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Eco. 391- Research Methods (Online Quiz/Discussion 5)—25-9-2021 (Qualities of a Good Researcher and Classification of Scientific Research)

 

 

 

Clearly answer the following questions in details”

1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

Best regards

 

 

 

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Comments 204

  1. Great Article it its really informative and innovative keep us posted with new updates. its was really valuable. thanks a lot.

  2. A good researcher is someone who is open-minded as well as critical in his or her ideas. Furthermore, he or she is dedicated to his or her unique subject of interest and is hardworking, conscientious, and focused.
    characteristics of a Researcher.
    These are the distinguishing features that distinguish and separate a good researcher from a bad one. They help to identify the special intrinsic traits embodied in a diligent Researcher. The following includes the characteristics of a good researcher:

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. He or she should be hard-working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3. A good researcher is also identified by certain qualities which sets him apart from others. Just like the characteristics that distinguish him as the best in the field, so also the Qualities of a good researcher is what keep him relevant in the job and makes him the best.
    The following include the Qualities of a Good Researcher:
    What are the qualities of a good researcher?
    – Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    – Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation

    – Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    – Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    – Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    – Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    – Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    – Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    – Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    – Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    RESEARCH CAN BE CLASSIFIED BY PURPOSE OR BY METHOD. DISCUSS AND ANALYSE THIS SENTENCE EXPLICITLY

    1. PURE RESEARCH
    Pure research is theoretical type not a practical one. Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Following are some of the features.
    – It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    – It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    – It discovers new facts.

    2. APPLIED RESEARCH
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Following are the features of such type of research.
    – It tests and verifies theories
    – It discovers new facts
    – It gives immediate answer to a question

    3. ACTION RESEARCH
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Second World War created many types of problems for which action research was necessary. These problems including (flood, epidemic, earthquake, fire) etc. features are as under.
    – It is quick service oriented
    – It is taking immediate action
    – It is sensitive to time and place

    4. EVALUATION RESEARCH
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. There are three main types of evaluation.
    – Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    – Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    – Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.

    RESEARCH METHODS CAN BE BROADLY DIVIDED INTO:
    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE
    .
    1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
    Describes infers, and resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences from the data.

    2) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, on the other hand, is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non-numerical formation is considered qualitative in nature if it cannot be analysed by means of mathematical techniques.

  3. Avatar Onyia Emmanuel says:

    Name: Onyia Emmanuel
    Dept: Economics/political science
    Reg no: 2016/234618
    COURSE : ECO.391( RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1)

    ASSIGNMENT :
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    Answers:
    A good/great researcher must be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. A good researcher however will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. He/She must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2. Some of the characteristics of a good researcher are:
    a. The research should focus on priority problems.
    b. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    c. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    d. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    e. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    f. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    g. The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    h. The research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.

    3. Some of The Qualities of a Good Researcher;
    a. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    c.Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    d. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    e. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly
    Purpose of the research is the objective of carrying out a study or research and can be classified into;
    1) Basic research: this type of research is conducted to enhance and expand our knowledge and understanding. It does not seek to solve any problem but theoretical in nature.
    2) Applied research: this classification of purpose research seeks to use existing knowledge or past theories to solve an practical problem.
    3) Action research: this type of research is conducted when there is need to provide an immediate and sudden solution to a particular problem. it involves both research and action.
    4) Evaluation research: this type of research tries to check the extent of compliance to a particular, acceptable standard of operations guidelines by firms, government, businesses etc.
    Method research is based on the procedures or inquiry mode employed. It can be classified into ;
    1) statistical research: this is the mass of data collected and aggregated from statistical books such as central bank publications, annual reports etc.
    2) Historical research: it tries to analyse past event(s) to unravel their effect on present happenings or events. It helps researcher to understand the root and evolution of variables. E.g weather forecast
    3) Survey research: this is the systematic way of making inquiries from people about their opinion on a topic through questionnaire, interview,mail survey, observational survey etc

  4. Avatar Agboeze lovina chidera says:

    REG NO:2017/249297
    DEPARTMENT:COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/GEOGRAPHY)
    Email:lovinachidera20@gmail.com
    COURSE:RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1 (ECO 391)
    LEVEL:400L

    ASSIGNMENT
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCH AND CLASSIFICATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    Classifications of Scientifi Research
    Whatever the purpose of research, scientific research undertakings can be classified into three:
    1. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
    2. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
    3. EXPLANATORY RESEARCH
    4.PURE RESEARCH
    5.APPLIED RESEARC
    6.ACTION RESEARC
    7.EVALUATION RESEARCH

    EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
    Exploratory research might be coordinated at measuring the degree of citizens’ dissatisfaction, seeing how such dissatisfaction is showed, for example, recurrence of public challenges, and the assumed reasons for such dissatisfaction for example, incapable government approaches in managing swelling, interest rates, unemployment, or higher assessments.
    Such research may incorporate examination of publicly revealed figures for example, appraisals of economic pointers, gross domestic product, unemployment, and customer price .This research may not prompt an exceptionally exact comprehension of th objective issue, however might be beneficial in investigating the nature an degree of the issue and fill in as a helpful antecedent to additional top to bottom research.

    DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
    This kind of research is coordinated at mentioning watchful objective facts and point by point documentation of a phenomenon of interest. These perceptions must be founded on the scientific technique, and hence, are more solid than easygoing perceptions by untrained individuals.
    Cases of descriptive research are classification of statistic insights by the census bureaucracy or whoever utilizes the same or comparable instruments for evaluating employment by division or population development by ethnicity or different employment overviews or censuses. In the event that any progressions are made to the measuring instruments, gauges are furnished with and without the changed instrumentation to enable perusers to make a reasonable examination in regards to population or employment patterns.
    PURE RESEARCH
    Pure research is theoretical type not a practical one. Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Following are some of the features.
    – It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    – It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    – It discovers new facts.

    APPLIED RESEARCH
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Following are the features of such type of research.
    – It tests and verifies theories
    – It discovers new facts
    – It gives immediate answer to a question

    ACTION RESEARCH
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Second World War created many types of problems for which action research was necessary. These problems including (flood, epidemic, earthquake, fire) etc. features are as under.
    – It is quick service oriented
    – It is taking immediate action
    – It is sensitive to time and place

    EVALUATION RESEARCH
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. There are three main types of evaluation.
    – Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    – Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    – Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.

  5. Avatar UGWUEGEDE CHIAMAKA PRECIOUS. says:

    Name: Ugwuegede Chiamaka Precious
    Reg no: 2017/249463
    Dept: Combined Social Sciences (Economics /Geography)
    course Code: Eco 391
    Course Title: Research Methodology 1

    Assignment.
    1. From your understanding, who is a good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by the method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Answer.
    1. A Good Researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general a systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.

    2. characteristics of a Researcher.
    These are the distinguishing features that distinguish and separate a good researcher from a bad one. They help to identify the special intrinsic traits embodied in a diligent Researcher. The following includes the characteristics of a good researcher:

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. He or she should be hard-working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3. A good researcher is also identified by certain qualities which sets him apart from others. Just like the characteristics that distinguish him as the best in the field, so also the Qualities of a good researcher is what keep him relevant in the job and makes him the best.
    The following include the Qualities of a Good Researcher:

    1. An analytical mind: As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. Daily researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)
    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)
    2. A people person: This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview/focus group participants” (Richard Walker)
    3. The ability to stay calm: It can be stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an endpoint, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    4. Intelligence: Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)
    5. Curiosity: You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    6. Quick thinker: Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    7. Commitment: It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)
    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills:
    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)
    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)
    9. Sympathetic: Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!” (Liz Brierley)
    10. Systematic: Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner).

    4. CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE /METHOD.
    • There are many kinds of research which are classified according to their distinctive features,
    • Hence, Research can be classified by purpose or methods for distinguishing and evaluating purposes, for example.

    1. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose
    – Basic and Applied research
    – Research and development
    – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method
    – Historical research
    – Descriptive research
    – Experimental research

    2. classification of Research by Purpose Basic and Applied Research: Basic research is conducted solely for theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted to apply or test theory and evaluate its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behaviour (e.g. behaviour modification).

    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed to use such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.

    4. Classification of Research by Purpose Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.

    5. Classification of Research by Historical Method: Research here uses Stories, descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. The Researcher digs out information and facts based on stories told by others who experienced the events or through books written about the events. For example, the story behind the Biafran war.

    6. Classification of Research by Descriptive Methods: Research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. Descriptive Research is also called Statistical Research. It is usually carried out by population Researchers and also applied during the use of questionnaires for data surveys.

    7. Classification of Research by Experimental methods: Here, Research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated systematically to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  6. Avatar UGWU EMMANUEL ONYEKACHI says:

    Name: UGWU EMMANUEL ONYEKACHI
    Reg no. 2015/203177
    C.S.S: ECONOMICS/PSYCHOLOGY

    1. From your understanding, who is good researcher?

    A person with the accurate and specific experience, education, qualifications, skills and training to complete research in their specific field or area of expertise.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?

    (I) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    (II) Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    (III) Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    (IV) Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?

    (I) Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    (II) Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    (III) Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    (IV) Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    (V) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    (VI) Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    (VII) Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    (VIII) Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    (IX) Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    (X) Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    (XI) Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    (XI) Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    (XII) Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    (XIII) Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    (XIV) Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    (XV) Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    (XVI) Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    (XVII) Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    (XVIII) More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.

    (XIX) Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly?

    (I) PURPOSE BASED RESEARCH- In this form of classification, scientific researches are named after the objective or purpose that the research is meant to achieve. Some examples of such researches are as follows:-

    a. Action research- Action researches are conducted when there is a need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem.

    b. Evaluation research- Evaluation researches focus on assessing the difference between the expected and the actual practice.

    c. Applied research- According to Sellltiz (1974) applied researches is based in the desire to know for the sake of being able to do something better or more efficiently.

    d. Pure or basic research- According to Obasi (1999) researches are concerned with the seeking of knowledge for it’s own sake and to satisfy intellectual curiosity.

    (II) METHOD BASED RESEARCH- In this form of classification scientific researches are named after the process of research. Some examples of such researches are as follows:-

    a. Experiments

    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer. The results of different groups are then compared. Participants should not be anxious about performing well but simply do their best. The aim of these tests is not to judge people or measure so-called intelligence, but to look for links between performance and other factors. If computers are used, this has to be done in such a way that no previous knowledge of computers is necessary. So people should not be put off by this either.

    The study might include an intervention such as a training programme, some kind of social activity, the introduction of a change in the person’s living environment (e.g. different lighting, background noise, different care routine) or different forms of interaction (e.g. linked to physical contact, conversation, eye contact, interaction time etc.). Often the interaction will be followed by some kind of test (as mentioned above), sometimes before and after the intervention. In other cases, the person may be asked to complete a questionnaire (e.g. about his/her feelings, level of satisfaction or general well-being).

    Some studies are just based on one group (within-group design). The researchers might be interested in observing people’s reactions or behaviour before and after a certain intervention (e.g. a training programme). However, in most cases, there are at least two groups (a between-subjects design). One of the groups serves as a control group and is not exposed to the intervention. This is quite similar to the procedure in clinical trials whereby one group does not receive the experimental drug. This enables researchers to compare the two groups and determine the impact of the intervention. Alternatively, the two groups might differ in some important way (e.g. gender, severity of dementia, living at home or in residential care, etc.) and it is that difference that is of interest to the researchers.

    b. Surveys

    Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.

    c. Questionnaires

    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later. Participants can state their views or feelings privately without worrying about the possible reaction of the researcher. Unfortunately, some people may still be inclined to try to give socially acceptable answers. People should be encouraged to answer the questions as honestly as possible so as to avoid the researchers drawing false conclusions from their study.

    Questionnaires typically contain multiple choice questions, attitude scales, closed questions and open-ended questions. The drawback for researchers is that they usually have a fairly low response rate and people do not always answer all the questions and/or do not answer them correctly. Questionnaires can be administered in a number of different ways (e.g. sent by post or as email attachments, posted on Internet sites, handed out personally or administered to captive audience (such as people attending conferences). Researchers may even decide to administer the questionnaire in person which has the advantage of including people who have difficulties reading and writing. In this case, the participant may feel that s/he is taking part in an interview rather than completing a questionnaire as the researcher will be noting down the responses on his/her behalf.

    d. Interviews

    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place. It is important for interviewees to decide whether they are comfortable about inviting the researcher into their home and whether they have a room or area where they can speak freely without disturbing other members of the household.

    The interviewer (which is not necessarily the researcher) could adopt a formal or informal approach, either letting the interviewee speak freely about a particular issue or asking specific pre-determined questions. This will have been decided in advance and depend on the approach used by the researchers. A semi-structured approach would enable the interviewee to speak relatively freely, at the same time allowing the researcher to ensure that certain issues were covered.

    When conducting the interview, the researcher might have a check list or a form to record answers. This might even take the form of a questionnaire. Taking notes can interfere with the flow of the conversation, particularly in less structured interviews. Also, it is difficult to pay attention to the non-verbal aspects of communication and to remember everything that was said and the way it was said. Consequently, it can be helpful for the researchers to have some kind of additional record of the interview such as an audio or video recording. They should of course obtain permission before recording an interview.

    e. Case studies

    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records. The researchers may be interested in a particular phenomenon (e.g. coping with a diagnosis or a move into residential care) and select one or more individuals in the respective situation on whom to base their case study/studies. Case studies have a very narrow focus which results in detailed descriptive data which is unique to the case(s) studied. Nevertheless, it can be useful in clinical settings and may even challenge existing theories and practices in other domains.

  7. Avatar Mmaduabuchi Lynda Ndidiamaka, Reg no:2016/234851 says:

    1.A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2.Characteristic of researcher
    a Scientific Research
    b.Graduate Education
    c.Postdoctoral Research
    3.Qualities of a good Researcher
    a.Capacity of depth information
    b.Truthful, careful in listening
    c.Free from prejudice
    d.Accuracy
    e.least discouragement
    f.Free from hasty statements
    g Expert in subject
    4.Classified by purpose or by method
    Classification of research by method historical research generates descriptions and sometimes attempted explanation of conditions, situation.
    Classification of research by purpose evaluation research the purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative action.

  8. Avatar Iheukwumere Chinedu Kingsley. Economics/Political science. 2018/243099 says:

    Name: Iheukwumere Chinedu Kingsley
    Department: Economics/Political science
    Reg. Number: 2018/243099

    Questions
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    Answer 1

    Who is a good researcher?
    A good/great researcher must be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    Answer 2

    What are the characteristics of a good researcher?.

    – He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    – He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    – The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    – The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    – He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    – He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    – The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    – While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    Answer 3

    What are the qualities of a good researcher?
    – Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    – Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation

    – Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    – Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    – Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    – Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    – Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    – Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    – Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    – Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    Answer 4

    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified according to the objective or purpose of research. By this we mean that someone can carry out a research endeavour based on the objective he wishes to achieve. In this sense, research under this classification can be undertaken:
    For knowledge sake, that is, basic research.
    To apply the knowledge gained from research to solve an existing problem, that is, applied research.
    To combine action and research to solve an immediate problem, that is, action research.
    To check the extent of compliance to a guideline set by the government, firms or organizations, that is, evaluation research

  9. Name: Shibigem Maryclara Chijindu
    Reg. No.: 2018/250440
    Department: CSS(ECONOMICS/PHILOSOPHY)
    1) a) A good researcher must be open to other thoughts to gain more knowledge. He or she should not be bias in his research.
    b) He/she should be. Zealous in their research work
    c) A good researcher must be accurate in their research
    2) CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    a Must be Economical
    b Must be Rational
    c Must be honest
    3) a Believer of the truth
    b) No prejudice in his or her work
    c) Accuracy
    4)a) PURE RESEARCH
    b) APPLIED RESEARCH
    c) ACTION RESEARCH
    d) EVALUATION RESEARCH

  10. Avatar IGWILO UGOCHUKWU HENRY says:

    NAME: IGWILO UGOCHUKWU HENRY
    REG NO. 2017/249345
    DEPT: ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY (COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE)
    COURSE RESEARCH METHOD (ECO 391)

    AN ASSIGNMENT
    THE QUESTIONS
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    THE ANSWERS

    Before we start to give a personal view of who a god researcher is, we must first of all know the meaning of the term “research”

    WHAT IS RESEARCH ?
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. This will lead us to the maim question which is a personal understanding of who a good researcher

    1) FROM MY UNDERSTANDING, A GOOD RESEARCHER IS SOMEONE WHO IS:

    1. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    2. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    3. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information.

    4. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    5. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    6. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    7. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    8. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    9. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    10. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    11. Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    12. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    13. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    14. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    15. Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    2) WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER ?

    1. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    2. More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    3. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    4. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    5. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    3) WHAT ARE THE QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER ?

    An analytical mind

    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc.

    A people person

    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants”

    The ability to stay calm

    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!”

    Intelligence

    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense”

    Curiosity

    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight”

    4. RESEARCH CAN BE CLASSIFIED BY PURPOSE OR BY METHOD. DISCUSS AND ANALYSE THIS SENTENCE EXPLICITLY

    1. PURE RESEARCH
    Pure research is theoretical type not a practical one. Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Following are some of the features.
    – It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    – It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    – It discovers new facts.

    2. APPLIED RESEARCH
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Following are the features of such type of research.
    – It tests and verifies theories
    – It discovers new facts
    – It gives immediate answer to a question

    3. ACTION RESEARCH
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Second World War created many types of problems for which action research was necessary. These problems including (flood, epidemic, earthquake, fire) etc. features are as under.
    – It is quick service oriented
    – It is taking immediate action
    – It is sensitive to time and place

    4. EVALUATION RESEARCH
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. There are three main types of evaluation.
    – Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    – Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    – Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.

    RESEARCH METHODS CAN BE BROADLY DIVIDED INTO:
    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE
    .
    1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
    Describes infers, and resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences from the data.

    2) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, on the other hand, is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non-numerical formation is considered qualitative in nature if it cannot be analysed by means of mathematical techniques.

  11. Que1: A researcher is someone who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Que2: Healthy criticism: he or she is doubtful or critical of any outcome presented. Intellectual honesty: a researcher is honest in data collection in order to arrive at a honest result. Intellectual curiosity: he I thinks deeply on inquiry. Que 3:Research oriented and resilient. Economical: maximize resources
    Reputable: he must hold on to high value and must be reputable
    Que 4: Objective based classification:
    Pure research: it is undertaken for the sole purpose of knowledge.
    Applied research: this is the use of basic or past research theories for solving an existing problem .

  12. Avatar Ofili Beluchi joan says:

    NAME :OFILI BELUCHI JOAN
    REG NO:2018/241862
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    A researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. … However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data.
    I. Curiosity – You may have the essential intelligence, but if you aren’t curious enough, you won’t be motivated to go deeper for new information.
    II. Intelligence – Research necessitates critical thinking, but most importantly, common sense.
    III. Commitment – it’s a challenging job; the hours can be long, and the deadlines can be tight. So researchers are committed.
    IV. Quick thinker – Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast.
    V. Creativity – Researchers usually creates new ideas, new approaches of doing things, a better method of analysis and as well as new innovations.
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    a. He should be a believer in truth, and truth should be his ultimate goal.
    b. He must be able to overcome prejudice. He should not have any preconceived notions while obtaining facts; rather, he should remain objective.
    c. The researcher must be able to collect accurate and detailed data from the respondents.
    d. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and not settle for rough estimates.
    e. He must maintain accuracy at all times and try to avoid unnecessary details.4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    f. The research investigator, as a scientific genius, must be sensitive to problems. “Where less brilliant folks pass by unconcerned about their abilities.”
    g. He should have enough moral courage to face the difficult situation and not be discouraged by the respondents’ lack of cooperation or the nature of the research problem under investigation.
    h. The researcher should be able to manage his time effectively and efficiently.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental researc

  13. Avatar NWEKE MELODY CHIOMA says:

    NAME: NWEKE MELODY CHIOMA

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2018/243742

    COURSE : ECO.391( RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    ANSWERS :

    N0.1

    Who a researcher is.

    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. He is also someon who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers. Other writers turn into researchers themselves, calling up doctor friends to discover interesting ways their characters can die.
    QUESTION NO. 2
    Characteristics of a good Researcher

    A good researcher is a lover knowledge and truth.
    A good researcher is curious and passionate about the subject of his/her research.
    A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    A good researcher is one who is well organized, patient, immensely persevering and maintains a healthy relationship with people
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Qualities of a Good Researcher include:
    – Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    – Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    – Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    – Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    – Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    – Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    – Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    – Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    – Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    – Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    – Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    – Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    – Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    – Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    – Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    – Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    – Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    – Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    – More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.- Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified by purpose or method in the sense that there is a certain objective the researcher wants to portray in his/her study.
    In that note, the purpose based classification, is subdivided into:
    a. Basic research/Fundamental research: Here the main motive is to expands man’s knowledge of a certain phenomenon.

    b. Applied Research: Here, it is the use of basic research or past theories and methods for solving an existing problem.

    c. Action Research: This research combines action and research to examine issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection.

    d. Evaluation Research: This is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government or organization.

    While in procedure based classification, research is done procedurally
    Some examples includes;
    Historical research or historiography,
    statistical research,
    survey research,
    case study
    Experimental research

  14. Avatar ASADU EMMANUEL CHIAGOZIEM, 2018/241853, ECONOMICS says:

    1. A good researcher is one who abides strictly by the ethical code(s) of conduct expected of a person carrying out research. In trying to identify a good researcher, he or she must possess some or all of the following qualities:
    1. He should be a votary of truth; truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    6. He must analyse and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    A researcher can be known by the following characteristics
    1. Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things, and situations around him.
    2. Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    3. Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    4. Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and

    Research can be classified by purpose or by method: the classification of research is one that can be carried out either by looking at the reason for research or the methods/methodologies utilized in performing it. In purpose based classification, scientific researches are named after the objective
    or purpose that the research is meant to achieve. Some examples includes; action
    research, evaluation research, applied research and pure or basic research
    while in procedure based classification, researches are named after the process of
    research. Some examples includes; Historical research or historiography, statistical
    research, survey research, case study and experimental research.

  15. Avatar NWOKE EBERECHI ANGEL says:

    NAME: NWOKE EBERECHI ANGEL
    REG NO:2018/251570
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    A Good Researcher
    Being ‘good’ according to the Oxford English Dictionary can be aligned with a multitude of properties of which “high quality”, “competent” and “skilful” are amongst those listed to name a few.
    The qualities required to be good researcher can be broken down into more specific core competencies. Some of them include but not limited to:
    1. An analytical mind
    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)
    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)
    2. A people person
    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)
    3. The ability to stay calm
    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    4. Intelligence
    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)
    5. Curiosity
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    6. Quick thinker
    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    7. Commitment
    “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)
    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)
    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)
    9. Sympathetic
    “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!” (Liz Brierley)
    10. Systematic
    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner)
    “Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported” (Anthony SShephard)

    2. characteristics of a researcher

    The researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities. Lack of these traits hinders the pursuit of research or makes conduction of research slow and difficult. The characteristics of a good researcher can be divided into the three categories of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral.
    Cognitive Characteristics
    The most important characteristic of a researcher is reflection and thinking with the aim of answering the questions. The researcher uses his intellectual and background information to try and provide an answer for unsolved questions. So the major part of research activity focuses on reflections and thoughts rather than the presentation of research works in the form of books and theses. To have a clear picture of the researcher’s characteristics, we classify these traits into three general domains:
    1) cognitive characteristics
    2) emotional characteristics
    3) behavioural characteristics
    Cognitive characteristics are also categorized into intrinsic and acquired sub-categories. Intrinsic characteristics refer to the innate abilities of a person. The most important of those are high intelligence and a good memory. So it’s not like that everyone has the ability to perform research, but only those who have talents. So many people may not have the capacity for intellectual and research activity. We will analyse the cognitive features in two domains of intrinsic and acquired characteristics. Intrinsic traits are given and acquired attributes are achievable by the individual through their efforts.

    3. Qualities of a Good researcher

    1. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    2. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    3. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    4. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    5. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    6. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    7. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    8. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    9. Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    10. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    11. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    12. Dress and Behaviour same to the area. The dress and the behaviour of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    13. More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    14. Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents

    • 4. . CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE /METHOD
    • There are many kinds of research which are classified according to their distinctive features,
    • Hence, Research can be classified by purpose or methods for distinguishing and evaluating purposes, for example
    1. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    2. classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    4. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    5. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    6. Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    7. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups

  16. Avatar Onyekwelu Collins Obinna says:

    Name: Onyekwelu Collins Obinna

    Reg No: 2018/251026

    Dept: Economics

    1. From your understanding, who is good researcher.

    A good researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. He/She must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Therefore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    i) Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. He/she should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    ii) Accuracy: A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His/her ideas must be accurate.
    iii) Keen Observer: A good researcher should have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    iv) Careful Listener: A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information even whispering.
    v) Least time Consumer: A good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    vi) Economical: A good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    vii) Free From Hasty Statements: It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    viii) Good in Conversation: The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    ix) Having Clear Terminology: A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    x) Equality and Justice: A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information from the respondents.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    1. Intellectual Curiosity –A researcher undertakes deep thinking and inquiry of the things, problems, and situations around him.
    2. Prudence –A researcher is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    3. Healthy Criticism –The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    4. Intellectual Honesty –The researcher is honest to collect or gather the data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual creativity –A resourceful investigator always creates new researches.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    1) Classification of research by purpose shows the reason or aim of the research process, that is why the research is carried out. It is subdivided into :

    i) Pure/Basic Research- This type of research is carried out to increase knowledge. It can also be done to satisfy curiosity. Pure research also involves developing and testing theories and hypothesis that are challenging.
    ii) Applied Research: This is the use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems.
    iii) Action Research: Action research are conducted to provide an immediate solution to a problem. Thus, it provides urgent intervention.
    iv) Evaluation Research: This type of research is carried out to check the extent of compliance to an acceptable standard pattern of operation.

    2) Classification of research by method is named after the procedures/methods used to carry out the research process. This is subdivided into:

    i) Historical Research: This type of research examines past events to arrive at an account of what has happened in the past. It helps to uncover the unknown, origin and impacts of such events.
    ii) Statistical Research: This is a form of research whereby a mass of data is collected and aggregated from statistical books. It is hard to collect raw/primary data in this form of research.
    iii) Survey Research: Surveys are a systematic way of asking people to volunteer information. It uses observations, interviews, questionnaire and other methods to achieve this.
    iv) Case Study: A case study is an in depth study of a particular situation. It might not fully answer a question, but it gives indications and allows for further hypothesis creation on a subject.
    v) Experimental Research: Experimental research is used to establish the presence and extent of cause and effect relationship. It involves the use of two groups; experimental group and control group. The research is asystematic and scientific method where the scientists manipulates variables.

  17. Avatar Okoye favour says:

    Name: okoye favour
    Reg no: 2018/249186
    Ifyfavourokoye@gmail.com
    1.good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    • 2.A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.

    • Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    • Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    • Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    • Source Stefanadis, C. I. (2006). Characteristics of the good researcher: innate talent or acquired

    3.Qualities of a Good Researcher

    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information

    4.dozen schemes proposing to classify research questions are surveyed, analyzed, and applied to the understanding and practice of inquiry. The extent to which the various schemes account for questions found in educational journals is estimated. Some principles and issues are identified to stimulate work on the classification of research questions in education and other enterprises of inquiry. On the whole, little is known about the kinds of questions that may be posed for research.

  18. Avatar Okoronkwo Uchechukwu David says:

    NAME: OKORONKWO UCHECHUKWU DAVID
    REG: 2017/241455
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: okoronkwo762@gmail.com
    Questions
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    1, Good researcher must be an individual with open-mind, who is willing to adapt to a critical way of thinking.
    The individual should be hard working, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    2, A good researcher must have a spirit of self-improvement and constant curiosity, a culture of teamwork and honesty, a high analytical capacity and a holistic and integral approach.
    Also, they must be precise in their explanations, that is, be able to give scientific explanations in a few words that can be understood by any target audience.
    Furthermore, researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3.i, Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. he/she should have to talk to them in the friendly language in which they can respond gently in return.

    3.ii, Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operative to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties.

    3.iii, Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    3.iv, Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    3.v, Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    4, Research can be classified according to purpose and by method.
    Research by purpose gives us the details for a specific research work. and there are;
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research
    iv. Evaluation research
    While under Research by method, we have;
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  19. Avatar Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi says:

    Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi
    2018/241841
    1. From my understanding, a good researcher is one who diligently carries out a carefully arranged research. As research takes some processes, a good researcher therefore shouldn’t be lazy but rather should be very agile in carrying out those processes.
    2.
    The following are the characteristics of a researcher:
    Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things, and situations around him.
    Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
    3.
    The following are the qualities of a good researcher:
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    4.
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method.
    Under research by purpose, we have pure research, applied research, action research and evaluation research. Generally, research by purpose is used to gain pure knowledge. It is conducted to satisfy curiosity such as what makes things happen and this particular one can be seen under pure research. Also, applied research can be in the use of basic research for solving an existing point while action research is the type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions, and evaluation research is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government, firm or organisation and it tries to check the extent of compliance of employees.
    Under research by method, we can have historical research which is a research that examines past events or combination of events to arrive at an account on what has happened in the past. We can also have statistical research which can be in descriptive statistics or quantitative statistics and its sole aim is to is to run statistical analysis and produce statistical results. Also, we have survey research which requires different instrument for data collection.

  20. Avatar Nwokobia Adaeze says:

    Name: Nwokobia Adaeze
    Reg.no: 2018/241865
    Department: Economics
    Email: nwokobiaadaeze@gmail.com
    WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?
    A good researcher is a researcher who is open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. He/She must be willing to step to the edge and push through their comfort zone and boundaries of security. He/She needs to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). He/she must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that gut feeling they have about something. He/She must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1.He is a risk taker: he is willing to take risks and losses in order to complete his research
    2. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    3.He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    4. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    5. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be satisfied with approximates.
    6. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    7. He must analyze and interpret the collected information in the proper sense, without involving his personal requirement or benefit.
    8. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties.
    9. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    10. The researcher should be able to use his time properly in a balanced manner.
    11. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always avoid hasty statement.
    12. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, regardless of its disapproval.
    13. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.
    14. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to obtain reliable and valid data.
    15. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish accordance with the respondents so as to educe proper response.
    16. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    17. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.
    18. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well dressed.

    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
    Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification). Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    Classification of Research by Purpose: Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.

    Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    Classification of Research by Method by Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook

  21. Avatar Chibugo faith Enyesiobi says:

    Name: Chibugo Faith Enyesiobi
    Reg no: 2018/247409
    Department : combined social science
    (Economics and Psychology)
    Email: adabeauty940@gmail.com
    Question one
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    Answer
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest. And must have the following qualities
    1.Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    2. From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    3. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    4.Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    5.Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information. And so on
    Question two
    . What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Answer
    a)A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    b)Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    c)Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    d)Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    Question three
    What are the qualities of a good researcher
    Answer
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    -Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    -Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be freefrom out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    Question four
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer
    . In purpose based classification, scientific researches are named after the objective
    or purpose that the research is supposed to have or even achieve . Active research, evaluation research, applied research and pure or basic research are some effective examples
    while in procedure based classification, researches are named after the process of
    research. Some examples includes; Historical research or historiography, statistical
    research, survey research, case study and experimental research.

  22. Avatar Neboh chiziterem margeretrose says:

    NAME: NEBOH CHIZITEREM MARGERETROSE

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2018/242341

    COURSE : ECO.391( RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    ANSWERS :

    N0.1

    Who a researcher is.

    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. He is also someon who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers. Other writers turn into researchers themselves, calling up doctor friends to discover interesting ways their characters can die.
    QUESTION NO. 2
    Characteristics of a good Researcher

    A good researcher is a lover knowledge and truth.
    A good researcher is curious and passionate about the subject of his/her research.
    A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    A good researcher is one who is well organized, patient, immensely persevering and maintains a healthy relationship with people
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Qualities of a Good Researcher include:
    – Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    – Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    – Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    – Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    – Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    – Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    – Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    – Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    – Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    – Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    – Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    – Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    – Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    – Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    – Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    – Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    – Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    – Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    – More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.- Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified by purpose or method in the sense that there is a certain objective the researcher wants to portray in his/her study.
    In that note, the purpose based classification, is subdivided into:
    a. Basic research/Fundamental research: Here the main motive is to expands man’s knowledge of a certain phenomenon.

    b. Applied Research: Here, it is the use of basic research or past theories and methods for solving an existing problem.

    c. Action Research: This research combines action and research to examine issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection.

    d. Evaluation Research: This is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government or organization.

    While in procedure based classification, research is done procedurally
    Some examples includes;
    Historical research or historiography,
    statistical research,
    survey research,
    case study
    Experimental research

  23. Avatar OKONKWO CHIKAODINAKA JUSTINA says:

    Name: okonkwo chikaodinaka Justina
    Reg no:2018/242322
    Department: Economic
    Email: okonkwochikaodinaka@gmail.com
    Course code:Eco 391
    No 1
    A good researcher is someone who engages in intellectual enquiry to know why things happened, observe the causes of trends and provides solution/answers to problems using the right approach and utilizing research resources efficiently. A good researcher is a critical and curious thinker who does not accept things the way they are.

    N0. 2
    Characteristics of a researcher are :
    • A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    •Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    •Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    •Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realistic protocol.
    •Open : It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In research, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.
    •Curious : The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.
    • Innovative The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.
    •Expert : Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    NO 3
    The qualities of a good researcher include the following; • Intellectual Curiosity. A good researcher undertakes reflective thinking, raises questions to find answer, and continues to read the related literature. As the problem becomes clear he formulates and tests hypotheses which may be accepted or rejected. The result of the hypothesis depends on the analysis of data he gathers.
    • Prudence. A good researcher uses the 4M’s (Man, Money, Materials & Machinery) effectively and economically.
    • High Tolerance to Healthy Criticism. A good researcher is doubtful of the veracity of the results are collected honestly
    . • Intellectual Honesty. A good researcher’s success and failure depends on his honest collection of data and its interpretation
    Intellectual creativity: A productive and resourceful investigator always create new approaches to research or new approaches to find answers to problems.

    No 4
    purpose of the research is the objective of carrying out a study or research and can be classified into;
    • Basic research: this type of research is conducted to enhance and expand our knowledge and understanding. It does not seek to solve any problem but theoretical in nature.
    • Applied research: this classification of purpose research seeks to use existing knowledge or past theories to solve an practical problem.
    • Action research: this type of research is conducted when there is need to provide an immediate and sudden solution to a particular problem. it involves both research and action.
    • Evaluation research: this type of research tries to check the extent of compliance to a particular, acceptable standard of operations guidelines by firms, government, businesses etc.
    Method research is based on the procedures or inquiry mode employed. It can be classified into ;
    ° statistical research: this is the mass of data collected and aggregated from statistical books such as central bank publications, annual reports etc.
    ° Historical research: it tries to analyse past event(s) to unravel their effect on present happenings or events. It helps researcher to understand the root and evolution of variables. E.g weather forecast
    °Survey research: this is the systematic way of making inquiries from people about their opinion on a topic through questionnaire, interview,mail survey, observational survey etc.

  24. Avatar Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer says:

    Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer
    2018/248241
    Economics/psychology

    QUESTIONS

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWERS
    A good researcher is one who is open-minded, critical, and relentless. A good researcher follows systematic and objective procedures to find solutions to problems or answers to questions. Good researchers adopt appropriate methods to answer unprecedented questions.

    Good researchers advance and contribute to the body of knowledge. One can say that a good researcher is one who does good research frequently. There are also certain characteristics that distinguish good researchers.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    A good researcher is;

    -Analytical
    -Intelligent
    -Open-minded
    -Honest/truthful
    -Hardworking/diligent
    -Accurate and employs appropriate methodology
    -A good observer
    -A good presenter
    – Critical

    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER

    -Curiosity

    The greatest researchers of our time have one thing in common – curiosity. Curiosity is an incentive to research. Researchers are always asking questions. They are inquisitive in order to discover better ways to do things. Good researchers are always finding solutions to problems of life through research.

    -Adaptability

    Good researchers seem to adapt very easily to the challenges and methodologies of research. They align themselves very quickly with new thought patterns and new situations. They seem to adapt easily to not so comfortable process of researching into new things

    Analytical Ability

    Good researchers are analytical. They do not jump to conclusions, they go through the process of observing, learning and discovering before drawing conclusions. Good researchers are great thinkers, they do not simply assume but they take their time to go through the research process.

    Innovative

    Good researchers are innovative. They are individuals that seem to have to have the spirit of innovation. While many individuals are okay with what had been, good researchers look forward to and bring to existence what could be.

    Thirst for knowledge

    This is another very important quality of good researchers. They seem to possess an insatiable thirst for knowledge. They believe that there is more to what we already know, so they dig deep to discover new things and answer disturbing questions.

    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Let’s begin by discussing the classification of research by purpose.

    THE TYPES OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE

    – Basic Research

    This type of research is concerned with the formulation of theories. It simply focuses on advancing knowledge and generalisation. Basic research forms a great foundation for applied research.

    – Applied Research

    Applied research involves solving practical problems in the world. It is carried out actively to improve the lives of individuals in the society. It involves gaining knowledge or increasing knowledge to solve problems.

    – Action Research

    Acton research is a unique form of applied research. It is a reflective process of progressive problem solving. Action research involves the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. Action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context. It enables future predictions about personal or societal change.

    THE TYPES OF RESEARCH BY METHODS

    Exploratory research

    Explorative research involves discovery of insights and ideas. It involves the collection of data in order to discover new initiatives.

    Descriptive research

    Descriptive research, unlike explorative research, is quantitative in nature. It is pre-planned and designed to describe the world around us or certain problems or activities or concepts.

    Causal research

    Causal research is also quantitative in nature. However, it is conclusive in nature. It attempts to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. It explains this relationship through experimentation.

  25. Avatar Igweh Irene says:

    Name : Igweh Irene Chidubem
    Reg no: 2018/241400
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 391

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher is someone who is organised, can plan their work, meet deadlines, pays attention to details ,able to identify a problem that needs investigation or urgent intervention and knows how to go about finding answers or solutions to this problem, using scientific steps, methods or procedures to arrive at conclusions that has general applicability.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    1.A good researcher is expected to be intellectually curious. As a researcher you are expected to be a deep thinker and good at inquiries.
    2. Prudence: A good researcher does not waste resources.
    3. Intellectual honesty: an intelligent researcher is honest to gather data in order tobarrive at an honest result.
    4. Intellectual Creativity: a productive and resourceful investigator always creates new approaches to research or new approaches to finding answers to questions.
    5. Researchers are always critical as to the truthfulness of certain result or outcome, they do not swallow informations  hook, line and sinker.  By so doing the are applying healthy criticism.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher.
    [  ] He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    [  ] He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    [  ] The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    [  ]  The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    [  ]  He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    [  ]  He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    [  ] As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    [  ]  He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    [  ] . The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    [  ] While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement.

    [  ] . A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    [  ] The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    In purpose based classification, scientific researches are named after the objective
    or purpose that the research is meant to achieve. Some examples includes; action
    research, evaluation research, applied research and pure or basic research while in procedure based classification, researches are named after the process of
    research. Some examples includes; Historical research or historiography, statistical
    research, survey research, case study and experimental research.

  26. Avatar Olayiwola Nurudeen Akanni says:

    NAME: OLAYIWOLA NURUDEEN AKANNI
    REG NO: 2018/246563
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391
    Assignment
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    A. From your understanding, who is good researcher
    B. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    C. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    D. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer
    A. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    B. Characteristics of the Researcher
    1. Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things, and situations around him.
    2. Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    3. Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    4. Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
    C. Qualities of a Good Researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    D. Research methods are processes used to collect data. You can use this data to analyze current methods or procedures and to find additional information on a topic. Professionals use research methods while studying medicine, human behavior and other scholarly topics. There are two main categories of research methods: qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods.
    Quantitative research methods involve using numbers to measure data. Researchers can use statistical analysis to find connections and meaning in the data. Qualitative research methods involve exploring information and non-numerical data. These research methods also examine how people might connect meaning to their experiences and emotions.
    Research Purpose
    Information gathering and/or. Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring. Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing.
    Theory testing. Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations.

  27. Avatar Ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine says:

    Name: ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine
    Department: economics
    Reg:no 2017/250816
    Course:Assignment on Eco 391
    Qualities of a good researcher and classification of scientific research.

    is a question we have been asked before, and one which has been pondered over. What personal qualities are required to be a good market researcher?
    are the team’s attempts to answer the question – although we welcome your input too! Please add comments below or get in touch through social media.
    There is a researcher within all of us just waiting to be let loose.Being ‘good’ according to the Oxford English Dictionary can be aligned with a multitude of properties of which “high quality”, “competent” and “skilful” are amongst those listed to name a few.We believe that the qualities required to be good researcher can be broken down into more specific core competencies. Here are the thoughts of the Mustard team, in no particular order.
    The qualities required to be a good researcher
    1. An analytical mind: As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one. You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)
    2. A people person
    This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)
    3. The ability to stay calm
    It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    4. Intelligence
    Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)
    5. Curiosity
    You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    6. Quick thinker
    Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    7. Commitment
    It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)
    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them. You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business.
    9. Sympathetic
    Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have.
    10. Systematic
    Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process.
    Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported.
    CLASSIFICATION OF A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. Research is important both in scientific and nonscientific fields. In our life new problems, events, phenomena and processes occur every day. Practically, implementable solutions and suggestions are required for tackling new problems that arise. Scientists have to undertake research on them and find their causes, solutions, explanations and applications.

    The research is broadly classified into two main classes:
    1. Fundamental or basic research and
    2. Applied research. Basic and applied researches are generally of two kinds: normal research and revolutionary research. In any particular field, normal research is performed in accordance with a set of rules, concepts and procedures called a paradigm, which is well accepted by the scientists working in that field. In addition, the basic and applied researches can be quantitative or qualitative or even both (mixed research).
    1. Fundamental or basic research:
    Basic research is an investigation on basic principles and reasons for occurrence of a particular event or process or phenomenon. It is also called theoretical research. Study or investigation of some natural phenomenon or relating to pure science are termed as basic research. Basic researches sometimes may not lead to immediate use or application. It is not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. But it is original or basic in character. It provides a systematic and deep insight into a problem and facilitates extraction of scientific and logical explanation and conclusion on it. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge. The outcomes of basic research form the basis for many applied research.
    Basic research
    Seeks generalization
    Aims at basic processes
    Attempts to explain why things happen
    Tries to get all the facts
    Reports in technical language of the topic
    2. Applied research:
    In an applied research one solves certain problems employing well known and accepted theories and principles. Most of the experimental research, case studies and inter-disciplinary research are essentially applied research. Applied research is helpful for basic research. A research, the outcome of which has immediate application is also termed as applied research. Such a research is of practical use to current activity.
    Applied research
    Studies individual or specific cases without the objective to generalize
    Aims at any variable which makes the desired difference
    Tries to say how things can be changed
    Tries to correct the facts which are problematic
    Reports in common language
    Basic and applied research, further divided into three types of research bearing some characteristics feature as follows:
    Quantitative research
    It is numerical, non-descriptive, applies statistics or mathematics and uses numbers.
    It is an iterative process whereby evidence is evaluated.
    The results are often presented in tables and graphs.
    It is conclusive.
    It investigates the what, where and when of decision making.
    Qualitative research
    It is non-numerical, descriptive, applies reasoning and uses words.
    Its aim is to get the meaning, feeling and describe the situation.
    Qualitative data cannot be graphed.
    It is exploratory.
    It investigates the why and how of decision making.
    Mixed research
    Mixed research- research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative methods or paradigm characteristics. Nature of data is mixture of variables, words and images.
    Other types of research
    1.Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research might involve a literature search or conducting focus group interviews. The exploration of new phenomena in this way may help the researcher’s need for better understanding, may test the feasibility of a more extensive study, or determine the best methods to be used in a subsequent study. For these reasons, exploratory research is broad in focus and rarely provides definite answers to specific research issues.
    The objective of exploratory research is to identify key issues and key variables.
    1.Descriptive research
    The descriptive research is directed toward studying “what” and how many off this “what”. Thus, it is directed toward answering questions such as, “What is this?”.
    3.Explanatory research
    Its primary goal is to understand or to explain relationships.
    It uses correlations to study relationships between dimensions or characteristics off individuals, groups, situations, or events.
    Explanatory research explains (How the parts of a phenomenon are related to each other).
    Explanatory research asks the “Why” question.
    Longitudinal Research
    Research carried out longitudinally involves data collection at multiple points in time. Longitudinal studies may take the form of:
    Trend study- looks at population characteristics over time, e.g. organizational absenteeism rates during the course of a year
    Cohort study- traces a sub-population over time, e.g. absenteeism rates for the sales department;
    Panel study- traces the same sample over time, e.g. graduate career tracks over the period 1990 – 2000 for the same starting cohort.
    While longitudinal studies will often be more time consuming and expensive than cross-sectional studies, they are more likely to identify causal relationships between variables.
    Cross-sectional Research
    One-shot or cross-sectional studies are those in which data is gathered once, during a period of days, weeks or months. Many cross-sectional studies are exploratory or descriptive in purpose. They are designed to look at how things are now, without any sense of whether there is a history or trend at work.
    4.Action research
    Fact findings to improve the quality of action in the social world
    Policy-Oriented Research
    Reports employing this type of research focus on the question ‘How can problem ‘X’ be solved or prevented ?’
    Classification research
    It aims at categorization of units in to groups
    To demonstrate differences
    To explain relationships
    1.Comparative research
    To identify similarities and differences between units at all levels
    2.Causal research
    It aims at establishing cause and effect relationship among variable
    3.Theory-testing research
    It aims at testing validity of a unit
    4.Theory-building research
    To establish and formulate the theory
    Last of all, it is needless to say that scientific research helps us in many ways.
    A research problem refers to a difficulty which a researcher or a scientific community or an industry or a government organization or a society experiences. It may be a theoretical or a practical situation. It calls for a thorough understanding and possible solution.
    Research provides basis for many government policies. For example, research on the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet the needs helps a government to prepare a budget.
    It is the fountain of knowledge and provide guidelines for solving problems.
    Only through research inventions can be made; for example, new and novel phenomena and processes such as superconductivity and cloning have been discovered only through research.
    It is important in industry and business for higher gain and productivity and to improve the quality of products.
    Research leads to a new style of life and makes it delightful and glorious.
    It leads to the identification and characterization of new materials, new living things, new stars, etc.
    Mathematical and logical research on business and industry optimizes the problems in them.
    Social research helps find answers to social problems. They explain social phenomena and seek solution to social problems.

  28. Avatar CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    NAME: CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA
    Reg No: 2018/243755
    Department: Economics
    ASSIGNMENT ON RESEARCH METHODS I (ECO 391)
    ✓who is a good researcher?
    According to European commission’s, Researchers are: “Professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned.” Who then is a good researcher? A good researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. I can also say a good researcher is a person with the accurate and specific experience, education, qualifications, skills and training to complete research in their specific field or area of expertise.
    ✓ Qualities of a good researcher
    1. A good researcher must have An analytical mind
    A good researcher tends to ask questions like;
    -Why does the client ultimately want to do this research?
    -What is the appropriate methodology for this research?
    – When and why should this research take place?
    -What are the appropriate questions to ask and how?
    -Why did the respondent give this reply?
    -What are the findings telling us?
    – Why are they telling us that?
    -How do I best communicate the findings? etc. It is important that on a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them.
    2. Ability to stay calm and have patience
    It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it.
    3. He/she must be Intelligent
    Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense.
    4. Must be Curious
    You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight.
    5. Must have a high level of Commitment: It’s a tough job and the hours can be long, the deadlines short. Your ability to meet up makes you a good researcher.
    6. Must posses Excellent written and verbal communication skills: So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them. You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business.
    In summary According to Dr Orji Anthony(2021), he summarized this qualities as:
    R: Research oriented ( Don’t give up )
    E: Efficient ( Achieve maximum productivity with minimum resources).
    S: Scientific (Careful in using the right steps)
    E: Effective (Doing the right thing)
    A: Active (Engaging in mental and physical activities that will produce desired results).
    R: Resourceful (finding quick and cleaver ways to deal with issues).
    C: Creative
    H: Honesty
    E: Economical (being able to maximize time and resources).
    R: Reputable (People Myst hold you with high esteem).
    ✓Characteristics of a good researcher
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    ✓Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    ANSWER
    Research can be classified according to purpose and by method. Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research: Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. It’s Features are:
    • It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    • It discovers new facts.
    • It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    ii. Applied research: Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. It’s Features are:
    • It tests and verifies theories
    • It discovers new facts
    • It gives immediate answer to a question
    iii. Action research: Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Its Features are:
    • It is quick service oriented
    • It is taking immediate action
    • It is sensitive to time and place
    iv. Evaluation research: This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution.
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research:
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research: Experimental research involves completion of various tests to measure cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer.

  29. Avatar Igboneme Adaeze Patience/ 2018/250527/Economics Department. says:

    Assignments

    1. Who is a good researcher

    i. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides,
    ii. he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    ii. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    iii. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a researcher
    The Characteristics of Research
    Keeping this in mind that research in any field of inquiry is undertaken to provide information to support decision-making in its respective area, we summarize some desirable characteristics of research:

    a. The research should focus on priority problems.
    b. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    c. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    d. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    e. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    f. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    g. The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    h. The research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.
    i. The research should be participatory, involving all parties concerned (from policymakers down to community members) at all stages of the study.
    j. The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    k. The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.
    The results of the research should be presented in formats most useful for administrators, decision-makers, business managers, or the community members.

    3. Qualities of a Good Researcher

    a. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    b. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    c. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    d. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    e. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    f. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    g. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    h. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    i. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    j. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    k. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    L. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    m. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    4.Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    A. Pure research/basic/fundamental research:
    This type of research is undertaken to increase knowledge. It can also be conducted to satisfy any curiosity
    I. What makes things happen
    ii. Why societies changes
    III. Why social relation are in certain ways.
    The main motive behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. it is purely theoritical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behavior that do not seek to solve any particular existing behavior. It can simply be conducted as experimental or theoritical work undertaken to acquire knowledge, without looking for long time benefit other than advancement of knowledge.

    B. Applied Research
    It is use of basic research or past theory, knowledge and method of solving an existing problem, it deals with practical problem in the present situation more emphasis is being given to applied Research to solve problem arising from over population and scarcity of resources or factors that influence the implementation of government policies at grassroot level. It solves specific practical problem for the formulation and the administration and understanding a given phenomena.

    C. Action Research: it is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions issues or phenomena through observation and reflection and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action Researches are conducted when there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem. Hence it seeks to provide urgent intervention to a crisis condition.

    D. Evaluation research: this is usually an acceptable standard of Operations or guidelines by the government, firm and organizations. It tries to check the extent of compliance to such guidelines.

  30. Avatar Obeleze Christiantus Ifeanyi says:

    Name: Obeleze Christiantus Ifeanyi
    Reg. No: 2018/242407
    Dept: Economics

    Question no 1
    From your understanding, who is good researcher
    Answer
    A good researcher is someone that open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    . A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.
    Question no 2
    What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Answer
    1. Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and inquiry of the things, and situations around him.
    2. Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    3. Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    4. Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
    Question no 3
    What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Answer
    Qualitiesof a good researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.

    Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    Question no 4
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer
    1. CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD (WEEK 7&8) BY DR.SHAZIA ZAMIR
    2. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    4. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    5. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    6. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    7. Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    8. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook

  31. Avatar Ugwuoke Victor chinweokwu says:

    NAME : Ugwuoke Victor Chinweokwu

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2017/249587

    COURSE : ECO.391( RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    ANSWERS :

    N0.1
    .WHO IS GOOD RESEARCHER
    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. He is also someon who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers. Other writers turn into researchers themselves, calling up doctor friends to discover interesting ways their characters can die.
    No 2
    WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCHER
    The Characteristics of a good researcher include;
    1. It is sometimes based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    6. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    7. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    No 3

    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. A good researcher should bempirical
    2. A good researcher should be should be Verifiable.
    3. The research should focus on priority problems.
    4. The research should be systematic
    5. The research should be logical
    6. The research should be intellectually reproductive
    7. The research should be replicable
    8. The research should be generative
    9. The research should be action-oriented
    10. A good researcher should be Honest
    11. A good researcher should have Enough knowledge
    12. Good should be rich in communication skills
    13. It cannot be denied that a researcher must be intelligent enough.

    14. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    15. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    16. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    17. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    18. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    19. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    20. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    21. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    22. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    23. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    24. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    25. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    26. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    27. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. 28. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    29. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    30. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    31. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    N0. 4

    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BASED ON PURPOSE :

    According to the purposes research can be classified into the following ways.
    1. Descriptive research:

    It is engaged with the describing characteristics of variables in a particular situation based on past data or experience or research. By this research, knowledge about a particular matter can be enhanced. Here the self thinking ideas and opinions of the researcher can be represented. Under this research something new is added to the previous research or finds out new aspects of that problem or matter, that is, it is not related with innovation. For example, you may visit Coxes bazaar sea beach and if you give description about the natural beauty of it in your research then it will be a descriptive research. Another example is how many villages under different Thana are affected by arsenic. Collect this data and represent in a research will be a descriptive research.

    2. Exploratory research:

    In descriptive research, research is done on those things which are already available. But exploratory means which are not known to us before but has existence. Just if you discover or unearth or unveil that thing then it will be exploratory research. Exploratory research not only include the things about which man cannot think before but also include the things which are already has been described by someone but you are describing it from different angle or different view point. For example budget has been discussed from different view point before.

    3. Hypothesis testing:

    Here at first a logical and scientific statement or assumption are set up and conduct a research on the basis of that statement or assumption. And compare the result with the assumption whether the assumption is true or false. For example you are going to research about microcredit. At first you should assume that maximum amount of microcredit are used in unproductive sectors. Now if you conduct research on the basis of this assumption to compare result of this research with the assumption then it is a hypothesis based research. If your taken assumption is right you will accept alternative hypothesis or if false you will accept the null hypothesis. When the topic of the research is very hard and we don’t know from which point we will start or if the researcher has very few knowledge about it in this case hypothesis testing bring about result. Notice that the assumption which we are taking here should be reasonable and rational and related to our particular subject. For an instance gold has a tremendous impact directly to the national election of the country is not a reasonable assumption. So we should give up these assumptions when the variables have no direct relation.

    Hypothesis testing can be divided into two types

    a. Analytical hypothesis testing:

    What, how, why something is happening in a particular situation and finding the influencing factors and extent of influences. For example employment generation, capital mobilization etc. ate related to the growth in GDP. Only referring these factors is not enough. How they influence GDP, in what extent, in which way then it will be analytical hypothesis testing. Generally under the analytical hypothesis testing we try to indentify the independent variables, labeled them by various name and then say which one how much influence and how and why the influence.

    b. Predictive hypothesis testing:

    What, how, why something is happening in several other situations. Here the cause of event are important not the extent of influence. So we don’t try to find out independent variables and their contribution level rather we try to find out the happening of one event how influence the other event in different situation. For example, smoking is the main cause of cancer in our country whether this relation also prevailing in Antarctica region (coldest area), Africa (hottest area), Siberian region (desert area), in America, Europe, Asia etc. or not. It means,
    The positive relation between smoking and cancer is alternative hypothesis
    No relation between smoke and cancer is null hypothesis, is same all over the world. So the influencing variable i.e. smokes how much influence in different area we don’t find out. But we are trying to find out the same relation whether it is prevailed in different area or not.

  32. Avatar Agbo Peace Uchechukwu, Reg. No;2018/242343 says:

    NAME; AGBO PEACE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO; 2018/242343
    DEPARTMENT; ECONOMICS

    Questions;
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Answers;
    No. 1
    In my own terms,a good research is someone who systematically collects data,properly documents critical information,analysizes and interpretes that information in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines without bias.
    No. 2
    The features of a good researcher;
    •A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    •Apart from the above-mentioned, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    •And also updating his/her knowledge is of paramount importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    •Lastly in my own terms, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    No. 3
    The Qualities of a Good Researcher includes;
    •Being friendly with respondents; A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with his/ her respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and the happy mode being activated.
    •Being the least to be discouraged; If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    •Being free from prejudice; A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    •Having the capacity to carry depth information; A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    •Maintaining accuracy; A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    •Being truthful; A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    •Being a keen observer; It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    •Possesing the quality of being a good listener; A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even when whispered.
    •Low Dependency on Common Sense; A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keeps to observing all the events and happenings.
    •Least time Consumer; Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    •Economical; Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    •Low Care of Disapprovals of Society; A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    •Being Expert in Subject; A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    •Freedom from hasty statements; It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    •Good in Conversation; The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    •Having Clear Terms; A good researcher’s terminology should be clear. It should be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    •Trained in Research Tools; Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    •Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    •More Analytical; A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    •Equality and Justice; A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    No. 4
    The type by purpose falls into three categorize such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
    •Basic Research;
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main purpose is to expand people’s knowledge, not to create or invent something.
    Basic research has following advantages:
    1)Basic research is typically curiosity-driven and researchers develop their curiosity through their observations.
    2)Basic research frequently leads to new insights into the essence of nature, the human mind, and the complex interactions between their elements.
    3)It is usually unpredictable in terms of its course and outcomes.
    4)Basic research requires a special way of thinking that often combines seemingly unrelated facts and explores unknown fields necessary to make new discoveries. It is for this reason that basic research is frequently multidisciplinary in nature.
    5)It is the verifiable which makes scientific knowledge a firmer kind of knowledge that anything else we have. This information includes not only data in databases, but it also includes the information found in journals and textbooks, the interpretation of data, and the concepts that underlie these.
    Limitations of Basic Research
    It is limited in nature as it never helps to make discoveries, create or invent anything. But it just expands one’s knowledge as it is a theoretical but not practical research.
    •Applied Research
    It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.
    Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.
    Advantages of Applied Research;
    It is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake and it is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies.
    •Action Research
    It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.
    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.
    Advantages of Action Research;
    It is a practical way for individuals to explore the nature of their practice and to improve it.
    •Action research encourages practitioners to become knowledge-makers, rather than merely knowledge-users.
    •Action research proceeds through a process of planning, action and reflection upon action. This can be thought of as an action-reflection ‘cycle’.
    Limitations of Action Research:
    •Action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.
    •The process can be messy; as research proceeds, wider links are likely to be identified.
    •The result can’t be generalize usually as C.F. Hamilton (1981) also noted that this is true, but someone else’s ideas or conclusions can always be tried out by other persons in their own practice, to see if they work for them or not.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    •Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    •Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  33. Avatar OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2018/241833
    LEVEL: 300L
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWERS
    Q1. A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    Q2 (i) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    (ii) Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    (iii) Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    (iv) Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    (v) He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    (vi) He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    (vii) The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    viii)The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    (ix) He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    (x) He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    (xi) As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    (xii) He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    (xiii) The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    (xiv) While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.
    (xv) A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    (xvi) The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    (xvii) The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    (xviii) The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    (xix) Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.

    (xx) Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    (xxi) A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.

    Q3. (i) FRIENDLY WITH RESPONDENTS: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    (ii) LEAST DISCOURAGEMENT: If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    (iii) FREE FROM PREJUDICE: A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    (iv) CAPACITY OF DEPTH INFORMATION: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    (v) ACCURACY: A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    (vi) TRUTHFUL: A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    (vii) KEEN OBSERVER: It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    (viii) CAREFUL IN LISTENING: A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    (ix) LOW DEPENDENCY ON COMMON SENSE: A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    (x) LEAST TIME CONSUMER: Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    (xi) ECONOMICAL: Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    (xii) LOW CARE OF DISAPPROVALS OF SOCIETY: A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    (xiii) EXPERT IN SUBJECTS: A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    (xiv) FREE FROM HASTY STATEMENTS: It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    (xv) GOOD IN CONVERSATION: The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    (xvi) HAVING CLEAR TERMINOLOGY: A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    (xvii) TRAINED IN RESEARCH TOOLS: Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    (xviii) DRESS AND BEHAVIOR SAME TO THE AREA: The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    (xix) MORE ANALYTICAL: A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.

    (xx) EQUALITY AND JUSTICE: A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    Q4. Research can be classified according to purpose and by method. Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  34. Avatar Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu says:

    NAME: UGWU CYNTHIA UGOCHUKWU
    REG: 2018/245470
    COURSE :ECO391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMIC)
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    ASSIGNMENT
    1.Who is good researcher?
    A good researcher is someone that is open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher.
    I. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    II. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    III. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    IV. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher.
    I. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    II. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    III. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    IV. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    V. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    VI. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    VII. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    VIII. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    IX. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    X. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    XI. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose and by method
    Research by purpose
    I. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    II. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    IIIExplanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Researcrh by method
    I. Experiments
    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer. The results of different groups are then compared. Participants should not be anxious about performing well but simply do their best. The aim of these tests is not to judge people or measure so-called intelligence, but to look for links between performance and other factors. If computers are used, this has to be done in such a way that no previous knowledge of computers is necessary. So people should not be put off by this either.
    II. Surveys
    Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.
    III. Questionnaires
    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later. Participants can state their views or feelings privately without worrying about the possible reaction of the researcher. Unfortunately, some people may still be inclined to try to give socially acceptable answers. People should be encouraged to answer the questions as honestly as possible so as to avoid the researchers drawing false conclusions from their study.
    IV. Interviews
    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place. It is important for interviewees to decide whether they are comfortable about inviting the researcher into their home and whether they have a room or area where they can speak freely without disturbing other members of the household.
    The interviewer (which is not necessarily the researcher) could adopt a formal or informal approach, either letting the interviewee speak freely about a particular issue or asking specific pre-determined questions. This will have been decided in advance and depend on the approach used by the researchers. A semi-structured approach would enable the interviewee to speak relatively freely, at the same time allowing the researcher to ensure that certain issues were covered.
    V. Case studies
    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records. The researchers may be interested in a particular phenomenon (e.g. coping with a diagnosis or a move into residential care) and select one or more individuals in the respective situation on whom to base their case study/studies. Case studies have a very narrow focus which results in detailed descriptive data which is unique to the case(s) studied. Nevertheless, it can be useful in clinical settings and may even challenge existing theories and practices in other domains.
    VI. Participant and non-participant observation
    Studies which involve observing people can be divided into two main categories, namely participant observation and non-participant observation.
    In participant observation studies, the researcher becomes (or is already) part of the group to be observed. This involves fitting in, gaining the trust of members of the group and at the same time remaining sufficiently detached as to be able to carry out the observation. The observations made might be based on what people do, the explanations they give for what they do, the roles they have, relationships amongst them and features of the situation in which they find themselves. The researcher should be open about what s/he is doing, give the participants in the study the chance see the results and comment on them, and take their comments seriously.
    In non-participant observation studies, the researcher is not part of the group being studied. The researcher decides in advance precisely what kind of behaviour is relevant to the study and can be realistically and ethically observed. The observation can be carried out in a few different ways. For example, it could be continuous over a set period of time (e.g. one hour) or regularly for shorter periods of time (for 60 seconds every so often) or on a random basis. Observation does not only include noting what happened or was said but also the fact that a specific behaviour did not occur at the time of observation.
    VII. Observational trials
    Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings. Longitudinal approaches examine the behaviour of a group of people over a fairly lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors. In some cases, the researchers might monitor people when they are middle-aged and then again after 15 years and so on. The aim of such studies is usually to determine whether there is a link between one factor and another (e.g. whether high alcohol consumption is correlated with dementia). The group of people involved in this kind of study is known as a cohort and they share a certain characteristic or experience within a defined period. Within the cohort, there may be subgroups (e.g. people who drink moderately, people who drink heavily, people who binge drink etc.) which allow for further comparisons to be made.

    In some cases, rather than following a group of people from a specific point in time onwards, the researchers take a retrospective approach, working backwards as it were. They might ask participants to tell them about their past behaviour, diet or lifestyle (e.g. their alcohol consumption, how much exercise they did, whether they smoked etc.) They might also ask for permission to consult the participants’ medical records (a chart review). This is not always a reliable method and may be problematic as some people may forget, exaggerate or idealise their behaviour. For this reason, a prospective study is generally preferred if feasible although a retrospective pilot study preceding a prospective study may be helpful in focusing the study question and clarifying the hypothesis and feasibility of the latter (Hess, 2004).
    VIII. Studies using the Delphi method
    The Delphi method was developed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in the military domain. It has been considered particularly useful in helping researchers determine the range of opinions which exist on a particular subject, in investigating issues of policy or clinical relevance and in trying to come to a consensus on controversial issues. The objectives can be roughly divided into those which aim to measure diversity and those which aim to reach consensus.
    Different ways to employ this method have been devised but they tend to share common features, namely a series of “rounds” in which the participants (known as “panellists”) generate ideas or identify salient issues, comment on a questionnaire (constructed on the basis of the results from the first round) and re-evaluate their original responses. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the forecasts/opinions made by the experts and of their reasons.

  35. Avatar Ebube ILOUBA Stanley says:

    NAME : ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY
    REG. NO : 2018/242474
    DEPARTMENT : COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/political science)
    EMAIL : Ebubeilouba@gmail.com
    COURSE : Eco 391
    QUESTIONS: Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    ANSWERS:
    A researcher from my own understanding
    A researcher is someone who searches, who looks for new things, new ideas and take limits to find solutions to certain questions. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re broad minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions. They’re ones who take materials, documents, information and data used in carrying out research.
    ▪︎The Characteristics of a Researcher
    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    ▪︎The qualities of a good researcher.
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”
    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.
    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement.
    ▪︎Research Classified by purpose or method
    ○The Purpose of Research
    1. Pure Research
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Features:
    • It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    • It discovers new facts.
    • It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    2. Applied Research
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Features:
    • It tests and verifies theories
    • It discovers new facts
    • It gives immediate answer to a question
    4.Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Features:
    • It is quick service oriented
    • It is taking immediate action
    • It is sensitive to time and place
    5. Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. Types of evaluation:
    • Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    • Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    • Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.
    6. Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research. Features:
    • It is a cooperative research
    • It helps in study the whole phenomena
    • It brings comparison in different disciplines
    ○Research by Methods
    Types of research methods
    1. Experiments
    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer.
    2. Surveys
    Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.
    3. Questionnaire
    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later.
    4. Interviews
    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place.
    5. Case studies
    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records.
    6. Participant and non-participant observation
    Studies which involve observing people can be divided into two main categories, namely participant observation and non-participant observation.
    7. Observational trials
    Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings. Longitudinal approaches examine the behaviour of a group of people over a fairly lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors.
    8. Studies using the Delphi method
    The Delphi method was developed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in the military domain. It has been considered particularly useful in helping researchers determine the range of opinions which exist on a particular subject, in investigating issues of policy or clinical relevance and in trying to come to a consensus on controversial issues. The objectives can be roughly divided into those which aim to measure diversity and those which aim to reach consensus

  36. Avatar EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

    NAME::EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE
    REG NO:: 2018/251024
    DEPARTMENT:: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL:: sopuluchukwuluke@gmail.com
    Course:: ECO391
    ASSIGNMENT
    1…A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    3..Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily
    4.
    1..Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    2. Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    4. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    5.. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.

  37. Avatar Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya (2018/242412) Economics major says:

    Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya
    2018/242412
    Economics major
    1.
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2.
    Analytical mind: A researcher should have a vast mind thinking on the the research topic he/she is going into.
    Intelligence : An intelligent minded research can give a very good research discovery.
    Curiosity :He/She must be anxious to know what’s next.
    Quick thinker : Should be able to think outside the box.
    Commitment : Commitment is a very vital virtue a researcher must have.
    Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    3.
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    1. Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2. Least Discouragement: If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    3. Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    4. Capacity of Depth Information: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    5. Accuracy: A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    6. Truthful: A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    4.
    Methods of Research
    Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.
    1. Inductive research methods focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research.
    2. Deductive research methods focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.
    Also
    3. Qualitative Research
    Qualitative research is a method that enables non-numerical data collection through open-ended methods such as interviews, case studies and focus groups.
    It enables researchers to collect data on personal experiences, feelings or behaviours, as well as the reasons behind them. Because of this, qualitative research is often used in fields such as social science, psychology and philosophy and other areas where it is useful to know the connection between what has occurred and why it has occurred.
    4. Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research is a method that collects and analyses numerical data through statistical analysis.
    It allows us to quantify variables, uncover relationships, and make generalisations across a larger population. As a result, quantitative research is often used in the natural and physical sciences such as engineering, biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, finance, and medical research.

  38. Avatar Mbah Chidimma Judith 2018/243101.department: Economic nd sociology says:

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    ANSWERS :

    N0.1

    Who a researcher is.

    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. He is also someon who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers. Other writers turn into researchers themselves, calling up doctor friends to discover interesting ways their characters can die.

    N0. 2

    Characteristics of a researcher are :

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    5. Open : It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.

    6. Curious : The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.

    7. Innovative The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.

    8. Expert : Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    9. An Evangelist Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being best.

    N0. 3

    Qualities of a good researcher are :

    1. Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    2. Least Discouragemen : If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    3. Free From Prejudice : A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    4. Capacity of Depth Information : A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    5. Accuracy : A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    6. Truthful : A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    7. Keen Observe : It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    8. Careful in Listening : A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    9. Low Dependency on Common Sense : A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    10. Least time Consume : Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    11. Economical : Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    12. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society : A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    13. Expert in Subject : A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    14. Free From Hasty Statements : It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    15. Good in Conversation :The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    16. Having Clear Terminology : A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    17. Trained in Research Tools : Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    18. Dress and Behavior same to the area : The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    19. More Analytical : A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.

    20. Equality and Justice : A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    N0. 4

    Classification of research based on purpose :

    According to the purposes research can be classified into the following ways.
    1. Descriptive research:

    It is engaged with the describing characteristics of variables in a particular situation based on past data or experience or research. By this research, knowledge about a particular matter can be enhanced. Here the self thinking ideas and opinions of the researcher can be represented. Under this research something new is added to the previous research or finds out new aspects of that problem or matter, that is, it is not related with innovation. For example, you may visit Coxes bazaar sea beach and if you give description about the natural beauty of it in your research then it will be a descriptive research. Another example is how many villages under different Thana are affected by arsenic. Collect this data and represent in a research will be a descriptive research.

    2. Exploratory research:

    In descriptive research, research is done on those things which are already available. But exploratory means which are not known to us before but has existence. Just if you discover or unearth or unveil that thing then it will be exploratory research. Exploratory research not only include the things about which man cannot think before but also include the things which are already has been described by someone but you are describing it from different angle or different view point. For example budget has been discussed from different view point before.

    3. Hypothesis testing:

    Here at first a logical and scientific statement or assumption are set up and conduct a research on the basis of that statement or assumption. And compare the result with the assumption whether the assumption is true or false. For example you are going to research about microcredit. At first you should assume that maximum amount of microcredit are used in unproductive sectors. Now if you conduct research on the basis of this assumption to compare result of this research with the assumption then it is a hypothesis based research. If your taken assumption is right you will accept alternative hypothesis or if false you will accept the null hypothesis. When the topic of the research is very hard and we don’t know from which point we will start or if the researcher has very few knowledge about it in this case hypothesis testing bring about result. Notice that the assumption which we are taking here should be reasonable and rational and related to our particular subject. For an instance gold has a tremendous impact directly to the national election of the country is not a reasonable assumption. So we should give up these assumptions when the variables have no direct relation.

    Hypothesis testing can be divided into two types

    a. Analytical hypothesis testing:

    What, how, why something is happening in a particular situation and finding the influencing factors and extent of influences. For example employment generation, capital mobilization etc. ate related to the growth in GDP. Only referring these factors is not enough. How they influence GDP, in what extent, in which way then it will be analytical hypothesis testing. Generally under the analytical hypothesis testing we try to indentify the independent variables, labeled them by various name and then say which one how much influence and how and why the influence.

    b. Predictive hypothesis testing:

    What, how, why something is happening in several other situations. Here the cause of event are important not the extent of influence. So we don’t try to find out independent variables and their contribution level rather we try to find out the happening of one event how influence the other event in different situation. For example, smoking is the main cause of cancer in our country whether this relation also prevailing in Antarctica region (coldest area), Africa (hottest area), Siberian region (desert area), in America, Europe, Asia etc. or not. It means,
    The positive relation between smoking and cancer is alternative hypothesis
    No relation between smoke and cancer is null hypothesis, is same all over the world. So the influencing variable i.e. smokes how much influence in different area we don’t find out. But we are trying to find out the same relation whether it is prevailed in different area or not.

  39. Avatar Onah Amarachi Jane says:

    Name: Onah Amarachi Jane
    Reg no:2018/246265
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment.
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher.
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination. 

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    a. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    b.Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    c.Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    d.Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    e.Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    f.Employs quantitative or statistical methods -data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    a.An analytical mind
    As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one,
    You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously.
     b. A people person
    This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants.
    c. The ability to stay calm
    It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it
    d. Intelligence
    Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense.
    e.Quick thinker
    Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast.
    f. Commitment
    It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short.
    g. Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them.You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research can be classified as purpose can every researcher has an objective of his particular research,no objective no purpose.every research that is been carried out or that was carried out has an objective that is, the aim the researcher has when going for the project of research.
    The ways the research is been carried out is the method,the steps a researcher should follow to get an expected result or conclusion is the method of research.

  40. Avatar PETER EMMANUEL says:

    Peter Emmanuel uzoma
    2018/246577
    Economics/education
    Assignment
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer.
    1. , who is a good researcher
    A good researcher needs to constantly adapt and objectively analyse. An excellent researcher is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities. As well as this, it is important they see how the sum of all parts make up the entire intention, without losing hold on the research’s primary objectives.
    A great researcher will be naturally curious and ask ‘Why did the respondent tell me that and how can I delve respectfully?’ This curiosity also applies to the raw data; through thorough investigation and analysis. An exceptional researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action
    2. Characteristics of a good researcher
    * A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    * Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    * Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    * Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3 What are the qualities of a good researcher
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    * Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    * Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    * Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    * Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    * Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    * Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    * Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    * Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    * Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    * Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    * Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    * Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    * Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    * Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    * Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    * Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    * Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    * Dress and Behaviour same to the area. The dress and the behaviour of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    * More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    * Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method, Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.
    Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.
    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same. Given these statistics, you could start to develop an explanation for attitudes toward marijuana legalization. In addition, further study of gender and political orientation could lead to a deeper explanation of this issue.
    The two main types of research are
    Quantitative research “describes, infers, and resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences from the data”.
    Qualitative research, on the other hand, is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non-numerical and unquantifiable elements. It has been noted that “information is considered qualitative in nature if it cannot be analysed by means of mathematical techniques. This characteristic may also mean that an incident does not take place often enough to allow reliable data to be collected.

  41. Avatar ONYEZOR JESSICA says:

    NAME: ONYEZOR JESSICA
    REG NO: 2018/249716
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWER;
    1. A good researcher must be
    I) open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    II) hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    III) Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    IV) resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    2. To have a clear picture of the researcher’s characteristics, we classify these traits into three general domains:
    A) Cognitive characteristics
    B) Emotional characteristics
    C) Behavioral characteristics
    Cognitive characteristics are also categorized into intrinsic and acquired sub-categories. Intrinsic characteristics refer to the innate abilities of a person. The most important of those are high intelligence and a good memory. So it’s not like that everyone has the ability to perform research, but only those who have talents. So many people may not have the capacity for intellectual and research activity. We will analyze the cognitive features in two domains of intrinsic and acquired characteristics. Intrinsic traits are given and acquired attributes are achievable by the individual through their efforts.

    3. Some of The Qualities of a Good Researcher;
    -Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    -Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    -Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    -Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    -Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    -Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    4. Research is systematic way to find out facts and knowledge. There are two types of research, one is by method and other is by purpose. The types of research by purpose fall into three categories such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
    Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

  42. Avatar Joseph chinonso Lucky says:

    NAME: JOSEPH CHINONSO LUCKY
    REG NO:2018/24185
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    1.) From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    From my own understanding, A good researcher is one who involves his/her self in systematic planning and setting time-based, realistic objectives. A good researcher is truthful, brilliant, desirable, friendly and willing to conduct any research at the lowest possible cost. A good researcher upholds impartiality and open mindedness throughout his/her research process A good researcher possesses the good qualities of a researcher.

    2 What are the characteristics of a good researcher
    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as
    following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4 Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol

    3 QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    a, A good researcher must be aware of the possible setbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher.
    b, A good reseracher develops proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    c, A good researcher is one who is conceptually clear. He uses terms uniformly and appriately, if not, his whole exercise will be defective.
    d, A good researcher is one who dispels prejudice. He doesn’t conceive any pre-conceived notion, rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    e, A good researcher is ever willing to explain and teach others about what they do, otherwise, reseacher without application and dissemination is meaningless.
    f, A good reseacher is one who takes some risks of failure and/or rejection and follow that lunch or gut feeling they have about something.

    4 4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer:
    A. Pure research/basic/fundamental research:
    This type of research is undertaken to increase knowledge. It can also be conducted to satisfy any curiosity
    I. What makes things happen
    ii. Why societies changes
    III. Why social relation are in certain ways.
    The main motive behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. it is purely theoritical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behavior that do not seek to solve any particular existing behavior. It can simply be conducted as experimental or theoritical work undertaken to acquire knowledge, without looking for long time benefit other than advancement of knowledge.
    B. Applied Research
    It is use of basic research or past theory, knowledge and method of solving an existing problem, it deals with practical problem in the present situation more emphasis is being given to applied Research to solve problem arising from over population and scarcity of resources or factors that influence the implementation of government policies at grassroot level. It solves specific practical problem for the formulation and the administration and understanding a given phenomena.
    C. Action Research: it is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions issues or phenomena through observation and reflection and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action Researches are conducted when there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem. Hence it seeks to provide urgent intervention to a crisis condition.
    D. Evaluation research: this is usually an acceptable standard of Operations or guidelines by the government, firm and organizations. It tries to check the extent of compliance to such guidelines.

  43. Avatar NGADI GOD'SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME: NGADI GOD’SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO:2018/242405
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    A researcher is someone who searches, who looks for new things, new ideas and take limits to find solutions to certain questions. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re broad minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions. They’re ones who take materials, documents, information and data used in carrying out research.
    2.) What are the characteristics of a researcher?
    a.) A good researcher manifests thirst for new information.
    b.) A good researcher must be responsible, respective and friendly with respondents.
    c.) The researcher must be capable of gathering accurate and in depth information from the respondents.
    d.) The researcher should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    e.) A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he/she should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    3 QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. A good researcher should be empirical
    2. A good researcher should be should be Verifiable.
    3. The research should focus on priority problems.
    4. The research should be systematic
    5. The research should be logical
    6. The research should be intellectually reproductive
    7. The research should be replicable
    8. The research should be generative
    9. The research should be action-oriented
    10. A good researcher should be Honest
    11. A good researcher should have Enough knowledge
    12. Good should be rich in communication skills
    13. It cannot be denied that a researcher must be intelligent enough.
    14. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    15. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    4 Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified by purpose or method in the sense that there is a certain objective the researcher wants to portray in his/her study.
    In that note, the purpose based classification, is subdivided into:
    a. Basic research/Fundamental research: Here the main motive is to expands man’s knowledge of a certain phenomenon.

    b. Applied Research: Here, it is the use of basic research or past theories and methods for solving an existing problem. It is done to stop a specific practical problems for policy formulation administration and understanding of a given phenomenon.

    c. Action Research: This research combines action and research to examine issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection. This is conducted when there is need to provide urgent interview to a crisis conditions.

    d. Evaluation Research: This is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government or organization. It try to check some extent of some compliance to such standard or guideline.

    While in procedure based classification, research is done procedurally
    Some examples includes;
    Historical research or historiography,
    statistical research,
    survey research,
    case study
    Experimental research.
    -Historical research: This is type of research conducted to know the past event. It uncovered the unknown and helps to understand the origin and development of variables of interest their changing trend and impact in their society.
    -Statistical research: This is form of research where a mass of data is collected and aggregate from statistical books such as central bank publication, national bureau of statistics.
    -Survey research This is a systematical way of asking people to volunteers information about their attitude ,behavior opinions and belief.

  44. Avatar Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. says:

    Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu
    Economics Department
    2018/242306

    Question 1.
    From your understanding, who is good researcher?

    A good researcher amongst many other traits must have the following traits,

    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any preconceived notion, rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt”.

    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to noncooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.

    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.

    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    17. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.

    Question 2.
    What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?

    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.

    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    Furthermore, a researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    Question 3.
    What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?

    1. An analytical mind
    On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one.

    2. A people person
    buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents to get the best out of interviews.

    3. The ability to stay calm

    It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it.

    4. Intelligence

    Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense

    5. Curiosity

    You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight.

    Question 4.
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    According to the purposes research can be classified into the following ways.

    1. Descriptive research:

    2. Exploratory research

    3. Hypothesis testing

    1. Descriptive research

    It is engaged with the describing characteristics of variables in a particular situation based on past data or experience or research. By this research, knowledge about a particular matter can be enhanced. Here the self thinking ideas and opinions of the researcher can be represented. Under this research something new is added to the previous research or finds out new aspects of that problem or matter, that is, it is not related with innovation. For example, you may visit Coxes bazaar sea beach and if you give description about the natural beauty of it in your research then it will be a descriptive research. Another example is how many villages under different Thana are affected by arsenic. Collect this data and represent in a research will be a descriptive research.

    2. Exploratory research

    In descriptive research, research is done on those things which are already available. But exploratory means which are not known to us before but has existence. Just if you discover or unearth or unveil that thing then it will be exploratory research. Exploratory research not only include the things about which man cannot think before but also include the things which are already has been described by someone but you are describing it from different angle or different view point. For example budget has been discussed from different view point before  

    3. Hypothesis Testing

    Here at first a logical and scientific statement or assumption are set up and conduct a research on the basis of that statement or assumption. And compare the result with the assumption whether the assumption is true or false. For example you are going to research about microcredit. At first you should assume that maximum amount of microcredit are used in unproductive sectors. Now if you conduct research on the basis of this assumption to compare result of this research with the assumption then it is a hypothesis based research. If your taken assumption is right you will accept alternative hypothesis or if false you will accept the null hypothesis. When the topic of the research is very hard and we don’t know from which point we will start or if the researcher has very few knowledge about it in this case hypothesis testing bring about result. Notice that the assumption which we are taking here should be reasonable and rational and related to our particular subject. For an instance gold has a tremendous impact directly to the national election of the country is not a reasonable assumption. So we should give up these assumptions when the variables have no direct relation.

    Hypothesis testing can be divided into two types

    Analytical hypothesis testing

    Predictive hypothesis testing.

    a. Analytical hypothesis testing

    What, how, why something is happening in a particular situation and finding the influencing factors and extent of influences. For example employment generation, capital mobilization etc. ate related to the growth in GDP. Only referring these factors is not enough. How they influence GDP, in what extent, in which way then it will be analytical hypothesis testing. Generally under the analytical hypothesis testing we try to identify the independent variables, labeled them by various name and then say which one how much influence and how and why the influence.
     
    b. predictive hypothesis testing:
    What, how, why something is happening in several other situations. Here the cause of event are important not the extent of influence. So we don’t try to find out independent variables and their contribution level rather we try to find out the happening of one event how influence the other event in different situation. For example, smoking is the main cause of cancer in our country whether this relation also prevailing in Antarctica region (coldest area), Africa (hottest area), Siberian region (desert area), in America, Europe, Asia etc. or not. It means,

    The positive relation between smoking and cancer is alternative hypothesis

    No relation between smoke and cancer is null hypothesis, is same all over the world. So the influencing variable i.e smokes how much influence in different area we don’t find out. But we are trying to find out the same relation whether it is prevailed in different area or not.

    Classification of research according to methods can be broadly divided into two quantitative and qualitative categories

    Quantitative research describes, infers, and resolves problems using numbers. Emphasis is placed on the collection of numerical data, the summary of those data and the drawing of inferences from the data.

    Qualitative research on the other hand, is based on words, feelings, emotions, sounds and other non numerical and unquantifiable elements. It has been noted that information is considered qualitative in nature if it cannot be analysed by means of mathematical techniques. This characteristic may also mean that an incident does not take place often enough to allow reliable data to be collected.

  45. Avatar Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    2018/246412
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    ASSIGNMENT:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    (1):
    Firstly, a researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general.
    A good researcher is one who is open-minded and also adopt a critical way of thinking. One who is hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    (2):
    Characteristics of a researcher:
    Editor-in-Chief
    Abstract
    Quality interest
    Motivation
    Inquisitive
    Commitment
    Sacrifice
    Excellence.

    (3):

    A good researcher is open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied.
    Willingness to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They are innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole).
    They are willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something.
    They are willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    He/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents.
    Discouragement, free from, Prejudice
    Capacity of Depth Information.
    Accuracy.
    Truthful.
    Careful in Listening.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense.

    (4):
    Research Purposes means activities undertaken for the advancement of knowledge. Research Purposes means to study, perform tests, evaluate, copy, modify, propagate, create derivatives from and otherwise make, use, import or export a Product, but not to Commercially Exploit such Product
    Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems.
    Classification of Research by Method Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative. Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods. Qualitative method.

  46. Avatar Michael-Atu Ifunanya says:

    Name: Michael-Atu ifunanya
    2018/243767
    Economics Education
    No1.
    A good researcher must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. A good researcher must be creative , to find good research questions and consider how they might be answered. A good researcher must involve systematic planning and setting time-based, realistic objectives. A good researcher is one who has open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. They must be willing to take some risk of failure or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    No 2.
    I) Truthful- A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    ii) Good in Conversation- The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    iii) Keen Observer- It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    Iv) Trained in Research Tools- Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    V) Free From Prejudice- A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information.

    No 3.
    I) A people person – This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants.
    ii) Critical thinking- A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    iii) Curiosity- You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight.
    iv) Knowledgeable- Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    V) The ability to stay calm- “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner).

    No 4.
    Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.
    INDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.
    For one to understand the Scientific Method, one must have an understanding of what it means when something is supported by “Science.” The foundation of this is knowledge of research methods. Without it, there is no way for you to know whether an article has validity or not. For something to be supported, research methods must be used to determine if the hypothesis is supported. This means does the effect occur systematically, beyond chance. If you don’t understand methods, you cannot call yourself a scientist nor can you claim to understand the scientific literature.

    The purpose of research is to understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

  47. Avatar OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    NAME: OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA
    REG. NUMBER: 2018/242433
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly answer the following questions in details;
    1.) From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    From my own understanding, A good researcher is one who involves his/her self in systematic planning and setting time-based, realistic objectives. A good researcher is truthful, brilliant, desirable, friendly and willing to conduct any research at the lowest possible cost. A good researcher upholds impartiality and open mindedness throughout his/her research process A good researcher possesses the good qualities of a researcher.
    2.) What are the characteristics of a researcher?
    a.) A good researcher manifests thirst for new information.
    b.) A good researcher must be responsible, respective and friendly with respondents.
    c.) The researcher must be capable of gathering accurate and in depth information from the respondents.
    d.) The researcher should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    e.) A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he/she should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    3.) What are the qualities of a good researcher?
    a.) Efficient: A good researcher is efficient and successful in producing desired/ authentic results.
    b.) Honesty: A good researcher is always truthful and sincere at all times.
    c.) Economical : A good researcher has the ability to maximize resources at due costs.
    d.)Creative: A good researcher has the ability to use imaginations and ideas to formulate policies.
    4.) Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly .
    Research by methods shows the different methods used in carrying out a research work.
    They are classified into
    a.) Historical Research
    b.) Survey research
    c.) Statistical research
    d.) Case research and
    e.) Experimental research

    Research by purpose are those classification of research that shows the reason behind specific research works.
    The type of research under this classification include:
    a.) pure research
    b.) Applied research and
    c.) Evaluation research

  48. Avatar Nwosu Sochima Anne says:

    Name: Nwosu Sochima Anne
    Reg no: 2018/242291
    Dep: Economics
    Course: Eco391
    WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?
    In my own understanding, a good researcher is one who critically thinks and is determined or focus in a particular thing or field that he wants put his interest in. He must be open minded to acquiring new knowledge and not adamant, hardworking and devoted.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCHER
    1. An analytical mind: one who is always ready to analyze and questions whatever he comes across, finds a better approach to his research.
    2. A good researcher must be intelligent.
    3. A good researcher must be a curious person, always eager to find out more.
    4. A good researcher must be one who thinks fast.
    5. A good researcher must have a person verbal and writing skill and also communication skills.
    6. Sympathetic; always ready to humbly listen to respondents.
    7. Systematic and thorough; check, check and check again.
    8. A good researcher must be committed to his work and also hardworking.
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    Qualities can also be the characteristics in this situation but some qualities include; sacrifice, inquisitiveness, motivation, friendly, accurate with data and information, careful listener, honest, free from prejudice, etc.

    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Classification of Research by Purpose simply means conducting a research solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Here are some types of research on the basis of purpose; pure research, applied research, action research, evaluating research, inter disciplinary research while in method based classification, researches are named after the process of
    research. Some examples includes; Historical research or historiography, statistical
    research, survey research, case study and experimental research. Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative. Both methods have doistinctive properties and data collection methods. Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.

  49. Avatar Onuh Onyinye says:

    Name :Onuh Onyinye

    Reg number :2018 /241872

    Department :Economics department

    Email :onuhonyinye7@gmail.com

    Answer to question 1.

    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”
    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.
    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    Answer to question 2:

    A) Cognitive Characteristics
    The most important characteristic of a researcher is reflection and thinking with the aim of answering the questions. The researcher uses his intellectual and background information to try and provide an answer for unsolved questions. So the major part of research activity focuses on reflections and thoughts rather than the presentation of research works in the form of books and theses. To have a clear picture of the researcher’s characteristics, we classify these traits into three general domains:

    1) cognitive characteristics

    2) emotional characteristics

    3) behavioral characteristics

    Cognitive characteristics are also categorized into intrinsic and acquired sub-categories. Intrinsic characteristics refer to the innate abilities of a person. The most important of those are high intelligence and a good memory. So it’s not like that everyone has the ability to perform research, but only those who have talents. So many people may not have the capacity for intellectual and research activity. We will analyze the cognitive features in two domains of intrinsic and acquired characteristics. Intrinsic traits are given and acquired attributes are achievable by the individual through their efforts.

    Intrinsic Characteristics
    Being Talented: The most important characteristic of the intrinsic dimension is the gift of talent. If we classify different levels of talent into ranges of weak, medium, good, and brilliant talents. Considering the lowest level of talent (intellectually disabled) and the highest level of talent (geniuses), the talent required for the researcher is brilliant or good. So, people with poor and even moderate talents will not be very successful in their research activities. Given the importance of talent and the priority of one’s level of talent, we will analyze the concept of talent in greater detail.

    a) The Concept of Brilliant Talent: Talent is one of the most ambiguous and complex concepts in the field of educational sciences. Besides the difficulties in defining the term “humanities”, explaining this concept suffers from special obstacles, such as the involvement of moral and broad factors regarding different situations and different cultures. So in the next part, we will explain the barriers in the way of defining the word “talent” and then the concepts of “gifted and talented”.

    Answer to question 3.

    1. Intelligence
    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense”

    2. Curiosity
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)

    3. Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)

    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)

    4. Systematic
    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner)

    “Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported” (Anthony Shephard)

    5. The ability to stay calm
    6. “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    Answer to question 4.

    Types of Research By Purpose

    Basic Research
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main motivation is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows.

    Applied Research
    Another types of research by purpose is applied research or field research. It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.

    Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.

    Action Research
    Action research is an important types of research by purpose. It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.

    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

    Types of research by methods
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable.

  50. Avatar Urama Isaac Anenechukwu says:

    Name: Urama Isaac Anenechukwu
    Reg. No. : 2018/243823
    Dept: Economics
    Level: 3/4
    Assignment on ECO 391
    QUESTION NUMBER 1.
    FROM YOURNUNDERSTANDING WHO IS A RESEARCHER?
    In my own words and and little understanding, A researcher is one who engages in a systematic scientific search into the unknown through the vehicles of the known (available and reliable collected data)

    OTHER DEFINITIONSBOR DESCRIPTIONS OF A RESEARCHER INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING;
    1. A researcher is someone who conducts research, that is, an organized scientific and systematic investigation into something with the main aim or purpose of solving a specific or identified problem and/or with the aim or purpose of adding value or knowledge to the already existing knowledge.
    2. A good researcher is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities. As well as this, it is important they see how the sum of all parts make up the entire intention, without losing hold on the research’s primary objectives.
    3. A great researcher will be naturally curious and ask ‘Why did the respondent tell me that and how can I delve respectfully?’ This curiosity also applies to the raw data; through thorough investigation and analysis. An exceptional researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action.
    4. A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. This will then break down the process into smaller, more manageable pieces.
    5. A good researcher needs to constantly adapt and objectively analyse. An excellent researcher is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities. As well as this, it is important they see how the sum of all parts make up the entire intention, without losing hold on the research’s primary objectives.
    6. A great researcher will be naturally curious and ask ‘Why did the respondent tell me that and how can I delve respectfully?’ This curiosity also applies to the raw data; through thorough investigation and analysis. An exceptional researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action.
    7. A good researcher must be methodological in his approach. Whether the research project is an online opinion survey or a hypothesis testing methodology with multiple phases, it must be managed systematically and follow strict procedures to ensure all steps of the research are carried out efficiently. All the while and importantly, they must be adhering to strict ethical and data protection guidelines.
    This requires discipline, good time management and careful attention to detail. A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. This will then break down the process into smaller, more manageable pieces.
    8. A good researcher should be tolerable or should have tolerance. The ability to be calm and be composed is an advantage as a researcher, as research doesn’t always go as scheduled. Timings will frequently need to be compromised to meet with database issues or modifications to the methodology. Approaching deadlines can add pressure to writing up the findings. Adding on to that, respondents can be unpredictable and sometimes explosive.
    9. A good researcher remains focused at all times and makes firm rational decisions.
    10. A good researcher should be quite perpective in nature. A perceptive researcher sees more than that which is directly in front of them. This means that they are watchful and have an inherent instinct to see beyond the situation, object, phrase, reaction put in front of them. They recognise happenings and differences quickly, with a need to learn more and to reflect on what they have discovered. This perceptiveness helps to produce thorough and innovative research.
    11. He is unbiased in his method. It goes without saying that a good researcher upholds impartiality and open-mindedness throughout the research process. Therefore, it is important the results remain independent and that insights are built upon the facts and figures. They should not be influenced by preconceptions, pressure, favourites, labels or trends. Successful researchers are established in evidence and produce insight and strategies.

    2 QUESTION NUMBER
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. Intellectual curiosity
    2. Prudence: He is careful to conduct his/her research study at the right time and at the right place, wisely, effectively and economically.
    3. Healthy criticism: Researchers are always critical/ doubtful as to the truthfulness of certain results or outcomes.
    4. Intellectual Honesty: These researchers honestly collect data, in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual creativity: They always find new ways or approaches to find solutions to questions.
    6. A good researcher must be Economically stable.
    7. The researcher must be willing to engage in activities that help achieve the right results.
    8. Another characteristic of a good researcher is that there should be clarity in the research work and they should be devoid in ambiguity.
    9. Manageability: A good researcher must mange his/her resources adequately, and must manage his time.
    10. A good researcher should be hardworking and studious. i.e he should be careful in using the right steps and scientific method.
    11. A Good researcher must not be deceitful, he must be truthful and sincere.
    12. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    QUESTION NUMBER 3
    QUALITIES OFNANGOOD RESEARCHER
    1. A good researcher should bempirical
    2. A good researcher should be should be Verifiable.
    3. The research should focus on priority problems.
    4. The research should be systematic
    5. The research should be logical
    6. The research should be intellectually reproductive
    7. The research should be replicable
    8. The research should be generative
    9. The research should be action-oriented
    10. A good researcher should be Honest
    11. A good researcher should have Enough knowledge
    12. Good should be rich in communication skills
    13. It cannot be denied that a researcher must be intelligent enough.

    14. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    15. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    16. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    17. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    18. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    19. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    20. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    21. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    22. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    23. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    24. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    25. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    26. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    27. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. 28. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    29. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    30. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    31. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    32. More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.- Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    QUESTION NUMBER 4
    4a: Classification of Research According to Purpose | Purpose of Research.According to the purposes research can be classified into the following ways.
    1. Descriptive research:
    2. Exploratory research
    3. Hypothesis testing
    Descriptive research:
    It is engaged with the describing characteristics of variables in a particular situation based on past data or experience or research. By this research, knowledge about a particular matter can be enhanced. Here the self thinking ideas and opinions of the researcher can be represented. Under this research something new is added to the previous research or finds out new aspects of that problem or matter, that is, it is not related with innovation. For example, you may visit Coxes bazaar sea beach and if you give description about the natural beauty of it in your research then it will be a descriptive research. Another example is how many villages under different Thana are affected by arsenic. Collect this data and represent in a research will be a descriptive research.
    Exploratory research:
    In descriptive research, research is done on those things which are already available. But exploratory means which are not known to us before but has existence. Just if you discover or unearth or unveil that thing then it will be exploratory research. Exploratory research not only include the things about which man cannot think before but also include the things which are already has been described by someone but you are describing it from different angle or different view point. For example budget has been discussed from different view point before
    Hypothesis testing:
    Here at first a logical and scientific statement or assumption are set up and conduct a research on the basis of that statement or assumption. And compare the result with the assumption whether the assumption is true or false. For example you are going to research about microcredit. At first you should assume that maximum amount of microcredit are used in unproductive sectors. Now if you conduct research on the basis of this assumption to compare result of this research with the assumption then it is a hypothesis based research. If your taken assumption is right you will accept alternative hypothesis or if false you will accept the null hypothesis. When the topic of the research is very hard and we don’t know from which point we will start or if the researcher has very few knowledge about it in this case hypothesis testing bring about result. Notice that the assumption which we are taking here should be reasonable and rational and related to our particular subject. For an instance gold has a tremendous impact directly to the national election of the country is not a reasonable assumption. So we should give up these assumptions when the variables have no direct relation.
    Hypothesis testing can be divided into two types-
    a. Analytical hypothesis testing
    b. Predictive hypothesis testing.
    Analytical hypothesis testing
    What, how, why something is happening in a particular situation and finding the influencing factors and extent of influences. For example employment generation, capital mobilization etc. ate related to the growth in GDP. Only referring these factors is not enough. How they influence GDP, in what extent, in which way then it will be analytical hypothesis testing. Generally under the analytical hypothesis testing we try to indentify the independent variables, labeled them by various name and then say which one how much influence and how and why the influence.
    Predictive hypothesis testing:
    What, how, why something is happening in several other situations. Here the cause of event are important not the extent of influence. So we don’t try to find out independent variables and their contribution level rather we try to find out the happening of one event how influence the other event in different situation. For example, smoking is the main cause of cancer in our country whether this relation also prevailing in Antarctica region (coldest area), Africa (hottest area), Siberian region (desert area), in America, Europe, Asia etc. or not. It means,
    The positive relation between smoking and cancer is alternative hypothesis.No relation between smoke and cancer is null hypothesis, is same all over the world. So the influencing variable i.e. smokes how much influence in different area we don’t find out. But we are trying to find out the same relation whether it is prevailed in different area or not.
    4b: Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1: Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    2:Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.
    The limitation of this research include that action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.

    Classification of Research by Method also Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. This could be done quantitatively or qualitatively.

    References
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/researcher&ved=2ahUKEwihrY-_manzAhUNEBQKHfSsBtkQFnoECAYQBQ&usg=AOvVaw2EeEW5iXr7ne5nnIzBBGJ6
    https://www.definitions.net › researc…
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.mustard-research.com/blog/general/top-10-qualities-required-be-good-researcher/&ved=2ahUKEwjNqeL1manzAhWOEBQKHcntAHUQFnoECAQQBQ&usg=AOvVaw3o3z_7ITATiq63Ltym4lqd

  51. Avatar Ekpe Esther Chidinma says:

    Name: Ekpe Esther Chidinma
    Reg. Number: 2018/250324
    Course title: Eco 391
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher? A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. He/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Prudence: A good reseacher does not waste research study at the right time. He / she take out research at the right time,right place,wisely, efficiently and eonomically.
    A good researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    Systematic. You have to and check over again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher? A good reseacher must be:
    Friendly with respondents. A good reseacher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk in the same language in which the responding are answering and make them happy.
    Capacity of depth information. A reseacher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A reseacher is said to be good , if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Free from prejudice. A reseacher would be good if he has no prejudice in or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information.
    Truthful. A reseacher must have to be truthful. It’s idea would be free from false reports and saying information

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research methods are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information or create better understanding of a topic.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

  52. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    Name ukwueze Destiny Amarachi
    Reg no 2018/242416
    DEP Economics

    No1
    Answer
    A good researcher is someone who is open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    A good researcher must be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    No 2
    Answer
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    No4
    Answer
    1. Accuracy: A researcher must ensure that his research work is accurate. He should ensure that the facts and figures which he is presenting are true and verifiable. There should be no room for conjecture or guesses.
    2. Motivation: A researcher must have the ability to motivate himself to work. He should not be easily discouraged. In the course of his research, he might come across some hostile respondents. This should not deter him from carrying on his research work.

    3. Patience: One of the sterling attributes of a good researcher is patience. This quality is a follow-up attribute to being motivated. A researcher must exhibit a high degree of patience, both with his respondents and in the course of his research when the much needed result is not forthcoming, in addition to his being consistent with the effort he puts in.

    4. Prudence: The quality of being prudent has to do with his ability to manage the resources at his disposal. Research is a capital intensive project and there are possibilities that one might not be well funded to carry out such project. The managerial skill and ability of the researcher becomes handy for a successful execution of the project.

    5. Expertise: Though the aim of research is to add knowledge to already existing knowledge (as one ventures into new areas not yet explored), the researcher must have reasonable amount of knowledge in the field he intends carrying out his research.

    6. Unbiased in his Research: At the beginning of his research, a researcher must not have a preconceived notion or idea about the subject of his research. This is because the research may likely not be accurate as his leanings will mostly be towards his bias. If there exists such bias, the researcher should be liberal enough to accept findings that are against his held beliefs.

    No3
    Basic Research
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main motivation is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows.

    Applied Research
    It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.

    Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.

    Action Research
    It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.

    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

    Classification of research based on method

    *Historical research:
    Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    * Descriptive research :Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations.

    * Experimental research: Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook

  53. Avatar Urama Isaac Anenechukwu says:

    Name: Urama Isaac Anenechukwu
    Reg. No. : 2018/243823
    Dept: Economics
    Level: 3/4
    Assignment on ECO 391
    QUESTION NUMBER 1.
    FROM YOURNUNDERSTANDING WHO IS A RESEARCHER?
    1. A researcher is someone who conducts research, that is; in organized and systematic investigation into something with the main purpose of solving a specific or identified problem and/or done with the main purpose of adding knowledge.
    2. A good researcher is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities. As well as this, it is important they see how the sum of all parts make up the entire intention, without losing hold on the research’s primary objectives.
    3. A great researcher will be naturally curious and ask ‘Why did the respondent tell me that and how can I delve respectfully?’ This curiosity also applies to the raw data; through thorough investigation and analysis. An exceptional researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action.
    4. A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. This will then break down the process into smaller, more manageable pieces.
    5. A good researcher needs to constantly adapt and objectively analyse. An excellent researcher is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities. As well as this, it is important they see how the sum of all parts make up the entire intention, without losing hold on the research’s primary objectives.
    6. A great researcher will be naturally curious and ask ‘Why did the respondent tell me that and how can I delve respectfully?’ This curiosity also applies to the raw data; through thorough investigation and analysis. An exceptional researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action.
    7. A good researcher must be methodological in his approach. Whether the research project is an online opinion survey or a hypothesis testing methodology with multiple phases, it must be managed systematically and follow strict procedures to ensure all steps of the research are carried out efficiently. All the while and importantly, they must be adhering to strict ethical and data protection guidelines.
    This requires discipline, good time management and careful attention to detail. A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. This will then break down the process into smaller, more manageable pieces.
    8. A good researcher should be tolerable or should have tolerance. The ability to be calm and be composed is an advantage as a researcher, as research doesn’t always go as scheduled. Timings will frequently need to be compromised to meet with database issues or modifications to the methodology. Approaching deadlines can add pressure to writing up the findings. Adding on to that, respondents can be unpredictable and sometimes explosive.
    9. A good researcher remains focused at all times and makes firm rational decisions.
    10. A good researcher should be quite perpective in nature. A perceptive researcher sees more than that which is directly in front of them. This means that they are watchful and have an inherent instinct to see beyond the situation, object, phrase, reaction put in front of them. They recognise happenings and differences quickly, with a need to learn more and to reflect on what they have discovered. This perceptiveness helps to produce thorough and innovative research.
    11. He is unbiased in his method. It goes without saying that a good researcher upholds impartiality and open-mindedness throughout the research process. Therefore, it is important the results remain independent and that insights are built upon the facts and figures. They should not be influenced by preconceptions, pressure, favourites, labels or trends. Successful researchers are established in evidence and produce insight and strategies.

    2 QUESTION NUMBER
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. Intellectual curiosity
    2. Prudence: He is careful to conduct his/her research study at the right time and at the right place, wisely, effectively and economically.
    3. Healthy criticism: Researchers are always critical/ doubtful as to the truthfulness of certain results or outcomes.
    4. Intellectual Honesty: These researchers honestly collect data, in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual creativity: They always find new ways or approaches to find solutions to questions.
    6. A good researcher must be Economically stable.
    7. The researcher must be willing to engage in activities that help achieve the right results.
    8. Another characteristic of a good researcher is that there should be clarity in the research work and they should be devoid in ambiguity.
    9. Manageability: A good researcher must mange his/her resources adequately, and must manage his time.
    10. A good researcher should be hardworking and studious. i.e he should be careful in using the right steps and scientific method.
    11. A Good researcher must not be deceitful, he must be truthful and sincere.
    12. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    QUESTION NUMBER 3
    QUALITIES OFNANGOOD RESEARCHER
    1. A good researcher should bempirical
    2. A good researcher should be should be Verifiable.
    3. The research should focus on priority problems.
    4. The research should be systematic
    5. The research should be logical
    6. The research should be intellectually reproductive
    7. The research should be replicable
    8. The research should be generative
    9. The research should be action-oriented
    10. A good researcher should be Honest
    11. A good researcher should have Enough knowledge
    12. Good should be rich in communication skills
    13. It cannot be denied that a researcher must be intelligent enough.

    14. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    15. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    16. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    17. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    18. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    19. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    20. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    21. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    22. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    23. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    24. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    25. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    26. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    27. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. 28. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    29. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    30. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    31. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    32. More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.- Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    QUESTION NUMBER 4
    4a: Classification of Research According to Purpose | Purpose of Research.According to the purposes research can be classified into the following ways.
    1. Descriptive research:
    2. Exploratory research
    3. Hypothesis testing
    Descriptive research:
    It is engaged with the describing characteristics of variables in a particular situation based on past data or experience or research. By this research, knowledge about a particular matter can be enhanced. Here the self thinking ideas and opinions of the researcher can be represented. Under this research something new is added to the previous research or finds out new aspects of that problem or matter, that is, it is not related with innovation. For example, you may visit Coxes bazaar sea beach and if you give description about the natural beauty of it in your research then it will be a descriptive research. Another example is how many villages under different Thana are affected by arsenic. Collect this data and represent in a research will be a descriptive research.
    Exploratory research:
    In descriptive research, research is done on those things which are already available. But exploratory means which are not known to us before but has existence. Just if you discover or unearth or unveil that thing then it will be exploratory research. Exploratory research not only include the things about which man cannot think before but also include the things which are already has been described by someone but you are describing it from different angle or different view point. For example budget has been discussed from different view point before
    Hypothesis testing:
    Here at first a logical and scientific statement or assumption are set up and conduct a research on the basis of that statement or assumption. And compare the result with the assumption whether the assumption is true or false. For example you are going to research about microcredit. At first you should assume that maximum amount of microcredit are used in unproductive sectors. Now if you conduct research on the basis of this assumption to compare result of this research with the assumption then it is a hypothesis based research. If your taken assumption is right you will accept alternative hypothesis or if false you will accept the null hypothesis. When the topic of the research is very hard and we don’t know from which point we will start or if the researcher has very few knowledge about it in this case hypothesis testing bring about result. Notice that the assumption which we are taking here should be reasonable and rational and related to our particular subject. For an instance gold has a tremendous impact directly to the national election of the country is not a reasonable assumption. So we should give up these assumptions when the variables have no direct relation.
    Hypothesis testing can be divided into two types-
    a. Analytical hypothesis testing
    b. Predictive hypothesis testing.
    Analytical hypothesis testing
    What, how, why something is happening in a particular situation and finding the influencing factors and extent of influences. For example employment generation, capital mobilization etc. ate related to the growth in GDP. Only referring these factors is not enough. How they influence GDP, in what extent, in which way then it will be analytical hypothesis testing. Generally under the analytical hypothesis testing we try to indentify the independent variables, labeled them by various name and then say which one how much influence and how and why the influence.
    Predictive hypothesis testing:
    What, how, why something is happening in several other situations. Here the cause of event are important not the extent of influence. So we don’t try to find out independent variables and their contribution level rather we try to find out the happening of one event how influence the other event in different situation. For example, smoking is the main cause of cancer in our country whether this relation also prevailing in Antarctica region (coldest area), Africa (hottest area), Siberian region (desert area), in America, Europe, Asia etc. or not. It means,
    The positive relation between smoking and cancer is alternative hypothesis.No relation between smoke and cancer is null hypothesis, is same all over the world. So the influencing variable i.e. smokes how much influence in different area we don’t find out. But we are trying to find out the same relation whether it is prevailed in different area or not.
    4b: Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1: Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    2:Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.
    The limitation of this research include that action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.

    Classification of Research by Method also Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. This could be done quantitatively or qualitatively.

    References
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/researcher&ved=2ahUKEwihrY-_manzAhUNEBQKHfSsBtkQFnoECAYQBQ&usg=AOvVaw2EeEW5iXr7ne5nnIzBBGJ6
    https://www.definitions.net › researc…
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.mustard-research.com/blog/general/top-10-qualities-required-be-good-researcher/&ved=2ahUKEwjNqeL1manzAhWOEBQKHcntAHUQFnoECAQQBQ&usg=AOvVaw3o3z_7ITATiq63Ltym4lqd

  54. Avatar Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian

    2018/248806

    Economics

    Julietrecheal@gmail84.com

    (1) a.ln my understanding a good researcher is one who is amicable, genuine, Irreproachable,upstanding, self-effacing,decent, sincere, considerate and honest to start with.
    b.A good researcher is one who has the ability to ask important question that sometimes take you out of your comfort zone.
    c.A good researcher should be able to explain his work to anyone and spread the new gained knowledge everywhere.
    d.An excellent researcher is one who is willing to think outside of the box by exploring and rummaging around for other possibilities.
    e.A good researcher is one who can be able to convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for people to take action.
    f.A good researcher is one who managed systematically and follows strict procedures to ensure all steps of the research are carried out efficiently.
    g.A good researcher is one who collaborates with people to get the best results and agree on a suitable research method compatible with your research question or problem.
    h.A good researcher remains focused at all times and makes a rational decision.
    i.A good researcher is one who is perceptive with a need to learn more and reflect on what he/she has discovered.
    j.A good researcher is one who is unbiased about his/her result finding.

    (2). CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCHER

    i.The research should focus on priority problems.
    ii.The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a
    structured procedure.
    iii.The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    iv.The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    v.The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    vi.The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    vii.The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    viiiThe research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.
    ix.The research should be participatory, involving all parties concerned (from policymakers down to community members) at all stages of the study.
    x.The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    xi.The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.
    xii.The results of the research should be presented in formats most useful for administrators, decision-makers, business managers, or the community members.

    (3) QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER

    a. Purpose clearly defined

    Good research must have its purposes clearly and unambiguously defined.

    b.Research process detailed

    The research procedures used should be described in sufficient detail to permit other researchers to repeat the research at a later date.

    c.Research design planned

    The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible.

    d.Ethical issues considered

    A research design should always safeguard against causing mental and physical harm not only to the participants but also to those who belong to their organization.

    e.Limitations revealed

    The researcher should report with complete honesty and frankness any flaws in procedural design; he followed and provided estimates of their effects on the prospects .

    f.Adequate analysis ensured

    Data should, therefore, be analyzed with proper statistical rigor to assist the researcher in reaching firm conclusions.

    g.Findings unambiguously presented

    The presentation of the results should be comprehensive, easily understood by the readers, and organized so that the readers can readily locate the critical and central findings.

    h.Conclusions and recommendations justified.

    Proper research always specifies the conditions under which the research conclusions seem to be valid.

    (3) RESEARCH CAN BE CLASSIFIED BY PURPOSE OR BY METHODS.

    This means that research by purpose enables us to carry out research to understand an existing phenomenon.
    It also helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    Research helps us to formulate theory.
    Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies policies to economic problems.
    It also enables us to understand the existence and extent of economics relationship.

    RESEARCH ON METHODS
    It is the engine of the research.
    It contains the theoretical framework of the study.
    It also contains the model specifications of the study both in Mathematical form and in Economic form.

  55. Avatar ERHIJAKPOR FLOURISH OGHENEOCHUKOME says:

    NAME: ERHIJAKPOR FLOURISH OGHENEOCHUKOME
    REG NO: 2018/242450
    1. From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher is one who seeks information in various capacities, working across a wide range of industries. A good researcher uses various methodologies to conduct research, including collating sources such as internet searchers, newspapers, journals and other publications. A good researcher must be open-minded and adopt a critical way of thinking.
    He should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field. In modern times as we are, a good researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realizable protocol.
    A good researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security.
    A good researcher needs to be curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2. Characteristics of a Researcher
    a) Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b) Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    c) Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    d) Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    e) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    f) Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    g) Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    h) Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    i) Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    j) Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    k) Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    l) Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    m) Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    n) Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    o) Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    p) Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    q) Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    r) Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    s) More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    t) Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    3. Qualities of a good researcher
    The following are qualities of a good researcher:
    • Keep Updated: A good scientist would never stop learning. Actually, a really great one would never remain uninformed about the new discoveries and advances. Science changes constantly, and being updated is a must. That implies hard work, since scientists should keep studying their fields constantly in order to investigate further.
    • Be Organized: Scientists should not only follow scientific methods, but also find their own ways to make the most out of their researches and working plans. They are usually proactive, decisive, and efficient workers.
    • Be Skeptical: Curiosity leads scientists to question not only what they observe, but also what they already know. A good scientist may be willing to refute their own ideas if something doesn’t look so obvious. Being open minded should be a first rule for scientists. Take Risks: In order to find out new ways, methods, and fields of study, some risks need to be taken. Scientists should be ready to change all their paradigms and pursue new lines of inquiry if the evidences lead to it.
    • Play the Rules of the Game: To become a great scientist it is necessary to act like one and participate in all the stipulated research processes. That includes writing and presenting the researches and results, which are sometimes considered hard and tedious tasks by many researchers.
    • Collaborate and Work in Groups: Science benefits from the diversity of perspectives, cultures, and backgrounds offered by researchers. Communication and collaboration are really important for plenty of reasons, and therefore scientists should not be solitary workers. In order to succeed in a scientific career, it is important to collaborate with colleagues.
    • Act with Integrity: Academic misconduct and professional behavior are not compatible. A professional scientist should always work on the benefit of science and not in order to only make a name for himself. Even though some scientists are involved in cases of corruption and professional misconduct, many others still fight everyday to demonstrate the value of their work and the honesty of their profession.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified by purpose or method in the sense that there is a certain objective the researcher wants to portray in his/her study.
    In that note, the purpose based classification, is subdivided into:
    a. Basic research/Fundamental research: Here the main motive is to expands man’s knowledge of a certain phenomenon.
    b. Applied Research: Here, it is the use of basic research or past theories and methods for solving an existing problem.
    c. Action Research: This research combines action and research to examine issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection.
    d. Evaluation Research: This is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government or organization.
    While in procedure based classification, research is done procedurally
    Some examples includes;
    Historical research or historiography,
    statistical research,
    survey research,
    case study
    Experimental research.

  56. Avatar Okafor Ifunanya Chioma says:

    Name: Okafor Ifunanya Chioma
    Reg No: 2018/241851
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    A. A researcher undertakes a deep thinking and enquiry of the things and situations around him or her.
    B. A good researcher does not waste resources that is he or she is prudent.
    C. researcher are always critical.
    D. A researcher must be honest in obtaining or collecting data to arrive at honest answers.
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher.
    A. A good researcher is research oriented, resilient and reliable
    B. A good researcher must be efficient to achieve maximum outcome with minimum resources and must be excellent in research.
    C. A good researcher must be scientific that’s carefully using the right steps and methods.
    D. A good researcher must be effective and expressing enough.
    E. A good researcher must be accurate and active.
    F. A good researcher must be resourceful
    G. A good researcher must be creative, careful and constructive.
    H. He must be rational, explicit and economical.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research classified by purpose or by method are divided into:
    A. Pure research:That is just to add to your knowledge or out of curiosity.It is limited in nature as it never helps to make discoveries, create or invent anything. But it just expands one’s knowledge as it is a theoretical but not practical research.
    B.Action research: this is solve an existing problem e.g research for the pandemic COVID 19.Action research is an important types of research by purpose. It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.
    C. Applied research.Another types of research by purpose is applied research or field research. It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.
    D. Evaluation research.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH (based on methodology) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Descriptive (What is the current situation?) Experimental (What is the cause?) Ex post facto/Causal comparative (What was the possible cause?) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Historical (What was the situation?)

  57. Avatar Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo says:

    REG NO: 2018/241848
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    1.From your understanding, who is a good researcher
         A good researcher is someone who is hungry to get new information curious about things around him meticulous in his research work and truthful about his findings and intelligent to express his ideas

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    The following are the characteristics of a good researcher:
    (a) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.

    (b) Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    (c) Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    (d) Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    1.  A good researcher must have an analytical mind

    2. He must be a people person  that is he must be socially knowing how to relate with and accommodate people.

    3. He must have the ability to stay calm especially when he is under pressure or he his getting it difficult to collect data

    4. A good researche must be intelligent

    5. One important factor that shows a good researcher is curiosity. A good researcher must always want to know.

    6. A good researcher must be a quick thinker especially when his work is looking like a puzzle to be solved

    7. A good researcher must be committed to his research work

    8. He must posses excellent written and verbal communication skills.

    9. A good researcher must be Sympathetic and  accommodating

    10. A researcher has to be systematic, having and following due research process and protocol

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative
     
    The methods of research differs depending on the field of study.There are many types of research methods. Different methods are used depending on the type of research being pursued.
      For example;
    (a) Scientific method
          The process begins with a basic observation and description of a phenomenon. Observations lead researchers to have questions about why certain phenomena occur. Researchers then put forth a hypothesis, or prediction, of what will happen or what the outcome of certain phenomena will be. Researchers then conduct specific types of experiments meant to prove or disprove this prediction.

    (b) Quantitative Methods
           Quantitative research methods vary; however, they follow the scientific method closely. Quantitative methods are concerned with conducting experiments in the interest of investigating a specific hypothesis. A hypothesis is a prediction about a phenomenon, which states how two things are related. These are referred to as the independent and dependent variables. Experiments look at the relationships between these variables with the goal of discovering what the cause of the phenomena is.

    (c) Qualitative Methods
           Unlike quantitative methods, qualitative methods are not based on a prediction between two variables. Rather, qualitative methods are used to openly explore a specific topic. These methods are particularly useful for looking at topics about which not much is known and for understanding subjective information, for instance, the experiences of individuals. Case studies, participant observation, survey research and interviews are all methods of qualitative research.

  58. Avatar Offor Chukwuebuka Donaldson Off says:

    Name: Offor chukwuebuka Donaldson
    Reg No: 2018/246940
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Eco. 391
    1) Who is a good Researcher
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied.They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. A good researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.

    2) What are the characteristics of a researcher
    a) A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    b) A good researcher is one who is well organized, patient, immensely persevering and maintains a healthy relationship with people.
    c) Quick thinker
    d) Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    e) Commitment
    f) Systematic

    3) What are the qualities of a good Researcher
    a) Friendly with Respondents : A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b) Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    c) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    d) Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    e) Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    f) Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information even whispering.

    4) Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Purpose of the research
    Research can be further classified into three basic categories according to the purpose of the research;

    Exploratory research:
    In exploratory research, a small amount of information is available about the topic but if you want to explore it in detail for a better understanding of the problem and its solution.

    Descriptive research:
    Descriptive research presents a detailed picture of the problem or situation. Descriptive research is in more detail as compared to exploratory research.

    Techniques Based Classification:
    Research can be classified into two basic categories according to the techniques or methodology of the research;

    Qualitative research:
    Qualitative research does not handle the measurable variable. This research is mainly done to find relationships and to define things in a qualitative way.

    Quantitative research:
    In quantitative research data is represented in the quantitative from in the form of numbers. Statistical analysis is conducted in quantitative research.

    Explanatory research:
    Explanatory research is an attempt to connect different ideas and to understand the different reasons, causes, and effects.

  59. Avatar Uche constance chidera says:

    Name: Uche constance chimera
    Reg.no.: 2018/250689
    Depth.: Economics
    Course code: 391
    1.
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems.

    A good researcher should believe on equality and justice.
    2.He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement.

    A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.

    Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.

    Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.
    3. Friendly with Respondents.
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents.
    Least Discouragement.
    Free From Prejudice.
    Capacity of Depth Information.
    Accuracy.
    Truthful.
    Careful in Listening.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense.
    4. The research by purpose is a statement of “why” the study is being conducted, or the goal of the study. The goal of a study might be to identify or describe a concept or to explain or predict a situation or solution to a situation that indicates the type of study to be conducted.
    Research by method is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. In a research paper, the methodology section allows the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability.

    Name: Uche constance chimera
    Reg.no.: 2018/250689
    Depth.: Economics
    Course code: 391
    1.
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems.

    A good researcher should believe on equality and justice.
    2.He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement.

    A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.

    Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.

    Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.
    3. Friendly with Respondents.
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents.
    Least Discouragement.
    Free From Prejudice.
    Capacity of Depth Information.
    Accuracy.
    Truthful.
    Careful in Listening.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense.
    4. The research by purpose is a statement of “why” the study is being conducted, or the goal of the study. The goal of a study might be to identify or describe a concept or to explain or predict a situation or solution to a situation that indicates the type of study to be conducted.
    Research by method is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. In a research paper, the methodology section allows the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability.

  60. Avatar Onyewuchi Gift Chinweotito says:

    Onyenwuchi Gift Chinweotito
    2018/ 249784
    Chinwewuchi9@gmail.com
    Eco 391
    Research methods

    QUESTION 1. Who is a good researcher?

    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    QUESTION 2. What are the characteristics of a good researcher

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as
    following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4 Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    QUESTION 3: What are the qualities of a good researcher

    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”
    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.
    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.
    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.
    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.
    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.
    17. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.

    QUESTION 4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this mathod explicitly

    Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    5. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    6. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    7. Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    8. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  61. Avatar Stephen Ifessy Precious says:

    Stephen Ifessy Precious
    2018/244261
    Education Economics
    Who is a Researcher
    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions. A researcher is also someone who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something. Scientists are often described as researchers.
    Characteristics of a good Researcher
    1.A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2.Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4.Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    5. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    6. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.
    7. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.
    Qualities of a good Researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Research is classified according to the objective or purpose of research. By this we mean that someone can carry out a research endeavour based on the objective he wishes to achieve. In this sense, research under this classification can be undertaken:
    For knowledge sake, that is, basic research.
    To apply the knowledge gained from research to solve an existing problem, that is, applied research.
    To combine action and research to solve an immediate problem, that is, action research.
    To check the extent of compliance to a guideline set by the government, firms or organizations, that is, evaluation research.
    Research can also be classified according to the methods used by the researcher to source for data. Here, scientific research is named after the process of research. Examples are:
    Historical research or Historiography
    Statistical research or Aggregate Data research
    Survey research
    Case studies
    Experimental research

  62. Avatar Adigwe ifeoma Favour says:

    Name: Adigwe Ifeoma Favour
    Reg No: 2018/241871
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Eco. 391
    1) Who is a good Researcher
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.

    2) What are the characteristics of a researcher
    a) A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    b) A good researcher is one who is well organized, patient, immensely persevering and maintains a healthy relationship with people.
    c) Quick thinker
    d) Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    e) Commitment
    f) Systematic

    3) What are the qualities of a good Researcher
    a) Friendly with Respondents : A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b) Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    c) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    d) Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    e) Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    f) Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information even whispering.

    4) Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Purpose of the research
    Research can be further classified into three basic categories according to the purpose of the research;

    Exploratory research:
    In exploratory research, a small amount of information is available about the topic but if you want to explore it in detail for a better understanding of the problem and its solution.

    Descriptive research:
    Descriptive research presents a detailed picture of the problem or situation. Descriptive research is in more detail as compared to exploratory research.

    Techniques Based Classification:
    Research can be classified into two basic categories according to the techniques or methodology of the research;

    Qualitative research:
    Qualitative research does not handle the measurable variable. This research is mainly done to find relationships and to define things in a qualitative way.

    Quantitative research:
    In quantitative research data is represented in the quantitative from in the form of numbers. Statistical analysis is conducted in quantitative research.

    Explanatory research:
    Explanatory research is an attempt to connect different ideas and to understand the different reasons, causes, and effects.

  63. Avatar AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA says:

    NAME: AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/242444
    QUESTION ONE:
    From your understanding, who is good researcher

    A good researcher is someone who performs research, independently as a primary investigator, he searches for information or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. He/she ought to be hard working, diligent, focused and committed to his/her particular area of interest.He is someone who has deep thinking and enquiry, and additionally capable of questioning the reason for an occasion in order to come up with a solution to a specific problem. He is also someone who conducts his or her study at the right time and at the right place while being efficient and economical.
    QUESTION TWO:
    What are the characteristics of a good researcher?
    1) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2) A good researcher should be curious so as to be passionate about going deeper to get more knowledge on an area of study
    3) A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    4) A good researcher is prudent. He/she is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    QUESTION THREE:
    What are the qualities of a good researcher

    A)Commitment: A good researcher should be committed to the investigation he/she is conducting
    B) A good researcher should have excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    C) Accuracy. A good researcher should be accurate in his views. His ideas must be an accurate one.
    D) Truthful: A good researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    E) Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information.

    QUESTION FOUR:
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research can be classified according to purpose and method

    Research can be categorized according to purpose and method

    Research by purpose indicates the cause behind a particular research work. The type of research under this category includes
    A)Pure Research:
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to provide us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general concepts for a problem solution.
    B) Applied Research:
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a complicated situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and provide a concrete form for the solution. This is practical work in the field.
    C) Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems.
    D). Evaluation Research
    This kind of research is an assessment of some programs working for the development of problematic areas. It is the dankness of applied programmes about their results and positive solution.
    E)Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research.
    Research by method indicates the different techniques used in the research work. The sort of research under this category includes:
    A) Experiments
    People who participate in research concerning experiments might be requested to complete numerous assessments to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, interest, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) commonly verbally, on paper or through computer.
    B). Surveys
    Surveys involve gathering data, normally from fairly large groups of people, through questionnaires but different techniques such as interviews or telephoning can also be used. There are different kinds of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a fixed point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a prime event or experience and then again afterwards.
    C) Questionnaire
    Questionnaires are an excellent way to acquire data from a large number of people and/or people who might not have the time to attend an interview or participate in experiments. They permit people to take their time, consider it and come back to the questionnaire later.
    D). Interviews
    Interviews are generally executed in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered through telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place.
    E). Case studies
    Case studies generally involve the precise study of a selected case (a person or small group). Various techniques of data collection and evaluation are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records.
    F) Participant and non-participant observation
    Studies which involve observing people may be divided into two primary categories, specifically participant observation and non-participant observation.
    G) Observational trials
    Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings. Longitudinal approaches examine the behaviour of a group of people over a reasonably lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors.

  64. Avatar OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO. 2018/241820 says:

    NAME:- OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO
    REG NUMBER:- 2018/241820
    QUESTIONS:-
    1. From your understanding, who is a good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Answers
    1.  First of all, being good encompasses varieties of high standard quality or qualification possessed by someone or something .
    A researcher is a person who applies scrutiny in the act of investigating with adequate training, experience, education and qualifications into a specific field or broad concept in order to derive accurate results.
    A good researcher, could be seen as one who is open minded and meticulous about his/her tasks and also entails rational and critical methods of thinking.

    2. The characteristics of a good researcher encompasses the distinguishing feature of one researcher over another. To mention but a few, here are some of the characteristics of a good researcher:-
    a) Decent Dress and Behavior: The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is crucial for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    b) A researcher must adapt to a level of  expertise  in carrying out tasks.
    c) The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    d) The research should be logical. Without reviewing ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    e) The researcher must be particular on scouting solutions to issues and subject matters arising.
    f) A good researcher makes critical observations upon investigations.
    OTHER CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDES:-
    ● The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    ● The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.

    3. What qualifications reflects that a researcher is good and highly skilled and reliable for the job? The following are some of the qualities of a Good researcher:-
    I. A good researcher must be  resilient:-  A good researcher must have the trait of endurance and strive for answers irrespective of the trials.
    II. A good researcher must be active:- A good researcher must be actively ready to embark on new investigations and to get accurate answers.
    III. A good researcher must prudent:- a good researcher must be frugal and economical. He/she must carefully conduct his or her research and be time conscious.
    IV.  An admirable researcher must be  honest . A good researcher must conduct his or her research without any falsified or hoax statements and this must be done inorder to arrive at honest results.
    V.  A good researcher must possess Intellectual creativity:- A productive researcher investigates always – a new means or method to find answers to questions.
    VI. Must possess an Analytical trait:- A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    VII. A good researcher must be Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the effective usage of these tools.

    Other qualities includes:-
    ● A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents. Therefore a good researcher must be unbias.
    ● A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    ● A researcher must be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low informations even whispering to get every details from the speaker.
    ● A good researcher’s terminology should be clear and void of ambiguities. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    ● Lastly, a good researcher must be able to Healthily criticise and must carry out routined scientific approaches while investigating.

    4. As mentioned earlier, research can be defined as a systematic way of investigating and finding out more on a term, concept or human.
    Research can be broken down into 2 types.
    A) Classification by methods
    B) Classification by purpose

    A) CLASSIFICATION BY METHODS
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    on General Category,

    1. Quantitative Research
    As the name suggests, quantitative refers to the numbers where data is collected based on numbers, and a summary is taken from these numbers. Graphs help to quantify the results in quantitative research.

    2. Qualitative Research
    Qualitative refers to the non- numerical elements in the research. When the information or data cannot be grasped in terms of numbers, qualitative research comes for the rescue. Though not reliable as much as quantitative, qualitative research helps to form a better summary in terms of theories in the data.

    Based on the nature of the research,

    3. Descriptive Research
    Facts are considered in descriptive methods and surveys and case studies are done to clarify the facts. These help to determine and explain with examples, the facts, and they are not rejected. Many variables can be used in descriptive research to explain the facts.

    4. Analytical Research
    Analytical research uses the facts that have been confirmed already to form the basis for the research and critical evaluation of the material is carried out in this method. Analytical methods make use of quantitative methods as well.
    B) CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE
    Research and development vividly Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and re-drafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    ●Evaluation Research:-
    The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.

    ●Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement.
    ●Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).

  65. Avatar Ani Obinwanne Fortune says:

    Name:Ani Obinwanne Fortune
    Reg no: 2018/243744
    Email: obinwannefortune.ani@gmail.com

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    A researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. … However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data.
    I. Curiosity – You may have the essential intelligence, but if you aren’t curious enough, you won’t be motivated to go deeper for new information.
    II. Intelligence – Research necessitates critical thinking, but most importantly, common sense.
    III. Commitment – it’s a challenging job; the hours can be long, and the deadlines can be tight. So researchers are committed.
    IV. Quick thinker – Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast.
    V. Creativity – Researchers usually creates new ideas, new approaches of doing things, a better method of analysis and as well as new innovations.
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    a. He should be a believer in truth, and truth should be his ultimate goal.
    b. He must be able to overcome prejudice. He should not have any preconceived notions while obtaining facts; rather, he should remain objective.
    c. The researcher must be able to collect accurate and detailed data from the respondents.
    d. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and not settle for rough estimates.
    e. He must maintain accuracy at all times and try to avoid unnecessary details.4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    f. The research investigator, as a scientific genius, must be sensitive to problems. “Where less brilliant folks pass by unconcerned about their abilities.”
    g. He should have enough moral courage to face the difficult situation and not be discouraged by the respondents’ lack of cooperation or the nature of the research problem under investigation.
    h. The researcher should be able to manage his time effectively and efficiently.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  66. Avatar Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi says:

    Name: Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi
    Reg no: 2018/248278
    Email: nwajuagudivine22@gmail.com

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    A good researcher is someone who is able to identify a particular problem, and follows a systematic process to conduct a research to find out more about that problem and different ways of resolving it.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    2. What are the characteristics of a good researcher?
    A good researcher is research oriented and resilient
    A good researcher is careful in using the right methods and procedures
    A good researcher is efficient and effective
    A good researcher is ready to engage in mental and physical activities to achieve the desired results
    A good researcher is resourceful
    A good researcher is honest, sincere and hardworking
    A good researcher is objective in his research analysis
    A good researcher is intellectually creative

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    Rationality
    Effectiveness
    Scientific outlook
    Exhaustiveness
    Analytical
    Resourcefulness
    Creativity
    Hardworking
    Evaluative
    Reputable

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  67. Avatar Ifiegbu Ononuju Julie says:

    NAME: IFIEGBU ONONUJU JULIE
    REG NO: 2017/245848.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION.
    EMAIL: juliexfib@gmail.com.
    QUESTION
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWER.
    1).From your understanding, who is good research?
    A good Researcher is one who wants to answer question for the purpose of expanding the body of knowledge or help improve the world or both; humble; has strong sense of integrity and ethics; willing to “go against the thought grain” if it is necessary to properly answer the question; willing to acknowledge those who help and give credit where credit is due. A good/great researcher is one who will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2)….. CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCHER.
    I)..A researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    ii) Intellectual curiosity: absolutely yes, a researcher have to know very well a topic to establish as an active player on a specific field. So curiosity is important to experiment different approaches, ideas .At the same time curiosity is useful also if a researcher want to apply ideas in contiguous fields to another one… In this sense the ability to imagine a development of an approach is important too (but the curiosity is the engine)
    iii) Determination: absolutely true. A researcher must be very determinated in order to finish a research. It is not possible to stop if an approach is not satisfying… you have to continue until you’re satisfied. You have to work on different problems at the same time so you must be very determinated to obtain jointly relevant results.
    iv) Self Motivation: absolutely true. You have to be motivated by passion in the topic you are considering. If the topic is not interesting for you… simply obtaining interesting results for other researchers of the field is not simple (the key is perseverance…)
    V) Competitiveness: clearly competition is a part of the business, but in my opinion is not the most important. In my opinion learning to work in a team is a more important trait.
    Vi) Team work capabilities and be autonomous in researching: I consider jointly these two traits because you have to be very able to work in groups but at the same time you have to be ready to work alone to obtain results by yourself. Obviously these two things depend on the field chosen but it is important be a good team player but at the same time ready to work on problems by yourself.
    Vii) Humbleness: Yes is a relevant trait. Humbleness is useful to study a result in detail… but at the same time to observe other works with interest… there is a lot to learn in conferences for example… and humbleness is useful to capture these ideas in a constructive way.

    3)…..QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    ****FRIENDLY WITH RESPONDENT: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    *****FREE FROM PREJUDICE. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    ******CAPACITY OF DEPTH INFORMATION: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    ******ACCURACY:A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    *****TRUTHFUL:A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    *****KEEN OBSERVER: It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    ******CAREFUL IN LISTENING: A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    *******LOW DEPENDENCY ON COMMON SENSE:A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    *******LEAST TIME CONSUMER: Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    ********ECONOMICAL: Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    ********FREE FROM HASTY STATEMENTS: It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    4)Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly…
    ACCORDING TO PURPOSE.
    ****Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers. For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice
    ****Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine. This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    I).Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    ii) Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects.
    For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    *****Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Second World War created many types of problems for which action research was necessary. These problems including (flood, epidemic, earthquake, fire) etc. features are as under.
    It is quick service oriented
    It is taking immediate action
    It is sensitive to time and place
    *****Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. There are three main types of evaluation.
    ¶°Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    ¶Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    ¶Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.
    ******Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research. Features are the following.
    It is a cooperative research
    It helps in study the whole phenomena
    It brings comparison in different disciplines

    RESEARCH CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO METHOD.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    QUALITATIVE METHOD.
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study.

    QUANTITATIVE METHOD.
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  68. Avatar Imo onyinyechi mirabel says:

    NAME:imo onyinyechi Mirabel
    REG NO:2018/246751
    DEPT:EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE:ECO 391
    EMAIL:mirabelimo@gmail.com

    Question 1
    Who is a good researcher
    ANSWER
    A good researcher is one who has open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.A good researcher must be curious by nature. A good researcher must have the courage to ask the right questions, seek answers from peers, experts as well as literature and questioning how their project will make an impact.A good researcher must involve systematic planning and setting time-based, realistic objectives. He must entails feasible research methods based upon a research methodology that best suits the nature of his research question. It is built upon sufficient relevant data and is reproducible and replicable. Good researcher must have a patience , concentration , & to adequate & to acquire the knowledge of his research work so that you may complete program in a time .At the same time the is possibility you may come across certain problems which he should either approach his colleguae for discussion & solution of difficulties if any .
    There may be a time a researcher may confused & in such cases he should approach his faculty & the professor concern.
    QUESTION 2
    what are the characteristics of a researcher
    ANSWER
    1)Intellectual curiosity.
    A good researcher must be able to think deep and also ask questions.
    2)Honesty.
    An intellectual and good researcher must be honest in order to gather and collect data,fact in order to arrive at an honest and good result.
    3) Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    4)Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    5)Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    6)Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    7)More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    8)Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    9)Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    10)Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    Question 3
    What are the qualities
    ANSWER
    The researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities.
    1)CRITICAL THINKING:
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. 2)HARDWORKING:
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3)KNOWLEDGEABLE:
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4)RESOURCEFUL
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    5. CURIOSITY
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    6. QUICK THINKER
    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    7. COMMITMENT
    “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)
    8. EXCELLENT WRITTEN AND VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them”
    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business”
    9. SYMPATHETIC
    “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!”
    10. SYSTEMATIC
    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process”
    “Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported.
    QUESTION 4
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method.Discuss and analyze this statement explicitly.
    ANSWER
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    In research we will understand that there are methods at which we can carry out or conduct a research that makes our research work a unique. Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.
    INDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.
    To understand the Scientific Method, one must have an understanding of what it means when something is supported by “Science.” The foundation of this is knowledge of research methods. Without it, there is no way for you to know whether an article has validity or not. For something to be supported, research methods must be used to determine if the hypothesis is supported. This means does the effect occur systematically, beyond chance. If you don’t understand methods, you cannot call yourself a scientist nor can you claim to understand the scientific literature.

  69. Avatar Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Name: Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    Reg. No: 2018/245427
    Department: Economics/Education
    E-mail: obiesiemmesoma@gmail.com
    Clearly answer the following questions in details
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    I can say that a good researcher is someone who is open minded ready to learn and unlearn at all time a better way to solve a problem or carry out his/her investigation/research. A good researcher is also someone that has interest in research and willing to dedicate his/herself, time, resources and other important things to achieve the best research. He/she is one that thinks fast, quick and intelligent. He/she is someone that have the ability to stay calm, and also a curious type of person because curiosity paves way to discovery. He/she is someone that is good at written and verbal communication to relate with respondents and relate his/her findings to others.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    R- Research oriented: A good researcher should be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied.
    E- Excellent: A good researcher must be exceptionally good in his field of research.
    S- Scientific: A good researcher should be cautious of following the right steps, procedures and methods while carrying out his/her research.
    E- Effective: A good researcher should be efficient and successful in producing desired result.
    A- Accurate: A good researcher should always tell the truth or give a true result, be exact.
    R- Resourceful; A good researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypothesis into a realizable/achievable protocol.
    C- Creative: A good researcher should have the ability to use one’s ideas and imagination to create new things.
    H- Honest: A good researcher should be truthful and sincere as he/she carriers out his/her research.
    E- Economical: A good researcher should be careful with money or resources so as not to spend too much or unnecessarily.
    R- Reputable: A good researcher must have a good reputation and as well be honourable that is worthy of respect.
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    a. Commitment and sacrifice: A good researcher must be dedicated and ready to offer his/her time, resources and other intrinsic valuables.
    b. Curiosity: It has to with deep thinking and enquiry, eager to know, must be inquisitive that is the tendency to ask and learn about things by asking questions, investigating, or exploring.
    c. Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with the respondents. He/she must have to talk to the respondent in the same language to enable easy communication and response.
    d. Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no adverse judgement or bias study about a problematic situation so he/she must be capable to provide clear information.
    e. Keen Observer and Careful to Listen: A good researcher must have a quick and enthusiastic spirit in observation, ready and willing to observe, and a greater attention in listening than talking or other similar activities.
    f. Free From Hasty Statements: It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality and validity even if he/she has a little time to carry out the research.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research have three main purposes, these includes:
    a. Exploratory: As the name implies, researchers conduct exploratory studies to examine questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the research but it goes a longer way to bring some ideas. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    b. Descriptive: Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    c. Explanatory: Explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.
    Research methods are classified as:
    a. Historical research: Historical research is that type in which the facts are collected from past events. In this type of research historical approaches are used for preparing data in order to solve a problematic situation.
    b. Survey research: This is a situation whereby a group of people or items is studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire group. It specifies how such data will be collected and analyzed.
    c. Case study research: This is an intensive study geared towards a thorough understanding of a given social unit, the social unit maybe individual (s), community or an institution. Case studies employ variety of data gathering techniques like questionnaire, observation, interview etc. They are useful in providing relevant background information which may give rise to more extensive investigations.
    d. Experimental research: In this type of research the two variables, independent and dependent are taken and their critical examination is carried out. These are observed, tested and verified in case of validity.
    e. Casual comparative research: This is similar to experimental study in the sense that it also affects the cause-effect relationships but differs from it in that the researcher usually has no control over the variables of interest and therefore cannot manipulate them. The researcher only attempts to link some already existing effects or observations to some variable as causative agent.

  70. Avatar Ogbogu precious adanna says:

    NAME: OGBOGU PRECIOUS ADANNA
    REG NO: 2019:242467
    DEPT:ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    COURSE CODE:Eco 391
    GMAIL:Adannaprecious224@gmail.com
    QUESTION 1
    Who is a good researcher?
    ANSWER
    A good/great researcher is one who has open mind to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination. A good researcher must be creative , to find good research questions and consider how they might be answered.
    A good understanding of scientific method and relevant statistics (e.g. knowing how to tell when you have a real, significant effect and when you might be kidding yourself).Discipline, to see a study through from conception to publication.An understanding of Cognitive bias, again to know when you might be kidding yourself or when there are questions that haven’t been asked yet.To be successful in a research career, you also need to be a good writer and at least an adequate speaker, to communicate your work and why it matters.
    QUESTION 2
    What are the characteristics of a researcher
    ANSWER
    1)Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2)Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    3)Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    4)Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    5)Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    6)Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    7)Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    8)Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    9)Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation of all the events happening.
    10)Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    QUESTION 3
    What are the qualities of a researcher
    ANSWERS
    1. An analytical mind
    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)
    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)
    2. A people person
    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)
    3. The ability to stay calm
    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    4. Intelligence
    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)
    5. Curiosity
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    6. Quick thinker
    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast”
    7. Commitment
    “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short”
    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them”
    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business”
    9. Sympathetic
    “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!”
    10. Systematic
    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process.
    QUESTION 4
    Research can be classified by purpose or by methods. Discuss and analyze this statement explicitly.
    ANSWER
    To understand the Scientific Method, one must have an understanding of what it means when something is supported by “Science.” The foundation of this is knowledge of research methods. Without it, there is no way for you to know whether an article has validity or not. For something to be supported, research methods must be used to determine if the hypothesis is supported. This means does the effect occur systematically, beyond chance. If you don’t understand methods, you cannot call yourself a scientist nor can you claim to understand the scientific literature. In research we will understand that there are methods at which we can carry out or conduct a research that makes our research work a unique. Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.
    INDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHOD focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

  71. Avatar AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA says:

    NAME: AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/242444
    QUESTION ONE:
    From your understanding, who is good researcher

    A good researcher is someone who performs research, independently as a primary investigator, he searches for information or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. He/she ought to be hard working, diligent, focused and committed to his/her particular area of interest.He is someone who has deep thinking and enquiry, and additionally capable of questioning the reason for an occasion in order to come up with a solution to a specific problem. He is also someone who conducts his or her study at the right time and at the right place while being efficient and economical.
    QUESTION TWO:
    What are the characteristics of a good researcher?
    1) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2) A good researcher should be curious so as to be passionate about going deeper to get more knowledge on an area of study
    3) A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    4) A good researcher is prudent. He/she is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    QUESTION THREE:
    What are the qualities of a good researcher

    A)Commitment: A good researcher should be committed to the investigation he/she is conducting
    B) A good researcher should have excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    C) Accuracy. A good researcher should be accurate in his views. His ideas must be an accurate one.
    D) Truthful: A good researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    E) Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information.

    QUESTION FOUR:
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research can be classified according to purpose and method
    Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes
    A)Pure Research:
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution.
    B) Applied Research:
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field.
    C) Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems.
    D). Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution.
    E)Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research.
    Research by Methods:
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    A) Experiments
    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer.
    B). Surveys
    Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.
    C) Questionnaire
    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later.
    D). Interviews
    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place.
    E). Case studies
    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records.
    F) Participant and non-participant observation
    Studies which involve observing people can be divided into two main categories, namely participant observation and non-participant observation.
    G) Observational trials
    Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings. Longitudinal approaches examine the behaviour of a group of people over a fairly lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors.

  72. Avatar OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY says:

    Eco. 391- Research Methods (Online Quiz/Discussion 5)—25-9-2021 (Qualities of a Good Researcher and Classification of Scientific Research)
    NAME: OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY
    REG NO: 2018/247843
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL :300L
    EMAIL: okelekevictory@yahoo.com
    Questions:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyses this sentence explicitly.
    ANSWERS
    1. In my own understanding, a good researcher is one who thinks critically, willing to learn and curious
    2.The characteristics of a researcher are as follows:
    Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher must be a critical thinker and inquirer of the things, and situations around him.
    2. Prudence. The researcher is careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    3. Healthy Criticism. The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    4. Intellectual Honesty. An intelligent researcher is honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    5. Intellectual Creativity – A productive and resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
    3.The following are the qualities of a good researcher
    (a) Research-oriented: The design of the research and learning processes follows the aim of promoting scientific curiosity and supporting researchers in developing an understanding of research processes.
    (b). Efficient: a good researcher has the ability to perform well or achieve a result without wasted energy, resources, effort, time or money.
    (c) Scientific: a good researcher determines the subject, do planning and specify the methodology before carrying out the research.
    (d) Effective: a good researcher works in a way that was intended and produces a desired result.
    ,(e) Active: a good researcher is action- oriented.

    (f) Resourceful: a good researcher has what it takes to carry out the research.
    (g) Creative: a good researcher makes use of imagination to produce ideas.
    (h) Honest: a good researcher is truthful.
    (I) Economical: a good researcher is a good Manager.
    4.
    A. Pure research/basic/fundamental research:
    This type of research is undertaken to increase knowledge. It can also be conducted to satisfy any curiosity
    I. What makes things happen
    ii. Why societies changes
    II. Why social relation are in certain ways.
    The main motive behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. It is purely theoretical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behavior that do not seek to solve any particular existing behavior. It can simply be conducted as experimental or theoretical work undertaken to acquire knowledge, without looking for long time benefit other than advancement of knowledge.

    B. Applied Research
    It is use of basic research or past theory, knowledge and method of solving an existing problem, it deals with practical problem in the present situation more emphasis is being given to applied Research to solve problem arising from over population and scarcity of resources or factors that influence the implementation of government policies at grassroots level. It solves specific practical problem for the formulation and the administration and understanding a given phenomena.

    C. Action Research: it is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions issues or phenomena through observation and reflection and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action Researches are conducted when there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem. Hence it seeks to provide urgent intervention to a crisis condition.

    D. Evaluation research: this is usually an acceptable standard of Operations or guidelines by the government, firm and organizations. It tries to check the extent of compliance to such guidelines.

  73. Avatar Obodoike faith oluchi says:

    Name: Obodoike faith oluchi
    Reg No:2018/245387
    Department: Education economics
    Email: oluchifaith093@gmail.com
    Assignment
    Clearly answer the following
    1. From you own understanding who is a good researcher?
    2. What are the Characteristics of a good researcher?
    3. What are the quality of a good researcher?
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analysis this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWERS
    1. From my own understanding a good researcher must be educatedand must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest . A good researcher understand the advantages and disadvantages of each types of research.

    2. Characteristics of a Good Researcher
    The researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities. Lack of these traits hinders the pursuit of research or makes conduction of research slow and difficult.
    The characteristics of a good researcher can be divided into the three categories of :
    cognitive,
    emotional,
    behavioral.

    3. The following are the qualities of a good researcher
    A.Capacity of Depth Information:A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    B. Accuracy:A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    C. Truthful:A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    D. Keen Observer:It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    E. Careful in Listening:A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    F. Low Dependency on Common Sense: A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    G. Least time Consumer:Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    H. Economical:Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    4. Pure Research
    Pure research is theoretical type not a practical one. Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution.
    The Following are some types of research under pure research
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research

    Research Methods
    research methods can be defined as “a systematic and scientific procedure of data collection, compilation, analysis, interpretation, and implication pertaining to any problem.
    The following are type of research under method research
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  74. Avatar Chidozie Julieth Chisom says:

    NAME -CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    REG NO- 2018/250055
    DEPARTMENT- EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email – chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    (1) from your understanding,who is a good researcher
    Answer:
    In my understanding a good researcher is a researcher who follows the the steps and processes involved in research and also possess the qualities of a researcher . as discussed in question no 2.

    (2) characteristics of a researcher
    Answer:
    (a) Intellectual Curiosity – researcher undertakes deep thinking and inquiry of the things, problems, and situations around him.
    (b) Prudence – researcher is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    (c) Healthy Criticism – the researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    (d) Intellectual Honesty – researcher is honest to collect or gather the data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    (e) Intellectual creativity – a resourceful investigator always creates new researches.

    (3) Qualities of a good researcher
    Answer:
    (i) Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    (ii) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    (iii) Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    (iv) More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    (v) . Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.

    (vi) Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    (vii)Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    (4) Research can be classified into purpose or by method , discuss
    Answer:
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE:
    On this basis reeach can be classified into
    (a) Basic or fundamental research
    (b) Applied research
    (c) Research and development
    (a)Basic or fundamental research: this type of research aim at the advancement of knowledge .it is concerned with producing results or findings which will lead to the development of theories.Basic research is not concerned with the usefulness of the findings to practical situations .Rather , it’s interest is in building theories.which will lead to the advancement of knowledge in the particular field.
    (b) Applied research :. Applied research is concerned with the usefulness of ideas or theories to practical situations.it is therefore interested in testing the workability or usefulness of ideas or theories in practical situations.Applied research does not lead to theory formulations rather it seeks to explore or establish the applications of a given theory in practical situations. Abasic researcher produces the theory and applied researcher test the usefulness of the theory to practical situations.
    (c). Research and development: this is an institutionalized research programme which aims at developing and testing the efficacy of products and services of an organization .it is a relatively new type of research which is different from other types of research.this research aim at producing and testing more efficacious products and services . although costly and time demanding,research and development programmes provide valuable means of achieving research improvement
    (d)Evaluation Research :The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY METHOD
    On this basis research can be classified into
    (a) Historical research
    (b) Descriptive research
    (c) Experimental research

    (a) Historical research: generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    (b).Descriptive research : provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    (c). Experimental research :is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups

  75. Avatar Ubechu Agatha Chidinma says:

    Ubechu Agatha Chidinma
    20118/242441
    Economics
    dinmagatha@gmail.com
    Eco 391
    Research methods

    QUESTION 1: WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?

    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    QUESTION 2: what are the characteristics of a good researcher?

    1. A researcher must be resilience with an insatiable appetite to solve a problem.

    2. An analytical mind.
    3 The ability to stay calm.
    4 Intelligence.
    5.Curiosity.
    6.Quick thinker.
    7. Commitment.
    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    Sympathetic.

    QUESTION 3: QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER

    1. An analytical mind

    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)

    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)

    2. A people person

    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)

    3. The ability to stay calm

    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    4. Intelligence

    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)

    5. Curiosity

    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)

    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)

    6. Quick thinker

    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)

    7. Commitment

    “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)

    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills

    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)

    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)

    9. Sympathetic

    “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!” (Liz Brierley)

    10. Systematic

    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends.

    QUESTION 4: Research can be classified by method or purpose. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.

    Research methods are processes used to collect data. You can use this data to analyze current methods or procedures and to find additional information on a topic. Professionals use research methods while studying medicine, human behavior and other scholarly topics. There are two main categories of research methods: qualitative research methods and quantitative research methods.

    Quantitative research methods involve using numbers to measure data. Researchers can use statistical analysis to find connections and meaning in the data. Qualitative research methods involve exploring information and non-numerical data. These research methods also examine how people might connect meaning to their experiences and emotions.

  76. Avatar Obodoike faith oluchi says:

    Name: Obodoike faith oluchi
    Reg No:2018/245387
    Department: Education economics
    Email: oluchifaith093@gmail.com
    Assignment
    Clearly answer the following
    1. From you own understanding who is a good researcher?
    2. What are the Characteristics of a good researcher?
    3. What are the quality of a good researcher?
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analysis this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWERS
    1. From my own understanding a good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest . A good researcher understand the advantages and disadvantages of each types of research.

    2. Characteristics of a Good Researcher
    The researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities. Lack of these traits hinders the pursuit of research or makes conduction of research slow and difficult.
    The characteristics of a good researcher can be divided into the three categories of :
    cognitive,
    emotional,
    behavioral.

    3. The following are the qualities of a good researcher
    A.Capacity of Depth Information:A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    B. Accuracy:A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    C. Truthful:A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    D. Keen Observer:It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    E. Careful in Listening:A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    F. Low Dependency on Common Sense: A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    G. Least time Consumer:Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    H. Economical:Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    4. Pure Research
    Pure research is theoretical type not a practical one. Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution.
    The Following are some types of research under pure research
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research

    Research Methods
    research methods can be defined as “a systematic and scientific procedure of data collection, compilation, analysis, interpretation, and implication pertaining to any problem.
    The following are type of research under method research
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  77. Avatar Aneke Hannah Chimuaya says:

    Name: Aneke Hannah Chimuaya
    Reg No: 2018/242453
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Eco. 391
    1) Who is a good Researcher
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied.They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. A good researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.

    2) What are the characteristics of a researcher
    a) A good researcher should be honest and resist the temptation to forge or alter his/her results to make them fit his/her hypotheses.
    b) A good researcher is one who is well organized, patient, immensely persevering and maintains a healthy relationship with people.
    c) Quick thinker
    d) Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    e) Commitment
    f) Systematic

    3) What are the qualities of a good Researcher
    a) Friendly with Respondents : A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b) Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    c) Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    d) Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    e) Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    f) Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information even whispering.

    4) Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Purpose of the research
    Research can be further classified into three basic categories according to the purpose of the research;

    Exploratory research:
    In exploratory research, a small amount of information is available about the topic but if you want to explore it in detail for a better understanding of the problem and its solution.

    Descriptive research:
    Descriptive research presents a detailed picture of the problem or situation. Descriptive research is in more detail as compared to exploratory research.

    Techniques Based Classification:
    Research can be classified into two basic categories according to the techniques or methodology of the research;

    Qualitative research:
    Qualitative research does not handle the measurable variable. This research is mainly done to find relationships and to define things in a qualitative way.

    Quantitative research:
    In quantitative research data is represented in the quantitative from in the form of numbers. Statistical analysis is conducted in quantitative research.

    Explanatory research:
    Explanatory research is an attempt to connect different ideas and to understand the different reasons, causes, and effects.

  78. Avatar Eze Ugochukwu Ethel says:

    Name: Eze Ugochukwu Ethel
    Dept: Social Science Education ( Education Economics)
    Reg no: 2018/245419
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    A good researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    The following are the characteristics:
    R- Research oriented and resilient; A good researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied.
    E- Efficient (maximises resources). Getting the most authentic result with the least cost. It simply means doing things right.. it means trying to maximize resources with minimum effort or time
    S- Scientific ;careful in using and following the right steps and methodology).
    E- Effective; (successful in producing desired result. It also means doing the right thing.
    A- Active; They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something.
    R- Resourceful; Having the ability to find quick skillful and clever ways of dealing with situations.
    C- Creative; Ability to use imagination or ideas to creat new things or based on the knowledge one has articulated.
    H- Honest; truthful and sincere in his dealings.
    E- Economical; ability to find quick,skillful & clever ways of dealing with situations and overcoming difficulties.
    R- Reputable; having a good reputation and honourable. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    1. Systematic
    Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process.
    Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported.

    2. Curiosity
    You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight.
    At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract.

    3.An analytical mind:
    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them.
    4.healthy criticism: A productive researcher always etical and doubtful as to the truthfullness of certain results and outcomes.
    5. Prodence: A good researcher does not waste resources. A good researcher will be careful to conduct his research.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    Classification of Research by Purpose is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. Research by purpose is of three kinds- basic/pure research, applied research and action research.
    Classification of Research by Method also Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. This could be done quantitatively or qualitatively. Classification based is made up of Survey research,Case study, case study

  79. Avatar Obeta Magret Uzochukwu says:

    Name: Obeta Magret Uzochukwu
    Reg no: 2018/243669
    Dept: Social science education (education economics)
    1. A researcher is someone who searches, who is carefully enquiring for new information in order to expand and verify ththe existing knowledge. A researcher is someone that uses a systematic means to investigate, develop, and evaluate to contribute to generalizable knowledge. A researcher can also be seen as someone that pursues truth with the help of study. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re open minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions.
    2▪︎ The Characteristics of a Researcher
    A. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    B. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    C. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    D. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3▪︎ The qualities of a good researcher.
    i. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    ii. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    iii. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    iv. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    v. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    vi. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    vii. Intellectual curiosity
    4▪︎ Research Classified by purpose or method
    ○The Purpose of Research
    1. Pure Research
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Features:
    • It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    • It discovers new facts.
    • It gives theoretical reports for solution.
    2. Applied Research
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. It is the use of basic research or past theories, knowledge, and method for solving and existing problem. This is practical work in the field. Features
    . It is done to solve specific problems
    . it is for policy formulation
    . it helps in administration and understanding of a given phenomenon.
    3. Action research
    Action research is a that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues, phenomenon through observation and reflections and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action research are conducted when there is need to provide evident solution to a particular problem. Features:
    • It is quick service oriented
    • It is taking immediate action
    • It is sensitive to time and place
    4. Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. Its an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government, firm, or organization. Evaluation research tries to check the extent of compliance of such guidelines. Types of evaluation:
    • Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    • Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    • Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.
    The method of research
    In this aspect we use
    * Historical research which examines past events.
    * Survey research which is systematic way of asking people to volunteer information about their attitude, behavior, etc.
    * Statistical research which is a research where a mass of data is collected from statistical books (reviews and bulletin).

  80. Avatar GWOM PAUL JACOB says:

    Gwom Paul Jacob
    2018/243820
    Department of economics
    Eco 391
    Assignment.
    Question 1.
    From your understanding, who is good researcher?

    A good researcher is someone who knows that he/she does not know, but believes that answers could be sought through careful and ethical search. A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    Question 2.
    What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?
    Keeping this in mind that research in any field of inquiry is undertaken to provide information to support decision-making in its respective area, we summarize some desirable characteristics of research:
    The research should focus on priority problems.
    The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    The research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.
    The research should be participatory, involving all parties concerned (from policymakers down to community members) at all stages of the study.
    The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.
    The results of the research should be presented in formats most useful for administrators, decision-makers, business managers, or the community

                            Question 3.
    What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?

    The qualities required to be good researcher can be broken down into more specific core competencies.  Some of them include but not limited to:

    1. An analytical mind

    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)

    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)

    2. A people person

    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)

    3. The ability to stay calm

    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    4. Intelligence

    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)

    5. Curiosity

    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)

    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)

    6. Quick thinker

    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)

    7. Commitment

    “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)

    8. Excellent written and verbal communication skills

    “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)

    “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)

    9. Sympathetic

    “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!” (Liz Brierley)

    10. Systematic

    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner)

                               Question 4.
    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    1. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research

    2. Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).

    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.

    4. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions

    5. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.

    6. Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.

    7. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables

  81. Avatar EZECHUKWU RITA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: Ezechukwu Rita Chioma
    REG NO: 2018/259327
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1) ASSIGNMENT
    QUESTION 1: WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?
    ANSWER:
    A good researcher is one who is disciplined, diplomatic, open-minded, hardworking, honest, dedicated and well mannered. He/She must be enthusiastic and curious about the unknown and approach his/her quest and search for more knowledge in the most accepted, appropriate and realistic manner.

    QUESTION 2: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A
    RESEARCHER.
    ANSWER:
    A good researcher is known by the following characteristics:
    a) A good researcher must be patient, calm , kind-hearted and honest in his/her relationship with his/her respondents.
    b) A good researcher must be a good listener.
    c)He must be curious about the unknown.
    d)He must be open-minded and must adopt a critical way of thinking.
    e) He must be an honest person who believes only in facts.
    f) He must be hardworking, dilligent and dedicated.

    QUESTION 3: QUALITIES OF A GOOD
    RESEARCHER.
    ANSWER:
    A good researcher must among many other qualties posses the following qualities:
    a) Rationality
    b) Effectiveness
    c) scientific outlook
    d) Exhaustive
    e) Analytical
    f) Resourcefulness
    g) Creativity
    h) Hardworking
    I) Evaluative
    j) Reputable
    k) Efficient and economical

    QUESTION 4: RESEARCH CAN BE CLASSIFIED
    BY PURPOSE OR BY METHOD, DISCUSS.
    ANSWER:
    ✓BY PURPOSE: Research by purpose entails, carrying out research for the main aim of achieving the objective or purpose in mind. One can carry out a basic research, applied research or action research.
    When one carries out a research just for the sake of knowledge, generalization and theory formulation,then it is called basic research. If research is for the purpose of practical problem of the society where knowledge from research is applied in solving existing problems, then it is called applied research. Action research is carried out inorder to solve an immediate problem or issue in the society.
    ✓ BY METHOD: Here research is classified according to the method the researcher uses in sourcing for data. Classification of research according to this method can be a little challenging because researchers can use more that one method in sourcing for data. Data can be sourced through; questioners, field study, interviews and so on.

  82. Avatar Isaac Bright Chisom 2018/246602 says:

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher is logical, empirical and unbiased in contributing to knowledge base.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    A researcher must be ;
    * Meticulous
    * Objective
    * Systematic
    * Experimental
    * Intellectually creative
    * Curiosity
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    A good researcher must possess the following characteristics;
    * He/she must be Honest.
    * He/she must be careful in using the right steps and methods
    * He/she must be Active
    * He/she must be Efficient
    * He/she must be resilient.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly
    II) Procedure based classification (Inquiry mode employed): This classification of research is based on the mode of data collection. Examples include; Historical research, Statistical research, Survey research.
    I) Objective based classification ( purpose of research) : This form of research is based on the the reason for the research , is it to add to knowledge or to solve specific problem. Examples include; Pure research, Action research, Evaluation research.

  83. Avatar Ubochioma favour ugomma says:

    Name: Ubochioma Favour Ugomma
    Reg no:2018/245392
    Department:Economics education
    Gmail: princessfavluv@gmail.com
    1. WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?
    A good researcher is one who be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena he/she is studying. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER?

    *A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    * The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.
    * The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.
    * The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.

    3. QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER?

    *A good researcher must have intellectual curiosity:he must have a broad way of thinking.
    *A good researcher must be prudent :he does not waste resources he is careful to conduct his or her research studies at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently and economically.
    *A good researcher must be honest: he must be truthful and sincere, hardworking humble and healthy.
    *A good researcher must be intellectually creative :he must always learn to create new approaches to research or find answers to questions.
    *A good researcher must be research oriented and resilient, he doesn’t give up easily.

    4.RESEARCH CAN BE CLASSIFIED BY PURPOSE OR BY METHOD. DISCUSS AND ANALYSE THIS SENTENCE EXPLICITLY .
    *PURPOSE BASED CLASSIFICATION: Under the purpose based research we have four different types of purposes in which research is conducted we have the pure research, applied research, action research and evaluation research .
    The pure research is undertaken to increase knowledge,it is also conducted to satisfy curiosity .it is purely theoretical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behaviour but does not seek to solve any particular existing problem.
    The applied research is the use of basic research or applied theory and method for solving an existing problem in other words it is undertaken to solve practical problems rather than for knowledge circuits can be carried out by an academic or industrial institution.
    The action research hear the researcher combines action and research to examine specific questions issues or phenomenon through observation and reflection this research is conducted when there is need to provide immediate solution to a particular problem.
    The evaluation research : In this type of research there is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guideline by the government firm or organisation. Evaluation research tries to check the extent of compliance to such guidelines.

    *METHOD/PROCEDURE BASED CLASSIFICATION:
    The procedure based classification is divided into various aspects which are historical research statistical research and survey research.
    historical research is the type of research that examines past events or combination of events, it unravels past events and impact of present happenings full stop it uncovers the unknown and helps to understand The origin and development of variables of interest they are changing trends and impact on society.
    The statistical research collect mass data an aggregate them from statistical books such as Central Bank publications national bureau of statistic annual report of SEC. It is usually difficult to collect all data in this kind of aggregates data research.
    survey research is a systematic way of asking people to volunteer information about their attitudes behaviours opinions and beliefs .It uses observation, interviews, questionnaires and other methods to achieve these relevance validity and accuracy.

  84. Avatar Nnadebe Amarachi Jane says:

    Name: Nnadebe Jane Amarachi.
    Reg No: 2018/241863
    Department: Economics.
    No.1
    A researcher is someone who investigates a topic, idea or fact with the purpose of relaying or passing information to his targets. A researcher has to be open minded, has to possess a critical way of thinking, he has to be focused and devoted to a particular field of interest, updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. This will then break down the process into smaller, more manageable pieces.
    No.2
    The Characteristics of a researcher.
    Intellectual curiosity: absolutely yes, a researcher have to know very well a topic to establish as an active player on a specific field. So curiosity is important to experiment different approaches, ideas ecc. ecc. At the same time curiosity is useful also if a researcher want to apply ideas in contiguous fields to another one… In this sense the ability to imagine a development of an approach is important too (but the curiosity is the engine)
    2. Determination: absolutely true. A researcher must be very determinated in order to finish a research. It is not possible to stop if an approach is not satisfying… you have to continue until you’re satisfied. You have to work on different problems at the same time so you must be very determinated to obtain jointly relevant results.
    3. Self Motivation: absolutely true. You have to be motivated by passion in the topic you are considering. If the topic is not interesting for you… simply obtaining interesting results for other researchers of the field is not simple (the key is perseverance…)
    4. Competitiveness: clearly competition is a part of the business, but in my opinion is not the most important. In my opinion learning to work in a team is a more important trait.
    5. Team work capabilities and be autonomous in researching: I consider jointly these two traits because you have to be very able to work in groups but at the same time you have to be ready to work alone to obtain results by yourself. Obviously these two things depend on the field chosen
    but it is important be a good team player but at the same time ready to work on problems by yourself.
    6. Humbleness. Yes is a relevant trait. Humbleness is useful to study a result in detail… but at the same time to observe other works with interest… there is a lot to learn in conferences for example… and humbleness is useful to capture these ideas in a constructive way.
    No.3
    Qualities of a good researcher.
    a.He should be a believer in truth, and truth should be his ultimate goal.
    b. He must be able to overcome prejudice. He should not have any preconceived notions while obtaining facts; rather, he should remain objective.
    c. The researcher must be able to collect accurate and detailed data from the respondents.
    d. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and not settle for rough estimates.
    e. He must maintain accuracy at all times and try to avoid unnecessary details.
    f.Expert in Subject: A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    g.Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    h.Capacity of Depth Information: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    No.4
    Classifications of research based on methods: This Include;
    1. Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    2. Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.
    3. Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.
    Classification based on purpose: This entails the objective of conducting such research, they are;
    1. Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement.
    2. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    3. Development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.

  85. Avatar Onah Ogochukwu says:

    ONAH OGOCHUKWU JULIET
    2018/248266
    Combined Social Sciences Economics/Sociology

    Eco 391 assignment

    1. A good researcher is someone who is very analytical and who can be able to take criticisms especially when his work is not so good enough.
    2a. The researcher should focus on priority problems.
    b. A researcher should employ a structured procedure i.e the research should be systematic.
    c. A researcher should be able to make a research without manipulating ideas logically.
    d. The findings of a researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    e. A researcher should be generative.

    3a. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    b. A good researcher should make truth his goal, must be unbiased.
    c. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    d. He must be analytical and be able to interpret the collected information with a positive spirit.
    e. A good researcher should be able to manage his time properly.

    4a. Purpose research is a type of research that combines action and research to examine scientific questions, issues and phenomenon through observation and reflection and deliberate intervention to improve practice.
    It is conducted when there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem. Hence, it seems to provide urgent intervention to a crisis condition.

  86. Avatar Julius Loveth Olachi says:

    NAME: JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI
    REG NO: 2018/242294
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    No.1
    A researcher is someone who conducts research, i.e., an organized and systematic investigation into something.He or she must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realizable protocol.Also, he/she has to be a quick thinker, intelligent, must have the ability to stay calm, compulsorily has to be very curious since curiosity paves way to discovery, and should be good in written and verbal communication to relate with respondents and relate his/her findings to others.A thorough researcher will be willing to inspect their work and processes over more than just the once for precision and control. A good researcher will convert raw data into useful and actionable insights ready for the client to take action.
    No.2
    The characteristics of a researcher include;
    a.The Ability of Thinking and Inference: One of the characteristics of a desirable researcher is his/her ability to reason, generalize, and deduce. They usually are able to think clearly and logically; perform reasoning, generalization, inference, and inference. Besides, they are capable of describing the reasons for their actions. They are also able to apply the lessons they learn in a situation to another one.
    b. The Ability of Abstract Thinking: Another characteristic of a desirable researcher is the ability of abstract thinking. So there is no need to provide concrete examples or evidence to help them understand something.
    c.The Ability of Complex Thinking: A good researcher is not satisfied by the appearances, but rather is interested in understanding the origin of a phenomenon. She/he tries to get to the core of a phenomenon, to understand its cause. Overall, a good researcher is basically interested in things that are beyond the experiences of her/his peers.
    d. Not Being Content with Partial Data: A good researcher, unlike others, is not satisfied with achieving partial information on something. But rather seeks to discover the various ways and methods the author or professor uses to propose a problem.
    e. Excellent Memory : Excellent memory is also needed. Although it is not as influential as talent, having an excellent memory has a significant impact on the research process. Moreover, it is particularly important in some fields of study. For instance, in the field of historical research, having a strong and active memory has a very serious and decisive role. Some people are able to remember details of events, can retell stories word by word, and read or write without needing a lot of practice. Although having such a memory is not necessary for everyone, but it has particular importance in some fields. So we can conclude that two inherent traits are crucial in research, namely talent and an excellent memory.
    No.3
    Qualities of a good researcher
    The qualities of a good researcher include;
    a.Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    b.Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    C.Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    d.Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    e.Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    d.Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    e.Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    f.Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    g.Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    h.Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    i.Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    j.Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.Dress and Behavior same to the area.
    k.More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    No.4
    Classification of research based on purpose: This classification talks about the reason for conducting a research. It answers the question’WHY’ and explains the objective of a research, its aim, goal,etc.there are sub classification of this research based on purpose, they are;
    a.)Development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    b.) Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.
    c.) Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems.
    Classification based on methods: This involves the process by which a research is completed and how it is done.sub- classifications under it include;
    a.) Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.
    b.) Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables.

  87. Avatar BENJAMIN GIFT IHUNANYA. 2018/241855 says:

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher is one who is meticulous, unbaisee and objective in adding to knowledge
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    A researcher must be ;
    – Reliable
    – Objective
    – Logical
    – Experimental
    – Intellectually creative
    – Prudent
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    A good researcher must possess the following characteristics;
    – He/she must be efficient.
    – He/she must be careful in using the right steps and methods
    – He/she must be economical
    – He/she must be creative
    – He/she must be resourceful.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly
    I) Objective based classification ( purpose of research) : This form of research is based on the the reason for the research , is it to add to knowledge or to solve specific problem. Examples include; Pure research, Action research, Evaluation research.
    II) Procedure based classification (Inquiry mode employed): This classification of research is based on the mode of data collection. Examples include; Historical research, Statistical research, Survey research.

  88. Avatar Ani Ozoemena Emmanuel 2018/248134 says:

    #From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    A good researcher is an individual or someone who has the ability to identify a problem or phenomenon which needs investigation or urgent intervention and uses scientific methodology and procedures to provide solution to such problem which has general applicability.
    #Characteristics of a good researcher includes
    1) intellectual curiosity: this means that a good researcher must be willing and curious to know more and broaden his/her horizon
    2) prudence:A good researcher do not waste resources and conduct his research at the right place and right Time, efficiently, wisely and economically.
    3) Healthy criticism: a good researcher is always critical and doubtful as to the truthfulness or the output of an outcome.
    4) intellectual honest:A good researcher is honest to collect data or facts to arrive to an unbiased but honest result.
    5) intellectual creativity: A good researcher always creat new approach to research or find answers to questions.
    #what are the qualities of a good researcher
    The following are some of qualities of a good researcher
    Rationality
    Effectiveness
    Scientific outlook
    Exhaustiveness
    Analytical
    Resourcefulness
    Creativity
    Hardworking
    Evaluative
    Reputable
    # Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified according to the objective or purpose of research. By this we mean that someone can carry out a research endeavour based on the objective he wishes to achieve. In this sense, research under this classification can be undertaken:
    * Pure/Basic research: this type of research is undertaking to increase ones knowledge and to satisfy many curiosity
    *Applied research.this is using basic research or past theories, knowledge and method for solving an existing problem
    * Action research.this is a type of research that combine both action and research to examine specific problem.it is used to solve immediate problem
    Evaluation research.this is an acceptable standard parttern of operation , guideline by government or organization.it tries to check the extent of compliance to such guideline
    Research can also be classified according to the methods used by the researcher to source for data. Here, scientific research is named after the process of research. Examples are:
    Historical research or Historiography
    Statistical research or Aggregate Data research
    Survey research
    Case studies
    Experimental research.

  89. Avatar Oguegbu chiamaka maureen says:

    Name: Oguegbu chiamaka Maureen
    Reg no:2018/242309
    Dept.: Economics
    Course :Eco 391
    No 1
    • A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination. Offering insightful information and mentorship to the new generation of researchers for sustaining the academic disciplinary field towards new practical ideas and conceptual knowledge.
    No 2
    • A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    • Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    • Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    • Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    • An analytical mind
    • “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)
    • “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)
    • . A people person
    • “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)
    • The ability to stay calm
    • “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    • Intelligence
    • “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)
    • . Curiosity
    • “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    • “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)
    • Quick thinker
    • “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    • Commitment
    • “It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)
    • Excellent written and verbal communication skills
    • “So different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them” (Jo Iaconianni)
    • “You have to have excellent written communications and be fluent in the language of business” (Richard Walker)
    • . Sympathetic
    • “Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have!” (Liz Brierley)
    • Systematic
    • “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner)
    • “Attention to detail – the ability to ensure that data is accurately presented and reported” (Anthony Shephard)

    No 3

    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”
    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.
    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.
    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.
    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.
    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.
    17. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.
    No 4
    Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. There are three types of objectives of research: theoretical, factual and application. The first two types of objectives of research contribute new knowledge in the form of new theory and facts in a particular field of study or discipline.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    • Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    • Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    • Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    • Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    • Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  90. Avatar IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS - 2018/242340 says:

    NAME: IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242340
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHODS I (ECO 391)

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    A competent researcher is someone who is both open-minded and critical in their thinking. He or she is also dedicated to his or her particular field of interest, as well as industrious, diligent, and dedicated. A good researcher is someone who searches for new things, new ideas, and pushes boundaries in order to find answers to specific issues. A good researcher is someone who sets aside time for trips and adventures that will assist create and prove new procedures. Researchers are persons who have a broad intellect and can hold a lot of information in their heads. They’re open-minded, and as a result, they’re able to come up with creative answers to problems.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    I. Enthusiasm – Even if you have the necessary intelligence, if you aren’t enthusiastic enough, you won’t be encouraged to learn more.
    II. Intellectual capacity – Research involves ability to think critically as well as good judgement.
    III. Dedication – it’s a demanding work; the hours can be long, and deadlines can be short. As a result, researchers are dedicated.
    IV. Clever thinker – Things don’t always go as planned, so you’ll need to react quickly.
    V. Innovation – Researchers are known for coming up with fresh ideas, new ways of doing things, improved methods of analysis, and new breakthroughs.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher.
    i. Prejudice-Free : A researcher would be excellent if he lacked prejudice or bias when studying a difficult topic yet was capable of presenting clear information.

    ii. Depth Information Capacity: A researcher should be able to acquire a large amount of data in a short amount of time.

    iii. Precision: A researcher is considered good if his opinions are correct. His thoughts must be correct.

    iv. Honest: It is necessary for a researcher to be honest. Its concept would be free of fraudulent reports and statements.

    v. Keen Observer: A skilled researcher should be able to think in terms of keen and deep observation.

    vi. Attentive to details: A researcher would pay closer attention to what they’re hearing.

    vii. Low Reliance on Common Sense: A competent researcher is one who has a low reliance on common sense while keeping track of all events and occurring.

    viii. Ability to spend the least amount of time: A good researcher must be able to spend the least amount of time possible. Due to a lack of time, it will have to accomplish more work in a shorter period of time.

    ix. Cost effective: A good researcher must be able to manage his financial resources. He needs to be careful with his money and stick to his budget.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.

    A. Classification of research based on purpose:
    Scientific studies are classified using this method by naming them after the goal or purpose that they are intended to achieve. Here are some instances of such studies:
    i. action research: a sort of study that is conducted when a quick solution to an issue is required.
    ii. assessment study: this research aims to determine the extent to which the government, firm, or organization adheres to stated/provided guidelines.
    iii. Applied research: this type of research is done to find a solution to a real-world problem.
    iv. pure research: here, research is carried out solely for the purpose of gaining knowledge, i.e. to push the boundaries of knowledge.

    B. Classification of research based on procedure or Method:
    Scientific studies are named after the research method in this classification system. The following are some examples of such studies.
    i. Historical research: This is a form of research that aims to figure out what happened in the past and how it affected current occurrences. Data for this type of study is gathered from two primary sources: archival sources and interviews.
    ii. Statistical analysis: This is also known as aggregate data analysis. It is a type of research in which a large amount of data is gathered and analyzed from statistical books such as Central Bank publications, statistics bulletins, and other sources.
    iii. Survey research: This type of study aims to gather data on facts, opinions, attitudes, and behaviors of study variables.
    iv. Case study: In this type of study, one or a few research variables are chosen for further investigation. The goal is to collect as much data as possible for the study’s chosen variable.
    v. Experimental research: This is the most common approach of scientific investigation. Experimental studies are used to determine whether or not cause-and-effect correlations exist. It makes use of an experimental and a control group.

  91. Avatar Amaka says:

    Agu Chiamaka Chisom
    2018/245463
    CSS: Eco/pol
    Research method(Eco 391)

    1. Who is a good researcher
    A good researcher is one who carries/conduct research in an appropriate manner I.e in an organized and systematic manner into something.
    A good researcher can also be a person who carries out academic or scientific research in an organized and systematic way.

    2. Characteristics of a good researcher
    An analytical mind.
    The ability to stay calm.
    Intelligence.
    Curiosity.
    Quick thinker.
    Commitment.
    Excellent written and verbal communication skills.
    Sympathetic.

    3. Quality of a good researcher
    *Friendly with Respondents: a good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. He/she has to talk in a manner/language the respondents are able to answer and make them happy
    *Free from prejudice- A research would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Accuracy: A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful: A researcher must have to be truthful. It’s idea would be free from false reports and saying Information.

    Keen Observer: it is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    Careful in listening: A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low Information’s even whispering.

    Low Dependency on common sense: A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Economical: Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances without limits and spend carefully

    Good in conversations

    Trained in Research tools.

    Equality and Justice etc

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse the sentence explicitly.
    *Research can be classified by purpose simply means that there’s always a reason before a research is conducted e.g research can be conducted to check the poverty level in a particular country.

    Research can be classified by method simply means research has a follow a systematic way to produces effective and efficient result.

    1. CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
    2. Contents Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    3. Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    4. Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    5. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    6. Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    7. Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    8. Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  92. Avatar ISIGUZO PURITY EZINNE 2018/242353 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT says:

    1.
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    2.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.
    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”
    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.
    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.
    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.
    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.
    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.
    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.
    17. A good researcher will always be well behaved and well clad. These qualities will attract the respondents towards him; sufficiently motivate them to produce necessary information required for the purpose of research.

    3.
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    1. Accuracy: A researcher must ensure that his research work is accurate. He should ensure that the facts and figures which he is presenting are true and verifiable. There should be no room for conjecture or guesses. He should exhibit due diligence in presenting his work so as not to present a false and misleading research as the accuracy of the research determines the credibility to be attached to the researcher.
    2. Motivation: A researcher must have the ability to motivate himself to work. He should not be easily discouraged. In the course of his research, he might come across some hostile respondents. This should not deter him from carrying on his research work. Again, he might be met with opposition from his colleagues. Such oppositions should not serve as a source of discouragement to him. A researcher therefore, must have the ability to encourage and motivate himself to push on until he actualizes his aim.
    3. Patience: One of the sterling attributes of a good researcher is patience. This quality is a follow-up attribute to being motivated. A researcher must exhibit a high degree of patience, both with his respondents and in the course of his research when the much needed result is not forthcoming, in addition to his being consistent with the effort he puts in.
    4. Prudence: The quality of being prudent has to do with his ability to manage the resources at his disposal. Research is a capital intensive project and there are possibilities that one might not be well funded to carry out such project. The managerial skill and ability of the researcher becomes handy for a successful execution of the project. Also, even if the resources are in abundance, he must be able to manage same so as to avoid waste and extravagant spendings. Therefore, a researcher must be able to effectively manage the resources at his disposal for optimum output.
    5. Expertise: Though the aim of research is to add knowledge to already existing knowledge (as one ventures into new areas not yet explored), the researcher must have reasonable amount of knowledge in the field he intends carrying out his research. It will amount to a ruse if an archaeologist embarks on a research in medicine. A researcher must therefore be an expert in the field of his research or must possess at least, reasonable amount of knowledge in the field he professes to carry out his research.
    6. Unbiased in his Research: At the beginning of his research, a researcher must not have a preconceived notion or idea about the subject of his research. This is because the research may likely not be accurate as his leanings will mostly be towards his bias. If there exists such bias, the researcher should be liberal enough to accept findings that are against his held beliefs. This will aid him to present an accurate and unbiased research work.
    7. Interest: A researcher must show sufficient interest in the work he is doing. He should not be distracted. His interest should be focused on the work. This is quite different from being motivated. This is because it is the interest one has in a task that keeps him motivated. If one is not interested in a research work, he cannot be motivated, even if all necessary things are in place to drive the project. A researcher has to build interest from within, in the field of his research to see him through the research work.
    8. Amiable Personality: A researcher must have a friendly disposition. He should be easily approachable and should also have the ability to communicate with people in a friendly and coherent manner. A researcher that is unfriendly, gloomy and unapproachable may find it difficult extracting information from his respondents.
    A researcher should also exhibit friendliness to whoever works with him (if he is in a team with other researchers). This act of friendliness reduces friction within the team and the team is most likely to finish up their task in record time.
    9. The Ability to Work Under Pressure: A researcher must be able to work under pressure and unfavorable situations. The ability to carry out a task within little time frame and also work in conditions that are less favorable (for example, under a hostile boss) is a quality which the researcher should have to enable him carry out his task.
    Limited time may be allocated to accomplish a research project such that if the researcher is unable to manage his time, the work will not be done. It is therefore a needed quality of the researcher to be able to persevere and work in unfriendly situations if he must accomplish his task on time.
    10. Analytical in his research: A researcher should be analytical and should also be able to exhibit sound judgment. Proper analysis of issues is key to having a good research work. His ability to reason rationally and give sound judgment affects the quality of the research work.
    Where the ability to give sound judgment is missing, there may be a misapplication of principles and rules. This might be fatal if such misapplication happens in a research work of great importance to health. Therefore, a researcher must have the natural ability to discern what is right between two factors brought before him.

    4.
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE AND METHOD
    Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    Classification of Research by Purpose
    Basic vs Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    Classification of Research by Purpose
    Development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    Classification of Research by Purpose 
    Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions

    Classification of Research by Method
    Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    Classification of Research by Method 
    Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    Classification of Research by Method
    Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  93. Avatar Osike Solomon Ugochukwu says:

    Name: OSIKE SOLOMON UGOCHUKWU
    Reg.No: 2018/242458
    Department: Economics

    Question 1
    From your understanding, who is good researcher.
    Answer
    A good researcher is a person who is open-minded and also adopts a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest
    .
    Question 2
    What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Answer
    Below are some of the characteristics of a good researcher:

    1.Open 
    It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.

    2.Curious
    The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.

    3.Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.

    5.Expert
    Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    6.An Evangelist
    Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being best.

    Question 3
    What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Answer
    1.Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    2.Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    3.Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    4.Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    5.Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    6.Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    7.Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    8.Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    9.Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    10.Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    11.Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    12.Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    13.Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    14.Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    15.Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.

    16.Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.

    17.Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    18.More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.

    19.Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.

    Question 4

    Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming of new research question.

    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    Methods of Research
    Research methods are different from research methodologies because they are the ways in which you will collect the data for your research project.  The best method for your project largely depends on your topic, the type of data you will need, and the people or items from which you will be collecting data. 
    Research methods refers to the tools that one uses to do research. These can either be qualitative or quantitative or mixed. Quantitative methods examines numerical data and often requires the use of statistical tools to analyse data collected. This allows for the measurement of variables and relationships between them can then be established. This type of data can be represented using graphs and tables. Qualitative data is non-numerical and focuses on establishing patterns. Mixed methods are composed of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Mixed methods allow for explanation of unexpected results.

  94. NAME: Eze Nnenna Anthoniatta
    REG NO:2018/248095
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    COURSE: Eco391 Research Methods

    QUESTION 1:From your understanding, who is good researcher

    ANSWER:
    Many have their own way of understanding of a good research. I say that a good researcher someone who is organised and can plan their work. They also have a way of meeting deadlines, pays attention to detail and displays a superior way of discipline. I am also convinced that a good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    QUESTION 2:What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    ANSWER:
    A good researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities. Lack of these traits hinders the pursuit of research or makes conduction of research slow and difficult. This has promted the division of the characteristics into three, namely; cognitive,emotional and behavioural characteristics but for the management of space, I would make a joint characteristics, which are;
    •Improvement in Studies and Academic Achievement: A researcher should be able to read faster and easier than others. Such an ability provides the basis for academic achievement and promotion.
    • Learning Speed: High learning speed means learning with the least effort of the individual and the professors.
    • Self-motivated Attention to Detail: A researcher is aware of the details, even without the need for training.
    • The Ability of Thinking and Inference: One of the characteristics of a desirable researcher is his/her ability to reason, generalize, and deduce
    •Focused: Having an unusual, surprising look at the phenomena raises numerous questions and ambiguities in one’s curious mind.
    •Sense of Wonder: Given that a researcher observes seemingly normal natural phenomena from a curious perspective, they sometimes reach deeper facts and root causes of phenomena. Even if they are not able to understand its root, they are able to understand its complexity and grandeur to some extent.

    QUESTION 3:What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    ANSWER:
    A•••Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    B•••Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    C•••Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    D•••More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    E•••Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents
    F•••Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully
    G•••Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    QUESTION 4:Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWER:
    A•••METHODS are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information or create better understanding of a topic.
    There are different types of research methods which use different tools for data collection.
    •••Qualitative Research gathers data about lived experiences, emotions or behaviours, and the meanings individuals attach to them. It assists in enabling researchers to gain a better understanding of complex concepts, social interactions or cultural phenomena. This type of research is useful in the exploration of how or why things have occurred, interpreting events and describing actions.
    •••Quantitative Research gathers numerical data which can be ranked, measured or categorised through statistical analysis. It assists with uncovering patterns or relationships, and for making generalisations. This type of research is useful for finding out how many, how much, how often, or to what extent.
    •••Mixed Methods Research integrates both Qualitative and Quantitative Research. It provides a holistic approach combining and analysing the statistical data with deeper contextualised insights.
    B•••PURPOSE on the other hand is to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    •••Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself.
    •••Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    •••Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

  95. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    NAME: OWOH CHIAMAKA PHILIA
    REG NO: 2019/247552 (2/3)
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS
    ANSWERS:
    1. A good researcher is someone who is deligent, open minded and must adopt a critical way of thinking, he/she must be hardworking in terms of getting information, focused and devoted in his/her specific field of interest. A good researcher is equally someone who goes out of his own comfort zone to seek information on a particularly field to know how and why things are the way they were and to seek solution to that particular problem. It can be a finding about food, sickness, a place, animals etc.
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    2. Answer; The Characteristics of a good researcher include;
    1. It is sometimes based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    3. Answer; The Following Are The Qualities Of A Good Research;
    1. Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2. Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no adverse judgement or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    3. Accuracy: A researcher would be said to be good, if he is giving exact results in his views. His ideas must be an accurate one.
    4. Truthfulness: A researcher must have to be honest. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying/giving false information.
    5. Keen Observer: It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of being passionate and deep in observation.
    6. Careful in Listening: A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    7. Economical: Good researcher must have control over his economic resources, he must know how to manage he’s resources well. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    8. Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    9. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    4. Answer; Classification of Research by Purpose:
    Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    Classification of Research by Method: Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs. Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation

  96. Avatar Ajah Favour Chinyere says:

    Name: Ajah Favour Chinyere
    Reg no: 2018/241836
    Department: Economics
    Course code: Eco 391
    Course title: Research methods in Economics 1

    Assignment
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicity.

    Answers

    1. A good researcher must be a communicator,open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.He/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. He should have to talk to them in the same language for understanding.A highly effective researcher customizes their approach to each one and their unique needs,personalities and situations to ensure a good research.

    2.
    1.A researcher must be truthful about informations he/she gathers..
    2.A researcher must be open minded
    3.A researcher must be careful in listening in order to get accurate information.
    4. A researcher should have low dependency on common sense.
    5. A researcher shouldn’t be discouraged because of some certain issues.
    6. A researcher should be friendly with respondent.
    7. A researcher must be Accurate
    8. A researcher must be hardworking and focused.

    3.
    1. A good researcher must have the ability to stay calm
    2. A good researcher must be intelligent
    3. A good researcher should be a quick thinker
    4. A good researcher must have excellent thinking and good communication skills.
    5. He/she must be sympathetic
    6.A good researcher must have an analytic mind.

    4. Research by purpose: This kind of research takes place because different purposes are to be achieved.
    Most research can be divided into three different categories: 1.exploratory
    2.descriptive and
    3.causal.
    Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways. In the online survey world, mastery of all three can lead to sounder insights and greater quality information.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life.

    Research by methods:
    Research methods refers to the tools that one uses to do research. These can either be qualitative or quantitative or mixed. Quantitative methods examines numerical data and often requires the use of statistical tools to analyse data collected.
    Types of research methods
    1.Experiments.
    2.Surveys.
    3.Questionnaires.
    4.Interviews.
    5.Case studies.
    6.Participant and non-participant observation.
    7.Observational trials.
    Research methodology simply refers to the practical “how” of any given piece of research.

  97. Avatar E-Patrick Dalosah says:

    NAME:E-PATRICK DALOSAH
    REG NUMBER:2018/242457
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    LEVEL :300

    1) Who is a good researcher
    A good researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.

    2) What are the characteristics of a God researcher
    I) A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.

    ii) Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.

    iii) Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    iv) Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3)what are the qualities of a good researcher
    Important qualities of a good researcher.
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    4)Classifications of research by purpose are
       Basic vs Applied research
       Evaluative research
       Research and development
    Classifications of research by method are
       Historical research
    Descriptive research
       Experimental research
       

  98. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg No: 2019/247552 (2/3)
    Department: Education/Economics
    Course Code: Eco 391
    Course Title: Research Method In Economics

    1. Answer:
    A good researcher is someone who is deligent, open minded and must adopt a critical way of thinking, he/she must be hardworking in terms of getting information, focused and devoted in his/her specific field of interest. A good researcher is equally someone who goes out of his own comfort zone to seek information on a particularly field to know how and why things are the way they were and to seek solution to that particular problem. It can be a finding about food, sickness, a place, animals etc.
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    2. Answer:
    The Characteristics of a good researcher include;
    1. It is sometimes based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    6. Intellectual curiosity: A good research undertakes a good thing and enquiry around him/her.

    3. Answer:
    The Following Are The Qualities Of A Good Research;
    1. Friendly with Respondents:
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. He should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answerin.
    2. Free From Prejudice:
    A researcher would be good if he has no adverse judgement or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    3. Accuracy:
    A researcher would be said to be good, if he is giving exact results in his views. His ideas must be an accurate one.
    4. Truthfulness:
    A researcher must have to be honest. Its idea should be free from false reports and saying/giving false information.
    5. Keen Observer:
    It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of being passionate and deep in observation.
    6. Careful in Listening:
    A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    7. Economical:
    Good researcher must have control over his economic resources, he must know how to manage he’s resources well. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    8. Good in Conversation:
    The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    9. Dress and Behavior same to the area: The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    4. Answer:
    Classification of Research by Purpose: Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).

    Classification of Research by Method: Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs. Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.

  99. Avatar Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram says:

    Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram
    2018/241843
    Economics
    Eco 391
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcher is an individual who is honest in his research work, hardworking in order to source data, intelligent, prudent, resources need not to be wasted while engaging in researches, someone who tests all data collected critically to ensure its truthfulness, someone who is curious and directly interested in the research work.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Curiousity: a research must be curious about the subject matter he wants to embark on, he should be hungry for knowledge. A good researcher should find his research topic interesting
    Intelligence: a good researcher should be intelligent, someone who can intellectually handle the workload apposited to research
    He must gregarious: a good researcher must be a people person, social, so as to be able to converse with people he needs information from. Such data will be used in the research
    Innovative; he must be innovative, be able to think of ways to solve research problems
    Efficient in research: a good researcher must be efficient and good at what he does
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    There are two types of research, one is by method and other is by purpose. The types of research by purpose fall into three categories such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject.
    Applied research or field research involves practical problems of the society, the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition.
    Action research is an important types of research by purpose. It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data.

  100. Avatar CHUKWUDUBEM CHINEMEREM PEACE says:

    NAME: Chukwudubem Chinemerem Peace
    REG NO: 2018/245426
    DEPARTMENT: Education/Economics
    COURSE: ECO 391 ASIGNMENT
    Clearly answer the following questions in details
    1: From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    A good Researcher is a “Professional who engages in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned.
    2. What are the characteristics of a researcher?
    1: A researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2: Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3: Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4: Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    5: Researchers are always critical or doubtful as to the truthfulness of certain result/ outcome.
    3. What are the qualities of a good researcher?
    1: A good researcher does not waste resources. He should be able to conduct his research study at the right time, at the right place wisely, efficiently and economically.
    2. A good researcher always create new approaches to research, new approaches to find answers to problems.
    3: A good researcher is honest in order to gather/collect data or fact in order to arrive at an honest/ good result.
    4: He is always ready to engage into mental, physical, intellectual activities.
    5: People must hold you in high esteem value, a good researcher must not be a person of questionable character.
    6: A good researcher should be hard working, diligent, focussed and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    4: Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BASED ON PURPOSE
    1: Pure Research [Basic or Fundamental Research]: This type of research aims at the advancement of knowledge. It is conducted to satisfy any curiosity. It is concerned with producing results or findings, which will lead to the development of theories. Its interest is in building theories, which will lead to the advancement of knowledge in the particular field.
    2: Applied Research: Applied research is concerned with the usefulness of ideas or theories to practical situations. It is therefore interested in testing the workability or usefulness of ideas or theories in practical situations. Applied research does not lead to theory formulation rather it seeks to explore or establish the applications of a given theory in practical situations.
    3: Action Research: It is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection and deliberate intervention to improve practice.
    Action researches are conducted when there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem. Hence it seeks to provide urgent intervention to a crisis condition.
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BASED ON METHOD
    1: Historical Research [Historiography]: This is a systematized and objective enquiry into events, developments and experiences of the past to arrive at an account of what has happened in the past.
    It uncovers the unknown and helps to understand the origin and development of variables of interest, their changing trends and impact on society. It records and evaluates accomplishments of individuals, agencies or institutions.
    Historical research differs from other forms of research in the sense that it is always concerned with the past and calls for a more/ difficult type of data interpretation.
    Data for historical research are obtained from two main sources – primary and secondary sources. In evaluating the data collected, two forms of criticisms [external and internal] are employed.
    Examples of historical studies include:
    1: Historical study on Nigeria/ Biafran war.
    2: The University of Nigeria in the first 25 years of existence.
    3: The contributions of Alvan Ikoku to the development of Nigeria education.
    2: Case study: This is an in depth study of a particular situation rather than a sweeping statistical survey. It is a method used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one easily researchable topic.
    Case studies employ a variety of data gathering techniques such as questionnaire, observation, interview, test etc. Only one or a combination of these could be employed in any one study depending on the objectives of the study. Case studies are useful in providing relevant background information, which may give rise to more extensive investigations.
    3: Survey Research: Surveys are a systematic way of asking people to volunteer information about their attitudes, behaviors, opinions and beliefs. The success of survey research rests on how closely the answers that people give to survey questions matches reality that is, how people really think and act.
    Classification of survey research
    i: Based on percentage of variables used
    A: Total surveys
    B: Sample surveys
    ii: Based on the data collection instrument used
    A: Interview survey.
    B: Observational survey
    C: Questionnaire survey
    D: Mail survey
    E: Telephone survey
    F: Panel survey [here data is collected at different times to analyze changes in the population of a study]
    iii: Based on the objectives of study
    A: Public opinion survey
    B: Trend survey
    C: Cross sectional survey
    D: Longitudinal study.

  101. Avatar Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne says:

    Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne
    2018/242424
    Eco 391
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answers
    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    2. It is based on the work of others.
    It can be replicated and doable .
    It is generalisable to other settings.
    It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    It is incremental.
    3. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low
    dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    4. Research by purpose,we have 3 purposes
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Research by method
    Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.
    Inductive research methods focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. Deductive research methods focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative research is a method that enables non-numerical data collection through open-ended methods such as interviews, case studies and focus groups.
    It enables researchers to collect data on personal experiences, feelings or behaviours, as well as the reasons behind them. Because of this, qualitative research is often used in fields such as social science, psychology and philosophy and other areas where it is useful to know the connection between what has occurred and why it has occurred.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research is a method that collects and analyses numerical data through statistical analysis.
    It allows us to quantify variables, uncover relationships, and make generalisations across a larger population. As a result, quantitative research is often used in the natural and physical sciences such as engineering, biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, finance, and medical research, etc.

  102. Avatar Okpara Favour Amarachi says:

    Name : Okpara Favour Amarachi
    Reg number : 2018/248953
    Department : Economics
    Email address : favouramy363@gmail.com

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    From my own understanding a good researcher is a person with the accurate and specific experience, education, qualifications, skills and training to complete research in their specific field or area of expertise.A good researcher remains focused at all times and makes firm rational decisions.

    2.What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    i) Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but a good researcher will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.
    ii)Prudence
    A researcher is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    iii) Healthy Criticism
    The researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    iv)Intellectual Honesty
    A researcher is honest to collect or gather the data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    v)Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    vi) A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    3.What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    i)Patience: One of the sterling attributes of a good researcher is patience. This quality is a follow-up attribute to being motivated. A researcher must exhibit a high degree of patience, both with his respondents and in the course of his research when the much needed result is not forthcoming, in addition to his being consistent with the effort he puts in.
    ii)Unbiased in his Research: At the beginning of his research, a researcher must not have a preconceived notion or idea about the subject of his research. This is because the research may likely not be accurate as his leanings will mostly be towards his bias. If there exists such bias, the researcher should be liberal enough to accept findings that are against his held beliefs. This will aid him to present an accurate and unbiased research work.
    iii)Analytical in his research: A researcher should be analytical and should also be able to exhibit sound judgment. Proper analysis of issues is key to having a good research work. His ability to reason rationally and give sound judgment affects the quality of the research work.
    iv)The ability to stay calm
    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)
    v)Systematic
    “Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research process” (Bethan Turner)

    4.Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research is classified according to purpose for the seeking of a certain topic in which one aims to have the sense of fulfillment wherein one has the capacity to become successful in what he/she is doing.A research can be done for the purpose ofeither developing a theory or making a decision. It can be done by historical or correlational research.
    On the other hand research can also be classified by methods,this classification entails specific procedures for collecting and analyzing data. Developing your research methods is an integral part of your research design.Your data analysis methods will depend on the type of data you collect and how you prepare it for analysis.Data can often be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, survey responses could be analyzed qualitatively by studying the meanings of responses or quantitatively by studying the frequencies of responses.

  103. Avatar ONWE, IRENE EBERE says:

    NAME:ONWE, IRENE EBERE
    REG NO: 2018/242201
    EMAIL: Irene.onwe.242201@unn.edu.ng
    DEPT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS (ECO 391)
    ASSIGNMENT:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    From my understanding, a good/great researcher should be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.
    good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    a). A GOOD RESEARCHER MANIFESTS THIRST FOR NEW INFORMATION.
    A good researcher shows an open mind about things. He does not just take things by themselves but explores new grounds. He adopts the philosophy of “ thinking beyond the box,” leaving out the conventional for something innovative. A good researcher treads the unknown frontier. Pieces of evidence of this thirst for new information manifest in people who do not stop learning. Those persons who maintain an open mind for new possibilities to happen, even when everything appears to have been discovered or studied or options exhausted.

    b). A GOOD RESEARCHER HAS A KEEN SENSE OF THINGS AROUND HIM.
    Keenness is a quality developed through an observant attitude. A good researcher sees something more out of acommon occurrence around him. And he sees this quickly.

    c). A GOOD RESEARCHER LIKES TO REFLECT OR THINK ABOUT THE THINGS HE ENCOUNTERS.
    Researchers who pause and reflect on the knowledge that they gained, either formally in school or through their experience, gain insights. Insights are creative thoughts that make one nod his head and say, “Aha, this is something I have been looking for!” An original idea was born.

    d). A GOOD RESEARCHER MUST BE INTELLIGENT ENOUGH TO EXPRESS HIS IDEAS.
    How can you express your thoughts if you cannot write? The point here is that a good researcher must be adept in the written language. How can people understand your point when you are the only one who can understand what you have written?
    Intelligence to express ideas is a quality that appears to reside in gifted individuals. But if you recognize your weakness in this realm, why not seek someone who can? After all, ideas are more important; but of course, better if you present them in such a way that others understand well what you want to say.

    e). A GOOD RESEARCHER APPLIES A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH IN ASSESSING SITUATIONS.
    Research requires systematic and objective thinking to arrive at something. Logical reasoning, therefore, is applied by a good researcher. He can analyze things, meaning he can break down a complicated situation into manageable bits that he can
    focus his attention on.

    f). A GOOD RESEARCHER MUST BE WISE
    a good researcher does not waste resources, he is careful to conduct his or her research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently and economically.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Classification of Research by Purpose Basic v/s Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum. Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.
    According to purpose – There are three broadly different kinds of research, namely, predictive, directive and illuminative.

    Predictive or prognostic research has the purpose of determining the future operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better. “Predictive research proposes to give the result from one specific educational practice or pattern and seeks to establish a close statistical connection between characteristics of students and a prediction of educational outcome.”
    Directive research determines what should be done based on the findings. This is to remedy an unsatisfactory condition if there is any.
    Illuminative research is concerned with the components of the variable being investigated, as for example, “interaction of the components of educational systems and aims to show the connections among, for example, student characteristics, organizational patterns and policies, and educational consequences.”

    Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    I). Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    ii). Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook

  104. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg No: 2019/247552 (2/3)
    Department: Education/Economics
    Course Code: Eco 391
    Course Title: Research method in Economics

    Question:
    1. in your own understanding, who is good researcher.
    Answer:
    A good researcher is someone who is deligent, open minded and must adopt a critical way of thinking, he/she must be hardworking in terms of getting information, focused and devoted in his/her specific field of interest. A good researcher is equally someone who goes out of his own comfort zone to seek information on a particularly field to know how and why things are the way they were and to seek solution to that particular problem. It can be a finding about food, sickness, a place, animals etc.
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and push through their boundaries of comfort and security. They need to be innately curious about how what they study affects its surroundings (remember the whole and not just a part of the whole). They must be willing to take some risk of failure and/or rejection and follow that hunch or gut feeling they have about something. They must be willing to explain and teach others about what they do otherwise research is meaningless without application and dissemination.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    Answer
    The Characteristics of a good researcher include;
    1. It is sometimes based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    6. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    7. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher.
    Answer
    The Following Are The Qualities Of A Good Research;

    1. Friendly with Respondents:
    A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    2. Free From Prejudice:
    A researcher would be good if he has no adverse judgement or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    3. Accuracy:
    A researcher would be said to be good, if he is giving exact results in his views. His ideas must be an accurate one.

    4. Truthfulness:
    A researcher must have to be honest. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying/giving false information.

    5. Keen Observer:
    It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of being passionate and deep in observation.

    6. Careful in Listening:
    A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    7. Economical:
    Good researcher must have control over his economic resources, he must know how to manage he’s resources well. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    8. Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. He must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.

    9. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Answer;

    Classification of Research by Purpose:
    Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).

    Classification of Research by Method:
    Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.

  105. Avatar Asadu Chinyere Favour says:

    Name: Asadu Chinyere Favour
    Reg. No: 2018/248261
    Department: Combined Social Sciences
    (Economics/Sociology and Anthropology)
    Eco. 391- Research Methods(Online Quiz/Discussion 5) Qualities of a Good Researcher and Classification of Scientific Research.

    WHO IS A GOOD RESEARCHER?
    From my understanding, a good researcher is one who is open-minded, hardworking, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest. A modern day reseacher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypothesis into a realisable protocol.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCHER
    1, Open: The best researchers are aware of their favorites but are open to everybody, regardless of colour, size, shape etc. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.
    2, Curious: Good researchers are genuinely curious about what is new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way.
    3, Innovative: Good researchers are innovators that adopts and implements new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches.
    4, An Evangelist: A good researcher have an innate ability to market what they do.
    5, Expert: Everybody is an expert at one point in time or the other on a particular thing. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise.

    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    a, A good researcher must be aware of the possible setbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher.
    b, A good reseracher develops proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    c, A good researcher is one who is conceptually clear. He uses terms uniformly and appriately, if not, his whole exercise will be defective.
    d, A good researcher is one who dispels prejudice. He doesn’t conceive any pre-conceived notion, rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    e, A good researcher is ever willing to explain and teach others about what they do, otherwise, reseacher without application and dissemination is meaningless.
    f, A good reseacher is one who takes some risks of failure and/or rejection and follow that lunch or gut feeling they have about something.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    i, It is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning: Research is not just required for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. Knowledge is commonly deacribed as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual.
    ii, It is used for exploration: It is used to explore more specific questions about an overall topic such as bullying, the data collected during this type of research may be used for future comparisons.
    iii, It is used for description: It decribes the problem or issue at hand but does not explain why or how. Descriptive research describes what is observed about a particular issue. Statistics are example of descriptive research.
    iv, Explanatory research: It addresses why things happen, why certain crimes are commited in one area of the comparison to another, or why one state has a higher auto-theft rate than another state.
    v, Application research: Applied research is conducted when there is a need for facts or information regarding a policy or implications. Evaluation and policy/problem analysis are the two main types of applied research.

    METHODS OF RESEARCH
    There are four major methods of research:
    i, Qualitative data: This is used for questions about ideas, experiences and meanings, or to study something that cannot be described numerically.
    ii, Quantitative data: It is used to develop a more mechanistic understanding of a topic, or your research involves hypotheis testing.
    iii, Descriptive research: Here, you collect data about your study subject without intervening. The validity of your research will depend on your sampling method.
    iv, Experimental research: Here, you syatematically intervene in a process and measure the outcome. The validity of your research will depend on your experimental design. To conduct an experiment, you need to be able to vary your dependent variable, precisely measure your dependent variable and control for confounding variables.

  106. Avatar ODO RUTH SOMTOCHI (2018/242445) says:

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    Research means search for knowledge. A good researcher is a researcher who is ntelligent, curious, innovative. A good researcher show keen interest. They are capable of critical thinking, possess analytical skills, work with dignity and motivation, and have patience. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    Intellectual Curiosity. A researcher undertakes reflective thinking, raises questions to find answer, and continues to read the related literature. As the problem becomes clear he formulates and tests hypotheses which may be accepted or rejected
    Prudence. A researcher uses the 4M’s (Man, Money, Materials & Machinery) effectively and economically.
    High Tolerance to Healthy Criticism. A researcher is doubtful of the veracity of the results are collected honestly
    He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.
    He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.
    The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.
    The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.
    He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Classification of Research by Purpose
    Classification of Research by Purpose Research and development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    Classification of Research by Purpose  Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions
    Classification of Research by Method Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    Classification of Research by Method  Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    Classification of Research by Method Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  107. Avatar Ugwu chidiebere loveth says:

    NAME: UGWU CHIDIEBERE LOVETH
    REG NO: 2018/242902
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    Email: ugwuchidiebereloveth1@gmail.com

    No1)
    Researcher from my own understanding
    A researcher is someone who searches, who looks for new things, new ideas and take limits to find solutions to certain questions. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re broad minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions. They are ones who take materials, documents, information and data used in carrying out research.

    No2)
    The 5 Characteristics of a Great Researcher
    Open
    It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.

    Curious
    The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.

    Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.

    Expert
    Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    An Evangelist
    Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being

    No3
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    No4.)
    Research can be classified by purpose or by methods as follows:
    a) Objective-based classification;
    Pure research: This comprises of basic and fundamental research. The main motivation behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. It is purely theoretical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behaviour, but it doesn’t not seek to solve any particular existing problem.
    b) Applied research: This is the use of basic research or past theories, knowledge, and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems in the present situation.
    c) Action research: this is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action researches are conducted where there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem.
    d) Evaluation research: There is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guidelines by the government, firms, or organization.

  108. Avatar Ugwu chidiebere loveth says:

    NAME: UGWU CHIDIEBERE LOVETH
    REG NO: 2018/242902
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    Email: ugwuchidiebereloveth1@gmail.co

    No1)
    Researcher from my own understanding
    A researcher is someone who searches, who looks for new things, new ideas and take limits to find solutions to certain questions. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re broad minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions. They’re ones who take materials, documents, information and data used in carrying out research.

    No2)
    The 5 Characteristics of a Great Researcher
    Open
    It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.

    Curious
    The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.

    Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.

    Expert
    Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    An Evangelist
    Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being

    No3
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    No4.)
    Research can be classified by purpose or by methods as follows:
    a) Objective-based classification;
    Pure research: This comprises of basic and fundamental research. The main motivation behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. It is purely theoretical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behaviour, but it doesn’t not seek to solve any particular existing problem.
    b) Applied research: This is the use of basic research or past theories, knowledge, and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems in the present situation.
    c) Action research: this is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action researches are conducted where there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem.
    d) Evaluation research: There is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guidelines by the government, firms, or organization.

  109. Avatar Ugwu chidiebere loveth says:

    NAME: UGWU CHIDIEBERE LOVETH
    REG NO: 2018/242902
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    Email: ugwuchidiebereloveth1@gmail.co

    No1)
    Researcher from my own understanding
    A researcher is someone who searches, who looks for new things, new ideas and take limits to find solutions to certain questions. A researcher is one that sets himself apart for expeditions, adventures that will help develop new techniques and proves it. Researchers are often seen as scientists because that is the area they operate in order to develop solutions to scientific problems. Researchers are people with a wide scope of mind that can be able to accommodate lots of things in thier mind. They’re broad minded, and with this they are able to figure out ways to get things done with edifying solutions. They’re ones who take materials, documents, information and data used in carrying out research.

    No2)
    The 5 Characteristics of a Great Researcher
    Open
    It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.

    Curious
    The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.

    Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.

    Expert
    Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.

    An Evangelist
    Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being

    No3
    1. He should be a votary of truth, truth should be his goal.

    2. He should be able to dispel prejudice. He should not conceive any pre-conceived notion; rather he should maintain objectivity while gathering information.

    3. The researcher should be capable of gathering accurate and in-depth information from the respondents.

    4. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and should not be complacent with approximates.

    5. He should always maintain precision and must try to avoid unnecessary details.

    6. He must analyze and interpret the collected information with a positive spirit and in the proper sense, notwithstanding his personal requirement or benefit.

    7. As a scientific genius, the research investigator must be adequately sensitive to difficulties “Where less gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt.”

    8. He should be in possession of sufficient moral courage to face the difficult situation and should not be discouraged due to non-cooperation of the respondents or nature of the research problem under investigation.

    9. The researcher should be able to utilize his time properly in a balanced manner.

    10. While making generalizations, the researcher must cautiously bear in mind that there is no short cut to truth. Therefore he must wait to obtain complete data and always eschew hasty statement. As a scientific man, says Karl Pearson, he should strive at self elimination in his judgment to provide an argument which is true for each individual mind as for his own.

    11. A good researcher is always apathetic to the approval or disapproval of society. Rather, he should be bold enough to present his findings of research to the society, notwithstanding its disapproval.

    12. The researcher should be conceptually clear. He should use the terms uniformly and appropriately. Otherwise, his whole exercise will be defective.

    13. The researcher should not only be careful in selecting the research tools but also properly trained so as to use these tools to procure reliable and valid data.

    14. The researcher should also develop proper communicative skill and the ability to establish rapport with the respondents so as to elicit proper response.
    15. Knowledge in the language of the respondents will be of immense help for the researcher. This will enable him not only to communicate the questions properly but also to cognize the responses properly.
    16. Awareness of the possible drawbacks and shortcomings of research is very essential on the part of a good researcher. By knowing it before, the researcher may try to minimize such problems, although it is well high impossible to claim complete perfection of a research work.

    No4.)
    Research can be classified by purpose or by methods as follows:
    a) Objective-based classification;
    Pure research: This comprises of basic and fundamental research. The main motivation behind pure research is to expand man’s knowledge. It is purely theoretical to increase our knowledge and understanding of certain phenomenon or behaviour, but it doesn’t not seek to solve any particular existing problem.
    b) Applied research: This is the use of basic research or past theories, knowledge, and methods for solving an existing problem. It deals with practical problems in the present situation.
    c) Action research: this is a type of research that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues, or phenomenon through observation and reflection, and deliberate intervention to improve practice. Action researches are conducted where there is need to provide an immediate solution to a particular problem.
    d) Evaluation research: There is usually an acceptable standard of operation or guidelines by the government, firms, or organization. Evaluation research tries to check the extent of compliance to such guidelines.

  110. Avatar Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel says:

    NAME: IK-UKENNAYA EZEKIEL
    REG NO: 2018/ 249 788
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL : ezekielikukennaya4@gmail.com

    ECO 391 ONLINE QUIZ 5
    QUESTIONS:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    QUESTION 1
    A good researcher in my understanding is a researcher who is intellectually curious, humble, resilience , and follows scientific method in collecting data , analysing data to arrive at a desired, verifiable and reliable result of his study.

    QUESTION 2
    A researcher is characterised by intellectual curiosity, activeness, sincerity, being scientific and good reputation.
    QUESTION 3
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    There are many qualities of a good Researcher, some of them are:
    1. Research oriented and resilient: A good researcher always has burning desire for research to find out why certain economic phenomenon are the way they are. He is dogged in his research process.
    2. PRUDENCE: A good Researcher carefully conduct research study at the right time and right place, wisely, efficiently and economically.
    3. BEING SCIENTIFIC: He carefully uses the right step and methods in conducting a research.
    4. EFFECTIVE: A good researcher does the right thing. He is successful in producing the desired result.
    5. ACTIVE: A good researcher is always ready to engage in physical or intellectual activities to achieve a desired result.
    6. RESOURCEFULNESS : This means having the ability to find quick, skillful and clever way of dealing with situations and overcoming difficulties.
    7. CREATIVE: A got researcher has the ability to use ideas to create new things or doing things in a new way.
    8. A good researcher is humble and gives an honest result of his research.
    9. REPUTABLE: A good researcher must not be a person of questionable character, people must hold him with high repute.

    QUESTION 4

    CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Research is classified under two broad categories which include:
    1. Purpose or Objective- Based Classification.
    2. Method or Procedure- Based Classification.
    OBJECTIVE- BASED CLASSIFICATION
    Objective-based classification is based on the aim or goal of conducting a research. is sub- divided into pure research , Applied research, Action research and Evaluation research.
    • Pure research: This is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken to acquire knowledge without looking for long-term benefit, other than the advancement of knowledge.
    • Applied research: This refers to use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and method for solving an existing problem.
    • Action research: This combines action and research to examine specific question, issue or phenomenon to find an immediate solution to a particular problem.
    • Evaluation research: Evaluation research is used to check the extent of compliance to an acceptable standard of operation or guidelines by the government, firm or organization.
    Procedure-based classification
    As the name implies, this classification is based on the method employed in conducting research. It is sub-divided into Historical research, Statistical research and survey research.
    • Historical research: This type of research examines past events or combination of events to find out what happened in the past, their origin, their changing trends and impact on society. Sources of data for this type of research are public records: library sources or Archival sources and interviews.
    • Statistical research: This is a form of research where mass of data is collected and aggregated from statistical books such as National Bureau Of statistics ( reviews and bulletins), Central Bank publications and so on.
    • Survey research: Surveys are systematic way of asking people to volunteer information about their attitudes, behaviors, opinions and beliefs. The respondents of survey questions give answer based on how they really think and act. Survey research is further classified based on percentage of variables used which include total Surveys and samples surveys; and Based on the data collection instrument used comprising of interview surveys, Observational surveys, Questionnaire Surveys, Panel Surveys, Telephone Surveys and Mail Surveys.

  111. Avatar EZE UCHECHUKWU says:

    ASSIGNMENT AND QUIZ
    Eco. 391- Research Methods (Online Quiz/Discussion 5)—25-9-2021 (Qualities of a Good Researcher and Classification of Scientific Research)
    NAME: EZE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/241866
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 300L
    EMAIL: uchechukwu.eze.241866@unn.edu.ng
    QUESTIONS:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyses this sentence explicitly.
    Best regards
    ANSWERS
    1. A Good Researcher is someone who must have deep thinking and sustainably inquiry of things (intellectual curiosity), and must carefully carry out research activities effectively and economically (prudence),and a researcher must be critical or doubtful of results (healthy criticism).He/she must be honest in carrying out research work and be must creative in the dealings

    2. Characteristics of a good Researcher
    (a). He/she must have Analytical mindset: be able to analyses data or information systematically with error
    (b) He/she must be intelligent in dealing with data collection
    (c) He/she must total committed to work
    (d) A good researcher must be studious
    (e) A Good researcher must excellent in writing and verbal communication skills
    (f) He/she must be systematic, that is taking a step at a time and following the due procedures
    (g) A Good researcher must have the habit of questioning things, why are thing like this? Etc
    (h) He/she must be observant and ability to stay calm

    3. Qualities of a Good researcher will be represented below;
    RESEARCHER
    WHERE
    R =Reliable: the research work or result be trusted and free form bias
    E = Excellence: the researcher should be able to communicate some level of excellent and diligent work
    S =Studious: he/she must have the habit of studying because with thorough study fact wont not be find or discover
    E =Expressiveness: it entails the researcher ability to communicate the results of the finding to the people
    A = Accurate: the work should be void of error of any kind
    R =Replicable: the research done by one should repeatable under same condition irrespective the location
    C =Careful and constructive: the work should be done with utmost care and be constructive in nature
    H =Hungry for knowledge: the researcher must total yield to acquire knowledge or information
    E = Economical: wastefulness of resources should be highly avoid
    R = Resourceful: the work be pertinent to the society at large not merely an academic exercise
    4. Classifications of Research
    Pure Research or by method
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Features:
    • It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    • It discovers new facts.
    • It gives theoretical reports for solution
    Applied Research
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Features:
    • It tests and verifies theories
    • It discovers new facts
    • It gives immediate answer to a question
    Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Features:
    • It is quick service oriented
    • It is taking immediate action
    • It is sensitive to time and place

    Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programs about their effects and positive solution. Types of evaluation:
    • Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    • Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    • Terminal Evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the program
    Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words, it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research. Features:
    • It is a cooperative research
    • It helps in study the whole phenomena
    • It brings comparison in different disciplines
    Research by Methods
    Types of research methods
    Experiments
    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer.
    Surveys
    Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.
    Questionnaire
    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later.
    Interviews
    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place.
    Case studies
    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records.
    Participant and non-participant observation
    Studies which involve observing people can be divided into two main categories, namely participant observation and non-participant observation.
    Observational trials
    Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings. Longitudinal approaches examine the behavior of a group of people over a fairly lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors.
    Studies using the Delphi method
    The Delphi method was developed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in the military domain. It has been considered particularly useful in helping researchers determine the range of opinions which exist on a particular subject, in investigating issues of policy or clinical relevance and in trying to come to a consensus on controversial issues. The objectives can be roughly divided into those which aim to measure diversity and those which aim to reach consensus and the society as a whole.

  112. Avatar Ezenwa chibuzo franklin says:

    Name : EZENWA CHIBUZO FRANKLIN
    REG NO: 2018/242324
    DEPT : EDUCATION /ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: chibuzofranklin20@gmail.com
    Questions
    1: from your understanding who is a good researcher
    2: what are the characteristics of a researcher
    3:what are the qualities of researcher
    4: Research can classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse these explicity
    1 From your understanding who is a good researcher?
    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.
    According to my own understanding, a good researcher must adopt a critical way of thinking in gathering of facts and he or she should be hardworking, deligent, focused, and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2 characteristics of a researcher
    1 A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2 Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    3 Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3 Qualities of a researcher
    1 Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2 Least Discouragement: If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    3 Capacity of Depth Information: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    4 Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    5 Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    6 The ability to stay calm
    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    7 Intelligence
    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)

    , 8 Curiosity
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    4 classification of research by method and purpose
    1 There are many kinds of classification of research which are classified according to their distinctive features. Some of the classifications are as follows: (1) According to Purpose( 2). According to Goal (3)According to the Levels of Investigation (4) According to the type of Analysis ( 5) According to Scope (6) According to the Choice of Answers to Problems (7.) According to Statistical Content (8) According to Time Element
    2 According to Purpose( a) . Predictive or Prognostic – it has the purpose to determine the future operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better. (b.) Directive – it determines what should be done based on the findings. (c) . Illuminative – it is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable being investigated.
    3 According to Goal a.Basic or Pure – it is done for the development of theories and principles. It is conducted for intellectual pleasure of learning. b.Applied – the application of pure research. This is testing the efficiency of theories and principles.
    4 According to the Level of Investigation( a) .Exploratory – the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation. (b.) Descriptive – the researcher studies the relationships of the variables. (c) Experimental – the researcher studies the effects of the variables on each other.
    5 According to the Types of Analysis (a) .Analytic Approach – the researcher attempts to identify and isolate the components of the research situation. (b) Holistic Approach – this begins with the total situation, focusing attention on the system first and on its internal relationships.
    6 According to Scope Action Research This involves the application of the steps of the scientific method in the classroom problems. This type of research is done on a very limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so big.
    7 According to Choice of Answers to Problems (a) Evaluation research – All possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher. (b) Developmental research – the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process than has been available.
    8 According to Statistical Content( a) Quantitative or Statistical Research – is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study.( b) Non-quantitative Research– this is research in which the use of the quantity or statistics is practically not utilize.
    9 According to Time Element (a) Historical research – describes what was. (b) Descriptive research – describes what is. (c) Experimental research – describes what will be.

  113. Avatar OKONKWO CHISOM JUDITH says:

    NAME: OKONKWO CHISOM JUDITH
    REG NO:2018/243044
    Dept: CSS . ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY
    COURSE CODE:ECO391
    ASSIGNMENT :
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly

    ANSWERS 
    1. From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    A good researcher is someone who is able to identify a problem that needs investigation or urgent intervention and knows how to go about finding answers or solutions to this problem, using scientific steps, methods or procedures to arrive at conclusions that has general applicability.

    Further more, A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    ANS: the following are characteristics of a researcher:
    I. Curiosity – You may have the essential intelligence, but if you aren’t curious enough, you won’t be motivated to go deeper for new information.
    II. Intelligence – Research necessitates critical thinking, but most importantly, common sense.
    III. Commitment – it’s a challenging job; the hours can be long, and the deadlines can be tight. So researchers are committed.
    IV. Quick thinker – Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast.
    V. Creativity – Researchers usually creates new ideas, new approaches of doing things, a better method of analysis and as well as new innovations.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    a. He should be a believer in truth, and truth should be his ultimate goal.
    b. He must be able to overcome prejudice. He should not have any preconceived notions while obtaining facts; rather, he should remain objective.
    c. The researcher must be able to collect accurate and detailed data from the respondents.
    d. The researcher should be a keen observer of the phenomena and not settle for rough estimates.
    e. He must maintain accuracy at all times and try to avoid unnecessary details.4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyze this sentence explicitly.
    f. The research investigator, as a scientific genius, must be sensitive to problems. “Where less brilliant folks pass by unconcerned about their abilities.”

    No4. The Purpose of Research
    1. Pure Research
    Pure research is the knowledge of facts and theories to give us satisfaction of knowledge and understanding. It discovers general principles for a problem solution. Features:
    • It keeps the foundation of initial study.
    • It discovers new facts.
    • It gives theoretical reports for solution.

    2. Applied Research
    Applied research is the implementation of theoretical study upon a problematic situation. It applied its theories and facts to know about the nature of the problem and give a concrete shape for the solution. This is practical work in the field. Features:
    • It tests and verifies theories
    • It discovers new facts
    • It gives immediate answer to a question

    3.Action Research
    Action research is based on the taking of immediate action on a happening, event or situation. The researcher is actively involved in the solution of the problems. Features:
    • It is quick service oriented
    • It is taking immediate action
    • It is sensitive to time and place
    4. Evaluation Research
    This type of research is an evaluation of some programs working for the construction of problematic areas. It is the dankness of implemented programmes about their effects and positive solution. Types of evaluation:
    • Concurrent evaluation-means continuous process
    • Phase or periodic evaluation-stage wise.
    • Terminal evaluation-Evaluation after the completion of the programme.

    5. Inter Disciplinary Research
    It is the study of structure or functions of a particular discipline or comparison of one discipline with another. In other words it is the comparison of a developmental stage. It is also called co-ordinate research. Features:
    • It is a cooperative research
    • It helps in study the whole phenomena
    • It brings comparison in different disciplines

    ○Research by Methods
    Types of research methods

    1. Experiments
    People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer.

    2. Surveys
    It involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey”which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.

    3. Questionnaire
    Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later.

    4. Interviews
    Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place.

    5. Case studies
    Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records.

  114. Avatar AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI says:

    NAME: AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI
    REG NO: 2018/248 680
    DEPARTMENT : EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    EMAIL : lovethamarachi84@gmail.com

    ECO 391 ONLINE QUIZ/DISCUSS 5
    QUESTIONS:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”
    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    QUESTION 1
    A good researcher is one who is humble, resilience , sincere and intellectually curious in finding out why certain economic phenomenon are the way they are by carefully following a systematic steps in collecting data, analysing such data to come up with a reliable result of his study.
    QUESTION 2
    A researcher is characterised by intellectual curiosity, activeness, sincerity, being scientific and good reputation.
    QUESTION 3
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    There are many qualities of a good Researcher, some of them are:
    1. Research oriented and resilient: A good researcher always has burning desire for research to find out why certain economic phenomenon are the way they are. He is dogged in his research process.
    2. PRUDENCE: A good Researcher carefully conduct research study at the right time and right place, wisely, efficiently and economically.
    3. BEING SCIENTIFIC: He carefully uses the right step and methods in conducting a research.
    4. EFFECTIVE: A good researcher does the right thing. He is successful in producing the desired result.
    5. ACTIVE: A good researcher is always ready to engage in physical or intellectual activities to achieve a desired result.
    6. RESOURCEFULNESS : This means having the ability to find quick, skillful and clever way of dealing with situations and overcoming difficulties.
    7. CREATIVE: A got researcher has the ability to use ideas to create new things or doing things in a new way.
    8. A good researcher is humble and gives an honest result of his research.
    9. REPUTABLE: A good researcher must not be a person of questionable character, people must hold him with high repute.

    QUESTION 4

    CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
    Research is classified under two broad categories which include:
    1. Purpose or Objective- Based Classification.
    2. Method or Procedure- Based Classification.
    OBJECTIVE- BASED CLASSIFICATION
    This has to do with the purpose of research. It is sub- divided into pure research , Applied research, Action research and Evaluation research.
    • Pure research: This is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken to acquire knowledge without looking for long-term benefit, other than the advancement of knowledge.
    • Applied research: This refers to use of basic research or past theories, knowledge and method for solving an existing problem.
    • Action research: This combines action and research to examine specific question, issue or phenomenon to find an immediate solution to a particular problem.
    • Evaluation research: Evaluation research is used to check the extent of compliance to an acceptable standard of operation or guidelines by the government, firm or organization.
    Procedure-based classification
    As the name implies, this classification is based on the method employed in conducting research. It is sub-divided into Historical research, Statistical research and survey research.
    • Historical research: This type of research examines past events or combination of events to find out what happened in the past, their origin, their changing trends and impact on society. Sources of data for this type of research are public records: library sources or Archival sources and interviews.
    • Statistical research: This is a form of research where mass of data is collected and aggregated from statistical books such as National Bureau Of statistics ( reviews and bulletins), Central Bank publications and so on.
    • Survey research: Surveys are systematic way of asking people to volunteer information about their attitudes, behaviors, opinions and beliefs. The respondents give answer to survey questions based on how they think and act. Survey research is further classified based on percentage of variables used which include total Surveys and samples surveys; and Based on the data collection instrument used comprising of interview surveys, Observational surveys, Questionnaire Surveys, mail Surveys ,Panel Surveys and Telephone Surveys.

  115. Avatar Ezenwa chibuzo franklin says:

    Name : EZENWA CHIBUZO FRANKLIN
    REG NO: 2018/242324
    DEPT : EDUCATION /ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: chibuzofranklin20@gmail.com
    Questions
    1: from your understanding who is a good researcher
    2: what are the characteristics of a researcher
    3:what are the qualities of researcher
    4: Research can classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse these explicity
    1 From your understanding who is a good researcher?
    A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.
    According to my own understanding, a good researcher must adopt a critical way of thinking in gathering of facts and he or she should be hardworking, deligent, focused, and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2 characteristics of a researcher
    1 A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    2 Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    3 Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3 Qualities of a researcher
    1 Friendly with Respondents: A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2 Least Discouragement: If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    Free From Prejudice: A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    3 Capacity of Depth Information: A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    4 Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    5 Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    6 The ability to stay calm
    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    7 Intelligence
    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)

    , 8 Curiosity
    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)
    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)

    9 Quick thinker
    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)
    4 classification of research by method and purpose
    1 There are many kinds of classification of research which are classified according to their distinctive features. Some of the classifications are as follows: (1) According to Purpose( 2). According to Goal (3)According to the Levels of Investigation (4) According to the type of Analysis ( 5) According to Scope (6) According to the Choice of Answers to Problems (7.) According to Statistical Content (8) According to Time Element
    2 According to Purpose( a) . Predictive or Prognostic – it has the purpose to determine the future operation of the variables under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better. (b.) Directive – it determines what should be done based on the findings. (c) . Illuminative – it is concerned with the interaction of the components of the variable being investigated.
    3 According to Goal a.Basic or Pure – it is done for the development of theories and principles. It is conducted for intellectual pleasure of learning. b.Applied – the application of pure research. This is testing the efficiency of theories and principles.
    4 According to the Level of Investigation( a) .Exploratory – the researcher studies the variables pertinent to a specific situation. (b.) Descriptive – the researcher studies the relationships of the variables. (c) Experimental – the researcher studies the effects of the variables on each other.
    5 According to the Types of Analysis (a) .Analytic Approach – the researcher attempts to identify and isolate the components of the research situation. (b) Holistic Approach – this begins with the total situation, focusing attention on the system first and on its internal relationships.
    6 According to Scope Action Research This involves the application of the steps of the scientific method in the classroom problems. This type of research is done on a very limited scope to solve a particular problem which is not so big.
    7 According to Choice of Answers to Problems (a) Evaluation research – All possible courses of action are specified and identified and the researcher. (b) Developmental research – the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable instrument or process than has been available.
    8 According to Statistical Content( a) Quantitative or Statistical Research – is one in which inferential statistics are utilized to determine the results of the study.( b) Non-quantitative Research– this is research in which the use of the quantity or statistics is practically not utilize.
    9 According to Time Element (a) Historical research – describes what was. (b) Descriptive research – describes what is. (c) Experimental research – describes what will be.

  116. Avatar Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma says:

    Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma
    2018/244292
    Edu/Economics
    Eco 391
    An Assignment:
    Clearly answer the following questions in details.
    1. From your understanding, who is a good researcher?
    A good researcher is one who seek to find answers to questions, one who is intellectually curious to know why things are the way it is and then being creative enough to search for ideas that will bring solutions, in a systematic way.
    A researcher is also who is rigorous, resilent and hardworking towards finding about a phenomenon, he refuse to give up no matter the difficulty in order to bring innovation, inventions.
    2. What are the characteristics of a researcher?
    i.A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    ii.Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    iii. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    iv. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    3. Qualities of a good researcher
    i.An analytical mind: “As a researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one.You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other.it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously.

    ii. A friendly person: This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional and friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants
    iii. The ability to stay calm: “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like.
    Intellengent:Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense.
    iv. Curiosity: You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight.As a researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract.
    v. Quick thinker: Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast.
    vi. Commitment: It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short. One need to be committed to be able finish the work.
    vii. Excellent written and verbal communication skills: a reseacher need to have good verbal and written so that different audiences can clearly understand the findings of the research and what it means for them.
    viii. Sympathetic: Having a sympathetic ear when listening to some respondents’ moans and groans is always a good skill to have and all about getting your questions answered.
    ix. Systematic: Check, check and check again. It sounds simple but I’ve definitely learnt that building in a proper amount of time for checking your work always pays dividends. This can be applied to all parts of the research processes.
    4.Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Research classified by purpose are pure research, applied research, action and evaluation research. This classification gives a view of the aim, objectives of carrying out such research,is the purpose for solving emergency problem, to add to already known knowledge or to make policies where the research findings can be applied. Research by method are historical research, statistical and survey research. These are methods a researcher follows in order to get information or data that will help the researcher to understand a phenomenon and also in policy making. This methods can be through historical inference, through statistical data or by survey.
    This classification gives a researcher direction on which aspect he/she is researching on.

  117. Avatar UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH says:

    NAME: UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH
    REG NO: 2018/247368
    COURSE CODE: RESEARCH METHOD
    CORSE NO: ECO 391
    DEPT SOCIAL: SCIENCE EDUCATION
    UNIT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    EMAIL: umeayoekwomchukwuelijah@gmail.com

    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?

    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    A researcher is a person who updates his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, he must be a researcher who must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    Being a good researcher sets the foundation for a project to run its course smoothly. But it doesn’t just happen overnight although being able to remain calm, open-minded, intuitive, and approachable are key qualities to move in the right direction.

    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher?

    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.

    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?

    The qualities of a good researcher is as follows:

    1. An analytical mind

    “As a market researcher you are constantly analysing a variety of factors. Why does the client ultimately want to do this research? What is the appropriate methodology? When should this research take place? What are the appropriate questions to ask and how? Why did the respondent say that? What are the findings telling us? Why are they telling us that? How do I best communicate the findings? etc. On a daily basis researchers must be able to take a step back and analyse the situation presented to them. The obvious answer is not necessarily the right one” (Gareth Hodgson)

    “You have to be able to see the bigger picture as well as the detail. People often find it easier to do one or the other- it is a skilled researcher that can do both simultaneously” (Richard Walker)

    2. A people person

    “This is important for clients –buyers of research would rather work with professional AND friendly consultants. Also for respondents – to get the best out of interview / focus group participants” (Richard Walker)

    3. The ability to stay calm

    “It can be really stressful as a researcher sometimes, especially when you have pressing deadlines or are experiencing problems with a data set, for example. When these situations occur, you just have to keep focused and think logically – there will always be an end point, even if it doesn’t feel like it!” (Bethan Turner)

    4. Intelligence

    “Research requires critical analysis but most of all common sense” (Liz Brierley)

    5. Curiosity

    “You may have the necessary intelligence but if you are not curious enough then you won’t be passionate about delving deeper to unearth more insight” (Anthony Shephard)

    “At the end of the day, the role of a market researcher is to find out about other people’s business and tell it to other people. To be a market researcher you have to have an inherent interest in what other people think (potentially about absolutely anything!), and the nosier you are, the greater depth of information you can extract” (Gareth Hodgson)

    6. Quick thinker

    “Things don’t always go to plan so you need to be able to think fast” (Anthony Shephard)

    7. Commitment
    It’s a tough job – the hours can be long, the deadlines short” (Richard Walker)

    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    The types of research by purpose fall into three categories such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.

    Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    1. Basic Research
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main motivation is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows.

    Strengths of Basic Research
    Therefore it has some merits and according to R. Stephen Berry (2011) basic research has following merits:

    Basic research is typically curiosity-driven and researchers develop their curiosity through their observations.
    Basic research frequently leads to new insights into the essence of nature, the human mind, and the complex interactions between their elements.
    It is usually unpredictable in terms of its course and outcomes.
    It requires a special way of thinking that often combines seemingly unrelated facts and explores unknown fields necessary to make new discoveries. It is for this reason that basic research is frequently multidisciplinary in nature.
    It is the verifiable which makes scientific knowledge a firmer kind of knowledge that anything else we have. This information includes not only data in databases, but also the information found in journals and textbooks, the interpretation of data, and the concepts that underlie these.
    Limitations of Basic Research
    It is limited in nature as it never helps to make discoveries, create or invent anything. But it just expands one’s knowledge as it is a theoretical but not practical research.

    2. Applied Research
    Another types of research by purpose is applied research or field research. It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.

    Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.

    Strengths of Applied Research
    It is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake and it is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies.

    3. Action Research
    Action research is an important types of research by purpose. It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.

    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

    As (Reason & Bradbury, 2002) assessed that action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change.

    Strengths of Action Research
    It is a practical way for individuals to explore the nature of their practice and to improve it.
    Action research encourages practitioners to become knowledge-makers, rather than merely knowledge-users.
    Action research proceeds through a process of planning, action and reflection upon action. This can be thought of as an action-reflection ‘cycle’.
    Limitations of Action Research
    Action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.
    The process can be messy; as research proceeds, wider links are likely to be identified.

    REFERENCE

    https://www.mustard-research.com/blog/general/top-10-qualities-required-be-good-researcher/

    http://studylecturenotes.com/qualities-of-a-good-researcher/

    https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-research/amp/

    https://www.mvorganizing.org/what-are-the-five-characteristics-of-a-good-research/

  118. Avatar OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    Question 1 1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    Answer:
    From my own understand,; A researcher is someone who ,diligently and rationally committed himself to the systematic gathering and arrangements of data for knowledge acquisition or advancement. researcher is a generic term for a person who may study a subject for a better understanding of facts, and he may be a scientist or a scholar in his field. If a person conducts research in the field of religion, he is called a research scholar and not a research scientist.
    Question 2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Answer: every good researcher that unigue attitudes which they are known for, below are some of the characteristics of a good researcher:

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable prototcol (https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?)
    5. Lastly a good researcher must be objective unbaise and logical ,all his findings should be based on empiricism.
    Question 4 .What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?
    Answer; the following qualities must be possesed of a good researcher
    1.R. Rational,:. a good researcher must be very reanable in handling issues during any researcrh process.
    2 E. Expert: a good researcher must be an expert in his area of study.
    3.S. scientific,: his findings must be systematically organized
    4.E. Elegant
    5.A . accurate..q good research ought to be gathering accurate information at all time
    6.R. Resourcesful.
    7.C. creative: this is one of the major qualities a researcher could have to enable him produce unique and trusted result.
    8.8.H. Honest: a good researcher should always say the truth all the time
    9. E .Economical in spending.
    10.R. Reputable:a good researcher should live a life worthy of emulation.
    Question 4; Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer;
    Researcher can be classified by both purpose and methods . The purpose of research has to do with the reason for carrying out a particular research while the methods of research means the strategies and procedures of carrying out research this;
     Purpose of research:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Methods of research;
     Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research (Http/www.question pro.com).

  119. Avatar OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    Name: Obetta Chisom Grace
    Reg no: 2018/242216 .
    Dep: Education economics
    Question 1:

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    Answer:
    From my own understand,; A researcher is someone who ,diligently and rationally committed himself to the systematic gathering and arrangements of data for knowledge acquisition or advancement. researcher is a generic term for a person who may study a subject for a better understanding of facts, and he may be a scientist or a scholar in his field. If a person conducts research in the field of religion, he is called a research scholar and not a research scientist.
    Question 2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    Answer: every good researcher that unigue attitudes which they are known for, below are some of the characteristics of a good researcher:

    1. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    2. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    3. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    4. Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable prototcol (https://www.researchgate.net/search.Search.html?)
    5. Lastly a good researcher must be objective unbaise and logical ,all his findings should be based on empiricism.
    Question 4 .What are the Qualities of a Good researcher?
    Answer; the following qualities must be possesed of a good researcher
    1.R. Rational,:. a good researcher must be very reanable in handling issues during any researcrh process.
    2 E. Expert: a good researcher must be an expert in his area of study.
    3.S. scientific,: his findings must be systematically organized
    4.E. Elegant
    5.A . accurate..q good research ought to be gathering accurate information at all time
    6.R. Resourcesful.
    7.C. creative: this is one of the major qualities a researcher could have to enable him produce unique and trusted result.
    8.8.H. Honest: a good researcher should always say the truth all the time
    9. E .Economical in spending.
    10.R. Reputable:a good researcher should live a life worthy of emulation.
    Question 4; Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.
    Answer;
    Researcher can be classified by both purpose and methods . The purpose of research has to do with the reason for carrying out a particular research while the methods of research means the strategies and procedures of carrying out research this;
     Purpose of research:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Methods of research;
     Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research (Http/www.question pro.com).

  120. Avatar Ocheme Christiana Ene says:

    Name: Ocheme Christiana Ene
    Department :Economics
    Reg no: 2018/249273
    Course : Eco 391

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    A good researcheris one who is open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest. An important skill to be a good researcher is to be humble and to be able to listen to others. Even when a researcher works very hard and think that his/her project is “perfect”, there are always some flaws or some possibilities for improvement. … A researcher that works alone can do an excellent work.
    2.What are the Characteristics of a Researcher.

    It is based on the work of others.
    It can be replicated and doable .
    It is generalisable to other settings.
    It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    It is incremental.

    3.Qualities of a Good Researcher
    Qualities of a Good Researcher
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little timee.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    4.. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative. Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Research is defined as human. activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The. primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the. development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge,
    Research involves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:

    Information gathering and/or. Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring. Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing.
    Theory testing. Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations. . The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas..
    Research can be classified according to purpose and by method. Research by purpose shows the reason behind a specific research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    i. Pure research
    ii. Applied research
    iii. Action research, and
    iv. Evaluation research
    Research by method shows the different methods used in the research work. The type of research under this category includes:
    I. Historical research
    II. Statistical research
    III. Survey research
    IV. Case study
    V. Experimental research

  121. Avatar ONYEUKWU OBIOMA EMMANUEL 2018/251514 says:

    1.
    A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking. He/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest. Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a modern researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.
    The researcher must have specific intrinsic and acquired qualities, to be able to carry out research activities. Lack of these traits hinders the pursuit of research or makes conduction of research slow and difficult. The characteristics of a good researcher can be divided into the three categories of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral.

    2.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
    Cognitive Characteristics
    The most important characteristic of a researcher is reflection and thinking with the aim of answering the questions. The researcher uses his intellectual and background information to try and provide an answer for unsolved questions. So the major part of research activity focuses on reflections and thoughts rather than the presentation of research works in the form of books and theses. To have a clear picture of the researcher’s characteristics, we classify these traits into three general domains:
    Cognitive characteristics are also categorized into intrinsic and acquired sub-categories. Intrinsic characteristics refer to the innate abilities of a person. The most important of those are high intelligence and a good memory. So it’s not like that everyone has the ability to perform research, but only those who have talents. So many people may not have the capacity for intellectual and research activity. We will analyze the cognitive features in two domains of intrinsic and acquired characteristics. Intrinsic traits are given and acquired attributes are achievable by the individual through their efforts.
    Intrinsic Characteristics
    Being Talented: The most important characteristic of the intrinsic dimension is the gift of talent. If we classify different levels of talent into ranges of weak, medium, good, and brilliant talents. Considering the lowest level of talent (intellectually disabled) and the highest level of talent (geniuses), the talent required for the researcher is brilliant or good. So, people with poor and even moderate talents will not be very successful in their research activities. Given the importance of talent and the priority of one’s level of talent, we will analyze the concept of talent in greater detail.

    Open
    It is human nature to be drawn to favorites. In MR, these can be broad attractions, such as qual or quant (revealing a genetic predilection), Big Data, online, etc., or methodologies that fascinate. The best researchers are aware of their favorites, but are open to everything, regardless of color, size, shape or flavor. This is the versatile, objective researcher; grounded in the proven, but fully amendable to innovation, the new and different in the hunt for better insights and strategies.
    Curious
    The sister of Open, the best researchers are genuinely curious about what’s new and next, looking down the road or around the corner for a different way. This is not a passive endeavor, but requires a voracious reader and observer – a researcher who is connected and inquisitive. This is an open-minded approach to discovering new (and better) methodologies.
    Innovative
    The best researchers are innovators, adopting and implementing new approaches when new is better than existing or alternative approaches. How often do you do this? It’s often challenging and uncomfortable to change or be disruptive, but the best researchers will turn almost on a dime to evolve smartly.
    Expert
    Everybody’s an expert at something. Scratch beneath the surface of the best researchers and it won’t be long before you find their expertise. Scratch further and you’ll find that they used to be an expert at something else, but that that skill set has been overtaken by faster, better, cheaper, and will be again. This is where passion emerges, coincident with expertise.
    An Evangelist
    Sales, as a skill, is evergreen. The best researchers have an innate ability to market what they do. Enthusiasm, humor, and ease of delivery all are telling. Effective selling of research insights and strategies, whether through storytelling, cheerleading or raw mental horsepower displayed seamlessly, is a predicate to being best.
    3.
    QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER .
    1. Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.
    2. Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.
    3. Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.
    4. Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.
    5. Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.
    6. Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.
    7. Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.
    8. Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.
    9. Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.
    10. Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.
    11. Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.
    12. Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.
    13. Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.
    14. Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity.
    15. Good in Conversation. The conversation of a good researcher should be sympathetic and not boring. must have the skill and art to be liked by the people.
    16. Having Clear Terminology. A good researcher’s terminology would be clear. It would be free from out wards to become difficult for the respondents to answer.
    17. Trained in Research Tools. Research is impossible without its techniques and tools. So, it should be better for a researcher to know about the use of these tools.
    18. Dress and Behavior same to the area. The dress and the behavior of the researcher should be same as to the study area. it is must for him to convince the people easily and adopt their dress.
    19. More Analytical. A researcher would be different from other people of the society. On the basis of this quality he may observe the situation very well. Then he should be able to solve the problems easily.
    20. Equality and Justice. A good researcher should believe on equality and justice. As equal to all type of people he may collect better information’s from the respondents.
    4.
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE AND METHOD
    Classification of Research by Purpose – Basic v/s Applied research – Research and development – Evaluative research Classification of Research by Method – Historical research – Descriptive research – Experimental research
    Classification of Research by Purpose
    Basic vs Applied Research Basic research is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement. For example, much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Like the experiment of skinner on cats gave the principle of conditioning and reinforcement. Applied research is conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in educational problems. For example, applied research tests the principle of reinforcement to determine their effectiveness in improving learning (e.g. programmed instruction) and behavior (e.g. behavior modification).
    Classification of Research by Purpose
    Development research Brings new information to light. Focuses on the interaction between research and the production and evaluation of a new product. This type of research can be ‘formative’ (by collecting evaluative information about the product while it is being developed with the aim of using such information to modify and improve the development process). For example, an investigation of teachers’ reactions to the various drafts and redrafts of a new mathematics teaching kit, with the information gathered at each stage being used to improve each stage of the drafting process. It can be ‘summative’ (by evaluating the worth of the final product, especially in comparison to some other competing product). For example, a comparison of the mathematics achievement of students exposed to a new mathematics teaching kit in comparison with students exposed to the established mathematics curriculum.
    Classification of Research by Purpose 
    Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions

    Classification of Research by Method
    Historical research generates descriptions, and sometimes attempted explanations, of conditions, situations, and events that have occurred in the past. For example, a study that documents the evolution of teacher training programs since the turn of the century, with the aim of explaining the historical origins of the content and processes of current programs.
    Classification of Research by Method 
    Descriptive research provides information about conditions, situations, and events that occur in the present. It is also called statistical research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.
    Classification of Research by Method
    Experimental research is used in settings where variables defining one or more ‘causes’ can be manipulated in a systematic fashion in order to discern ‘effects’ on other variables. For example, an investigation of the effectiveness of two new textbooks using random assignment of teachers and students to three groups – two groups for each of the new textbooks, and one group as a ‘control’ group to use the existing textbook.

  122. Avatar Unadike Fabian Chinemezu says:

    NAME: UNADIKE FABIAN CHIMEMEZU
    REG NO: 2018/249698
    EMAIL: Fabzycf@gmail.com
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly answer the following questions in details”

    1.From your understanding, who is good researcher
    2. What are the Characteristics of a Researcher
    3. What are the Qualities of a Good researcher
    4. Research can be classified by purpose or by method. Discuss and analyse this sentence explicitly.

    ANSWERS
    1. A good researcher is someone who conducts
    research(an organized and systematic investigation into something). Scientists are often described as good researchers. A good researcher must be open-minded and must also adopt a critical way of thinking.
    Besides, he/she should be hard working, diligent, focused and devoted to his/her specific field of interest.
    Updating his/her knowledge is of utmost importance and can be accomplished in several ways, such as following the current literature, attending conferences or exchanging ideas with colleagues working in a relevant field.
    Furthermore, a good researcher must be resourceful and inventive in order to transform his/her scientific queries and hypotheses into a realisable protocol.Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    2. A researcher is somebody who performs research, independently as a principal investigator, the search for knowledge or in general any systematic investigation to establish facts. Researchers can work in academic, industrial, government, or private institutions.
    But for You to be a “Good Researcher”.,there are some characteristics You are meant to Possess.,and they are..:
    A). Cognitive Characteristics
    The most important characteristic of a researcher is reflection and thinking with the aim of answering the questions. The researcher uses his intellectual and background information to try and provide an answer for unsolved questions. So the major part of research activity focuses on reflections and thoughts rather than the presentation of research works in the form of books and theses.
    Cognitive characteristics are also categorized into intrinsic and acquired sub-categories. Intrinsic characteristics refer to the innate abilities of a person. The most important of those are high intelligence and a good memory. So it’s not like that everyone has the ability to perform research, but only those who have talents. So many people may not have the capacity for intellectual and research activity. We will analyze the cognitive features in two domains of intrinsic and acquired characteristics. Intrinsic traits are given and acquired attributes are achievable by the individual through their efforts.
    Intrinsic Characteristics..:
    Being Talented: The most important characteristic of the intrinsic dimension is the gift of talent. If we classify different levels of talent into ranges of weak, medium, good, and brilliant talents. Considering the lowest level of talent (intellectually disabled) and the highest level of talent (geniuses), the talent required for the researcher is brilliant or good. So, people with poor and even moderate talents will not be very successful in their research activities.
    Other notable Characteristics are
    i). Intellectual Curiosity – researcher undertakes deep thinking and inquiry of the things, problems, and situations around him.
    ii). Prudence – researcher is careful to conduct his study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently, and economically.
    iii). Healthy Criticism – the researcher is always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.
    iv). Intellectual Honesty – researcher is honest to collect or gather the data or facts in order to arrive at honest results.
    v). Intellectual creativity – a resourceful investigator always creates new researches.
    Etc

    3. Some of the Qualities of a Good Researcher are:
    Friendly with Respondents. A good researcher must have the quality to become friendly with respondents. It should have to talk to them in the same language in which the responding are answering and make happy made.

    Least Discouragement. If the people are not co-operate to give correct data, the researcher should not be discouraged and face the difficulties, it would be called a good researcher.

    Free From Prejudice. A researcher would be good if he has no prejudice or bias study about a problematic situation but he is capable of providing clear information’s.

    Capacity of Depth Information. A researcher should have the capacity to collect more and more information in little time.

    Accuracy. A researcher would be said to be good, if he is accurate in his views. His ideas must be accurate one.

    Truthful. A researcher must have to be truthful. Its idea would be free from false reports and saying information.

    Keen Observer. It is the quality of a good researcher that he may have the ideas of keen and deep observation.

    Careful in Listening. A researcher would be more careful in listening. He would have the quality of listening very low information’s even whispering.

    Low Dependency on Common Sense. A researcher should be called good if he has low dependency on common sense but keep in observation all the events and happenings.

    Least time Consumer. Good researcher must have the capacity of least time consuming. It will have to do more work in a little time because of the shortage of time.

    Economical. Good researcher must have control over his economic resources. He has to keep his finances within limits and spend carefully.

    Low Care of Disapprovals of Society. A good researcher have no care of the approvals or disapprovals but doing his work with zeal and patience to it.

    Expert in Subject. A researcher would be a good one if he has full command over his subject. He makes the use of his theoretical study in field work easily.

    Free From Hasty Statements. It is not expected from a good researcher to make his study hasty and invalid with wrong statements. Its study must be based on reality & validity

    4. Research is systematic way to find out facts and knowledge. There are two types of research, one is by Purpose and other is by Method. The types of research by purpose fall into three categories such as Basic, Applied and Action Research.
    A). Basic Research
    Basic research is mainly concerned with generalizations and the formulation of theory. It is driven by curiosity or interest in a subject. The main motivation is to expand man’s knowledge, not to create or invent something. Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows.

    Strengths of Basic Research
    Therefore it has some merits and according to R. Stephen Berry (2011) basic research has following merits:
    1. Basic research is typically curiosity-driven and researchers develop their curiosity through their observations.
    2. Basic research frequently leads to new insights into the essence of nature, the human mind, and the complex interactions between their elements.
    3. It is usually unpredictable in terms of its course and outcomes.
    4. It requires a special way of thinking that often combines seemingly unrelated facts and explores unknown fields necessary to make new discoveries. It is for this reason that basic research is frequently multidisciplinary in nature.
    5. It is the verifiable which makes scientific knowledge a firmer kind of knowledge that anything else we have. This information includes not only data in databases, but also the information found in journals and textbooks, the interpretation of data, and the concepts that underlie these.
    Limitations of Basic Research
    It is limited in nature as it never helps to make discoveries, create or invent anything. But it just expands one’s knowledge as it is a theoretical but not practical research.

    B). Applied Research
    Another types of research by purpose is applied research or field research. It involves practical problems of the society. It can be argued that the goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding program has affected school enrollment rates in drought-prone districts.

    Applied research is increasingly gaining favor as it helps to address the problems facing the world today such as overpopulation, pollution, depletion of natural resources, drought, floods, declining moral standards and disease. As Anderson, G. J. (1998) also felt that researchers in this field try to find solutions to existing educational problems. The approach is much more utilitarian as it strives to find information that will directly influence practice.
    Strengths of Applied Research
    It is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge’s sake and it is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies.

    C). Action Research
    Action research is an important types of research by purpose. It is a unique form of applied research and a reflective process of progressive problem solving. It is also called “practitioner research” because of the involvement of the actual practitioner in real life. Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data, analysis, and the interpretation of results. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions.

    It is done simply by action, hence the name. It can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

    As (Reason & Bradbury, 2002) assessed that action research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change.
    Strengths of Action Research
    1. It is a practical way for individuals to explore the nature of their practice and to improve it.
    2. Action research encourages practitioners to become knowledge-makers, rather than merely knowledge-users.
    3. Action research proceeds through a process of planning, action and reflection upon action. This can be thought of as an action-reflection ‘cycle’.
    Limitations of Action Research
    1. Action researcher works in the hurly burly of her/his own practice. Monitoring closely, this practice as they act within it, demands space and time which, almost by definition, the practice does not give easily. It is therefore difficult to maintain rigor in data gathering and critique.
    2. The process can be messy; as research proceeds, wider links are likely to be identified.
    3. The result can’t be generalize usually as C.F. Hamilton (1981) also noted that this is true, but someone else’s ideas or conclusions can always be tried out by other persons in their own practice, to see if they work for them or not.

    Research by Method
    The types of research by method falls into the categories such as Descriptive, Co-Relational, Causal Comparative and Experimental Research.
    A). Descriptive Research:
    It is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.

    Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic or idea. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation.

    Survey Method:
    Survey studies assess the characteristics of whole populations of people or situations. It is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. Surveys can be useful when a researcher wants to collect data on phenomena that cannot be directly observed.

    Merits of Survey Method:
    – Surveys are relatively inexpensive (especially self-administered surveys).
    – Surveys are useful in describing the characteristics of a large population; no other method of observation can provide this general capability.
    – There is flexibility at the creation phase in deciding how the questions will be administered: as face-to-face interviews, by telephone, as group administered written or oral survey, or by electronic means.

    Demerits of Survey Method:
    – Surveys are inflexible in that they require the initial study design (the tool and administration of the tool) to remain unchanged throughout the data collection.
    – The researcher must ensure that a large number of the selected sample will reply.
    – It may be hard for participants to recall information or to tell the truth about a controversial question.

    B). Co-Relational Research:
    Another type of research by method is co-relational research. It is also called associational research. In this kind of research, the relationships among two or more variables are studied without any attempt to influence them.

    Merits of Co-Relational Research:
    – Co-relational method is that we can make predictions about things when we know about correlations. If two variables are correlated, we can predict one based on the other.
    – Another advantage of co-relational designs is that they provide information concerning the degree of the relationship between the variables being studied.
    – It enables researchers to analyze the relationships among a large number of variables in a single study.
    – It tells us the correlation between the variables and predicts likely outcomes.
    Demerits of Co-Relational Research:
    – The problem that most students have with the correlation method is remembering that correlation does not measure cause. Correlation is not Causation
    – We know that education and income are positively correlated. We do not know if one caused the other. It might be that having more education causes a person to earn a higher income. It might be that having a higher income allows a person to go to school more. It might also be some third variable.
    – A correlation tells us that the two variables are related, but we cannot say anything about whether one caused the other. This method does not allow us to come to any conclusions about cause and effect.
    – Results of this kind of study music always are interpreted with caution because it cannot establish causation.
    C). Causal-Comparative Research:
    Similar to co-relational research, causal-comparative research is also an important type of research by method. It is used to examine associations among variables and researchers try to define the cause of differences that already exist between groups of individuals. Researcher already knows the difference between two groups and then look for possible causes of this difference.
    Merits of Causal-Comparative Research:
    – May take shorter time and cheaper than an experiment.
    – It is a simplest quantitative approach to co-relational study.
    – Allows cause-effect relationship study when subject manipulation is impossible or very difficult.
    Demerits of Causal-Comparative Research:
    – This kind of research cannot manipulate an independent variable, because the groups have already been exposed to the independent variable.
    – It also lacks of randomization of sample. Location, instrumentation, and loss of subjects may place treats to internal validity in causal-comparative study.
    – Ethical considerations often prevent manipulation of a variable that could be manipulated but would not be.
    D). Experimental Research:
    It’s a type of quantitative investigation in which at least one independent variable is manipulated, other relevant variables are controlled as much as possible, and the effect on one or more dependent variables is measured. It involves random sampling, control group, and pre-post tests. The format of experimental research usually includes a problem statement, hypotheses or questions, sampling techniques, review of the literature, procedures for testing the hypotheses, analyses, interpretation of analyses, and conclusions.
    Merits of Experimental Research:
    -It is the best types of research that can discover case-and-effect relationship, specifically in true experimental research; it manipulates the independent variable to uncover the relationship
    – In this method a researcher can have control over variables
    – It helps to gain insight into methods of instruction
    Demerits of Experimental Research:
    – Results may only apply to one situation and may be difficult to replicate
    – Human response can be difficult to measure
    – Political pressure may skew results
    5. Historical Research:
    It is the process of learning and understanding the background and growth of a chosen field of study that can offer insight into organizational culture, current trends, and future possibilities. This method is employed by those researchers who are interested in reporting events and/or conditions that occurred in the past. An attempt is made to establish facts in order to arrive at conclusions concerning past events or predict future events.
    Merits of Historical Research:
    – The research is not physically involved in the situation under study.
    – It enables researchers to learn about events that happened in the past or long ago and also provides a way to study trends.
    – Advantages of historical research: it is the only research method that can study stories from the past. It offers rich sources and more evidence than most other methods.
    Demerits of Historical Research:
    – Due to long time data collection, the theory or statement does not apply in current conditions
    – The way historical research controls the nature of the sample (representative) and instrumentation process (reliability) is weak. Researcher’s bias on data collection, analysis, and interpretation are another disadvantages.
    – Historical research cannot use methods to control for extraneous variables and threats to internal validity, it investigates every possible variables.
    6. Ethnography:
    The ethnographic approach to qualitative research comes largely from the field of anthropology. The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture. It enables the researcher to understand the culture through the interpretations, experiences and perceptions and meanings given by those living within this specific cultural context.

    It is the types of research process that is based on fieldwork using a variety of (mainly qualitative) research techniques but including engagement in the lives of those being studied over an extended period of time.
    Merits of Ethnography:
    – It provides a detailed exploration of group activity and may include literature about and/or by the group
    – It employs multiple methodologies to arrive at a theoretically comprehensive understanding of a group or culture.
    – Reveal interrelationships among multifaceted dimensions of group interactions
    Demerits of Ethnography:
    – The quality of the data alone is problematic.
    – Ethnographic research is time consuming, potentially expensive, and requires a well trained researcher
    – Too little data can lead to false assumptions about behavior patterns. Conversely, a large quantity of data may not be effectively be processed.

  123. Name: Uwa chioma Maryjane
    Reg no: 2018/241876
    Department: Economics
    Email: chioma.uwa.241876@unn.edu.ng
    Assignment
    Question 1
    From your understanding, who is good researcher?
    A good/great researcher will be open to explore various explanations for the phenomena being studied. They must be willing to step to the edge and pu