyed into Seer’s concepts of development when it looked at development to be advancement in the quality of life that includes increased income, good education, increased health and nutrition, reduction in poverty, hygienic environment, same opportunities, increased personal freedom and a better-off cultural life.” The above World Bank view on development mean it is a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structure, national institution and acceleration of economic growth. Economic development encompasses progress in providing livelihood on a sustainable basis, access to education and basic healthcare for the majority of the population
    Sen viewed development as freedom and the capability to function. According to him, for a person to be classified as poor and non-poor, it depends on the person’s capability to function. He defines capability as “the freedom that a person enjoyed in terms of choice to function, given his personal features and his command for commodities”. To Sen, poverty cannot be measured by income as conventionally understold.

    2. Poverty is a multidimensional problem that goes beyond economics to include, among other things, social, political, and cultural issues. Therefore, solutions to poverty cannot be based exclusively on economic policies, but require a comprehensive set of well-coordinated measures. development implies change in technological and institutional organization of production as well as in distributive pattern of income. Hence, if compared to the goal of development, economic growth is much easy to realize. Between, we just need a larger mobilization of resources and raising their productivity by enhance it to be more efficiency and effective, then the output level can be raised and economic growth will occur. However, the development process is far more extensive than the economic growth.
    It also involved changes in composition of output, and shift in the allocation of productive resources, and reduction or elimination of poverty, inequalities and unemployment.

    3.yes I agree, Sometimes the lack of the substantive freedoms relates directly to economic poverty, which robs people of the freedom to satisfy hunger, or to achieve sufficient nutrition, or to obtain remedies for treatable illnesses, or the opportunity to be adequately clothed or sheltered, or to enjoy clean water or sanitary facilities.
    In other cases, the unfreedom links closely to the lack of public facilities and social care, such as the absence of epidemiological programs, or of organized arrangements for health care or educational facilities and social care, or of effective institutions for the maintenance of local peace and order.
    In still other cases, the violation of freedom results directly from a denial of political and civil liberties by authoritarian regimes and from imposed restrictions on the freedom to participate in the social, political and economic life of the community.

    4. Women play the role of mothers, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, caretakers in family affairs e.t.c Globally women contribute Immensely to agricultural development, from records, in Africa 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, which are mostly women.
    They also take care of the home, making critical and notable decisions where they are problems in the family. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs.
    It is of no surprise that education helps to enhance agricultural productivity & sustainability, enhance the status of girls and women, control population growth rates, improves environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mothers at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity. Although women are still lagging behind men worldwide, the historic and current role of women is indisputable.
    It is glaring that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses managed
    by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    6i. Sustenance: is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All persons have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, and protection. People should have access to these basic needs

    ii. Self-esteem: sense of worth and self-respect and feeling of not being marginalized are extremely important for individual’s well being. All people’s and societies seek some form of self-esteem( Identity, dignity, respect & honor). The nature and form of self esteem may vary from one culture to another and from time to time. Self esteem may be based on material values.

    iii. Freedom: Human freedom, the ability to choose, is essential for the well-being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choice for societies; economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom and other exploitative economic, social & political relationships.

    7.it is well known that money does not always buy happiness, but are richer people less happy in their daily lives? Well it depends on how you analyze income. According to the research taken in America, results for the continuous treatment of income showed a null relationship with happiness, whereas the categorization of income showed that some of those with higher incomes reported feeling less happy than some of those with lower incomes. to my understanding more income means more security, issue of High blood pressure, depression, a low key lifestyle and overall poor mental and relationship health, not also withstanding the fact that there is a sense of good living when we get more income we’re able to settle debt, fulfilled life long dreams, build tangible relationships, self respect and exercise our basic human right by being able to afford basic needs and wants. in conclusion, although more income doesn’t necessarily have any correlation with happiness it is still one of the factors that enhances happiness.
    8.
    Economic growth Economic development
    1.Economic growth is considered to be an increase in the production of goods and services by per person in a population, compared from one time period to another. Economic development is the increase in the standard of living from a low-income economy to a high-income economy.
    2.Economic growth is commonly measured by the increase in the average market value of additional goods and services produced, using GDP It considers factors such as health, education, working conditions, domestic and international policies, and market conditions with a focus on improving conditions in developing countries.
    3.Factors affecting Economic growth include : Better capital goods, Technology, Labour force, Human capital e.t.c Factors affecting Economic Development include: Life expectancy, Adult literacy, GDP per capita, levels of infrastructure.
    According to the world bank in Nigeria, While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the world’s bank index 2022. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.

  48. Arinze Ebuka kelvin
    2019/246530
    300l

    Answers
    (1 )Before Dudley Seer propounded his
    theory of development, many economists
    believed that development is achieved when
    a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases
    are sustained over a long period of time.
    They believed that when such increases
    occurred, then that country has achieved
    development. To them, development was
    based mainly on material increase. Also, it
    was believed that economic development is
    achieved when there is a change in the
    structure of production and employment so
    that the share of agriculture in GDP and in
    employment declines, while that of
    manufacturing and services increases. These
    believe made development economists to
    focus more on industrialization at the
    expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith,
    2006). Based on the believe, many
    developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s
    experienced increased in their Gross
    Domestic Product but the general levels of
    living of the masses remained unchanged.
    That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do
    not have any direct effect on quality of life
    of the people.
    These made many economists to
    reconsider what development really is and
    hence glamour for direct attack on
    widespread of poverty, increasing inequality
    in income distribution and rising
    unemployment. To them development
    should have a “human face”. That is, it
    should be something that should be seen in
    the lives of the people.

    The section tends to examine and analyze
    the three development indicators as
    propounded by Dudley Seer and relate it to
    the present situation concerning Nigeria’s
    Development.

    i. Poverty – The United Nations – UN
    (1995) defined poverty in absolute and
    relative term. They examined absolute
    poverty as a state made up by serious denial
    of basic human needs including food,
    shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation
    facilities, health, education and information.
    To them, absolute poverty does not depend
    only on income but also on access to life.
    Relative poverty was defined by the UN in
    terms of minimum acceptable standard of
    living within a society in which a particular
    person lives.

    ii. Inequality: The United Nations defined
    inequality as the state of not being equal,
    especially in status, rights and opportunities
    (UN, 2015). Development theory was
    concern with inequalities in standard of
    living, such as inequalities in
    income/wealth, education, health and
    nutrition. Nigeria is Africa’s largest
    economy, yet inequality has reached
    extreme level that the country’s five richestmen worth $29.9 billion could end extreme
    poverty at national level, yet a lot are facing
    hunger Oxfam report (2017). Nigeria’
    economy has been growing in terms of GDP
    but without creating adequate opportunities
    for the broader population. Resources are
    unevenly distributed, resulting in persistent
    inequalities.

    iii. Unemployment: The International
    Labor Organization (ILO) defined
    unemployment as all persons of working
    age (15 years and above) who were not in
    employment but are engaging seeking
    employment during a particular period and
    were currently available to take up
    employment given a job opportunity. The
    United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
    defined unemployment as person (s) who do
    not have job, have actively looked for work
    in the prior 4 weeks, and are currently
    available for work. Rate of unemployment
    is the number of people actively looking for
    job as a percentage of the labor force. The
    rate of unemployment in Nigeria especially
    among the active labor force (youth) is very
    alarming. According to the Nigeria National
    Bureau of Statistics (2019) report, youth
    unemployment rate averaged 23.63% from
    2014 until it reaches an all time high of 38%
    in the 2nd quarter of 2018. During the 3rd
    quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate was
    39.7% which is the combination of 23.1%
    unemployment rate and 16.6%
    underemployment rate. The Bureau
    projected that if the rising trend of
    unemployment is not urgently curtailed, the
    unemployment rate will reach 33.5% by
    2020.

    Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low- and middle- income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels.

    Development economics involves the creation of theories and methods that aid in the determination of policies and practices and can be implemented at either the domestic or international level. This may involve restructuring market incentives or using mathematical methods such as intertemporal optimization for project analysis, or it may involve a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. Common topics include growth theory, poverty and inequality, human capital, and institutions.

    (2)In a country’s economic development the role of economic factors is decisive. The stock of capital and the rate of capital accumulation in most cases settle the question whether at a juven point of time a country will grow or not. There are a few other economic factors which also have some bearing on development but their importance is hardly comparable to that of capital formation. The surplus of foodgrains output available to support urban population, foreign trade conditions and the nature of economic system are some such factors whose role in economic development has to be analyzed.
    Economists generally agree that economic development and growth are influenced by four factors: human resources, physical capital, natural resources and technology. Highly developed countries have governments that focus on these areas. Less-developed countries, even those with high amounts of natural resources, will lag behind when they fail to promote research in technology and improve the skills and education of their workers.

    3) I would agree to this assertion because,Development as Freedom is Amartya Sen’s first book after receiving the Nobel and the most widely read of all of his works. Based on the author’s World Bank Fellow Lectures in 1996, this descriptive, non-technical overview of welfare economics argues that ‘development’ should be viewed not in terms of economic measures (e.g. GDP growth, average annual income) but in terms of the real ‘freedoms’ that people can enjoy such as economic facilities and social opportunities. Sen describes human freedom as both the primary end objective and the principle means of development; economic measures are merely the means to this end.

    4)Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    5)As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    6)The definition of the term development underwent a change. Along with growth, the role of redistribution of wealth to reduce inequalities, alleviate poverty and reduce unemployment was emphasized. Focus shifted from just growth in per capita income to a more wide variety of social and political changes accompanied by growth. A multidimensional concept of development emerged to include certain necessary components for development. Denis Goulet suggested three core values necessary for the development of an economy:

    Sustenance
    Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.

    Self-esteem
    Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.

    Freedom
    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.

    7)Higher income amounts to lower stress
    In one study, 522 participants kept a diary for 30 days, tracking daily events and their emotional responses to them. Participants’ incomes in the previous year ranged from less than $10,000 to $150,000 or more. They found:

    >Money reduces intense stress: There was no significant difference in how often the participants experienced distressing events—no matter their income, they recorded a similar number of daily frustrations. But those with higher incomes experienced less negative intensity from those events.

    >More money brings greater control: Those with higher incomes felt they had more control over negative events and that control reduced their stress. People with ample incomes felt more agency to deal with whatever hassles may arise.

    >Higher incomes lead to higher life satisfaction: People with higher incomes were generally more satisfied with their lives.
    “It’s not that rich people don’t have problems,” Jachimowicz says, “but having money allows you to fix problems and resolve them more quickly.”

    8)The term economic growth is defined as the process whereby the country’s real
    national and per capita income increases over a long period of time.
    This definition of economic growth consists of the following features of economic
    growth:
    Economic Growth implies a process of increase in National Income and
    Per-Capita Income. The increase in Per-Capita income is the better measure
    of Economic Growth since it reflects increase in the improvement of living
    standards of masses.

    Economic Growth is measured by increase in real National Income and
    not just the increase in money income or the nominal national income. In
    other words the increase should be in terms of increase of output of goods and
    services, and not due to a mere increase in the market prices of existing goods.

    Increase in Real Income should be Over a Long Period: The increase of real
    national income and per-capita income should be sustained over a long period
    of time. The short-run seasonal or temporary increases in income should not
    be confused with economic growth.

    Increase in income should be based on Increase in Productive Capacity:
    Increase in Income can be sustained only when this increase results from some
    durable increase in productive capacity of the economy like modernization or
    use of new technology in production, strengthening of infrastructure like
    transport network, improved electricity generation etc.

    While on the other hand,Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
    Sustainable development includes the protection of future economic growth and
    future development. In other words, it means a better quality of life for everyone,
    now and for generations to come.Sustainable development includes the protection
    of future economic growth and future development. Growth is essential, but
    sustainable development requires it to be different. It must become more concerned
    about the physical environment not only to present generation, but to the future
    generation also. It means that the current consumption cannot be financed for long
    by increasing economic debt and ecological imbalance which future generation
    will pay.Sustainable development constantly seeks to achieve social and economic
    progress in ways that will not exhaust the earth’s finite natural resources.
    Sustainable development is a process of development in which economic and other
    policies are designed to bring about development which is economically, socially
    and ecologically sustainable. The concept thus is pro-people, pro-job and pro-nature. It gives highest priority to poverty reduction, productive employment,
    social integration and environmental regeneration.

  49. Avatar Chukwubuikem Chinaza Joy says:

    Name: Chukwubuikem Chinaza joy
    Reg. No: 2019/242315
    Department: library and information science/Economics.

    1. If poverty, inequality and unemployment have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development” even if per capita income doubled.
    This assertion was neither idle speculation nor the description of a hypothetical situation.
    2. Economic development is not possible without growth but growth is possible without development.
    3. Sen argues that poverty cannot be properly measured by income
    or even by utility as conventionally understood; what matters fundamentally is not the things a person has or the feelings these provide but what a person
    is, or can be, and does, or can do. What matters for well-being is not just the
    characteristics of commodities consumed, as in the utility approach, but what use the consumer can and does make of commodities. To make any sense of the concept of human well-being in general, and poverty in particular, we need to think beyond the availability of commodities and consider their use to address what Sen calls functionings, that is, what a person does or can do with the commodities of given characteristics that they come to possess or control.
    4. Women have primary responsibility for child rearing, and the resources that they are able to bring to this task will determine whether the cycle of transmission of poverty from generation to generation will be broken. Children need better health and education, and studies from around the developing world confirm that mothers tend to spend a significantly higher fraction of income under their control for the benefit of their children than fathers do.
    Women also transmit values to the next generation. To make the biggest impact on development, then, a society must empower and invest in its women.
    5. Being literate ie ability to read and understand, being mobile, ability to take part in the life of the community, being well -nourished and healthy.
    6. The three core values of development are:
    i. Sustenance: to increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining
    goods such as food, shelter, health, and protection.
    ii. Self esteem: to raise levels of living, including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education, and greater attention to cultural and human values, all of which will serve not only to enhance material wellbeing but also to generate greater individual and national self-esteem.
    iii. Freedom from servitude: to expand the range of economic and social choices available to individuals and
    nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence not only in relation to other people and nation-states but also to the forces of ignorance.
    7. There is not a perfect cor-relation between happiness and per capital income: people could be poor, but happy, rich but unhappy.
    Once per Capita income increases, the percentage of people who say they are happy tends to increase.
    8. Economic growth is referred to monetary or output growth of a nation in a particular period while economic development is the overall development of the quality of life in a nation.
    Economic growth is all about (GDP, GNP, GNI) while economic development is about (human development indicator, industrial development,improved standard of living).
    Economic growth is a short term process while economic development leads to progressive changes in socio-economic of a country.

  50. Avatar Ihechukwu+Chukwuebuka+Manasseh+2018/251195 says:

    1. The concentration on national income as a goal for reducing poverty, according to Dudley Seers, “avoided the underlying issues of development” and he suggested “redefining how development was assessed.” He suggested emphasizing political independence, population growth, and education as more socially relevant indicators to better solve development issues. According to Seers, “there is no real ‘growth'” when the advantages of progress and technology exclusively benefit a select group of individuals in the industrialized world who are already affluent. Furthermore, “statistics offices would produce more suitable information if governments become more engaged in social metrics.”

    2. The role of compositional changes appears to depend greatly on how one divides GDP into components—by type of output, by type of expenditure, or by type of producer. Composition is an important part of stabilization in any economy as it determines how developed the economy is by each composition.
    Looking at the aggregate output, GDP depends on aggregate investment, Government expenditure and net-export. Since development considers long term growth, government spending in the long run may hinder the economy. As it spends interest rates increases to a point that it hinders aggregate investment. When this happens people pull out their investment from the country and this further hinders the overall development of the country.
    3. According yo Brussels Times – When money is freedom – or a precondition of being free – then poverty is unfreedom. Poverty obstructs individual freedom and Socio-economic deprivation Essentially limits a person’s ability to fully develop himself, to be in charge of his own life and successfully pursue his own dreams.
    On tyranny as a major source of unfreedom, one must pity countries like North Korea, Cambodia, and Zimbabwe where tyranny was endured for over 40years. Robert Mogabe who was the country’s president for 30 years made it so that the essence of democracy was farfetched. His rigime was highly corrupt that no peaceful revolution was even possible, but political and financial bankruptcy finally pushed the dictator back to the wall.
    On the aspect of poor economic opportunity, a typical case is a family of four supported by a minimum wage worker still living below the poverty line, and yet still pays taxes to the government. However, instead of this there should be a replacement by Minimum wage increase, quality education, job opportunities, and access to healthy food. It is only then we can say that there is freedom.

    4. The role that women okay in the development of any nation can not be overemphasized. In her 2007 TEDTalk, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala had opined that Some of the best people to invest in in Africa are the women.

    They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development. According to Okadabooks.com, women comprise about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women.
    However, It should be noted that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    5. Being able to live long – This is a state of living long enough and the absence of accidents or any physical attacks that are life threatening.
    Being well nourished – This is a state of looking good as a result of eating nutritious meals.
    Being healthy – This is a state of being well enough to do all kinds of things humanly possible.
    Being literate – This is the state of being able to read all kinds of books.
    Being well clothed – This is the state of wearing goof clothes that does not hinder one’s ability to function.
    Being mobile – this is a state of not being restricted from moving from one country to another, and no restrictions on movement from one job to another.

    6. Sustenance. This refers to the ability to provide for one’s basic needs. Food, clothing, and shelter are examples of such needs. A person’s life is not progressing if even one of these is lacking. If a nation’s residents have enough or even more than they need for their fundamental needs, there is income growth, severe poverty is addressed, and there is equality among the population, then that nation has developed.

    Self-esteem, or a feeling of value and regard for oneself, is a second universal element of the good life. It means that each individual should be treated with respect and according to their rights. Although these values vary from nation to nation and from civilization to society, everyone want their own prestige, identity, and recognition. Progressive capitalist nations like the United States frequently emphasize that a person’s value cannot just be determined by their possession of material possessions. The love for one’s family, the reputation of the family, as well as a person’s dignity and self-esteem, is believed to be more significant in the Philippines than material prosperity. Each individual therefore has needs that can be met by the presence of others.
    Freedom from Servitude. This is concerned with human freedom. This freedom is drawn from liberation from oppressive systems in society. And the good thing about development is not only the happiness of being free from poverty but also the availability of a wide range of choices. As Arthur Lewis says:” The advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice”. In general, freedom abounds when people live a comfortable life, when they have the freedom to choose their religion, to vote and to express their opinion about administratinn and governance, and when they enjoy equal opportunities for education and employment.

    7. According to a release from Matthew Killingsworth, senior fellow at Wharton and research author, money gives people the freedom to choose how they want to live their life.
    A recent study from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania found that income, even at $75,000, had a positive impact on people’s wellbeing. According to the statistics, all measures of well-being continued to increase with income over a wide range of income levels and didn’t plateau at $75,000 per year.
    “At a personal level, it shows that as people grow in their jobs and their earnings climb, it has the ability to actually improve their lives (instead of reaching a limit once they reach $75,000),” adds Killingsworth.
    This may indicate that on a more general social level, “continuing economic growth in the decades ahead may still have the power to increase people’s well-being,” he claims.
    However, with all these researchs to know the actual correlation between income and happiness, there still isn’t a clear trend. According to Dr. Tony, there is no perfect correlation between happiness and income – people could be poor and happy, and rich but unhappy. Once per capita income increase above $10,000 to $20,000, the percentage of people who say they are happy tend to increase. And the factors that affect happiness includes
    Family relationships – A positive family relationships tends to spark up a good bond between families and thereby increases happiness of individuals in that family.
    Financial conditions – As studies have shown, financial status tend to determine the happiness of an individual. An increase in real income results to an increase in overall well-being and happiness.
    Work satisfaction – In most underdeveloped countries the course that a person studied in the university doesn’t relates to the kind of jobs they are offered. This tends to reduce their level of happiness and overall well-being.
    Community and friends – A person’s environment tends to determine their level of well-being. A happy community can birth a happy individual and a healthy friendship can result to a happy individual.
    Health and healthcare service – The popular phrase which says that Health is Wealth is true in this context because, it is only when we are healthy that we can think about a greater good. And if we can think about a greater good, happiness can’t be farfetched.
    Personal freedom – According to Dariusforoux.com, true personal freedom is to live as you are, to do what you want, and to spend time with people you like. For many of us, true freedom is a distant dream. So if our personal freedom is hindered, our happiness is not guaranteed.
    Personal values: Values that are more focused on one’s own development and self-expansion help people be happier, but values that are more concerned with society and one’s own safety tend to make people less happy. Because a self-affirming, self-enhancing focus on oneself becomes even more crucial the less help one can expect from society, these connections are particularly strong in less egalitarian cultures.

    8. Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy. While, Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy. While, Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.

    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. While, Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. While, Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic growth focuses on production of goods and services. While, Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.While, Economic development relates to growth of human capital indexes and decrease in inequality. It is concerned with how people are affected.
    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people. While, Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development. It is the subset of economic development. While, Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Indicators of economic growth are: GDP, GNI And Per capita income. While, Indicators of economic development are: Human Development Index (HDI), Human Poverty Index (HPI), Gini Coefficient, Gender Development Index (GDI), Balance of trade, Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Economic growth It is for short term/short period. It is measured in certain time frame/period. While, economic development is a continuous and long-term process. Economic development does not have specific time period to measure.

    8. State of Nigeria in terms of Economic growth
    The Economy of Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications,technology, and entertainment sectors. It is ranked as the 27th-largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, and the 24th-largest in terms of purchasing power parity and the largest Sub Saharan Africa’s economy
    In the third quarter of 2022, Nigeria’s economy grew by 2.25% from a year earlier. In other words, the bureau of statistics reports that real GDP rose at a quarterly rate of 9.68% in Q3 2022, suggesting stronger economic activity than in the quarter before. The total nominal GDP for the quarter under review was N52,255,809.62 million. The main driver of growth since late 2020 has been the non-oil sector, which grew at a slower rate of 4.27% in Q3 (compared to 4.77% in Q2). In other words, the non-oil sector contributed 94.34 percent of the country’s GDP in real terms in the third quarter of 2022, up from the percentage seen in the third quarter of 2021, which was 94.3 percent. As a result of decreasing oil output, the oil sector contracted by 22.67%, following a decline of 11.77% in the previous quarter. Vanguardgnr.com and tradingmacroeconomics.com.
    State of Nigeria in terms of economic development
    We are going to be considering Human Development Index(HDI). The development of good quality human resources and utilization of their potential ensures the development of a nation. Therefore, the Human Development Index (HDI) emphasizes that people and their capabilities are the key criteria to assess the development of a country, not alone GNP/capita. An upper trend of HDI ensures that the fruits of economic growth are reaching the common citizenry, instead of being parked in a few pockets. If two countries with the same level of GNI/capita, end up with different HDI, it indicates either wrong policy choices or its implementation by the government of the nation.

    A long and healthy life, knowledge, and a reasonable standard of living are the three main components of HDI, according to Skyline University Nigeria. It is the geometric mean of the normalized indices in each of these three dimensions. When these three factors are carefully examined, the perception of the average person regarding the accessibility of the standard of living, health, and education enjoyed by people of a country is revealed, which subsequently contributes to a high index score. The more closely the value on the index approaches 1.0, the better the position in terms of human development. Nigeria’s HDI in 2022 is 0.534, which places it in the worldwide center of the range.

  51. NAME: UGWUOKE KOSISOCHUWU PRECIOUS
    REG:2019/243547
    Eco 361
    1:Before Dudley Seer propounded his theory of development, many economists believed that development is achieved when a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases are sustained over a long period of time. They believed that when such increases occurred, then that country has achieved development. To them, development was based mainly on material increase. Also, it was believed that economic development is achieved when there is a change in the structure of production and employment so that the share of agriculture in GDP and in employment declines, while that of manufacturing and services increases. These believe made development economists to focus more on industrialization at the expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith, 2006). Based on the believe, many developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s experienced increased in their Gross Domestic Product but the general levels of living of the masses remained unchanged. That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do not have any direct effect on quality of life of the people.
    These made many economists to reconsider what development really is and hence glamour for direct attack on widespread of poverty, increasing inequality in income distribution and rising unemployment. To them development should have a “human face”. That is, it should be something that should be seen in the lives of the people. Amongst these economists seeking for a direct approach on development was Dudley Seer, a British Economist who specialized in development economics. He came up with a concept that replaced the growth fetishism with a social development. According to Seer (1969), development is about the level of poverty, unemployment and inequality in a nation. To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared Seers
    2:Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries. Both cross-country research and country case studies provide overwhelming evidence that rapid and sustained growth is critical to making faster progress towards the Millennium Development Goals – and not just the first goal of halving the global proportion of people living on less than $1 a day.
    Growth can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong growth and employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. This may lead to the emergence of a strong and growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. Strong economic growth therefore advances human development, which, in turn, promotes economic growth.
    But under different conditions, similar rates of growth can have very different effects on poverty, the employment prospects of the poor and broader indicators of human development. The extent to which growth reduces poverty depends on the degree to which the poor participate in the growth process and share in its proceeds. Thus, both the pace and pattern of growth matter for reducing poverty.
    A successful strategy of poverty reduction must have at its core measures to promote rapid and sustained economic growth. The challenge for policy is to combine growth- promoting policies with policies that allow the poor to participate fully in the opportunities unleashed and so contribute to that growth. This includes policies to make labour markets work better, remove gender inequalities and increase financial inclusion.
    Asian countries are increasingly tackling this agenda of ‘inclusive growth’. India’s most recent development plan has two main objectives: raising economic growth and making growth more inclusive, policy mirrored elsewhere in South Asia and Africa.
    Future growth will need to be based on an increasingly globalised world that offers new opportunities but also new challenges. New technologies offer not only ‘catch-up’ potential but also ‘leapfrogging’ possibilities. New science offers better prospects across both productive and service sectors.
    Future growth will also need to be environmentally sustainable. Improved management of water and other natural resources is required, together with movement towards low carbon technologies by both developed and developing countries. With the proper institutions, growth and environmental sustainability may be seen as complements, not substitutes.
    DFID will work for inclusive growth through a number of programmes and continues to spend heavily on health and education, which have a major impact on poor people’s ability to take part in growth opportunities.
    More and better research on the drivers of growth will be needed to improve policy. But ultimately the biggest determinants of growth in a country will be its leadership,policies and institutions
    3: According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.

    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.

    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”. Sen calculates that if women in Asia and North Africa were given the same health care and attention, the world would have 100 million more women.
    4: Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    5: Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.

    Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education
    6: According to this approach, development is not just about increasing the availability of commodities (focus of the per-capita income approach) but expanding the capabilities of individuals to use these commodities and enhancing the freedom of choice of people. Higher income is important an element of one’s well being. But, well being of individuals also depends on their health, education, geographical and social environment, and political system. There are three core values of development: (i) sustenance, (ii) self- esteem, and (iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection. People should have access to these basic needs.
    Self-Esteem: Sense of worth and self-respect and feeling of not being marginalized are extremely important for individual’s well being. All peoples and societies seek some form of self-esteem (identity, dignity, respect, honor etc.). The nature and form of self- esteem may vary from on culture to another and from time to time. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equated with higher worthiness. One may consider individuals worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    Freedom from Servitude: Human freedom, the ability to choose, is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom, and other exploitative economic, social, and political relationships.
    7: Buying into “happiness materialism” — the belief that wealth is an indicator of a happy life — tends to be problematic because it takes “much time, energy and money away from other life domains that make an important and positive contribution to present life satisfaction,” such as family, work and health, the study authors wrote.

    However, researchers believe focusing on “success materialism” — the idea that wealth signifies success — enhances people’s “economic motivation,” or their drive to work and improve their standard of living. Thinking about success through that lens could make individuals more satisfied with their present lives and hopeful about the future.

    This simple mindset shift could make a difference in the way people view success and their lives, but of course there are other variables at play. For example, while this study didn’t cover how income specifically affects life satisfaction, researchers agree that it also impacts people’s happiness.
    8:A:Economic growth It refers to the increase in the monetary growth of a nation in a particular period.while economic development It refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation, which includes economic growth.
    Span of Concept
    B:Economic growth It is a narrower concept than that of economic development.while economic development It is a broader concept than that of economic growth.
    C:Scope
    Economic growth It is a uni-dimensional approach that deals with the economic growth of a nation.while economic development It is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income as well as the quality of life of a nation.
    D:Term
    Economic growth is in Short-term process while economic development is in the Long-term process
    E:Measurement
    Economic growth and economic development both varies in Quantitative
    F:Government Support
    Economic growth It is an automatic process that may or may not require intervention from the government while economic development It requires intervention from the government as all the developmental policies are formed by the government

  52. Avatar AGBO EBUBE EDITH says:

    AGBO EBUBE EDITH
    2017/249475
    Monetarism is about how change in money supply affects the position of economical activities in a nation or society.
    Monetarism
    Monetarism is the theory or practice of controlling the supply of money as the chief method of stabilizing the economy.
    Monetary theory posits that a change in money supply is a key driver of economic activity. A simple formula, the equation of exchange, governs monetary theory: MV = PQ. The Federal Reserve (Fed) has three main levers to control the money supply: the reserve ratio, discount rate, and open market operations.
    A monetarist is an economist who holds the strong belief that money supply—including physical currency, deposits, and credit—is the primary factor affecting demand in an economy. Consequently, the economy’s performance—its growth or contraction—can be regulated by changes in the money supply.

  53. Avatar ILAMI BENISON IBOH 2019/241788 says:

    ECO 361 Development Economics

  54. Avatar ILAMI BENISON IBOH 2019/241788 says:

    ILAMI BENISON IBOH
    2019/241788
    bilami35@gmail.com
    1
    For Prof Dudley Seers and others, if a Nation reaches it’s Economic Growth target without an improvement in levels of living (living standards) of of its people then it cannot be called Development.
    For him, the questions about Development were
    – What has been happening to Poverty?
    – What has been happening to Inequality?
    – What has been happening to Unemployment?
    It can only be called Development if and only if at least 2 or all 3 of these areas (Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment) have declined from high levels else it cannot be called Development even if Per Capita Income doubles.

    3. Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.
    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”.
    Moreover, freedom deficits still exist in so-called developed countries, and the situation may be moving backwards. Political freedoms are compromised by vested interest politics in the US, and oligarchic powers in Japan and much of Europe. Protectionism of large enterprises, especially in Europe and Japan, limit the economic freedom of small and medium size enterprises. Social opportunities are constrained in most countries as the rich have much better access than the poor to health and education services. Sen does us all a good service in raising the issue of cultural freedoms. The more these issues are discussed the better. But progress will require massive changes in attitudes.
    More fundamentally, Sen does not address the issue of how individual freedoms should be nested into society, where we all have to forego some freedom in order to live together peace.

    4. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    Although women are still lagging behind men worldwide, the historic and current role of women is indisputable. Michelle Bachelet, the Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women notes that “when women are empowered and can claim their rights and have access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economic growth, food security are enhanced and developmental prospects are improved for current and future generations.
    The role of women as volunteers in local and international organizations for development has global collective recognition. The global Volunteers Community Development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the development and direction of local leaders, women volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools and educate children and women through programmed extension works.

    6
    The Core Values of Development are Self Esteem, Freedom and Sustenance.

    1) FREEDOM
    Simply refers to the ability to choose. For example, if Kenya has a plethora of alternatives from which to satisfy its wants and as well as Kenyans enjoying real choices according to their preferences then we can call that Freedom as a core value of development.
    2) SELF ESTEEM
    Simply means the feeling of worthiness and self respect. For example, a Nation that has gained independence from a Colonial Master will have some sort of higher self esteem as they may feel that they are not being used as a tool by others for their own ends.
    3) SUSTENANCE
    This refers to the ability to meet basic needs like clothing shelter and food. For example if I do not have food or have it in short supply, my participation in school as well as my cognitive ability will be badly affected and so will my results and this will affect my productivity and my development as well as that of the nation not to mention the vices that I might get involved in just to ‘survive’.

    8
    Economic Growth
    Economic Development
    Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy. Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy. Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic growth focuses on production of goods and services. Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports. Economic development relates to growth of human capital indexes and decrease in inequality.

    It is concerned with how people are affected.

    Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people. Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development. It is the subset of economic development. Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Indicators of economic growth are:
    GDP
    GNI
    Per capita income
    Indicators of economic development are:
    Human Development Index (HDI)
    Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    Gini Coefficient
    Gender Development Index (GDI)
    Balance of trade
    Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)

  55. Avatar OSAKWE CHINAZA SOMTOCHUKWU says:

    ANSWERS:
    1. Before the emergence of Seer’s theory, there was a general believe amongst economists that development occurred when a country has a sustained economic growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Many less developed propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development. This propounded his theory of development with emphasis on poverty, inequality and unemployment. Thus, he used three indicators which are poverty, inequality and unemployment to cement his argument. That if these indicators are falling then that country is experiencing development but if not, they are not experiencing development.To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared.

    2. Economic development describes all involvement that makes an economy to develop as well as when output increase in terms of poverty reduction (that is all the citizens of an economy/country are living above a dollar daily)
    when these happen in relation to its sustainability, we say that the poverty level will tend to reduce and if output is equally distributed or there is elimination of inequality in terms of output, the economy will tend towards development .

    3. Freedom is the ultimate goal of economic development as well as most efficient means of realizing welfare, overcoming deprivation is central to development. Unfreedom includes hunger, famine, ignorance, an unsustainable economic life, unemployment, barriers to fulfilment by women by minority communities, premature death

    4. Women are known for keeping the home first, Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. It is very important for the nations development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations.

    5. Being able to live long: if citizens of an economy tend to live longer, it will directly boast the productivity of the economy as there will be enough manpower needed for productive activities
    Being well nourished: good nourishment (not food) is very vital for the development of an economy, if citizens has the right type of nourishment it will show in their economic development
    Being well clothed: the productivity of citizens of an economy can also be affected by the clothing they have on at seasons of production. i.e. wearing of light and well covered cloth in summer than wearing of thick clothing can boast productivity
    Being able to take part in the life of the community

    6. Sustenance: when one has the ability to afford basic necessities. i.e. an employed salary earner who can afford his need with his income without borrowing aver a long period of time can directly affect how the economy develops.
    Self-esteem: having trust in oneself can go a long way on how productivity will be attained. i.e. when one take risks and boast investment in businesses
    Economic development can be reached easily.
    Freedom from servitude: To be able to choose how you live in your productivity can go a long way in determining economic development
    i.e. citizens that have freedom to work where their productivity is higher

    7. Income generates happiness if it is steady enough to purchase necessities. If the income earned from output is good enough for purchase and good livelihood, it will bring happiness

    ECONOMIC GROWTH: This refers to increase in the monetary(income) growth of a nation in a particular period. It takes place when there is a sustained (ongoing for at least 1-2 years) increase in a country output of goods and services.
    ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:It refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth. It occurs when the standard of living of a large majority of the population rises, including both income and other dimensions like health and illiteracy.

    Nigeria as a case study ,there has not being a sustainable increase in income and the quality if life of it citizens is low compared to the quality of life of developed nations. Per capita income compared to purchasing power of the income is slim.

  56. Avatar UCHEOMA DANIELLA CHIMDINDU says:

    UCHEOMA DANIELL ACHIMDINDU
    ECONOMINCS DEPARTMENT
    2019/241763
    Anwer 1:
    Many economists considered economic growth as the development of the economy. They believed that development occurs when the Gross Domestic Product GDP of a country grows at 5% to 7% above and the increase is sustained for a long period. Also, there is a change in the structure of production and employment; the percentage of Agriculture’s contribution to the GDP decreases while that of industrialization increases at the expense of the former. Due to this belief, many developing countries in the 1960s and 70s experienced high increases in GDP while the standard of living remained unchanged or even declined.
    Economists began to reconsider what development really was and what was supposed to be measured to determine the development of a country. Among these economists was Seers who belong to the structuralists’ school of thought. He gave factors to be considered to determine whether a country is developed by asking three pertinent questions in this manner: ‘what has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality?’. According to him, a country is said to experience development if all three problems have been alleviated significantly. However, if one or two or all the problems remain the same or grow worse, it is impossible to say that development has occurred.
    Poverty according to the United Nations is defined in absolute and relative terms. Absolute poverty is a state made up of serious denial of basic human needs including food, shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, education, and information. Absolute poverty to them does not only depend on income but also on access to life. Relative poverty was defined by the UN in terms of the minimum acceptable standard of living within a society in which a particular person lives. Seers argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development”; that is, there were other factors that restricted people from escaping poverty- this is explained in Sen’s view of development judged by its impact on people’s freedom. He recommended “redefining how development was measured” in terms of poverty.
    The United Nations also defined inequality as a state of not being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities. Again, Seers argued that no real development occurred when the benefits of technology and progress helped only a small number of people in the developed world who are already relatively rich.
    The International Labor Organization defines unemployment as all persons of working age (15 years and above) who were not in employment but are engaged in seeking employment during a particular period and were currently available to take up employment given a job opportunity. To Dudley Seers, employment of available and willing labor is characterized by development. When there is a high rate of unemployment in a country, even when there is increasing GDP, it is not a developed nation.
    Nations seeking to develop their economy consider the writing of Seers and make a conscious effort to reduce if not eliminate these problems limiting development. Developing and underdeveloped countries have a high percentage of people or families earning below the nation’s poverty line or poverty threshold which is the annual income below which a person or family is considered impoverished. The national poverty line is calculated independently for each country because each country’s economy is different. According to the World Bank, Nigeria’s poverty rate is 65.2% which contradicts the 40% touted by the Nigerian government. The World Bank report suggests that northern Nigeria is directly responsible for Nigeria’s infamous ranking as the global headquarters of poverty.
    Answer 2:

    Answer 3:
    I agree with this statement.
    According to Sen’s definition, development is enhanced when democracy is functional and effective. There is the protection of human rights, especially the freedom of the press and of speech. These rights equip the citizens to hold the government accountable for whatever policy or action is being taken. There occurs an increase in the likelihood of the government tending to the people’s needs more efficiently thereby promoting development. He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have a strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”. This is an agreeable statement considering the fact that the whole idea behind democracy is for the government to act in service of the people who hold the power. However, this has not been the case for most developing countries that claim to be practicing a democratic system of government. In fact, there are people who believe that the freedom given to the people has caused political instability and even a decline in the development of the nation. One such person is Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew who brought forth theories of Asian values used as a tool to encourage political repression. Sen criticizes these theories by disagreeing with the existence of Asian values in a continent with vastly disparate populations and traditions and containing 60 percent of the world’s population. Sen further proves his theory by explaining development in Asia improved with the growing democracy.
    In the case of countries practicing a democratic system of government with a developing economy, the issue becomes how much freedom is given to the people and how much freedom are the people aware of. That is why Sen specifically stated that development will only occur in a state where development is efficient and where the people are aware of their basic human rights. Sen gave five types of freedom that initiate development. They are political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency, and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity, and protecting the environment.
    With the sources of unfreedom(poverty, tyranny, poor economic activities, and others) comes capacity deprivation. This is a better measure of poverty than low income. With the elimination of these sources, individuals have the freedom to do whatever they want and whatever they know how to do best which not only benefits them but the entire economy. Imagine a family who would like to give their children a quality education but is restricted by their income. It becomes one less efficient labor to the economy. This is the reason Sen believes development to be the expansion of human freedom.

    Answer 4:
    With the emergence of the various waves of feminism, we see the importance of involving women in economic activities and how encouraging them has led to an improvement in the development of a nation’s economy. Not restricting them to just one sector (either the traditional or modern sector) and giving them the freedom of choice (with the emergence of choice feminism) will allow them to contribute efficiently to growth as well as development.
    The role of women in the economy is just as important as that of the man and is similar – It involves ensuring economic stability, progress, and achievement of sustainable development in society. It is important for society to recognize the capabilities of women and understand the importance of engaging them. This has been the case for most developed countries that invest in women’s development and give attention to the factors that encourage them to thrive in their contributions to the economy. However, in developing countries like Nigeria, women are still being undermined and are given little to no attention while being relegated to the background usually limited to doing traditional chores or jobs with very little mental capacity. In fact, they are being denied basic necessities such as education and healthcare that would have enabled the to function properly in the economy. Overall men/boys and women/girls do not enjoy the same opportunities and do not have the same chances to either benefit from or contribute to the social and economic development of their countries. It is bad that the legitimate aspiration of women to play a more critical role in the economic development of their countries is often linked to the quest for civil and political rights.
    Women’s empowerment is closely related to socio-economic development. In fact, it is seen as a determinant of development in society. It is however not enough if not supported by strong policies made by the government. Just as Amatya Sen has said, with freedom comes development. When a certain demographic of society is not given this freedom, there wouldn’t be as much development as there would have and the economy’s potential is not reached. This is why it is important to give these women the freedom to choose and also encourage them by making it easy to contribute with the provision of resources.
    On Aug 20, 2019, Suryakala Kannan published CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN IN ECONOMY PRODUCTION -THE BASIS OF ECONOMY where she stated that women have always contributed to society since the beginning of the human race. She further describes women’s work in various sectors of the modern – In the Agricultural, Industrial, and service sectors. With the contribution of their resources, there will be a noticeable improvement in the economy.

    Answer 6:
    There has been an evolution of the definition of development; from it being a measure of materialistic economic growth to a consideration of other factors which may affect human living. With the emergence of a multidimensional concept involving development, Denis Goulet suggested the three core values of development which are; sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom. According to him, these values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. They represent common goals sought after by every member of society relating to the fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.
    Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security, and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfill the basic needs of the population.
    Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honor. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs, and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural, and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.

    Answer 8:
    Economic growth has always been mistaken by the traditional economists to be development. They thought development meant increase in production with the use of GDP as a measuring index among many others. However, with new study and theories, the meaning of development has evolved to mean many different things involving the way humans live in a society. This has also created a distinction between the two terms: development and growth.
    While growth can be simply defined as the measure of production in a country, development is more complex and multidimensional; there are many factors to be considered when defining it. It involves how people of the society live, diversification in the economy, employment and so on.
    Development can only occur when there is economic growth which happens alone independent of development.
    Economic growth is not a good determiner of a country’s performance as a country with high GDP can still struggle with the problems of unemployment, poverty, and inequality. A very good example is the case of the Nigerian Economy.
    Nigeria has a Gross Domestic Production as at 2019 of $448.12B with a 12% increase from 2018. Because of its high GDP, in 2014, it became the largest economy in Africa taking over South Africa. However, it also has a very high rate of poverty at 65.2% and unemployment rate at nearly 33% which is worse than South Africa. There is also the issue of inequality, insecurity, scarcity and so on.
    With the given figures we are a developing nation with an inflation rate of 11.4% getting to hyperinflation.

  57. Avatar Alozie Uche Daniel. says:

    NAME: ALOZIE UCHE DANIEL
    REG NO: 2019/245679
    COURSE: Understanding Economic development
    COURSE CODE:ECO 361

    Assignment

    1. Dudley seers argues that development is based on outcomes…Discuss.
    Dudley Seers, argued that “the focus on national income as a target for achieving poverty reduction avoided the real problems of development” and recommended “redefining how development was measured”. In this paper, he offered policy recommendations to incorporate more socially-relevant measures to better address development problems, focusing on education, population growth, and political independence. Seers argued “that there is no real ‘development’ when the benefits of technology and progress helped only a small number of people in the developed world, who are already relatively rich.”
    Development means creating the conditions for the realization of human personality. Its evaluation must therefore take into account three linked economic criteria: whether there has been a reduction in (i) poverty; (ii) unemployment; (iii) inequality. G.N.P. can grow rapidly without any improvement on these criteria; so development must be measured more directly. 

    2.
    Economic development helps to protect the local economy from economic downturns by attracting and expanding the region’s major employers.
    Better infrastructure and more jobs improves the economy of the region and raises the standard of living for its residents. Quality of place is more important than ever to attract a large talent pool in the era of increased remote workers.

    In addition, inclusive economic development works to support the community’s quality of life through initiatives such as supporting the regional transportation network, affordable housing, innovation and entrepreneurship as well as upskilling opportunities for the local workforce. These initiatives help to provide access and capabilities for existing workforce to take advantage of the new high-wage job opportunities created by economic development efforts.

    3. Amartya sen on development.
    Development means freedom, according to Amartya Sen, According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.
    I agree with this assertion because, Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.
    4. Role of women in National development.
    Women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life.
    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    5. The beings and doings in the capability function
    Capability to function then finally refers to a person’s set of achievable functioning vectors. It is the ultimate measure of well-being for a person as it reflects the substantive (positive) freedoms and opportunities an individual enjoys in life.
    Functionings are ‘doings and beings’, that is, various states of human beings and activities that a person has achieved, such as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling, while capabilities are the real, or substantive, opportunity that they have to achieve these doings and beings.
    Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized.

    6. Core values of development.
    Sustenance:

    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.

    Self-esteem:

    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed.

    Freedom from Servitude:

    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.

    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality.

    7. The correlation between income and happiness
    All forms of well-being continued rising with income, not seeing any sort of inflection point where money stops mattering. Instead, it just keeps increasing.

    However, he does not think this means that people should focus only on money. His research also found that people who specifically equate money with happiness are generally less happy people. Further, people who earned more money worked longer hours and felt more pressed for time. The main takeaway he had from his data was that income is only a modest determinant of happiness.

    8. The difference between Economic growth and Economic development.Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.

    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care
    In Nigeria there is more of growth in the Economic growth than Economic development because the proceeds of economic growth are being wasted or retained by a small wealthy elite.

  58. NAME: UGWUOKE KOSISOCHUWU PRECIOUS
    REG:2019/243547

    1:Before Dudley Seer propounded his theory of development, many economists believed that development is achieved when a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grows at 5% to 7% above and the increases are sustained over a long period of time. They believed that when such increases occurred, then that country has achieved development. To them, development was based mainly on material increase. Also, it was believed that economic development is achieved when there is a change in the structure of production and employment so that the share of agriculture in GDP and in employment declines, while that of manufacturing and services increases. These believe made development economists to focus more on industrialization at the expense of agriculture (Todaro & Smith, 2006). Based on the believe, many developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s experienced increased in their Gross Domestic Product but the general levels of living of the masses remained unchanged. That is, the increases in growth (GDP) do not have any direct effect on quality of life of the people.
    These made many economists to reconsider what development really is and hence glamour for direct attack on widespread of poverty, increasing inequality in income distribution and rising unemployment. To them development should have a “human face”. That is, it should be something that should be seen in the lives of the people. Amongst these economists seeking for a direct approach on development was Dudley Seer, a British Economist who specialized in development economics. He came up with a concept that replaced the growth fetishism with a social development. According to Seer (1969), development is about the level of poverty, unemployment and inequality in a nation. To him, if these three variables have declined over a period of time, then development has occurred for the nation concerned. But if one or two of these variables have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development,” even if per capita income has soared Seers
    2:Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries. Both cross-country research and country case studies provide overwhelming evidence that rapid and sustained growth is critical to making faster progress towards the Millennium Development Goals – and not just the first goal of halving the global proportion of people living on less than $1 a day.
    Growth can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong growth and employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. This may lead to the emergence of a strong and growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. Strong economic growth therefore advances human development, which, in turn, promotes economic growth.
    But under different conditions, similar rates of growth can have very different effects on poverty, the employment prospects of the poor and broader indicators of human development. The extent to which growth reduces poverty depends on the degree to which the poor participate in the growth process and share in its proceeds. Thus, both the pace and pattern of growth matter for reducing poverty.
    A successful strategy of poverty reduction must have at its core measures to promote rapid and sustained economic growth. The challenge for policy is to combine growth- promoting policies with policies that allow the poor to participate fully in the opportunities unleashed and so contribute to that growth. This includes policies to make labour markets work better, remove gender inequalities and increase financial inclusion.
    Asian countries are increasingly tackling this agenda of ‘inclusive growth’. India’s most recent development plan has two main objectives: raising economic growth and making growth more inclusive, policy mirrored elsewhere in South Asia and Africa.
    Future growth will need to be based on an increasingly globalised world that offers new opportunities but also new challenges. New technologies offer not only ‘catch-up’ potential but also ‘leapfrogging’ possibilities. New science offers better prospects across both productive and service sectors.
    Future growth will also need to be environmentally sustainable. Improved management of water and other natural resources is required, together with movement towards low carbon technologies by both developed and developing countries. With the proper institutions, growth and environmental sustainability may be seen as complements, not substitutes.
    DFID will work for inclusive growth through a number of programmes and continues to spend heavily on health and education, which have a major impact on poor people’s ability to take part in growth opportunities.
    More and better research on the drivers of growth will be needed to improve policy. But ultimately the biggest determinants of growth in a country will be its leadership,policies and institutions
    3: According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.

    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.

    Freedom implies not just to do something, but the capabilities to make it happen. What people can achieve (their capabilities) is influenced by “economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers, and the enabling condition of good health, basic education, and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives”. Sen calculates that if women in Asia and North Africa were given the same health care and attention, the world would have 100 million more women.
    4: Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    5: Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.

    Within philosophy, the capability approach has been employed to the development of several conceptual and normative theories within, most prominently, development ethics, political philosophy, public health ethics, environmental ethics and climate justice, and philosophy of education
    6: According to this approach, development is not just about increasing the availability of commodities (focus of the per-capita income approach) but expanding the capabilities of individuals to use these commodities and enhancing the freedom of choice of people. Higher income is important an element of one’s well being. But, well being of individuals also depends on their health, education, geographical and social environment, and political system. There are three core values of development: (i) sustenance, (ii) self- esteem, and (iii) freedom.
    Sustenance: Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These basic needs include food, shelter, health, and protection. People should have access to these basic needs.
    Self-Esteem: Sense of worth and self-respect and feeling of not being marginalized are extremely important for individual’s well being. All peoples and societies seek some form of self-esteem (identity, dignity, respect, honor etc.). The nature and form of self- esteem may vary from on culture to another and from time to time. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equated with higher worthiness. One may consider individuals worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    Freedom from Servitude: Human freedom, the ability to choose, is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom from bondage, serfdom, and other exploitative economic, social, and political relationships.
    7: Buying into “happiness materialism” — the belief that wealth is an indicator of a happy life — tends to be problematic because it takes “much time, energy and money away from other life domains that make an important and positive contribution to present life satisfaction,” such as family, work and health, the study authors wrote.

    However, researchers believe focusing on “success materialism” — the idea that wealth signifies success — enhances people’s “economic motivation,” or their drive to work and improve their standard of living. Thinking about success through that lens could make individuals more satisfied with their present lives and hopeful about the future.

    This simple mindset shift could make a difference in the way people view success and their lives, but of course there are other variables at play. For example, while this study didn’t cover how income specifically affects life satisfaction, researchers agree that it also impacts people’s happiness.
    8:A:Economic growth It refers to the increase in the monetary growth of a nation in a particular period.while economic development It refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation, which includes economic growth.
    Span of Concept
    B:Economic growth It is a narrower concept than that of economic development.while economic development It is a broader concept than that of economic growth.
    C:Scope
    Economic growth It is a uni-dimensional approach that deals with the economic growth of a nation.while economic development It is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income as well as the quality of life of a nation.
    D:Term
    Economic growth is in Short-term process while economic development is in the Long-term process
    E:Measurement
    Economic growth and economic development both varies in Quantitative
    F:Government Support
    Economic growth It is an automatic process that may or may not require intervention from the government while economic development It requires intervention from the government as all the developmental policies are formed by the government

  59. Avatar Tracy Emeto says:

    As a Nation- Nigeria, we are still considered a third world country therefore, we are still in the stage of developing.
    Nigeria and Nigerians are being exploited by both foreigners and elite nationals.

  60. Avatar Idajor John Ayuochieyi says:

    Name: Idajor John Ayuochieyi
    Reg. No: 2019/248707
    Department: Economics
    SOLUTIONS
    Answer to question one
    The argument of professor Dudley Seers that development can only be if there is reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment is indeed a fact even to a very large extent. There can be an economic growth without development if the increased income is not used to develop the economy. Let’s look at the meanings of the three key words: Poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Poverty: It is seen as a situation whereby someone has a very little money that is not enough to Carter for the basic needs of the person. In an economy where people lack money to provide for their basic needs, in such economy there is lack of development. In an economy where poverty is at its highest rate it therefore shows that some basic functions that are to be played most especially by the government are denied. For example, in our country Nigeria, the poverty headcount rate is instead projected to jump from 40.1 per cent in 2018/19 to 42.0 per cent in 2020 and 42.6 per cent in 2022, implying that the number of poor people was 89.0 million in 2020 and would be 95.1 million in 2022. Looking at this someone may be forced to ask, is there no working force in Nigeria? Is there economy not experiencing economic growth? and so many other questions. In the case of Nigeria, the truth remains that there is an economic growth but the reason for no development is due to bad government especially in this present government of ours. When the government fails to look into the basic needs of its citezens and provide ways in which poverty can be if not eradicated then be reduced to its nearest minimum. There are many things that can lead to poverty in an economy, things such as: conflnutriinadequate access to clean water and nutritious food, little or no access to livelihood, poor education, etc. If the government of a country like Nigeria looks down on the causes of poverty as mentioned above, there is no likelihood of reducing poverty.
    For an economy to reduce poverty, it does not only have to experience economic growth only but has to employ the income gotten from GNI into those different sectors of the economy that tends to proliferate poverty. The government can emback on:
    Education of the young ones: This is very Paramount for the country like Nigeria whose government now sees education as nothing but waste of money and resources, with the help of education, the teeming generation will be educated on how to carter for the basic needs of each one themselves not even relying on the government.
    Provision of clean water: when there is a good source of water for the people there is also life because good water is even the first and the necessary aspect of feeding.
    Ensure basic health care.
    Empower a girl or woman.
    Improve childhood nutrition.
    Support environmental programs.
    Reach children in conflict.
    Prevent child marriage.
    Inequality: It means the situation of not being equal, in particular in reference to the distribution of income among the population. There are so many things that leads to inequality in an economy. One is the distribution of resources in an economy. Take for instance in our country Nigeria, the main source of income in the country is income from crude oil, and the deposit of crude oil cannot be found in all the state in Nigeria, after the sales of crude oil, how can the income be equally distributed to all sectors in the economy? This is one of the trending problems with the government of Nigeria. If the income gotten from crude oil can be equally distributed and efficiently used, there is the likelihood of development. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, he who is in position to rule others would come up with the general saying “that God for us all and man to himself”. We see that most of the income generated in the southern of Nigeria are largely allocated to the northern part of Nigeria. The real owners of crude oil gets nothing. If the government can look into allocating these incomes generated to different sectors of the economy that are lacking behind, there will be development in such economy.
    There are also other causes of inequality in an economy such as:
    Gender inequality
    Globalization
    Differences in education, etc.
    For an economy to reduce inequality, it must try to see how it can reallocate the different resources to places that do not have enough of those resources, it must do away with gender inequality especially that of women so that women can work and progress like others in the society.
    Unemployment: It is a situation whereby there are given number of men and women who are ready and willing to work but finds no work. This is one of the alarming rates of the cries of Nigerian youths who have graduated and have no work to do. Today most Nigerians are leaving the country in search for work in other countries. In an economy where there no provision of employment for citizens, then there is lack of development. Why is is that in Nigeria a lot of graduate are found without jobs? Is there no work for them? What is the response of the government to this? These are some of the questions likely asked by many people. There are many factors that lead to unemployment such as:
    Corruption,
    neglect of agricultural and other natural resources,
    poor quality education,
    a lack of working skills,
    overpopulation,
    inflation,
    and a decrease in economic value
    In Nigeria, most of the educational institutions are very poor due to the lack of concern by the government towards education, even the tertiary institutions are unstable due to ASSU strike in regards to government refusal to respond to the needs of ASSU which will help the educational system. In such economy, development can hardly occur.
    Corruption is the main cause of unemployment especially in Nigeria, a situation whereby those in authority think only of themselves and their families and no more the care for the needs of the society today, this is what is experience now in our present government.
    Agricultural and other natural resources have been abandoned due to the discovery of crude oil. Before, the main source of income in Nigeria was agriculture, if the government can in a common sense, hold up to the aspect of agriculture joined together with crude oil, I think even the least among the poor in Nigeria would have little to complain about if all the income are efficiently used.
    For the government to reduce unemployment in Nigeria, I think the following should be adhered to:
    Fiscal Policy of Government. …
    Central Bank and Nigeria Monetary Policy. …
    Government Spending. …
    Agric Sector Reform. …
    Government Intervention in Micro Lending. …
    Getting Professional Education. …
    Finishing School. …
    Changing University Curriculum
    I can say that Professor Dudley seers is right with his argument about development, if the solutions to poverty, unemployment and inequality are adhered to, then there is said to be development in such economy especially in Nigeria.
    Answer to question two
    Here, we will look at development occurring in a multi dimensional way, of cause, development cannot occur in one way bit in different ways. We will look at the key factors: Development involving changes in output, development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources and development as a reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Development involving changes in the composition output: Change in output can be defined as is defined as the percentage change in output per one percent change in all the inputs. This leads to what is known as returns to scale, and the reasons for return to scale are as follows:
    Division of labor and increased efficiency of variable factors.
    Organized and efficient coordination between the factors.
    Indivisibility of factors of projection
    Changes in the composition of output refers to changes not only in the out of a firm but in different parts, sectors, and aspects of production on an economy. For example, let’s say we have different aspects that contribute to the GDP of the nation such as: agricultural sector, companies, business sectors, etc. In each of these sectors, like in agriculture: if there is a change from the use of local implement for cultivation to the use of mechanized tools in cultivation, then there will be increase in the hectares of land cultivated, also, if there is an increase in the use of deposits as manure to the use of fertilizers on farm land, there will be a change in the yield of crops cultivated. Thus, it applies to other sectors in the economy. If there is a positive (increasing) change the the composition or different parts through which an output is given to the economy then development has occurred.
    Development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources: Here, we’ll look at productive resources, it is defined as the natural, human, and capital re- sources used to make goods and services. For more understanding let’s look at what scarcity is all about, Scarcity means that because resources are limited, you can’t have every- thing you want. For an effective development to take place in an economy, there is need for reallocation of those productive resources in an economy to places where there are scarce. For example, if the government of Nigeria decide to establish more universities in the northern part of Nigeria, there will be need for the reallocation of well trained lecturers from the southern part of Nigeria to the north in order for effective education to take place. If there is no reallocation of lecturers to such area, then those employed as lecturers there may not deliver effective lessons to students since in the south we have more learned people than those in the north. The reallocation of productive resources is very necessary for development, otherwise there will be scarcity in other parts of the economy.
    Reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment: As said earlier in question, development can only occur when there is reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment. For instance, in our country Nigeria, most people are unemployed and the result of such brings terrorism, stealing, and many other vices in the country, if the government can provide solutions to unemployment, youths would have something doing.
    Poverty is must be fought by the government and inequality. All these boils down to the fact that the government is bad and corrupt, in a good government there is provision of employment, and other basic needs, if all these are adhered to, then it gives the summary of the first two answers which shows that development is multi dimensional.
    Answer to question three
    The assertions of Amartya Sen are of cause to be agreed on, but before the agreement, let’s look at the key words of his proposition.
    Unfreedom: This is seen as the lack of power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants. Or the state of being imprisoned or enslaved. Or the state of being subject to or affected by (something undesirable). This is one of the factors that cripples economic development. In an economy where the freedom of the citizens is not ensured, there seemed to be lack of economic development. Looking at Nigeria as a case study, the present government can be said to be made up of most of those factors affecting economic development. In Nigeria, the Hausa’s believed that, they are born to rule, that no other tribe or States outside the north should rule. That is why during the period of Goodluck Jonathan, he worn the election but there was ridging of result and Buhari said that if anyone wins the election outside him there will be war which made Goodluck to call for peace. This is one of the examples of unfreedom. Now, looking critically on the government of President Buhari and comparing with that of president Jonathan, you’ll see that Nigeria was better during the time of Goodluck, that is why there is the saying that Presidential Buhari came to chain us and not to change the government. Situations like this cannot profer for economic development, for economic development to be ensured, there must be removal of those sources of unfreedom that chains the people.
    Tyranny: This is a government in which a single ruler has absolute power over the subject. In an economy where one person takes decision on behalf of others and controls the means of production and distribution of goods and services, there is the likelihood of non development. Nigeria is a country that bears the name of practicing democracy but actually practice tyranny, that is why instead of development, there is rather decrease even in economic growth.
    Poor Economic opportunities: Poor Economic opportunity means when young people cannot access the education, training, guidance, and connections required to successfully achieve economic security and independence. This is also one of the factors crippling development in an economy. A state where the teeming generation cannot afford these basic economic opportunities, then the future generation is in jeopardythThis is also the case with Nigeria where the young ones cannot access these economic opportunities such as education, training, guidance and security. Every now and then, Nigeria has faced so many security challenges such as Boko Haran, unknown gun men, the trending one which is attack from Fulani herds men. This will trigger fall even in Nigeria’s GDP. Thus, it can be rightly said without bounds to words of professor Amartya Sen’s statement that development can only occur when all these factor are uprooted from the root giving ways to freedom, good economic opportunities, etc.
    Systematic social deprivation/ neglect of public facilities/ intolerance: Systematic social deprivation refers to the limited access to society’s resources due to poverty, discrimination, or other disadvantages. The definition says it all, for any economy to experience development, there must be proper trashing of some social vices such as systematic social deprivation. As usual, our main case study will be Nigeria, discrimination is widely spread Nigeria not just in politics, but in different aspects and sectors in the country. It is only in Nigeria that people go to apply for job and those that will be first considered are those who are of close relations and friends and also those from the tribe/tribes of those who are in charge of employment not minding if those who are the so called friends and relations have the requirements and are capable and fit for the job to be proferred. Likewise in the government, position of authority is no more by voting but merited by those who have hands above, that is why the rich gets richer and the poor gets poorer in Nigeria. Therefore I fully agree with Amartya Sen that, all these factors must be eradicated in order that there will be economic development. Now, another opportunity is here for Nigerians to make the right choice on whom to rule them, if the citizens vote in the right leaders as we are looking forward to see, there will be economic growth and development, students will no more go home on strike again.
    Adding to this factor are neglect of public facilities and intolerance that all contribution to the debilitation of economic development. Thus, my agreement with Amartya Sen is to a very large extent that the removal of such factors will pave way for economic development.
    Answer to question four
    There is a saying that “what a man can do a woman can do better”. The roles of women in national development counts in a board aspect. Some of the central roles of women in national development are as follows:
    They played the role of mothers
    As caretakers in family affairs
    They played to role of farmers
    Educators and teachers
    Entrepreneurs
    They played a role in politics and government
    The role of mothers: This role is so overlooked upon by so many people as a thing of less worth. Without the exist of women whose takes pain in carrying children for nine months, give birth to them and train them up to become good citizens, good leaders to, them I think the whole population of mankind would have been wiped out by now. What then is the meaning of a mother? A mother is a human female who parents and gives birth to a child, and carter for the need of the child till adulthood. Reports have shown that children are closer to their mother’s than to their fathers. That is why most characters inculcated by a child is that of the mother. Due to the affection and care shown by mothers to children, the children feel the need of total dependence on their mothers. If women can play such role in the family, what is that superstitious believe that women cannot play a vital role in national development?
    As caretakers in family affairs: Another important role of women i n national development is caretakers in family affairs. Women are known as the peace of the family, in most families, women play a vital role in taking care of the family affairs such as cooking, washing of clothes, keeping of the environment clean, solving disputes between children and many others. If you enter a house or compound in the morning and see that it is not well kept, the general conclusion would be that there is no woman in that arena.
    They played the role of farmers: World widely, women contribute immensely to agricultural development which constitute about 43% of the agricultural workforce in the world. In most countries of the world, the number of women engaged in agriculture is over 70% on the increase, taking cognizance of Africa alone, the available records of agricultural production is 80%which comes from small farm production. It is said to agriculture is the bedrock for national food security, poverty reduction, job creation and economic stability.
    Educators and teachers: As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school.
    They played a role in politics and government: Women are also known to immensely contribute to national development.The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    Answer to question five
    Amartya Sen in his capability approach talked about things that helps an individual or people to know their worth in a societ. Some of the importance of this approach are as follows:
    Being able to live long
    Being well nourished
    Being healthy
    Being literate
    Being well clothed
    Being mobile
    Being able to take part in the life of the community

    The Sen capability approach is a moral framework. It proposes that social arrangements should be evaluated primarily according to the extent of freedom people have to promote as well as achieving functions they value. Amartya Sen’s capability theory approach is a theoretical framework that involves two core normative claims.

    First, the assumption that freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance. And second, that freedom to achieve well-being must be understood in terms of people with capabilities. In other words, their real opportunities to do and be what they value. The approach has been developed into a variety of more specific normative theories. Such as those of social justice or the narratives of development ethics.

    It has also given rise to a new highly interdisciplinary literature in the social sciences resulting in new social statistics and indicators. And to a new policy paradigm used mainly in developing studies, the so-called “human development approach” or human well-being.

    The capability approach claims that freedom to achieve well-being is a matter of what people can do and be. And therefore, the kind of life they can effectively lead. As Sen argues, people’s commodities or wealth or their mental reactions (utility) are an inappropriate angle because they provide limited or indirect information about how life is going. Sen illustrates his point with the example of a standard bicycle.

    This has the characteristics of “transportation”, but whether it will actually provide transportation will depend on the characteristics of those trying to use it. It could be considered a generally useful tool for most people to extend their mobility. Even if that person by some quirk, finds the bicycle charming, we should be able to notice within our assessment system that it still lacks transportation. This mental reaction also does not show that the same person would not appreciate transportation if it were actually available to them.
    Answer to question six
    The three core values of development are necessary for each and every individual living in the the society. Those three core values are as follows:
    Sustenance ( the ability to meet basic needs)
    Self esteem ( to be a person)
    Freedom from servitude ( to able to choose)
    The above listed items are the three core values for development, now let’s look at each one after the other.
    Sustenance ( the ability to meet basic needs): The word sustenance means the food and drink that people, animals and plants need to stay alive and healthy. Also, it means the process of making something to continue to exist. All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health, and protection. When any of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of “absolute underdevelop￾ment” exists. A basic function of all economic activity, therefore, is to provide as many people as possible with the means of overcoming the helplessness and misery arising from a lack of food, shelter, health, and protection. To this extent, we may claim that economic development is a necessary condition for the improvement in the quality of life that is development. Without sustained and continuous economic progress at the individual as well as the societal level, the realization of the human potential would not be possible. One clearly has to “have enough in order to be more. A good example of sustenance is when an individual can fend for himself when he or she graduates out of the university. If an individual from economic department graduates and fortunately gets a job as lecturer in the university of Nigeria and is well paid, in a month he or she receives one hundred and fifty thousand. Then, the individual can provide for his basic needs and also there can be said to be development.
    Self esteem ( to be a person): The word self esteem means confidence in one’s own worth or abilities; self-respect. A second universal component of the good life is self-esteem—a sense of worth and self respect, of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. All peoples and societies seek some basic form of self-esteem, although they may call it authenticity, identity, dignity, respect, honor, or recognition. The nature and form of this self-esteem may vary from society to society and from culture to culture. However, with the proliferation of the “modernizing values” of developed nations, many societies in develop￾ing countries that have had a profound sense of their own worth suffer from serious cultural confusion when they come in contact with economically and technologically advanced societies. This is because national prosperity has be￾come an almost universal measure of worth. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are nowadays increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power—those that have “developed.”
    Freedom from servitude ( to able to choose): The word servitude is the state of being a slave or completely subject to someone more powerful. A third and final universal value that we suggest should constitute the meaning of development is the concept of human freedom. Freedom here is to be understood in the sense of emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, other people, misery, oppressive institutions, and dogmatic beliefs,especially that poverty is predestination. Freedom involves an expanded range of choices for societies and their members together with a minimization of external constraints in the pursuit of some social goal we call development. Amartya Sen writes of “development as freedom.” W. Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable people to gain greater control over nature and the physical environment (e.g., through the production of food, clothing, and shelter) than they would have if they remained poor. It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure, to have more goods and services, or to deny the importance of these material wants and choose to live a life of spiritual contemplation. The concept of human freedom also encompasses various components of political freedom, including personal security, the rule of law, freedom of expression, political participation, and equality of opportunity. Although attempts to rank countries with freedom indexes have proved highly controversial, studies do reveal that some countries that have achieved high economic growth rates or high incomes, such as China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore, have not achieved as much on human freedom criteria.
    Answer to question seven
    The questions about getting happiness when there is an increase in income has been a thing of debate in time past up till now. Some argue that as income increases, so also does happiness is on the increase. Many held this view base on the fact that when one has money, he or she can solve many problems related to basic needs of man and even live a.comfortable life which is of cause very true. Take for instance the economic situation in Nigeria, no one would tell that if he or she receives an increased salary, sadness would develop him, but rather the reverse is the case. This is because in Nigeria, people are suffering, no money, the available money is only in the hands of a few. Now, our lecturers have not been paid for over eight month, if suddenly, they receive their complete salary with an increase in the salary, in truth, there will be joy and happiness.
    On the other hand, many argued that, when is an increase in the income earned by people, there will not experience happiness. Take for instance, most of our Nigerian policians are caught on the wires of insecurity, fear, etc of affluence. Today, politicians are restless, they cannot go about freely because of fear of being attacked in order to embezzle from them, as such, they lack happiness and peace. They suffer from what is known as the bondage of affluence. For an ordinary man who has no money, some people still argued that there is freedom for such person and as such there is peace and happiness in the life of such person provided he has what can sustain him. If you check very well, even the holy scripture gave a clear point about this, at a point in the bible Jesus asked a rich man to give all he has to the poor and then come follow him, sad was he as he walked away. Also, st. Paul said that money is the root of all evil and as such gives no happiness.
    Do we say there should be no increase in income again in order that weay be happy? Or do we still say that there should be abundant increase in income so that we can be happy? All this are complicating, according to a research carried out, One of the most well-known findings in the economic study of happiness is that, on average, happiness increases with income, but at a certain point diminishing returns set in. In other words, money can only buy a fixed level of happiness, after which extra income and wealth doesn’t make much difference. Emphasizing on this point, I’ll like to say that an increase in income is not bad an as such gives happiness to a certain point, but a situation whereby one has an elongated desire to own more than enough money only to himself leads to unhappiness which is the situation we are facing in Nigeria today, and with this act there can hardly be development in Nigeria. There is enough money in Nigeria to settle ASSU and to bring development in different sectors and aspects in Nigeria but the money is just in the hands of few greedy people. To summarize it all, when there is an increase in income there is happiness, but when there is an over increase in income indirectly acquired, the happiness turns to slavery, unfreedomness, and unhappiness.
    Answer to question eight
    Looking at the two terms: Economic growth and economic development, these will he us to make distinction and come out with a proposed outcome of the present situation in Nigeria.
    Economic growth: This refers to the increment in the amount of goods and services produced by an economy. This means an increase in the real nationa inome/ national ouput in an economy, as such, economic growth is a positive change in the indicators of the economy, this makes it single dimensional in nature because it focuses only on the income of the people. Other distinguishing features of economic growth are as follows:
    Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    Economic growth only looks at the quantitative aspect. It brings quantitative changes in the economy.
    Economic growth is concerned with increase in economy’s output.
    It focuses on production of goods and services.
    Economic growth is more relevant metric for assessing progress in developed countries.
    Economic growth is relatively narrow concept as compared to economic development.
    It is for short term/short period.
    It is a material/physical concept.
    Economic growth is measured in certain time frame/period.
    The Industrial Revolution is an historically significant example of enhancements of all 4 variables for production, all these components being what contributes to economic growth. Automated assembly in factories shifted workers into more skilled and specialized roles, further enhancing technology. Skilled labor and enhanced technology in turn increased the capital goods available, resulting in greater production, and ended periodic famines, leading to increased populations.
    Economic development: Economic Development is programs, policies or activities that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community. What “economic development” means to you will depend on the community you live in. Each community has its own opportunities, challenges, and priorities. As said earlier in economic growth, before economic development can occur, there must be economic growth. Some of the distinguishing features of economic development are as follows:
    Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    Economic development also refers to:
    provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    equal access to resources
    participation of all in economic activities
    equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    It refers to increase in productivity.
    Indicators of economic development are:
    Human Development Index (HDI)
    Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    Gini Coefficient
    Gender Development Index (GDI)
    Balance of trade
    Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    Economic development is the ends of development.
    Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    It is more abstract concept.
    Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    Following the pandemic induced recession in 2020, Nigeria’s economic growth recovered but macroeconomic stability weakened. Amidst global commodity shocks, a depreciating currency, trade restrictions, and monetization of the deficit, inflation is surging and pushing millions of Nigerians into poverty. Since 2021, Nigeria is also unable to benefit from the surging global oil prices, as oil production has fallen to historic lows and petrol subsidy continues to consume a larger share of the gross oil revenues.
    In 2018, 40% of Nigerians (83 million people) lived below the poverty line, while another 25% (53 million) were vulnerable. With Nigeria’s population growth continuing to outpace poverty reduction, the number of Nigerians living in extreme poverty is set to rise by 7.7 million between 2019 and 2024.
    While the economy is projected to grow at an average of 3.2% in 2022-2024, the growth outlook is subject to downside risks including further declines in oil production and heightened insecurity. Meanwhile, continued scarcity of foreign exchange and tighter liquidity could affect the economic activity in the non-oil sector and undermine the overall macroeconomic stability. The uncertainty is also expected to be accompanied by high inflation and continued fiscal and debt pressures.
    Development Challenges
    While Nigeria has made some progress in socio-economic terms in recent years, its human capital development ranked 150 of 157 countries in the World Bank’s 2020 Human Capital Index. The country continues to face massive developmental challenges, including the need to reduce the dependency on oil and diversify the economy, address insufficient infrastructure, build strong and effective institutions, as well as address governance issues and public financial management systems.
    Inequality, in terms of income and opportunities, remains high and has adversely affected poverty reduction. The lack of job opportunities is at the core of the high poverty levels, regional inequality, and social and political unrest. High inflation has also taken a toll on household’s welfare and high prices in 2020-2022 are likely to have pushed an additional 8 million Nigerians into poverty.
    Presently, Nigeria is facing economic hardship that even economic growth is hardly achieved, the problem emanates from the bad government we have, workers are not being paid, and the is high rate of unemployment in the country. We can.rightly say that, Nigeria at the present has not attended economic development, and even the economic growth that paves way for economic development is at risk. The main source of the country’s income ( crude oil) is falling out of value almost on daily basis due to the mismanagement by the government. We look forward to seeing another government in 2023 which will do away with this bad government and towards both the economic growth and development of the country.

  61. Avatar Ngene Francisca onyeka says:

    Ngene Francisca onyeka
    2019/249518
    Economics

    1. The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.
    As discussed by Dudley Seers [7], the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation.

    2.Here, we will look at development occurring in a multi dimensional way, of cause, development cannot occur in one way bit in different ways. We will look at the key factors: Development involving changes in output, development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources and development as a reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Development involving changes in the composition output: Change in output can be defined as is defined as the percentage change in output per one percent change in all the inputs. This leads to what is known as returns to scale, and the reasons for return to scale are as follows:
    Division of labor and increased efficiency of variable factors.
    Organized and efficient coordination between the factors.
    Indivisibility of factors of projection
    Changes in the composition of output refers to changes not only in the out of a firm but in different parts, sectors, and aspects of production on an economy. For example, let’s say we have different aspects that contribute to the GDP of the nation such as: agricultural sector, companies, business sectors, etc. In each of these sectors, like in agriculture: if there is a change from the use of local implement for cultivation to the use of mechanized tools in cultivation, then there will be increase in the hectares of land cultivated, also, if there is an increase in the use of deposits as manure to the use of fertilizers on farm land, there will be a change in the yield of crops cultivated. Thus, it applies to other sectors in the economy. If there is a positive (increasing) change the the composition or different parts through which an output is given to the economy then development has occurred.
    Development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources: Here, we’ll look at productive resources, it is defined as the natural, human, and capital re- sources used to make goods and services. For more understanding let’s look at what scarcity is all about, Scarcity means that because resources are limited, you can’t have every- thing you want. For an effective development to take place in an economy, there is need for reallocation of those productive resources in an economy to places where there are scarce. For example, if the government of Nigeria decide to establish more universities in the northern part of Nigeria, there will be need for the reallocation of well trained lecturers from the southern part of Nigeria to the north in order for effective education to take place. If there is no reallocation of lecturers to such area, then those employed as lecturers there may not deliver effective lessons to students since in the south we have more learned people than those in the north. The reallocation of productive resources is very necessary for development, otherwise there will be scarcity in other parts of the economy.
    Reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment: As said earlier in question, development can only occur when there is reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment. For instance, in our country Nigeria, most people are unemployed and the result of such brings terrorism, stealing, and many other vices in the country, if the government can provide solutions to unemployment, youths would have something doing.
    Poverty is must be fought by the government and inequality. All these boils down to the fact that the government is bad and corrupt, in a good government there is provision of employment, and other basic needs, if all these are adhered to, then it gives the summary of the first two answers which shows that development is multi dimensional.
    3.As countries develop, their economies grow and living standards rise. This reduces the rate of poverty and allows more people to provide for themselves and their families and to live in dignity. The more a country develops the more jobs are created. This gives more people access to quality, stable work and to be able to provide for themselves and their families. Better economic opportunities have been shown to reduce violence and crime, as well as reduce the likelihood of conflict. Better jobs are also related to improved quality of life for people. As well as creating better jobs, development is important for a country because it improves business and trade. As countries develop more international companies move in and trade with other countries grows. This further improves the countries economy and also further increases the range of good jobs on offer.
    Everybody wants to be able to meet their full potential. The increase in economic opportunities that development brings to a country shows how vital it can be.  Every child has the right to access quality education. Poorer countries often fail to meet the education needs of their young people. Increased development would improve the education systems of many poorer nations. A more educated population also improves the economic position of a country as people are able to move into more highly skilled jobs and create more innovative businesses. Better infrastructure helps a country immensely. Improving roads, railways, airports, communications and utilities makes a country more efficient. It allows people to move and send information more easily, as well as transport goods and provide services more widely. Better infrastructure improves a countries economy, which in-turn allows countries to spend more on better infrastructure. People in developed countries are more likely to live longer and happier lives. They are also generally more economically productive, hold better jobs, live in better quality housing and have access to better education and healthcare. All these factors contribute to a better standard of living for people in developed countries.

    4.Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity. The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    5. The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.

    6.According to Prof. Goulet, at least three basic components as core values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. These core values – sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom – represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies’? They relate to fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.
    Sustenance:
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    Self-esteem:
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed. Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.” … Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.6
    Freedom from Servitude:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.
    7. More income bring more happiness because;
    * Money reduces intense stress: There was no significant difference in how often the participants experienced distressing events—no matter their income, they recorded a similar number of daily frustrations. But those with higher incomes experienced less negative intensity from those events.
    * More money brings greater control: Those with higher incomes felt they had more control over negative events and that control reduced their stress. People with ample incomes felt more agency to deal with whatever hassles may arise.
    * Higher incomes lead to higher life satisfaction: People with higher incomes were generally more satisfied with their lives.

    Money is important to happiness. Ask anyone who doesn’t have it. Having a higher income, for example, can give us access to homes in safer neighborhoods, better health care and nutrition, fulfilling work, and more leisure time.
    8. ECONOMIC GROWTH
    * Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy.
    * Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy.
    * Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    * It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    * Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    * Earlier, economic growth was only measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
    * At present, it is measured in terms of GDP, Gross National Income (GNI) and Per Capita Income.
    * Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    * Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    * Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    * It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    * ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
    *
    * Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    * Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    * Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    * Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    * Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    * Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    * Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    * Economic development also refers to:
    * provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    * equal access to resources
    * participation of all in economic activities
    * equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    * Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    * It refers to increase in productivity.
    * Indicators of economic development are:
    * Human Development Index (HDI)
    * Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    * Gini Coefficient
    * Gender Development Index (GDI)
    * Balance of trade
    * Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    * Economic development is the ends of development.
    * Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    * It is more abstract concept.
    * Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    *
    * Nigeria’s economy grew by 3.6% in 2021 from a 1.8% contraction in 2020, underpinned on the supply side by 4.4% expansion in the non-oil sector against 8.3% contraction in the oil sector; non-oil growth was driven by agriculture (2.1%) and services (5.6%). On the demand side, public and private consumption were contributors to GDP growth. Per capita income grew by 1.0% in 2021. The fiscal deficit narrowed to 4.8% of GDP in 2021 from 5.4% in 2020, due to a modest uptick in revenues, and was financed by borrowing. Public debt stood at $95.8 billion in 2021, or about 22.5% of GDP.
    * Annual average inflation stood at 17.0% in 2021 against 13.2% the previous year and above the central bank’s 6–9% target. Inflation was fueled by food price rises at the start of the year and exchange rate pass-through. The central bank kept the policy rate unchanged at 11.5% in 2021 to support economic recovery. The current account deficit narrowed to 2.9% of GDP in 2021 from 4% the preceding year, supported by recovery in oil receipts. Improved oil exports and disbursement of the SDR allocation of $3.4 billion (0.8% of GDP), pending decision on its use, helped to boost gross reserves to $40.1 billion in 2021. The ratio of NPLs to gross loans was 4.9% in December 2021 (regulatory requirement 5%), while the capital-adequacy ratio was 14.5% (regulatory benchmark 10%). Poverty and unemployment remained high, broadly unchanged from 40% and 33.3%, respectively, in 2020.

  62. Avatar Ngene Francisca onyeka says:

    Ngene Francisca onyeka
    2019/249518
    Economics
    munaglint@gmail.com
    1. The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.
    As discussed by Dudley Seers [7], the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation.

    2.Here, we will look at development occurring in a multi dimensional way, of cause, development cannot occur in one way bit in different ways. We will look at the key factors: Development involving changes in output, development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources and development as a reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Development involving changes in the composition output: Change in output can be defined as is defined as the percentage change in output per one percent change in all the inputs. This leads to what is known as returns to scale, and the reasons for return to scale are as follows:
    Division of labor and increased efficiency of variable factors.
    Organized and efficient coordination between the factors.
    Indivisibility of factors of projection
    Changes in the composition of output refers to changes not only in the out of a firm but in different parts, sectors, and aspects of production on an economy. For example, let’s say we have different aspects that contribute to the GDP of the nation such as: agricultural sector, companies, business sectors, etc. In each of these sectors, like in agriculture: if there is a change from the use of local implement for cultivation to the use of mechanized tools in cultivation, then there will be increase in the hectares of land cultivated, also, if there is an increase in the use of deposits as manure to the use of fertilizers on farm land, there will be a change in the yield of crops cultivated. Thus, it applies to other sectors in the economy. If there is a positive (increasing) change the the composition or different parts through which an output is given to the economy then development has occurred.
    Development involving shift in the allocation of productive resources: Here, we’ll look at productive resources, it is defined as the natural, human, and capital re- sources used to make goods and services. For more understanding let’s look at what scarcity is all about, Scarcity means that because resources are limited, you can’t have every- thing you want. For an effective development to take place in an economy, there is need for reallocation of those productive resources in an economy to places where there are scarce. For example, if the government of Nigeria decide to establish more universities in the northern part of Nigeria, there will be need for the reallocation of well trained lecturers from the southern part of Nigeria to the north in order for effective education to take place. If there is no reallocation of lecturers to such area, then those employed as lecturers there may not deliver effective lessons to students since in the south we have more learned people than those in the north. The reallocation of productive resources is very necessary for development, otherwise there will be scarcity in other parts of the economy.
    Reduction of poverty, inequality and unemployment: As said earlier in question, development can only occur when there is reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment. For instance, in our country Nigeria, most people are unemployed and the result of such brings terrorism, stealing, and many other vices in the country, if the government can provide solutions to unemployment, youths would have something doing.
    Poverty is must be fought by the government and inequality. All these boils down to the fact that the government is bad and corrupt, in a good government there is provision of employment, and other basic needs, if all these are adhered to, then it gives the summary of the first two answers which shows that development is multi dimensional.
    3.As countries develop, their economies grow and living standards rise. This reduces the rate of poverty and allows more people to provide for themselves and their families and to live in dignity. The more a country develops the more jobs are created. This gives more people access to quality, stable work and to be able to provide for themselves and their families. Better economic opportunities have been shown to reduce violence and crime, as well as reduce the likelihood of conflict. Better jobs are also related to improved quality of life for people. As well as creating better jobs, development is important for a country because it improves business and trade. As countries develop more international companies move in and trade with other countries grows. This further improves the countries economy and also further increases the range of good jobs on offer.
    Everybody wants to be able to meet their full potential. The increase in economic opportunities that development brings to a country shows how vital it can be.  Every child has the right to access quality education. Poorer countries often fail to meet the education needs of their young people. Increased development would improve the education systems of many poorer nations. A more educated population also improves the economic position of a country as people are able to move into more highly skilled jobs and create more innovative businesses. Better infrastructure helps a country immensely. Improving roads, railways, airports, communications and utilities makes a country more efficient. It allows people to move and send information more easily, as well as transport goods and provide services more widely. Better infrastructure improves a countries economy, which in-turn allows countries to spend more on better infrastructure. People in developed countries are more likely to live longer and happier lives. They are also generally more economically productive, hold better jobs, live in better quality housing and have access to better education and healthcare. All these factors contribute to a better standard of living for people in developed countries.

    4.Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity. The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.
    5. The capability approach is a theoretical framework that entails two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance and, second, that well-being should be understood in terms of people’s capabilities and functionings. Capabilities are the doings and beings that people can achieve if they so choose — their opportunity to do or be such things as being well-nourished, getting married, being educated, and travelling; functionings are capabilities that have been realized. Whether someone can convert a set of means – resources and public goods – into a functioning (i.e., whether she has a particular capability) crucially depends on certain personal, sociopolitical, and environmental conditions, which, in the capability literature, are called ‘conversion factors.’ Capabilities have also been referred to as real or substantive freedoms as they denote the freedoms that have been cleared of any potential obstacles, in contrast to mere formal rights and freedoms.

    6.According to Prof. Goulet, at least three basic components as core values should serve as a conceptual basis and practical guidelines for understanding the “inner” meaning of development. These core values – sustenance, self-esteem, and freedom – represent common goals sought by all individuals and societies’? They relate to fundamental human needs that find their expression in almost all societies and cultures at all times.
    Sustenance:
    The life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health and protection. When any one of these is absent or in critically short supply, a condition of absolute “underdevelopment” exists.
    Self-esteem:
    A second universal component of good life is self- esteem- a sense of worth and self-respect- of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. Due to the significance attached to material values in developed nations, worthiness and esteem are now-a-days increasingly conferred only on countries that possess economic wealth and technological power- those that have developed. Now-a-days the Third World seeks development in order to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful “underdevelopment.” … Development is legitimized as a goal because it is an important, perhaps even an indispensable, way of gaining esteem.6
    Freedom from Servitude:
    Arthur Lewis stressed the relationship between economic growth and freedom from servitude when he concluded that “the advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice.” Wealth can enable a person to gain greater control over nature and his physical environment than they would have if they remained poor.
    It also gives them the freedom to choose greater leisure. The concept of human freedom should encompass various components of political freedom, freedom of expression, political participation and equality of opportunity.
    7. More income bring more happiness because;
    * Money reduces intense stress: There was no significant difference in how often the participants experienced distressing events—no matter their income, they recorded a similar number of daily frustrations. But those with higher incomes experienced less negative intensity from those events.
    * More money brings greater control: Those with higher incomes felt they had more control over negative events and that control reduced their stress. People with ample incomes felt more agency to deal with whatever hassles may arise.
    * Higher incomes lead to higher life satisfaction: People with higher incomes were generally more satisfied with their lives.

    Money is important to happiness. Ask anyone who doesn’t have it. Having a higher income, for example, can give us access to homes in safer neighborhoods, better health care and nutrition, fulfilling work, and more leisure time.
    8. ECONOMIC GROWTH
    * Economic Growth is the positive change in the indicators of economy.
    * Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy.
    * Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output.
    * It refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income.
    * Economic growth is single dimensional in nature as it only focuses on income of the people.
    * Earlier, economic growth was only measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
    * At present, it is measured in terms of GDP, Gross National Income (GNI) and Per Capita Income.
    * Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development.
    * Indicators of economic growth are GDP, GNI and per capita income.
    * Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports.
    * It is also considered as a traditional measure of development which indicates the quantitative rise of economy.
    * ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
    *
    * Economic development is the quantitative and qualitative change in an economy.
    * Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    * Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    * Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    * Economic development is multi-dimensional in nature as it focuses on both income and improvement of living standards of the people.
    * Economic development is concerned with the happiness of public life.
    * Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.
    * Economic development also refers to:
    * provision of sufficient and effective physical and social infrastructures
    * equal access to resources
    * participation of all in economic activities
    * equitable distribution of dividends of economy.
    * Economic development= Economic growth + standard of living
    * It refers to increase in productivity.
    * Indicators of economic development are:
    * Human Development Index (HDI)
    * Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    * Gini Coefficient
    * Gender Development Index (GDI)
    * Balance of trade
    * Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
    * Economic development is the ends of development.
    * Achieving economic development is linked with end of poverty and inequality.
    * It is more abstract concept.
    * Economic development focuses on distribution of resources.
    *
    * Nigeria’s economy grew by 3.6% in 2021 from a 1.8% contraction in 2020, underpinned on the supply side by 4.4% expansion in the non-oil sector against 8.3% contraction in the oil sector; non-oil growth was driven by agriculture (2.1%) and services (5.6%). On the demand side, public and private consumption were contributors to GDP growth. Per capita income grew by 1.0% in 2021. The fiscal deficit narrowed to 4.8% of GDP in 2021 from 5.4% in 2020, due to a modest uptick in revenues, and was financed by borrowing. Public debt stood at $95.8 billion in 2021, or about 22.5% of GDP.
    * Annual average inflation stood at 17.0% in 2021 against 13.2% the previous year and above the central bank’s 6–9% target. Inflation was fueled by food price rises at the start of the year and exchange rate pass-through. The central bank kept the policy rate unchanged at 11.5% in 2021 to support economic recovery. The current account deficit narrowed to 2.9% of GDP in 2021 from 4% the preceding year, supported by recovery in oil receipts. Improved oil exports and disbursement of the SDR allocation of $3.4 billion (0.8% of GDP), pending decision on its use, helped to boost gross reserves to $40.1 billion in 2021. The ratio of NPLs to gross loans was 4.9% in December 2021 (regulatory requirement 5%), while the capital-adequacy ratio was 14.5% (regulatory benchmark 10%). Poverty and unemployment remained high, broadly unchanged from 40% and 33.3%, respectively, in 2020.

  63. Avatar MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE says:

    NAME: MACHEBE CHIOMA STEPHANIE
    REG NO: 2019/248922
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    *1. Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss*
    First of all, Economic development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives. Prof Dudley in the same vein argued development is about outcome which is generally true. This means that development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    Now taking these one after d other;
    We cannot say there is economic development when there is poverty. Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food, clothing and shelter. However, poverty is more, much more than just not having enough money.
    In addition to a lack of money, poverty is about not being able to participate in recreational activities; not being able to send children on a day trip with their schoolmates or to a birthday party; not being able to pay for medications for an illness. These are all costs of being poor. Those people who are barely able to pay for food and shelter simply can’t consider these other expenses. When people are excluded within a society, when they are not well educated and when they have a higher incidence of illness, there are negative consequences for society. We all pay the price for poverty. The increased cost on the health system, the justice system and other systems that provide supports to those living in poverty has an impact on our economy. Therefore it is imperative that poverty is eliminated to achieve economic development.
    Inequality is another factor that impedes economic development.
    Economic inequality is the unequal distribution of income and opportunity between different groups in society. It is a concern in almost all countries around the world and often people are trapped in poverty with little chance to climb up the social ladder in other to achieve improved standard of living and social welfare.
    Then finally unemployment.
    Unemployment occurs when someone is willing and able to work but does not have a paid job. The unemployment rate is the percentage of people in the labour force who are unemployed. Consequently, measuring the unemployment rate requires identifying who is in the labour force. The labour force includes people who are either employed or unemployed. Figuring out who is employed or unemployed involves making practical judgements, such as how much paid work someone needs to undertake for them to be considered as having a job, as well as actually counting how many people have jobs or not.

    When these issues are addressed, then economic development is assured. The economy can then be moved from developing to developed
    2. Apart from a rise in output, Economic Development involves changes in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources, and elimination or reduction of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. Clearly discuss the above assertion.
    Yes, economic development involves rise in output, it also involves changes in composition of output, shift in allocation of productive resources, elimination of poverty, inequalities and unemployment.
    Economic Growth leads to economic development. There can be no economic development without economic growth. This implies that for development to occur, there must be rise in output which also implies a rise in GDP level. Output in economics is the quantity of goods or services produced in a given time period, by a firm, industry, or country, whether consumed or used for further production. When there’s increase in the composition of these output then economic development is assured. But then if factors like poverty, inequalities and unemployment are prevalent in an economy then the economy is underdeveloped. Some of the common characteristics of the underdeveloped economy are low per capita income, economic inequalities, the slow growth rate of per capita, low-productivity labour and lower level of living, rudimentary techniques of production, low rate of capital formation, lack of resource utilization and similar things as such. 
    When these things are eliminated completely then we can fully achieve economic growth which is a rise in output and economic development which is an improvement in maximum social welfare.
    3. In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details*
    In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states.
    Ofcourse yes I am in total agreement. Now in details…
    An economy cannot say it has achieve economic development when they are still in chains. All sources of unfreedom must be removed.
    Unfreedom is simply the absence of freedom. Imagine having an economy where decisions are not made by the citizens of the country but by outsiders. That is definitely not a characteristic of economic development.
    Secondly, poverty. Poverty is defined as a state or circumstance in which an individual or a group lacks the financial means and necessities for a basic level of living. It can also be defined as a situation in which one’s earnings from work are insufficient to meet fundamental human requirements. How then can one say that an economy is developed when the citizens cannot afford food and shelter.
    Also tyranny. How can a developed country have a government in which all power is in the hands of a single ruler. Developed economies are largely characterized with democracy and other people centred system of government.
    Finally, an improved and development system will not allow public facilities to be neglected, it will not allow repressive activities over other states. It will not support intolerance, insecurities and other negative vices. All sources of unfreedom must be removed for an economy to be tagged developed

    *4. Critically discuss the Central Role of Women in the National Development*
    They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.
    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.
    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    *5. Clearly discuss some Important “Beings” and “Doings” in Capability to Function*
    In Amartya Sen’s capability approach development is seen as a process of enhancing people’s capabilities by expanding their real freedoms. The capability to function effectively is what matters the most and it goes well beyond availability of commodities. In the capability approach, poverty is a situation where people lack the most basic capabilities to lead a reasonable life. In other words, poverty forces the poor to lead a constricted life. Higher constriction means reduced capabilities — it leads to higher levels of misery.
    Amartya Sen’s idea of capability theory can’t be properly understood without first revisiting the concept of “development”. Unfortunately, long ago the agenda of ‘development’ was hijacked by economists. As a result, today when people talk of development they are merely talking of “economic development” which means expansion of the economy in terms of GDP growth. People are reduced to the status of merely goods and services producers, and also the end consumers. It is basically a production/consumption oriented model – produce more and consume more. People are supposed to be more “developed” if they consume more, and vice versa. Everything is seen in the context of consumption of goods and resources; it is an input driven ideology.
    Functionings are what people really “do and are”. They are achievements of people: they are ‘doings’ or ‘beings’. Taken together, these doings and beings – achieved functionings – give value to life. The functioings may include being well-nourished, having shelter, able to work, rest; or being literate or healthy; being part of a community or group; being respected, and so on.
    *6. Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example*
    Sustenance: Sustenance refers to the basic needs of a human being without which survival would not be possible. These needs include food, shelter, security and good health. Shortage of any of these necessities implies a situation of severe underdevelopment of the economy. Development, therefore, must lead to the reduction of these shortages and fulfil these basic needs of the population. The benefits of growth must be accompanied by a reduction in this absolute poverty situation. As a result, improvement in the quality of overall life in an economy is bound to occur.
    Self-esteem: Every individual is entitled to a sense of self-worth or self-respect. Although the nature of self-esteem may change with society or the economy, the basic idea remains the same. All people have the right to a life of dignity and honour. Respect, however, is often attached to wealth and the underdevelopment of an economy can be a burden on people’s self-esteem. Hence to promote self-worth, development must be spread across the whole economy and not just certain sections within it.
    Freedom: Freedom refers to not just freedom from servitude, but also from discrimination, oppressive beliefs and practices. Equal opportunity and freedom in every aspect of the social, legal, cultural and political situation are necessary for every individual. Everyone must be free to choose and have control over their own life and actions. Growth without freedom has been observed in many nations, which defeats the purpose of development.
    *7. Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion*
    The income–happiness correlation tends to get higher when both GDP per capita and income inequality are high, whereas it tends to get lower when GDP per capita and/or income inequality are low.
    8. Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development*
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Nigeria has to grow first before developing. We are still in the growing stage. Nigeria is a developing country

  64. Avatar Udeh Mgbechi Mary 2019/251473 says:

    ANSWER
    1. Development is a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in social structure, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty. Growth is not the same as development. The process of development is far more extensive. Development is therefore defined as the whole process of desirable change in addition to economic growth must be present.
    2. Economic development came to be redefined, in the 1970s, in terms of the reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within the context of a growing economy. If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development of the country concerned. If one or two of these central problem have been growing worse, especially if all three have, then it would be strange to call the result development even if per capita income doubled. Development is a human problem on how to ensure a progressively rising standard of living. Recently, the concept of economic development does not only involve reduction in poverty, unemployment and inequality but has been widened to include improvement in quality of life with cleaner environment, good health care and nutrition, better education and equality of opportunities (employment).
    3. Yes. For a country to develop there must be removal of sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social depreciation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive state.
    4. Women plays a vital role in the society. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers etc. Women play a significant role in societal development and ensure the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Women contributes to agricultural development. They lead in finding solution to the problems occassioned by change of political and economic organizations in countries. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.
    5. Some important “beings” and “doings” in capability of function are:
    A. Being able to live long: A lot of things kill people before their time. People need to stay safe, be conscious and and stay away from trouble. Do what makes you happy and live a healthy life.
    B. Being healthy: A healthy man is a wealthy man. Always take good care of your health; eat balanced diet, do exercise and go for regular chech up. C. Being well-nourished
    D. Being literate: Being versatile. Educate yourself by reading good books, when you read you tend to learn more and pick the good ones and practice.
    E. Being well-clothed: The way you dress is the way you will be addressed. We should dress properly when in public places. Being well-clothed is one dressing in a way that he/she will be recognized in terms of the occupation that person does, that is, a doctor cannot wear a mechanic coverall and boot to work in a hospital.
    F. Being mobile: We talk about freedom of movement.
    G. Being able to take part in the life of the community: One should not show apathy in his community development. If their is need for contribution and support one should partake to the communitys development.
    6. The core values of development are:
    i. Sustenance: This is the ability to meet up with the provisions of basic needs of food, shelter, clothing and security for the improvement in the quality of life.
    ii. Self-esteem: This is the feeling of being a person, worthiness, self-respect, independence and not being used by others. This may differ among countries, societies and culture. The importance of the natural feeling of worthiness, self esteem is measured by economic wealth and technological power. Self-esteem may be based on material values: higher income or wealth may be equates with higher worthiness. One may consider individual worthy based on their intellect or public service.
    iii. Freedom from servitude: This is the freedom of choice and the elimination of all forms of dogmatic beliefs, oppressive institutions and the removal as much as possible all external constraints in the pursuit of developmental goals, gaining control over issues. It is freedom from three evils of want, ignorance and squalor. Human freedom; the ability to choose is essential for the well being of individuals. Freedom involves an expanded range of choice for societies: economic and political. It involves freedom f bondage, serfdom and other expliotative economic, social and political relationship.
    7.There is not a perfect correlation between happiness and income: people could be poor but happy, and be rich and unhappy. Oncw per capita income increases from 1000 to 5000 naira the percentage of people who say they are happy tends to increase. I agree with this assertion because their is nobody that does not want happiness and money. People tened to be happy when they have money especially the poor ones and the rich will also be happy seeing their money increase. People will be happy if they have money because it will solve some of their problems while those that have money will not be happy because the solution to their problem is beyond monetary value. When one has the passion to learn a skill and not being able to afford for the training that person won’t be happy.
    8. a. Economic growth refers to increase in the monetary or output growth of a nation in a particular period. While, economic development refers to the overall development of the quality of life in a nation which includes economic growth.
    b. Economic growth is a uni-dimensional approach which deals with the increase in income or output of the nation, while economic development is a multi-dimensional approach that looks into the income and as well as the quantity of life of the nation.
    c. Economic growth is a narrow concept than economic development and GDP is used to measure economic growth. While, economic development is a broader concept than economic development, it involves steady decline in agricultural shares in GNP and continuous increase in shares of industries.
    d. Economic growth is about income. GDP, GNP, GNI are used to measure economic growth while economic development is about outcomes. Standard of living, industrial development and human development indicator are use in measuring economic development
    e. Economic growth is a short term process while economic development is a long term process.
    f. Economic growth is a quantitative sustained increase in the country’s per capita income while, economic development is a qualitative increase in the economic, social political and general welfare of the people. However, for development to take place economic growth is a necessary condition.
    Nigeria is underdeveloped country (backward country) because it is characterized by mass absolute poverty, low per capita income and GDP, under-developed natural resources, high rate of unemployment, high dependency on imported goods, high population (high birth rate), large rural population and rapid urban migration, lower level of human capital development (health, education and skills).

  65. Avatar Eze Queen Amarachi says:

    Eze Queen Amarachi
    2019/249427
    Social Science Education (Education Economic)

    Answer (4)
    Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s lo

    ANSWER (5. )
    1.Being Able to live long: A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.
    2.Being healthy:A healthy living is a way of living that lowers the risk of being seriously I’ll or dying early. Not all diseases are preventable ,but a large number of death especially coronary heart disease and lungs cancer can be avioded.and pregnant women have specific nutritional requirements to achieve good health.

    3.Being Mobile:Every individual have the right to move freely from one place to the other.Being mobile helps one to move freely take a example of physical disabilities may need specific goods to achieve mobility.
    4.Being able to take part in the life of the community: the involvement of people in the life of community helps in solving problems.providing assistance,mobility etc.it helps in beinging everyone closer

    ANSWER(6.)
    There are three core values of development 1) Sustance (2) self esteem (3)
    Freedom from servitude

    •Sustenance:Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of people. People have certain basic which without it life would be impossible to live.this basic needs include Health,Food,shelter, protection etc.People should have access to this basic needs.
    •Self Esteem: This has to do with self worth,self respect, and not being belittle is extremely important for an individual’s well being.People seek some form of self esteem (identity,respect,divinity ,honour etc) self esteem may also be based on material values .
    •Freedom from servitude : Freedom involves the ability to choice which is very essential for the well being of individual.freedom involves an expanded range of choice for so cities:Economic and political.it also involves freedom from bondage,serform,and other expoitative economic,social and political relationship.

    ANSWER(7.)
    happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion
    Conventional wisdom suggests that “money can’t buy you happiness.” When experts measure happiness in research, they consider people’s emotional well-being, or how they feel on a day-to-day basis, and how satisfied they are with the way their life is going overall.A general definition of happiness or subjective well being ,included and individual mood and emotions .Evaluation of different life events ,judgement about fulfillment and life satisfaction which together forms peoples positive evaluation of their lifes.what people persceive as happiness and what makes people happy vary widely from individual to individual even for those living under similar conditon .However a common belief is that money makes you happy .more money increases the opportunity to fulfill dreams and buy more goods and services.

    ANSWER (8.)
    Economic growth is the positive change in the real output of the country in a particular span of time economy. Economic Development involves a rise in the level of production in an economy along with the advancement of technology, improvement in living standards, and so on.
    Economic growth is one of the features of economic development.
    Economic growth is an automatic process. Unlike economic development, which is the outcome of planned and result-oriented activities.
    Economic growth enables an increase in the indicators like GDP, per capita income, etc. On the other hand, economic development enables improvement in the life expectancy rate, infant mortality rate, literacy rate, and poverty rates.
    Economic growth can be measured when there is a positive change in the national income, whereas economic development can be seen when there is an increase in real national income.

  66. Avatar Okeke Michael Obinna says:

    Name: Okeke Michael Obinna
    Department: Combined Social Science(Eco/pol)
    Reg no: 2019/250019

    1. It is said that Development is more complicated than that of Growth. Meaning it cannot just be achieved by raising productivity level or output level but by also involving changes in output composition shift in the allocation of productive materials and also by the reduction of inequalities,Unemployment and poverty.

    2: Development is said to be more than raising productivity level but further involves total reduction or poverty and unemployment because it’s said the development is not possible without growth but growth is possible without development, meaning that growth and employment must be achieved first in order to achieve development.

    3:Yes, I agree. According to Amartya sen, development must be judged by its impact on people, not only by changes in their income but more generally in terms of their choices, capabilities and freedoms. This means we should be concerned about the distribution of these improvements, not just the simple average for a society. Amartya sen came in terms with the fact that development definitely requires the sources of unfreedom and Poverty. Development is set to be achieved with a well built systematic economy which has no room for tyranny and social depreviation.

    4:It is said that the biggest achievement of National development is the empowerment of women in the activities of the economy. Women in developed countries have been handed the positions and authorities to take certain decisions that affect the economy. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes.

    5:The ability to live long to achieve certain goals, The ability to being well nourished and healthy,The ability to read and write and understand certain aspects of life also being mobile.

    6: Sustenance: The ability to afford the basic necessities of life with bothering anyone.it’s just the ability to fend for one’s self.
    Self esteem: The ability to value one’s self and to have to level of pride in one’s self.
    Freedom from servitude: Also known as freedom of choice. The ability to have various options to pick from in order to suit one’s desire.

    7:Happiness could be said to increase as the income increases but it isn’t said to be agreed by all scholars who states that there are some factors affecting happiness i.e Health, personal freedom, personal values, community and friends e.t.c

    8:Economic Growth refers to the increase in monetary income or output growth of a state in a particular period of time probably a year or two.
    Economic development refers to the overall performance of the quality of life in nation which also includes economic growth.
    Nigeria as a country is said to be undergoing development and could be referred to as an underdeveloped country in terms of development and as of growth we are still growing.

  67. Avatar Ogbonna Sandra Chinenye says:

    Name: Ogbonna Sandra Chinenye
    Reg Number: 2019/245659
    Department: Economics

    1. Poverty is the lack of income. Development however, seeks to eliminate the problem of poverty and inequality as there is an efficient distribution of productive resources as well as creating of income and output.
    2. A change in composition of output is brought about by a combination of various inputs into production caused by development. Development brings about an efficient allocation of scarce productive resources which eliminates problem of inequality. The increase in output and income reduces the poverty rate in the economy.
    3. Yes I agree to the assertion. Poor economic opportunities, tyranny can not let development occur in an economy and for development to thrive means a total removal of these problems.
    4. The central role of women is to make the biggest impact on development, societies must empower and invest in women.
    5. Being healthy, being literate, being well clothed, being mobile, being able to travel.
    6. Sustenance: is the ability to meet the basic needs of life. E.g food, shelter, water. Self esteem: is the confidence in oneself to be able to do things. Freedom: is the ability to be choose and demand certain things.
    7. There is no perfect correlation between happiness and higher incomes. People could be poor and happy and also be rich and unhappy so I do not agree there’s a direct correlation.
    8. Economic Growth is defined as the rise in the money value of goods and services produced by all the sectors of the economy per head during a particular period. Economic growth can be expressed in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national product (GNP), which helps in measuring the size of the economy. It lets us compare in absolute and percentage change, i.e. how much an economy has progressed since last year. It is an outcome of the increase in the quality and quantity of resources and advancement of technology. It is a quantitative measure that shows the increase in the number of commercial transactions in an economy. WHILE Economic Development is defined as the process of increase in volume of production along with the improvement in technology, a rise in the level of living, institutional changes, etc. In short, it is the progress in the socio-economic structure of the economy. Human Development Index (HDI) is the appropriate tool to gauge the development in the economy. Based on the development, the HDI statistics rank countries. It considers the overall development in an economy regarding the standard of living, GDP, living conditions, technological advancement, improvement in self-esteem needs, the creation of opportunities, per capita income, infrastructural and industrial development, and much more.

  68. Avatar AMANKWE UBACHUKWU VICTOR REG NO: 2019/242928 says:

    Name:Amankwe victor ubachukwu
    Reg no: 2019/242928
    Department:Library and information science
    1. The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.

    As discussed by Dudley Seers, the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access to basic infrastructures as discussed by Narayan et al.

    2. From the time of Malthus onwards, economists, demographers and other social scientists have been debating whether and how high fertility and rapid population growth affect economic outcomes and vice versa. There are at least four basic forms of the debate.

    Does a large number of children diminish a family’s present well being and future prospects?

    Does rapid population growth adversely affect the overall performance of the economy and its ability to achieve and sustain general well being?

    Does low income, or poverty, contribute to high fertility?

    Is rapid population growth a symptom, rather than a cause, of low national output and poor economic performance?

    In other words, the debates occur at both the macro- and the micro-levels and are about the direction of causality.

    Despite these debates, a broad consensus has developed over time that as incomes rise, fertility tends to fall. There is little debate about the causal relationship between rising prosperity and declining fertility. Generally speaking, there has been a uniformly high correlation between national income growth and falling birth rates, and between family incomes and fertility. Economists and demographers for the most part agree that important ingredients of improved living standards, such as urbanization, industrialization and rising opportunities for non-agrarian employment, improved educational levels, and better health all lead to changed parental perceptions of the costs and benefits of children, leading in turn to lower fertility. In other words, there is no longer much debate about whether or not improved economic conditions, whether at the family level or at the societal level, lead to lower fertility. There are, of course, important differences between countries, and even within countries, regarding the timing and the pace of these changes, but that there is a causal relationship running from improved living standards to lower fertility is no longer in much dispute (National Research Council 1986).

    Where debate remains active and at times quite contentious has to do with whether causality runs the other way—i.e. does reduced fertility improve the economic prospects of families and societies? Here there is anything but consensus, although, as I will argue in this paper, there appears to be a slowly growing convergence of views in favour of an affirmative answer to this question. This paper, in other words, addresses the question of whether reduced fertility, and more particularly public policies designed to reduce fertility, can lead to higher incomes and improved living standards.

    A good deal of research, of course, has been conducted on this question. The paper attempts to summarize the present state of such research and the conclusions that emerge from it today. My purpose is to try to identify what policymakers can conclude from the present state of research and then to speculate on what might be accomplished between now and 2050 if policymakers were to pursue what I take to be the course of action suggested by the research findings

    3. Development means freedom, according to Amartya Sen, perhaps the greatest development thinker of our times.

    Over the centuries, there have been very many theories of development. According to 1998 Nobel prize winner, Amartya Sen, freedom is both the primary objective of development, and the principal means of development. The human being is an engine of change.

    Sen is both the first Indian and the first Asian to win the Nobel prize for economics. In winning the Nobel prize, Sen was praised by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences “for his contributions to welfare economics” and for restoring “an ethical dimension” to the discussion of vital economic problems.

    According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.

    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.

    4. Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.

    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    5. The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.

    The Capability Approach was first articulated by the Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen in the 1980s, and remains most closely associated with him. It has been employed extensively in the context of human development, for example, by the United Nations Development Programme, as a broader, deeper alternative to narrowly economic metrics such as growth in GDP per capita. Here ‘poverty’ is understood as deprivation in the capability to live a good life, and ‘development’ is understood as capability expansion.

    Within academic philosophy the novel focus of Capability Approach has attracted a number of scholars. It is seen to be relevant for the moral evaluation of social arrangements beyond the development context, for example, for considering gender justice. It is also seen as providing foundations for normative theorising, such as a capability theory of justice that would include an explicit ‘metric’ (that specifies which capabilities are valuable) and ‘rule’ (that specifies how the capabilities are to be distributed). The philosopher Martha Nussbaum has provided the most influential version of such a capability theory of justice, deriving from the requirements of human dignity a list of central capabilities to be incorporated into national constitutions and guaranteed to all up to a certain threshold.

    This article focuses on the philosophical aspects of the Capability Approach and its foundations in the work of Amartya Sen. It discusses the development and structure of Sen’s account, how it relates to other ethical approaches, and its main contributions and criticisms. It also outlines various capability theories developed within the Capability Approach, with particular attention to that of Martha Nussbaum.

    6. (i) Life Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs: It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”. All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economic development and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby the helplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, health and protection could be removed. 
    Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:

    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person is desirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ from country to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days that when the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in the distribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itself superior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferiority complex which leads to affect their efficiency.
    Freedom from Servitude, i.e., to be Able to Choose:

    The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs. As Arthur Lewis says: “Advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice”.

    7. When we wonder whether money can buy happiness, we may consider the luxuries it provides, like expensive dinners and lavish vacations. But cash is key in another important way: It helps people avoid many of the day-to-day hassles that cause stress, new research shows.

    Money can provide calm and control, allowing us to buy our way out of unforeseen bumps in the road, whether it’s a small nuisance, like dodging a rainstorm by ordering up an Uber, or a bigger worry, like handling an unexpected hospital bill, says Harvard Business School professor Jon Jachimowicz.

    “If we only focus on the happiness that money can bring, I think we are missing something,” says Jachimowicz, an assistant professor of business administration in the Organizational Behavior Unit at HBS. “We also need to think about all of the worries that it can free us from.”

    The idea that money can reduce stress in everyday life and make people happier impacts not only the poor, but also more affluent Americans living at the edge of their means in a bumpy economy. Indeed, in 2019, one in every four Americans faced financial scarcity, according to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The findings are particularly important now, as inflation eats into the ability of many Americans to afford basic necessities like food and gas, and COVID-19 continues to disrupt the job market.

    Buying less stress

    The inspiration for researching how money alleviates hardships came from advice that Jachimowicz’s father gave him. After years of living as a struggling graduate student, Jachimowicz received his appointment at HBS and the financial stability that came with it.

    “My father said to me, ‘You are going to have to learn how to spend money to fix problems.’” The idea stuck with Jachimowicz, causing him to think differently about even the everyday misfortunes that we all face.

    8. Economic growth is considered to be an increase in the production of goods and services by per person in a population, compared from one time period to another. An increase in capital goods, labour forces, new territories, technology, and human capital can also contribute to economic growth. While, Economic development is the increase in the standard of living from a low-income economy to a high-income economy. It considers factors such as health, education, working conditions, domestic and international policies, and market conditions with a focus on improving conditions in developing countries. For example, all such factors were affected during the COVID-19 times, even coronavirus has impacted the global economy adversely.

  69. Avatar Nnemelu Ifeomachukwu Shalon says:

    Name: NNEMELU IFEOMACHUKWU SHALON
    Dept: Library and information science
    REG NO: 2018 /251946

    1. The development could be seen as involving the provision of basic needs of the people, which is the target population as a subject rather than an object. It lays more emphasis on human potentialities, creativity, energy and the involvement of people and government with individuals, and group of communities leading to increase capacity to control or make decisions on issues and problems that affect the less developed countries.

    As discussed by Dudley Seers, the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. To Seers, development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. It represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes, hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation and lack of access to basic infrastructures as discussed by Narayan et al.

    2. From the time of Malthus onwards, economists, demographers and other social scientists have been debating whether and how high fertility and rapid population growth affect economic outcomes and vice versa. There are at least four basic forms of the debate.

    Does a large number of children diminish a family’s present well being and future prospects?

    Does rapid population growth adversely affect the overall performance of the economy and its ability to achieve and sustain general well being?

    Does low income, or poverty, contribute to high fertility?

    Is rapid population growth a symptom, rather than a cause, of low national output and poor economic performance?

    In other words, the debates occur at both the macro- and the micro-levels and are about the direction of causality.

    Despite these debates, a broad consensus has developed over time that as incomes rise, fertility tends to fall. There is little debate about the causal relationship between rising prosperity and declining fertility. Generally speaking, there has been a uniformly high correlation between national income growth and falling birth rates, and between family incomes and fertility. Economists and demographers for the most part agree that important ingredients of improved living standards, such as urbanization, industrialization and rising opportunities for non-agrarian employment, improved educational levels, and better health all lead to changed parental perceptions of the costs and benefits of children, leading in turn to lower fertility. In other words, there is no longer much debate about whether or not improved economic conditions, whether at the family level or at the societal level, lead to lower fertility. There are, of course, important differences between countries, and even within countries, regarding the timing and the pace of these changes, but that there is a causal relationship running from improved living standards to lower fertility is no longer in much dispute (National Research Council 1986).

    Where debate remains active and at times quite contentious has to do with whether causality runs the other way—i.e. does reduced fertility improve the economic prospects of families and societies? Here there is anything but consensus, although, as I will argue in this paper, there appears to be a slowly growing convergence of views in favour of an affirmative answer to this question. This paper, in other words, addresses the question of whether reduced fertility, and more particularly public policies designed to reduce fertility, can lead to higher incomes and improved living standards.

    A good deal of research, of course, has been conducted on this question. The paper attempts to summarize the present state of such research and the conclusions that emerge from it today. My purpose is to try to identify what policymakers can conclude from the present state of research and then to speculate on what might be accomplished between now and 2050 if policymakers were to pursue what I take to be the course of action suggested by the research findings

    3. Development means freedom, according to Amartya Sen, perhaps the greatest development thinker of our times.

    Over the centuries, there have been very many theories of development. According to 1998 Nobel prize winner, Amartya Sen, freedom is both the primary objective of development, and the principal means of development. The human being is an engine of change.

    Sen is both the first Indian and the first Asian to win the Nobel prize for economics. In winning the Nobel prize, Sen was praised by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences “for his contributions to welfare economics” and for restoring “an ethical dimension” to the discussion of vital economic problems.

    According to Sen, development is enhanced by democracy and the protection of human rights. Such rights, especially freedom of the press, speech, assembly, and so forth increase the likelihood of honest, clean, good government.

    He claims that “no famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy”. This is because democratic governments “have to win elections and face public criticism, and have strong incentive to undertake measures to avert famines and other catastrophes”.

    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live”. Hence “development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systemic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states”.

    Sen argues that there are five types of interrelated freedoms, namely, political freedom, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency and security. The state has a role in supporting freedoms by providing public education, health care, social safety nets, good macroeconomic policies, productivity and protecting the environment.

    4. Women are the set of human beings that belongs to the female gender. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. Globally, women contribute immensely to agricultural development, comprising about 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force. In some countries, the number of women involved in the agricultural labor force increases to over 70%. Available records indicate that in Africa alone, 80% of agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It is noteworthy that agriculture is the bedrock of national development as the best approach to food security, poverty reduction, job creation, and economic stability.

    At home, women, notably mothers, play the role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. Women also initiate and preserve the nutritional and healthcare programs of children at home. In addition, women are not only caring for their children at home but are also the primary caretakers of both children and elders in every country of the world. International studies indicate that women lead in finding solutions to the problems occasioned by a change of political and economic organizations in countries, thereby helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. Indeed, women are the initiators who play important role in facilitating changes in family life. The UN Women Watch organization asserts that ” rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutritional security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

    As educators, the role or contribution of women to society’s transition from pre-literate to the literate period is highly significant. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainable policies and programs. It is evident that education helps to improve agricultural productivity, enhances the status of girls and women, stabilizes population growth rates, enhances environmental protection and, increases the standard of living. It is the mother at home who most often urges children of both genders to attend and stay in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvement, leading to the family and the community’s long term capacity.

    The role of women in providing an improved and sustainable workforce is also significant and exciting. The women’s share of the global workforce is about 45.5%. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. It is obvious that despite the cultural, social, and political setbacks of women, small businesses controlled by women in rural communities are not only extending beyond family lifelines but can also form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded greatly in recent times.

    5. The Capability Approach is defined by its choice of focus upon the moral significance of individuals’ capability of achieving the kind of lives they have reason to value. This distinguishes it from more established approaches to ethical evaluation, such as utilitarianism or resourcism, which focus exclusively on subjective well-being or the availability of means to the good life, respectively. A person’s capability to live a good life is defined in terms of the set of valuable ‘beings and doings’ like being in good health or having loving relationships with others to which they have real access.

    The Capability Approach was first articulated by the Indian economist and philosopher Amartya Sen in the 1980s, and remains most closely associated with him. It has been employed extensively in the context of human development, for example, by the United Nations Development Programme, as a broader, deeper alternative to narrowly economic metrics such as growth in GDP per capita. Here ‘poverty’ is understood as deprivation in the capability to live a good life, and ‘development’ is understood as capability expansion.

    Within academic philosophy the novel focus of Capability Approach has attracted a number of scholars. It is seen to be relevant for the moral evaluation of social arrangements beyond the development context, for example, for considering gender justice. It is also seen as providing foundations for normative theorising, such as a capability theory of justice that would include an explicit ‘metric’ (that specifies which capabilities are valuable) and ‘rule’ (that specifies how the capabilities are to be distributed). The philosopher Martha Nussbaum has provided the most influential version of such a capability theory of justice, deriving from the requirements of human dignity a list of central capabilities to be incorporated into national constitutions and guaranteed to all up to a certain threshold.

    This article focuses on the philosophical aspects of the Capability Approach and its foundations in the work of Amartya Sen. It discusses the development and structure of Sen’s account, how it relates to other ethical approaches, and its main contributions and criticisms. It also outlines various capability theories developed within the Capability Approach, with particular attention to that of Martha Nussbaum.

    6. (i) Life Sustenance, i.e., Ability to Meet Basic Needs: It is also known as “the ability to meet basic needs”. All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under-development. Therefore, the purpose of economic development and economic activity is to make the possible efforts whereby the helplessness and misery of the people which arises due to lack of food, shelter, health and protection could be removed. 
    Self-Esteem, i.e., to be a Person:

    A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right. Each person is desirous of his prestige, identity and recognition, though all f such values differ from country to country and from society to society. It is being observed now a days that when the process of economic development starts in a country the inequalities in the distribution of income increase. Because of such inequality the rich class considers itself superior to the poor. In this way, the poor segment of the society suffers from inferiority complex which leads to affect their efficiency.
    Freedom from Servitude, i.e., to be Able to Choose:

    The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs. As Arthur Lewis says: “Advantage of economic growth is not that wealth increases happiness, but that it increases the range of human choice”.

    7. When we wonder whether money can buy happiness, we may consider the luxuries it provides, like expensive dinners and lavish vacations. But cash is key in another important way: It helps people avoid many of the day-to-day hassles that cause stress, new research shows.

    Money can provide calm and control, allowing us to buy our way out of unforeseen bumps in the road, whether it’s a small nuisance, like dodging a rainstorm by ordering up an Uber, or a bigger worry, like handling an unexpected hospital bill, says Harvard Business School professor Jon Jachimowicz.

    “If we only focus on the happiness that money can bring, I think we are missing something,” says Jachimowicz, an assistant professor of business administration in the Organizational Behavior Unit at HBS. “We also need to think about all of the worries that it can free us from.”

    The idea that money can reduce stress in everyday life and make people happier impacts not only the poor, but also more affluent Americans living at the edge of their means in a bumpy economy. Indeed, in 2019, one in every four Americans faced financial scarcity, according to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The findings are particularly important now, as inflation eats into the ability of many Americans to afford basic necessities like food and gas, and COVID-19 continues to disrupt the job market.

    Buying less stress

    The inspiration for researching how money alleviates hardships came from advice that Jachimowicz’s father gave him. After years of living as a struggling graduate student, Jachimowicz received his appointment at HBS and the financial stability that came with it.

    “My father said to me, ‘You are going to have to learn how to spend money to fix problems.’” The idea stuck with Jachimowicz, causing him to think differently about even the everyday misfortunes that we all face.

    8. Economic growth is considered to be an increase in the production of goods and services by per person in a population, compared from one time period to another. An increase in capital goods, labour forces, new territories, technology, and human capital can also contribute to economic growth. While, Economic development is the increase in the standard of living from a low-income economy to a high-income economy. It considers factors such as health, education, working conditions, domestic and international policies, and market conditions with a focus on improving conditions in developing countries. For example, all such factors were affected during the COVID-19 times, even coronavirus has impacted the global economy adversely.

  70. Avatar Ugwu Sandra Amarachi. REG NO:2019/251531 says:

    NAME: Ugwu Sandra Amarachukwu
    REG NO:2019/251531
    DEPARTMENT:Library and information science
    COURSE: ECeconomic development)
    (1)
    Dudley Seers suggests that development is when a country experiences a reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment. Edgar suggested that development is when there is development of people (human development) and not development of things. Development means creating the conditions for the realization of human personality. Its evaluation must therefore take into account three linked economic criteria: whether there has been a reduction in (i) poverty (ii) unemployment (iii) inequality.

    (2)
    strictly economic terms, development has traditionally meant achieving sustained rates of growth of income per capita to enable a nation to expand its output at a rate faster than the growth rate of its population. Levels and rates of growth of “real” per capita gross national income (GNI) (monetary growth of GNI per capita minus the rate of inflation) are then used to measure the overall economic well-being of a population—how much of real goods and services is available to the average citizen for consumption and investment. Economic development in the past has also been typically seen in terms of the planned alteration of the structure of production and employment so that agriculture’s share of both declines and that of the manufacturing and service industries increases. Development strategies have therefore usually focused on rapid industrialization, often at the expense of agriculture and rural development. With few exceptions, such as in development policy circles in the 1970s, development was until recently nearly always seen as an economic phenomenon in which rapid gains in overall and per capita GNI growth would either “trickle down” to the masses in the form of jobs and other economic opportunities or create the necessary conditions for the wider distribution of the economic and social benefits of growth. Problems of poverty, discrimination,unemployment, and income distribution were of secondary importance to “getting the growth job done.” Indeed, the emphasis is often on increased output,measured by gross domestic product (GDP).
    (3)
    Development is the process of expanding human freedom. It is “the enhancement of freedoms that allow people to lead lives that they have reason to live. Thus poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, tyranny, poor economic opportunities, social deprivations, poor public facilities, intolerance, communalisation, ethnic centricity, repressive state apparatuses, lack of education, absence of health care, lack of security, corruption can all be termed un-freedoms.

    (4)
    They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, e.t.c. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. Women also play the role of decision-makers in homes. The woman performs the role of wife, partner, organizer, administrator, director, re-creator, disburser, economist, mother, disciplinarian, teacher, health officer, artist and queen in the family at the same time. Apart from it, woman plays a key role in the socio-economic development of the society.

    (5)
    The main reason why the capability approach holds that it is better to focus on the ends rather than the means, is that people differ in their ability to convert means into valuable opportunities (capabilities) or outcomes (functionings)
    Sen argues that people’s well-being depends upon what they are actually capable of doing and being. Thus, he focused on something more direct such as human functionings and capabilities in terms of which the quality of life is analyzed.
    Capability to function then finally refers to a person’s set of achievable functioning vectors. It is the ultimate measure of well-being for a person in Sen’s framework as it reflects the substantive (positive) freedoms and opportunities an individual enjoys in life.
    The concept of “functionings” reflects the various things a person may value doing or being. The valued functionings may vary from elementary ones, such as being adequately nourished and being free from avoidable disease, to very complex activities or personal states, such as being able to take part in the life of the community and having self-respect.
    For Sen, human “well-being” means being well, in the basic sense of being healthy, well nourished, well clothed, literate, and long-lived and more broadly, being able to take part in the life of the community, being mobile, and having freedom of choice in what one can become and can do.
    (6)
    Sustenance: The Ability to Meet Basic Needs All people have certain basic needs without which life would be impossible. These life-sustaining basic human needs include food, shelter, health, and protection.
    Self-esteem: To Be a Person A second universal component of the good life is self-esteem. The feeling of worthiness that a society enjoys when its social, political, and economic systems and institutions promote human values such as respect, dignity, integrity, and selfdetermination.
    Freedom: A situation in which a society has at its disposal a variety of alternatives from which to satisfy its wants and individuals enjoy real choices according to their preferencesa sense of worth and self-respect, of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. All peoples and societies seek some basic form of self-esteem, although they may call it authenticity, identity, dignity, respect,honor, or recognition.
    (7)
    Clearly, happiness is part of human well-being, and greater happiness may in itself expand an individual’s capability to function. As Amartya Sen argued, “Utility in the sense of happiness may well be included in the list of some important functionings relevant to a person’s well-being.

    (8)
    Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output while Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    Economic growth is a stepping stone/bedrock to economic development without growth there will be no development.

  71. Avatar Okoro David Kosisochukwu 2019/241946 says:

    1. It is paramount to note that professor Dudley clearly points out that development works hand in hand with improvements in human well being. Looking at the factors pointed out by professor Dudley ie poverty, inequality and unemployment, we can agree that the presence of these clearly brings down human well being and when people are not well in the society there is no way they can be productive in other to bring about development.

    2. Since rise in output is the main factor for growth, economic development cannot occur only with growth but other factors like changes in composition of output , elimination of poverty etc .
    This is to tell us that development does come above from only one factor but a list of factors in other to improve the standard of living for the people.

    3. Yes I agree. Every scholar that defined development points that the main point for development is improvement of standard of living. In the words of Amartya Sen development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty etc. since all the factors he mentioned bring down the standard of living we can agree that he is right.

    4. The central role of women can be experienced to a large extent when they are empowered. This is because traditionally women had limited impact on national development so for women to fulfill their roll that is to improve the standard of living of the people.

    5 some of the important beings and doings in capability to function are
    a. to be able to live long : this is the prayer of majority of the people as we always hear “ i wish you long life and prosperity “

    b. To be well nourished : since if we are not well nourished it brings discomfort and complications to us, we can agree that to be well nourished is a capability to function.

    c. To be literate : the worst thing to happen to a person is ignorance because you lose every ounce of sensibility as you live and interact with people.

    d. To be mobile: this indicate our capability to move around freely not only in terms of locomotion but also in other works of life.

    6. Subsistence: this is the ability to have the basic needs of life. For example Development is all about the improvement in the standard of living of a person and if a person does not have the basic needs to survive , there is no development.

    Self esteem :this is experienced when a person is at home with his or her self ie pride in one self. For example self esteem can help development since a person that has self esteem tends to achieve more .

    Freedom from servitude that is being able to choose . For example if a person always has the option to choose most people would choose good things which will in-turn bring to a large scale an abundance of good things in a large scale.

    7. yes I believe that the si unit for happiness is money since for a person to be truly happy , you have to be living life on your own accord and that comes with a heavy price tag most of the time.

    8. Economic growth deals with the increase in monetary income or output but Economic development deals with positive standard of living of the people. We can also say that growth is a narrower concept but development is broad because it encompasses a list of factors. Nigeria as a country is currently in its developing stages as a nation trying to improve it’s self in other factors that aids development such as unemployment, inflation etc

  72. Avatar Eze Daniel Uchenna says:

    Name: Eze Daniel Uchenna
    Reg Number: 2018/244280
    Department: Economics

    1. Economic inequality is the unequal distribution of income and opportunity between different groups in the society. Poverty is the lack of income. Development however, seeks to eliminate the problem of poverty and inequality as there is an efficient distribution of productive resources as well as creating of income and output.
    2. Development brings about an efficient allocation of scarce productive resources which eliminates problem of inequality. The increase in output and income reduces the poverty rate in the economy. A change in composition of output is brought about by a combination of various inputs into production caused by development.
    3. Yes I agree to the assertion. Poor economic opportunities, tyranny can not let development occur in an economy and for development to thrive means a total removal of these problems.
    4. The central role of women is to make the biggest impact on development, societies must empower and invest in women.
    5. Being able to live long, being well nourished, being healthy, being literate, being well clothed, being mobile, being able to travel.
    6. Sustenance: is the ability to meet the basic needs of life. E.g food, shelter, water. Self esteem: is the confidence in oneself to be able to do things. Freedom: is the ability to be choose and demand certain things.
    7. There is no perfect correlation between happiness and higher incomes. People could be poor and happy and also be rich and unhappy so I do not agree there’s a direct correlation.
    8. Economic Growth is defined as the rise in the money value of goods and services produced by all the sectors of the economy per head during a particular period. It is a quantitative measure that shows the increase in the number of commercial transactions in an economy. Economic growth can be expressed in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national product (GNP), which helps in measuring the size of the economy. It lets us compare in absolute and percentage change, i.e. how much an economy has progressed since last year. It is an outcome of the increase in the quality and quantity of resources and advancement of technology. WHILE Economic Development is defined as the process of increase in volume of production along with the improvement in technology, a rise in the level of living, institutional changes, etc. In short, it is the progress in the socio-economic structure of the economy. Human Development Index (HDI) is the appropriate tool to gauge the development in the economy. Based on the development, the HDI statistics rank countries. It considers the overall development in an economy regarding the standard of living, GDP, living conditions, technological advancement, improvement in self-esteem needs, the creation of opportunities, per capita income, infrastructural and industrial development, and much more.

  73. Avatar OMEYE ADANNA NGOZIKA (2019/242941)- ECONOMICS says:

    OMEYE ADANNA NGOZIKA
    2019/242941

    1. Professor Dudley argued that development wasn’t an objective concept but a concept that requires us to identify the normative conditions for a universally acceptable aim. He explained that development heavily relied on economic growth and that is why he clearly stated that development is an outcome within a GROWING ECONOMY. No economy effectively develops without growing at first. He did not only solve certain social and political difficulties but could actually contribute to them. Seers explained that if one or two of these phenomena- (What has been happening to income poverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to income equality?) have been growing worse, especially if all the three have, it would be strange to call the result ‘development’ even if per capital income doubled. He thought that human potential could not be realized without sufficient food, and that the ability to buy food is determined by income. Those living below an income poverty line cannot buy enough food to realize their human potential. Having a job- whether in paid employment , being a student , working on a family farm or keeping a house- was considered to be essential for the enhancement of one’s personality and for self-respect. He argued that poverty could be reduced much more quickly if economic growth was accomapined by reduced inequality. Many other factors, in addition to the reduction of poverty, unemployment and inequality, were also important for the fulfillment of human potential. In summary, he explained that development isn’t about what actually has or will happen but what ought to happen. Thus, it differentiates between changes per se and tries to create that change which might be good.

    2. Not only a rise in output, development also involves changes in composition of output and shift in the allocation of productive resources, and reduction or elimination of poverty, inequalities and unemployment. This clearly shows that economic development doesn’t only meaning that productivity is increasing. The rate at which goods are produced might be increasing but if it doesn’t equate to the employment rate and bring about effective distribution of resources around the country, then, there is no economic development. Thus economic growth which is majorly seen as an increase in output can only be attributed as development when other factors involved (change in composition of output, shift in the allocation of productive resources etc) are fully implemented. However, economic development is impossible without having an economic growth but economic growth is possible without economic development. Growth is just increase in GNP but it does not have any other parameters to it; unlike development which development whose process is multi-dimensional.

    3. Yes, I agree with Amartya Sen’s definition of development. Just like he said, freedom implies not just to do something but the capabilities to make it happen. On that note, a country that allows her citizens to investment in the resources of the country and brings about effective productivity without any form of restriction is undergoing development. Using infant industries as example- a government that that doesn’t support the new industries and firms in the country (in terms of not providing incentives and giving them a quota) but prefers to import goods will never be developed. This is because the capital that should be invested in the country is been spent outside the country which will bring about budget deficit in the long run. What people can achieve is influenced by economic opportunities, political liberties, social powers and the enabling condition of good health, basic education and the encouragement and cultivation of initiatives. According to Sen, capability deprivation is a more effective in measuring poverty than low income. Higher GDP does produce improvements in most measure of the quality of life but there are exceptions. Places with low GDP have higher life expectancy and literacy rates than richer countries. From my own perspective, increase in life expectancy means increase in productivity and manpower. Places with low GDP like Sri Lanka are likely to do better in future than places like Brazil with high GDP. This is because, the former has greater tendency to increase in productivity because of increased man power but the latter may have reduced productivity because of decrease in birth rate.

    4. The central role of women in development can only be achieved where women and men participate in the development process as equal partners to create a lifelong and transformative society in which both genders can flourish. The central role of women in national development is a theme of serious consideration by international policy making bodies whose members give priority to women in the development and utilization of human resources. Women play a predominant role in determining the state of health of the family and the nation. Thus, the special areas of activity in which women can make particular significant contribution include- Environmental hygiene, nutrition, medical and child care. It is necessary that women should have not only good education but also access to adequate advice and tuition in order to teach them new practices and cause them to change from old customs and traditions and adopt new attitudes. Unlike the past generation, the African woman today has duties and obligations in the development of her country. She enjoys constitutional and legislative measures to assist her in playing an important role and exercising her rights in public and political fields. Women as human resources are contributing not only to social development but also to economic development. Women in Africa already contribute economically through their activities in commerce, business and agriculture. By tradition they are also the main producers of local handicrafts. In this respect it is important that the expansion of cottage industries should be given priority and that the authorities together with women leaders, should study such matter s as market potential, supply of raw material, quality of production, provision of transportation and the local and extended demand for cottage industry products.

    5. ‘Beings and Doings’ in capabilities to function are:
    A. Life. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.

    B. Bodily Health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter.

    C. Bodily Integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.

    D. Senses, Imagination, and Thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think, and to reason—and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid non-beneficial pain.

    E. Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association that can be shown to be crucial in their development.)

    F. Practical Reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)

    G. Affiliation- Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.) Having the social bases of self-respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others.

    6. The three core values of development are:
    A. Sustenance. This refers to the capacity to meet basic necessities such as food, clothing, and shelter. Lack of even one of these means that a person’s life is not progressive. A country develops if its citizens have enough or more than enough for their basic necessities, there is growth of income, extreme poverty is addressed, and there is equality among members of society.
    B. Self-esteem. The quality of life is good when there is respect, trust, and self-value. Each person has needs which can be achieved through the presence of respect, dignity, and a good reputation in society. A person’s worth as an individual cannot simply be measured by the ownership of material things which is often given emphasis by progressive capitalist countries such as the United States. In the Philippines, material wealth is not the only important thing but the love for one’s family, the family’s reputation, and a person’s dignity and self-esteem. A country is developed if this unique need of the people is addressed.
    C. Freedom from Servitude. This freedom is drawn from liberation from oppressive systems in society, poverty and abuse, slavery, ignorance, and the absence of the freedom to choose one’s culture or religion. This freedom can be seen in the range of choices in a society. What is good about development is not only the joy of being free from poverty but also the availability of a wide range of choices. In general, freedom prevails if people live a comfortable life, if they have the freedom to choose their religion, to vote and to express their opinion about administration and governance, and if they enjoy equal opportunities for education and employment.

    7. Income by itself is not the sole determinant of how happy people are. And excessive materialism has negative moral and psychological implications. But the influence of money on happiness cannot be neglected. An often misunderstood 2010 study by Princeton University researchers agreed that increased income does add to “emotional well-being” up to a point. From a daily survey of 1,000 US residents, the study found an annual income of $75,000 to be the point at which further rise in income didn’t guarantee further emotional wellbeing. This stands to reason because people who make far less than $75,000 tend to stress moreover covering basic needs such as food, rent, and clothing. Problems that money can easily take care of. However, once the basic necessities are covered, the problems that come up are not what can be solved by simply throwing more money at it.
    That is to say that wealthier people have issues that are not related to lack of cash. Happiness can be defined in terms of “emotional well-being” and “life evaluation.” Emotional well-being can be defined as the day-to-day feelings a person experiences. These could be feelings of joy, sadness, stress or anger. While life evaluation is chiefly about the feelings people have about their life when reflecting on it. The researchers concluded that only emotional well-being was the aspect of happiness that tops out at $75,000. Which is not the case for life evaluation which they found to increase with more money. Therefore, they summarized that more money buys life satisfaction but not happiness while low income is linked to both low emotional well-being and low life evaluation. Simply put, when people earn well above $75,000, they feel more satisfied with how their life has worked out. But it doesn’t stop them from being cranky and irritable every now and then. In yet another research into the correlation between money and happiness, the average life satisfaction of people who live in wealthier nations are generally found to be higher than those in poorer countries. Then again, other researched has found that those in poorer nations tend to find meaning in life more than their wealthier counterparts. This is due to the fervent religiosity of poorer nations which is often absent in more affluent countries

    8. The difference between economic growth and economic development includes
    • Economic Growth refers to the increment in amount of goods and services produced by an economy. Economic development refers to the reduction and elimination of poverty, unemployment and inequality with the context of growing economy.
    • Economic growth means an increase in real national income / national output. Economic development means an improvement in the quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    • Economic growth refers to an increase over time in a country’s real output of goods and services (GNP) or real output per capita income. Economic development includes process and policies by which a country improves the social, economic and political well-being of its people.
    • Economic growth relates a gradual increase in one of the components of GDP; consumption, government spending, investment or net exports. Economic development relates to growth of human capital indexes and decrease in inequality.
    • Economic Growth is the precursor and prerequisite for economic development. It is the subset of economic development. Economic development comes after economic growth. It is a positive impact of economic growth.

    Nigeria’s economic growth and development rate is LOW. This is because as at 2021 Nigeria’s growth rate was 3.65% (though there is a 5.44% increase from 2020) which shows that it is low.

  74. Avatar Tracy Emeto says:

    1. Professor Dudley Seers’ argument believes that the measurement of development in an economy is not entirely about the net income but rather about how much growth has occurred in the economy.
    This growth is seen as the outcome of the economy which further leads to development. As recorded and analyzed to be true “Economic development is not possible without Growth but, growth is possible without development happening.”
    The measurement of development in an economy is done by the assessment of;
    1. how much the rate of poverty has reduced or become eliminated in an economy.
    2. How well inequality amongst the masses or between the government official and the masses are eradicated? Placing every individual and society at the same level.
    3. How Unemployment is gravely reduced and possibly annihilated from the economy. Ensuring those who are employed don’t just have random jobs, but are gainfully employed. Thereby, eliminating underemployment and only provision of seasonal and voluntary unemployment made provision to be accommodated.

    2. As previously discussed, we understand that the rate of outcomes is what determines the level of developing an economy has attained.
    Changes in the composition of output refer to the changes consumers make in their decisions on how to spend their incomes based on their tastes, preferences and market prices.
    The allocation of productive resources becomes based on needs and the actual value of the population, not that influenced by bias. Baring in mind that resources are not limited to money or natural minerals but also skills, knowledge, energy, time and much more.
    Positive changes in the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment.
    These three (3) points indicate how an upward movement in the development of an economy can occur alongside a rise in output.

    3. Development according to Amartya Sen is the process of expanding real freedom that people enjoy. It removes the constraint in achieving our purpose, goal and aim.
    This means it requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well tyranny, and social deprivation.
    The essence is that people can achieve and do whatever they want regarding self-development and not focus on the cost of such improvement in the meantime.

    4. Women are very important in the building of a nation. They play the role of mothers, caretakers in family affairs, farmers, educators, entrepreneurs, teachers, etc. It is historic that women play significant roles in societal development and ensure the stability, progress, and long-term development of nations. It shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, improves child survival and overall family health, and reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development.
    Also, the empowerment of women will improve the amount of output and positive outcomes in the economy thereby, aiding economic development.

    5. Being well-nourished: in a developed economy, the masses are expected to be well-fed, eating a healthy and balanced diet.
    Being able to be involved and take part in the life in the life of the community. Engaging in a developmental and entertaining activity
    Being well clothed: the masses should be equipped enough to dress according to the weather conditions and events. During the dry season, individuals should be able to put on sweaters and socks.
    Being mobile: Mobility refers to the easy movement of human labour and resources. The ability to change jobs due to location or change in career choices and also, the ability for resources to be transported from one state to another.

    6.
    1.Sustenance: the ability to meet basic needs. This is a measurement of well individuals, families, society and a nation can thrive,
    2. Self-esteem: To be a person. This implies seeing oneself in the light of positivity and optimism.
    3. Freedom from servitude: The ability to choose who to serve and possibly earn from. Not limiting service to servanthood.

    7. There is an absence of a perfect correlation between happiness and income. People can be poor and happy, Rich and unhappy.
    There are however factors that could affect the happiness of an individual. For instance, financial conditions, family relations, work satisfaction, personal values and personal freedom.
    These factors can alter the state of happiness in an individual, whether or not money/more income is present.

    8. Economic Growth is a narrower concept than Economic Development which is broad. It is a short-term process whereas, Economic Development is a long-term process which leads to progressive changes in the socioeconomic structure of a country.
    The measurement of economic growth is done through an increase in income which involves GDP, GNP and GNI whereas, Economic Development is a sufficient condition of improving human welfare, raising the standard of living and the reduction of poverty.

  75. Avatar Amaechi Emmanuella Athanasius says:

    Amaechi, Emmanuella Athanasius
    2019/242299
    ECO. 361 Online Discussion/Quiz–12-12-2022 (Understanding the meaning of Development)
    Professor Dudley Seers argues that development is about outcomes ie development occurs with the reduction and elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment within a growing economy. Discuss
    Firstly, let me point out that Professor Seers was responding to he crisis that arose from obsession to economic growth by figures, as in the number count of money and perhaps presence of huge and massive if not also expensive infrastructures. In those days, these were the determinant of economic growth. However, Prof is bringing to our awareness here the question that arises if a sound economy in figures and infrastructures, has no meaningful or tangible impact on the most of its citizens. By this I’m referring to situations whereby there are infrastructures that cannot be afforded by the middle class who often make up the majority of the population, or that there’s so much money but they’re all in the pockets of a few political leaders and rich men as is the case here in Nigeria. Therefore, Prof came to the conclusion that a truly flourishing economy or the development of economy depends more on practical issues that touches the daily lives of the common person’s. This includes issues such as increasing rates of employment, standard of living being raised for every family, accessibility and affordability of services and infrastructures, and many more. For Prof, these elements of economic development are fundamental and without satisfying them, economy is bound to go into crisis, crisis of the kind where money becomes valueless, or society losses order with many low income citizen struggling to make ends meet by all cost. It is to the effect of instances such as this that Karl Marx saw a possible revolution too, which might in the end turn our much more destructive and wasteful than if elimination of poverty, inequality and employment were being prioritized.
    In the words of Amartya Sen “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom, poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or over activity of repressive states. Do you agree? Explain in details
    It sounds like a great idea but I disagree with it. One of the delusions that slows down development is living the lifestyle compatible with development when one is still underdeveloped. It is like being broke but wanting to appear in the most expensive outfit. What I’m pointing to here is that Sen’s criteria for development to thrive are qualities that development itself brings afterwards, that’s is, the post-developmental character of a developed society as I choose to express it. As far as stability is concerned, development creates freedom and not the other way round. When there is underdevelopment, freedom can be detrimental to the propensity of development because it can allow for a rather personal than communal actualization of development. This is not healthy because those who already had an upper hand, the rich, those who can afford the expensive services and infrastructures would still be polarized to the detriment of others, who even if anything improves about their state of being, would still be marginalized, left to inequality and overdependence on the privileged ones. These all results to room for exploitation as can be seen in most capitalist economic impact. So, I think it is better to deprive and restrict “some” freedom in order to mobilize everyone to key in into the project of the development, and also to give a sense of direction.
    Some scholars have argued that happiness has a direct correlation with more income while others disagree with the assertion.
    For me, it all depends on what we refer to as income and what we mean by happiness. Considering the farmers who plant to eat, If income here means gain, then definitely it is surely going to bring about happiness. However, what kind of happiness are we talking about? In my own view, I think this is mainly about satisfaction because happiness is quite a broad term by meaning. Income alone cannot guarantee happiness. Other factors such as security, less liabilities, and even income can become boring if it’s stagnant because everyone steps up their lives as soon as they can and there will be more to cater for compared to when they began earning, responsibilities like children, car maintenance, house maintenance and many others. So, I would prefer to be on the edge on this issue, that income stimulates a sense of satisfaction that creates an euphoria of fulfilment, but all things considered, an incomplete happiness without satisfying other areas of life too. For better understanding, you can consider imaginarily comparing the level of happiness between one who is earning $1500 a month on contract but is an HIV patient and lives in an area of terrorism where one can lose one’s life at anytime. Compare to one who has a relatively low income of $500 per month, but works where his/her food and shelter are being taken care of, no medical issues, no security issues and is permanently employed. Thus income adds to but does not directly imply happiness.
    Discuss the three Core Values of Development with relevant example
    The first is Sustenability: this is the character of development that assures that the basic needs are catered for. These basic needs are so fundamental that they cannot be taken for granted if development applies because without them life would be very difficult. So needs such as food, shelter, clothing, security, etc are in fact the essence of development.
    The second is to build healthy self esteem: Conditions of life such as poverty, homelessness, etc can indiscriminately reduce and deprive one of one’s human dignity especially in he presence of others who are well to do. Thus it is a global concern for which the project of development is directed, that people in such circumstances may have their dignity and integrity protected or restored.
    The third is Freedom: Like I argued earlier, the more underdeveloped a place or person is, the less free the person or people from dependency which brings about exploitation, servitude, abuse and the rest of the kind, in as much as gain and capitalism is concerned. Thus development also values and aims at providing sufficiency of resources that would enable the dependent to break free from their parasitic sovereigns; from servitude and abuses.
    Distinguish between Economic Growth and Economic Development and tell us where we are currently as a nation in terms of growth and development.
    First of all, to simply put it, Economic growth has to do with the improvement of economy or resources available within a geographical region and historical context in comparison to what was. Meanwhile, Economic Development has to do with the overall condition of life at the time. It considers economy not from increase in resources or funds but from the practical quality of life lived. This includes issues such as health-care, mortality rate, life expectancy, average or minimum wage amount, prices and affordability of goods, accessibility of services and infrastructures, etc.
    I really feel like we don’t even fall anywhere in neither Economic growth nor in Economic Development. Our economy is so unstable otherwise I would prefer to say it’s degrading. So from where we are, I think we might have to first move towards economic growth before we can even dream of economic development.