Eco. 391 —26-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs)

During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

What will you tell your audience?

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  1. Olendi Nkiru precious says:

    Name ; Olendi Nkiru precious
    Reg no ; 2018/243187
    Department ; Economics /psychology (combined social science )
    Email : preciousdeligh48@gmail.com
    course ; Eco 391(research methods in Economics )
    Quize 2

    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing ?

    My answers
    I am pleased to present to you, the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    According to the Director of Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. Well-conducted research is vital to the success of global heath endeavours. Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs. Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions. Furthermore, good research utilizes methodologies that can be replicated, produces results that are examinable by peers, and creates knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations. Researchers work as a team to enhance our knowledge of how to best address the world’s problems.

    Hence the Importance/Purpose of research includes ;
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and non-professionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For non-professionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge,
    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.
    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.
    Fact-Checking to Discover Research Bias, Propaganda, and Fake News
    With the use of internet technology and social media, pseudo-journalism has become a social concern. Fake news took centre stage during the 2016 presidential campaign period in the United States. For instance, Snopes.com, a rumour research site, debunked the following “news stories” posted online:
    An FBI agent believed to be responsible for the latest email leaks “pertinent to the investigation” into Hillary Clinton’s private email server while she was Secretary of State, was found dead in an apparent murder-suicide. (Reported on November 5, 2016, by the Denver Guardian)
    In a final speech to the synod, Pope Francis endorsed Senator Bernie Sanders for President of the United States. (Reported on October 26, 2015, by the National Report and USAToday.com.co)
    Thousands of pre-marked ballots for Hillary Clinton and other Democratic candidates were found in a warehouse in Ohio. (Reported on September 30, 2016, by the Christian Times Newspaper)
    Assange: Bernie Sanders was threatened and told to drop out of the presidential race. (Reported on August 29, 2016, by USA Supreme)
    News outlets around the world are reporting on the news that Pope Francis has made the unprecedented decision to endorse US presidential candidate Donald Trump. (Reported in July 2016, by the WTOE 5 News)
    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.
    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous head-hunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job candidates to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.
    Using Research to Maximize Investment
    Research also benefits civil society and its members. Securing funding for projects and research initiatives is a top concern for those who want to address social issues. However, not all funding organizations accept proposals year-round, nor are they all interested in solving the same types of social problems. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research to find agencies whose missions match the objectives of particular advocacy programs or social-change projects.
    6. It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research for Critical Thinking
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.
    Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral to conducting research. Conducting interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and participating in casual talks can help us gather information and formulate research topics. These things also facilitate our critical thinking process, much like reading and writing.
    7. It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.
    Critical Thinking and Mental Health
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health.
    be done in their future.
    8. To know how the original study originated:
    Research is performed to understand the concept from scratch. Like, if you wish to know from where has the concept originated, then this could be done only through the research work.
    It can also define as an investigation because the student eventually ends up with expanded research.
    9. Understanding the rationale:
    By engaging in the process of research, the students understand the concept in an easier manner as the rationale of the topic know in a better manner.
    For example, by preparing the hypothesis, one truly understands the nuances of the research topic. Not just this, the research also helps in being a source of one on one mentorship which also plays a vital role in the brain development of the individual.

    Problems of Research in Developing Countries
    Research in common parlance means a search for knowledge. We can also define research as a scientific and systematic hunt for pertinent information on a particular subject. Following are the main challenges or problems of research in developing countries:

    Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.

    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.

    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.

    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.

    Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.
    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.
    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    The above points discuss the main challenges or problems faced by researchers in developing countries which need immediate attention.

    Conclusion
    Research requires several ingredients; some difficult to manage, while others are difficult to arrange. It is done by a single individual, but requires the acceptance/approval of several others; guides, supervisors, defense committee members, interviewees, focus group members, etc.
    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc.

    References
    Mostafa Z. Badr, “Challenges Facing Scientific Research in Developing Countries: 1. The Human Factor,” Egyptian Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 8, Article ID 101378, 2 pages, 2018
    Rozakis, Laurie (2007). Schaum’s Quick Guide to Writing Great Research Papers. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0071511223 – via Google Books.
    ^ Singh, Michael; Li, Bingyi (6 October 2009). “Early career researcher originality: Engaging Richard Florida’s international competition for creative workers” (PDF). Centre for Educational Research, University of Western Sydney. p. 2. Archived (PDF)from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
    ^ Callaham, Michael; Wears, Robert; Weber, Ellen L. (2002). “Journal Prestige, Publication Bias, and Other Characteristics Associated With Citation of Published Studies in Peer-Reviewed Journals”. JAMA. 287(21): 2847–50. doi:10.1001/jama.287.21.2847. PMID 12038930.
    ^ US Department of Labor (2006). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006–2007 edition. Mcgraw-hill. ISBN 978-0071472883 – via Google Books.
    ^ J. Scott Armstrong & Tad Sperry (1994). “Business School Prestige: Research versus Teaching” (PDF). Energy & Environment. 18 (2): 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
    ^ Roffee, James A; Waling, Andrea (18 August 2016). “Resolving ethical challenges when researching with minority and vulnerable populations: LGBTIQ victims of violence, harassment and bullying”. Research Ethics. 13 (1): 4–22. doi:10.1177/1747016116658693.

  2. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG.NO : 2018/241864

    COURSE : ECO. 391

    ASSIGNMENT :

    What I understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 1. What I understand as purpose of research:

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    1. Exploratory:

    Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2. Descriptive:

    Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    3. Explanatory:

    Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    II. Importance of research are :

    No matter what career field you’re in or how high up you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, but it has many benefits. Here are the reasons why research is important:

    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    NO. 2 problems of social science research in the developing countries are :

    1. Absence of a clear cut philosophy of national development: The foundation to achieving harmony between the demands/expectations of a state and the response/obligation of its citizens, is enshrined in clear cut philosophies that are engraved in the minds of the citizens through conscious teachings. If research in Nigeria becomes an inalienable philosophy for its development, citizens would concertedly
    act to achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new
    technologies. It is in the presence of such philosophies that the instability of government would no longer be a challenged since everyone must have to tailor his/her actions to the demands of the stated philosophies. In nations where this is present, people out of even involuntary compulsion tend to see themselves living in such ideals. A consistent, coherent and comprehensive philosophy of national
    development is essential for concerted research effort (Jimoh 1998).

    2. Poor attention given to the development of Human Capacity: Human resource is a major precedent for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It goes beyond population to the quality of the population evident in what is brought to the table by these humans for development to happen. In Nigeria, the poor attention given to the development of human capacity in all ramifications is worrisome and has affected the quality of social research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An enlightened and astute researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who lacks fundamental features of being properly educated. A social science researcher who does not have the penchant for research owing to lack of motivations and a research enabled environ might also not get
    the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent. The foregoing was captured in Kamba (2008) who stated that expected outcomes of a functional research and development initiatives entail equipping the people with the needed capacity with which they need to carry out their economic activities with appreciable degree of proficiency leading to the attainment of maximum output. They further inferred that these capacities encompass enhancing the people with the skills and competences needed to effectively harness and utilize the potentials found in one’s environment. In conclusion, they maintained that Nigeria’s case today is evidence of the fact that it is a nation highly populated with whole lot of potentials but with inadequate competences needed to translate these potentials into socio-economic transformations for the nation.

    3. Absence of Quality Tertiary Education:
    Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space
    of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment and apparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can
    do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations. In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007), they lamented the poor synergy that exists between tertiary institutions and secondary education and those of research outcomes and intelligence for industries. This brings to the fore that social research conducted in Nigeria is mainly for
    academic purposes and promotional requirements as against proper application by significant persons and bodies to better the lots of the people. The absence of these and many more is no motivation at all. To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies
    have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and
    Omofonmwan (2013), nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to its people.
    Thus, the university serves as a broker between government and private interests. It also has the
    opportunity to serve the public and common good by provoking public debates with unbiased research (Orbach, 2001). In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) on Research and Development.

    4. Initiatives in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects, using the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, a significant large percentage of the respondents concurred to the fact that a nation’s level of development is a function of its research initiatives and development structure which is navigated by the works of quality tertiary institutions. Hence, social research in Nigeria would become only as good as the quality
    of tertiary institutions within the nation.

    5. Funding: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world, owing to scarce
    resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research
    like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research. The Nigerian government and related institutions could spend so much on space science, meteorological studies, geological mining and other relatives. Studies
    and research in the social sciences such as gerontology, criminology, religion studies, conflict
    management, human resource management, public relations, juvenile care, child welfare, policy studies etc, and among others, when in comparison with their contemporaries in the pure and physical sciences, suffer for lack of adequate funding. This has led to disciplines who are adequately funded to scorn those
    who are not, thus undermining their relevance. This has equally affected the real application of such knowledge within those areas of neglect to the actual course for which they have been informed. Suffice here that the myriad of social problems faced by Nigeria is a show of the neglect of these areas responsible to social research, which has been described people-centred. Therefore, development as a
    people-centered project becomes untenable for such a nation. To confirm the above, Okunamiri, Okoli and Okunamiri (2008) in their study, asserted that a nation’s pace of development is determined by its level of research funding.

    6. Neo-colonialism: The foundation for colonialism is expressed in the principle of Manicheanism that holds the superiority of white over black (Achebe, 1958). This prejudice has been sustained over time dating back to colonialism and hitherto through neo-colonialism. This factor has largely influenced
    scholarship in Africa and adversely affects social research in Nigeria. Very pathetic is the fact that the mentality of dependency created by colonialism for the black population still features prominently in the activities of the blacks, with little or no efforts boldly taken to overturn the table. Most Nigerian scholars depend on foreign scholarships, grants and aids to sponsor their research projects since the Nigerian government poorly funds such venture. The Nigerian government equally gets to partner with
    these foreign agencies for the purpose of research which can solely be done by them if they commit themselves unwaveringly. Jimoh (1998) confirms the foregoing when he asserted that consequently, developing African countries still depend on all forms of foreign aid to support research, such as those provided by the USAID and the UNESCO. Over-reliance on foreign aid would only reduce the relevance of research activities to the Nigerian situation. In order to sustain scientific and technological impetus regardless of general depression, Sub-Saharan nations must inject huge amounts of funds into initiating and expanding training and research facilities (Jimoh 1998). More so, the fact that African Scholars who venture into varying research projects seek to be scored and rated on impact factor by some foreign controlled bodies is worrisome. At times, research made to promote and emancipate indigenous cultural heritage and pride of Africans tend to hit the rock when to be reviewed and published by some foreign based bodies who feel affected. This obviously impedes on actual rating based on originality of research content since the raters might not have relevant socio-cultural experience to justify such scores and the sweet savour of African pride. Nonetheless, Africans can cease being victims of neo-colonialism the moment they start forming world class scholarship forums and assessment grounds, hence social research in Nigeria would remain in its not so good condition. More so, one area that neo-colonialism has affected social research is the aspect of brain-drain. Very principle to this is the neglect of these scholarly ventures by principally the government and its institutions. This has culminated to many social researchers who travel out of the country in search for greener pastures and self actualizatio. Thereby, making the venture back home to suffer. The above was captured in the words of Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) who opined that the seemingly absence of conducive environment needed for qualitative and productive research and scholarship endeavor in the country have over time propelled the incidence of brain drain by legions of scholars and researchers to other parts of the world. The home system deserves rejuvenation and enhancement in order to be able to groom more scholars and encourage brain gain. A system where unproductive
    researchers/academia who lack innovation/creativity in every sense of it dominate the scene cannot move the system any stepforward.

    7. Insufficient adjustment to the demands of Information and Communication and Technology: The social research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. The problem here is not the absence of ICT in Nigerian’s social research nor the adjustment to its demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba (2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the Internet for literature searches and data collection. Equally, data can be processed and analyzed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. This knowledge is only prominent among students in Tertiary schools with very little obtainable in secondary schools. Some of the lecturers in tertiary institutions are also oblivious regarding the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research. Hence, they lack the know-how. More to just social research is the fact that the virtual world created by ICT has brought to bear several ingredients that could strengthen social research such as online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria.

    8. Political Atmosphere: Very key to the progress of any happening in a State is politics. Social researchers oft do research into relationship between people and the State and the influence of the State on this people. Such researches are conducted through the structures and institutions of the state.

  3. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG.NO : 2018/241864

    COURSE : ECO. 391

    ASSIGNMENT :

    What I understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 1. What I understand as purpose of research:

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    1. Exploratory:

    Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2. Descriptive:

    Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    3. Explanatory:

    Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    II. Importance of research are :

    No matter what career field you’re in or how high up you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, but it has many benefits. Here are the reasons why research is important:

    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    NO. 2 problems of social science research in the developing countries are :

    1. Absence of a clear cut philosophy of national development: The foundation to achieving harmony between the demands/expectations of a state and the response/obligation of its citizens, is enshrined in clear cut philosophies that are engraved in the minds of the citizens through conscious teachings. If research in Nigeria becomes an inalienable philosophy for its development, citizens would concertedly
    act to achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new
    technologies. It is in the presence of such philosophies that the instability of government would no longer be a challenged since everyone must have to tailor his/her actions to the demands of the stated philosophies. In nations where this is present, people out of even involuntary compulsion tend to see themselves living in such ideals. A consistent, coherent and comprehensive philosophy of national
    development is essential for concerted research effort (Jimoh 1998).

    2. Poor attention given to the development of Human Capacity: Human resource is a major precedent for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It goes beyond population to the quality of the population evident in what is brought to the table by these humans for development to happen. In Nigeria, the poor attention given to the development of human capacity in all ramifications is worrisome and has affected the quality of social research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An enlightened and astute researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who lacks fundamental features of being properly educated. A social science researcher who does not have the penchant for research owing to lack of motivations and a research enabled environ might also not get
    the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent. The foregoing was captured in Kamba (2008) who stated that expected outcomes of a functional research and development initiatives entail equipping the people with the needed capacity with which they need to carry out their economic activities with appreciable degree of proficiency leading to the attainment of maximum output. They further inferred that these capacities encompass enhancing the people with the skills and competences needed to effectively harness and utilize the potentials found in one’s environment. In conclusion, they maintained that Nigeria’s case today is evidence of the fact that it is a nation highly populated with whole lot of potentials but with inadequate competences needed to translate these potentials into socio-economic transformations for the nation.

    3. Absence of Quality Tertiary Education:
    Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space
    of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment and apparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can
    do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations. In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007), they lamented the poor synergy that exists between tertiary institutions and secondary education and those of research outcomes and intelligence for industries. This brings to the fore that social research conducted in Nigeria is mainly for
    academic purposes and promotional requirements as against proper application by significant persons and bodies to better the lots of the people. The absence of these and many more is no motivation at all. To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies
    have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and
    Omofonmwan (2013), nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to its people.
    Thus, the university serves as a broker between government and private interests. It also has the
    opportunity to serve the public and common good by provoking public debates with unbiased research (Orbach, 2001). In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) on Research and Development.

    4. Initiatives in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects, using the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, a significant large percentage of the respondents concurred to the fact that a nation’s level of development is a function of its research initiatives and development structure which is navigated by the works of quality tertiary institutions. Hence, social research in Nigeria would become only as good as the quality
    of tertiary institutions within the nation.

    5. Funding: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world, owing to scarce
    resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research
    like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research. The Nigerian government and related institutions could spend so much on space science, meteorological studies, geological mining and other relatives. Studies
    and research in the social sciences such as gerontology, criminology, religion studies, conflict
    management, human resource management, public relations, juvenile care, child welfare, policy studies etc, and among others, when in comparison with their contemporaries in the pure and physical sciences, suffer for lack of adequate funding. This has led to disciplines who are adequately funded to scorn those
    who are not, thus undermining their relevance. This has equally affected the real application of such knowledge within those areas of neglect to the actual course for which they have been informed. Suffice here that the myriad of social problems faced by Nigeria is a show of the neglect of these areas responsible to social research, which has been described people-centred. Therefore, development as a
    people-centered project becomes untenable for such a nation. To confirm the above, Okunamiri, Okoli and Okunamiri (2008) in their study, asserted that a nation’s pace of development is determined by its level of research funding.

    6. Neo-colonialism: The foundation for colonialism is expressed in the principle of Manicheanism that holds the superiority of white over black (Achebe, 1958). This prejudice has been sustained over time dating back to colonialism and hitherto through neo-colonialism. This factor has largely influenced
    scholarship in Africa and adversely affects social research in Nigeria. Very pathetic is the fact that the mentality of dependency created by colonialism for the black population still features prominently in the activities of the blacks, with little or no efforts boldly taken to overturn the table. Most Nigerian scholars depend on foreign scholarships, grants and aids to sponsor their research projects since the Nigerian government poorly funds such venture. The Nigerian government equally gets to partner with
    these foreign agencies for the purpose of research which can solely be done by them if they commit themselves unwaveringly. Jimoh (1998) confirms the foregoing when he asserted that consequently, developing African countries still depend on all forms of foreign aid to support research, such as those provided by the USAID and the UNESCO. Over-reliance on foreign aid would only reduce the relevance of research activities to the Nigerian situation. In order to sustain scientific and technological impetus regardless of general depression, Sub-Saharan nations must inject huge amounts of funds into initiating and expanding training and research facilities (Jimoh 1998). More so, the fact that African Scholars who venture into varying research projects seek to be scored and rated on impact factor by some foreign controlled bodies is worrisome. At times, research made to promote and emancipate indigenous cultural heritage and pride of Africans tend to hit the rock when to be reviewed and published by some foreign based bodies who feel affected. This obviously impedes on actual rating based on originality of research content since the raters might not have relevant socio-cultural experience to justify such scores and the sweet savour of African pride. Nonetheless, Africans can cease being victims of neo-colonialism the moment they start forming world class scholarship forums and assessment grounds, hence social research in Nigeria would remain in its not so good condition. More so, one area that neo-colonialism has affected social research is the aspect of brain-drain. Very principle to this is the neglect of these scholarly ventures by principally the government and its institutions. This has culminated to many social researchers who travel out of the country in search for greener pastures and self actualizatio. Thereby, making the venture back home to suffer. The above was captured in the words of Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) who opined that the seemingly absence of conducive environment needed for qualitative and productive research and scholarship endeavor in the country have over time propelled the incidence of brain drain by legions of scholars and researchers to other parts of the world. The home system deserves rejuvenation and enhancement in order to be able to groom more scholars and encourage brain gain. A system where unproductive
    researchers/academia who lack innovation/creativity in every sense of it dominate the scene cannot move the system any stepforward.

    7. Insufficient adjustment to the demands of Information and Communication and Technology: The social research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. The problem here is not the absence of ICT in Nigerian’s social research nor the adjustment to its demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba (2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the Internet for literature searches and data collection. Equally, data can be processed and analyzed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. This knowledge is only prominent among students in Tertiary schools with very little obtainable in secondary schools. Some of the lecturers in tertiary institutions are also oblivious regarding the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research. Hence, they lack the know-how. More to just social research is the fact that the virtual world created by ICT has brought to bear several ingredients that could strengthen social research such as online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria.

    8. Political Atmosphere: Very key to the progress of any happening in a State is politics. Social researchers oft do research into relationship between people and the State and the influence of the State on this people. Such researches are conducted through the structures and institutions of the state.

  4. MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI says:

    NAME: MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI
    REG NO.: 2018/242336
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO 391: RESEARCH METHODS INFLUENCES ECONOMICS I

    Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/ Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs

    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Purpose of research are simply the objectives, that a researcher in undertaking a research exercise, seeks to fulfill. It may also be seen as the solution a researcher hopes to obtain from undertaking a research venture or activity. Purpose of research includes the following:
    To understand existing phenomena.
    To provide answers to unknown problems
    To make predictions and formulate policies to tackle similar problems
    To formulate new theories to enrich the frontiers of knowledge
    To bridge gaps left by previous research works
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    It helps in finding explanations to unexplained occurrence, event or phenomenon
    It helps in creating generally applicable new knowledge.
    It helps in expansion and verification of existing knowledge.
    It helps in development of theories that can be used for forecasting and policy purpose.
    It helps in problem diagnosis and analysis.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries. What will you tell your audience?
    Lack of Training: This is a big problem faced by researchers in least developed countries (LDCs). There is paucity of research workers available in these countries. Many of the researchers’ work does not make use of the required research techniques and this results in publication of a research work which is lacking in sound research methodology. Finally, researchers in LDCs engage in copy and paste job without contributing any new idea to existing knowledge.
    Lack of Support from Public and Private Sector Institutions: Private and public sector institutions are not usually willing to provide the data needed by a researcher in a LDC because of fear of misuse of information, facts or data.
    Lack of Adequate Data: You will find in LDCs a dearth of quality in research work, this is due to non availability of relevant data or literature. Also, there is repetition or overlapping of research works due to lack of adequate data.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the majority of researchers in LDCs because in these countries, people see research as a purely academic exercise which contribute nothing to solving a problem in the society.
    Lack of Funding: Sufficient funds for conducting quality research are not made available by Government/Organizations because they see research as not being capable of contributing to national development. This discourages all types of research in LDCs.
    Poor Infrastructural Base: Another problem of conducting research in LDCs manifest in the form of poor infrastructure. This can contribute to poor power supply, limited access to Information Communication Technology etc., these further discourages research venture in these countries.

  5. MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI says:

    NAME: MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI
    REG NO.: 2018/242336
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO. 391: RESEARCH METHODS INFLUENCES ECONOMICS I

    Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/ Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs

    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Purpose of research are simply the objectives, that a researcher in undertaking a research exercise, seeks to fulfill. It may also be seen as the solution a researcher hopes to obtain from undertaking a research venture or activity. Purpose of research includes the following:
    To understand existing phenomena.
    To provide answers to unknown problems
    To make predictions and formulate policies to tackle similar problems
    To formulate new theories to enrich the frontiers of knowledge
    To bridge gaps left by previous research works
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    It helps in finding explanations to unexplained occurrence, event or phenomenon
    It helps in creating generally applicable new knowledge.
    It helps in expansion and verification of existing knowledge.
    It helps in development of theories that can be used for forecasting and policy purpose.
    It helps in problem diagnosis and analysis.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries. What will you tell your audience?
    Lack of Training: This is a big problem faced by researchers in least developed countries (LDCs). There is paucity of research workers available in these countries. Many of the researchers’ work does not make use of the required research techniques and this results in publication of a research work which is lacking in sound research methodology. Finally, researchers in LDCs engage in copy and paste job without contributing any new idea to existing knowledge.
    Lack of Support from Public and Private Sector Institutions: Private and public sector institutions are not usually willing to provide the data needed by a researcher in a LDC because of fear of misuse of information, facts or data.
    Lack of Adequate Data: You will find in LDCs a dearth of quality in research work, this is due to non availability of relevant data or literature. Also, there is repetition or overlapping of research works due to lack of adequate data.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the majority of researchers in LDCs because in these countries, people see research as a purely academic exercise which contribute nothing to solving a problem in the society.
    Lack of Funding: Sufficient funds for conducting quality research are not made available by Government/Organizations because they see research as not being capable of contributing to national development. This discourages all types of research in LDCs.
    Poor Infrastructural Base: Another problem of conducting research in LDCs manifest in the form of poor infrastructure. This can contribute to poor power supply, limited access to Information Communication Technology etc., these further discourages research venture in these countries.

  6. Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu says:

    Name: Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu

    Course Reg: 2018/246452

    Email: Chineduezeozue@gmail.com

    As the special adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters,
    I’m humbly speaking on what I understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    I will first list the purposes into few points and each of them. Likewise the importance.

    Purposes of research are:
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job candidates to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.

    Importance of research:
    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    2. Research gives you the latest information
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    4. Research builds your credibility
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope

    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

  7. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847
    Economics Department
    ihuoma.chris-nwaije.241847@unn.edu.ng

    Research is the systematic investigation, study or enquiry of existing knowledge, materials and information in order to establish facts, verify existing facts and reach new conclusions. It is simply the creation of new knowledge and verification of existing knowledge

    The main purpose of research is to
    1. Know more about a particular topic
    2. Gather information about a particular topic
    3. Test existing knowledge, theories
    4. Make predictions based on the results of the research and existing knowledge
    5. Contribute/Add value to the existing knowledge of the field

    Research is important in that:
    1. It is a means of building knowledge and aiding learning
    2. It helps to understand issues and create public awareness
    3. It helps to disprove lies and support truths (through verification of existing knowledge)
    4. Conducting research adds to the existing body of knowledge.
    5. It introduces us to new and various ideas
    6. It encourages a love for learning and acquiring knowledge.

    Problems of conducting social science Research in least developing countries include:
    1. Lack of training: there is scarcity of adequate qualified researchers in least developing countries.
    2. Lack of data: most data needed by researchers in least developing countries are hard to find/get
    3. Non-cooperation of respondents: due to cultural or religious norms, some respondents do not respond to certain questions on the questionnaire. Such questions can include questions on birth control etc. Some cultures do not allow for foreigners/strangers to come into their land and question their women as is the case of the Hausa/Fulani tribe where a male who is not directly related to the female is not permitted to see her.
    4. Lack of funding: there is little or no funding available to researchers to aid them in carrying out their work
    5. Time management: researchers may find it difficult to meet up with their research deadline due to the numerous challenges before them.
    6. Due to the human nature of social science Research, results can be volatile and change from one period to another as human behaviour cannot be controlled in a laboratory experiment like in the pure sciences.
    Some other problems include lack of planning, lack of financial incentives etc.

  8. Oyem lawrence Ifechukwude 2018/241846 Economics says:

    Purpose/importance of research
    Research helps us to find out issues that surrounds a business, how to address it in order to achieve succe
    Research is a systematic way of building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    Through research, truth is promoted and lies are disproved.
    By conducting a research, the mind is nurished and excercised.
    It promotes a love and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    Research is a way to find, measure, and grab opportunities.
    We understand issues and create public awareness when we carry out a research.
    Research helps us to identify the most unique and/or important themes so as to narrow our scope in a study.
    It gives current information and expands knowledge base
    2. Challenges to conducting a research and how to overcome them
    Choosing the Right Topic
    Your research topic is the foundation on which everything else rests, so it is of paramount importance to choose carefully. When choosing a topic, you must pick a topic that is of interest to you and that is researchable.

    Choosing the Right Methodology
    After you have chosen a topic, you will need procedure for conducting your research. It is important for you to formulate a research question to adopt the best methodology. Then you can now allow your answers to guide you, be clear with your studies and honest about your abilities, give time to the planning process.

    Assembling a Research Team
    Once you selected your topic and methodology, the next thing you will need is a research team to support your study. Research is never conducted in a space. You must look out for useful feedback and be certain about your needs.

    Finding Study Participants
    Once you have your team together, you then look for participants to help conduct your study. You must be bold to reach out and avoid wastage of resource.

    Getting Institutions to Participate
    Sometimes recruiting study participants requires going through institutions. This institutions may put up barriers, mainly if your research is controversial or sensitive. This brings up an additional challenge. To overcome this, build relationships with the persons who will help you gain access, always percevere, do not give up at the first rejection, and pursue alternative opportunities.

    Staying Motivated and Working Your Plan
    Maintaining the motivation to keep going despite obstacles in your research, pressures of work and personal commitments in a large research is indeed a great internal challenge. This challenge can be addressed by following your passion and purpose, learn to monitor your attitude, and ask for help.

    Dealing With Your Data
    The final challenge is knowing how to make sense of the data that you have collected when you have completed the study. You can solve this by grounding yourself in the research, get back to your methodology and account for biases.

    Other challenges includes
    Lack of funds for research
    Time management
    Coping with change
    Lack of proper research ethics
    Low accessibility of data and information
    Poor Technological Advancement
    Insecurity
    Ineffective Education System

  9. EZE UCHECHUKWU says:

    Eco. 391 —26-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs)
    NAME: EZE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO:2018/241866
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL:300L
    EMAIL:uchechukwu.eze.241866@unn.edu.ng

    QUESTIONS:
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyze the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS
    As Adviser to Mr. President on Research matters, Purpose as term is an intention of an action. If the purpose of an action is not known, abuse is inevitable. Research can be absolute and relative but the bottle line is knowledge. Purpose entails the reason for existence and the aim of existence. Throughout time there are numerous economics research, reports and other form of publications attempting to solve a specific problem or issue but the question is what did we get in trying to proffer solution to problem? In course of our finding we get knowledge about the existing world and have specific objective in addressing the issues. In the world today where there are a lot of incomplete knowledge, research helps in discovering of the needed fact or knowledge that will move the world to a better place. The following are importance/purpose of Research
    (a) Research help in discovering of problem and proffering solution to such problem.
    (b) Research increases the researcher’s knowledge of existing issues
    (c) Research aids formulation of policies
    (d) It enhances development, such as personal development, academic development
    (e) Research improves existing knowledge, issues and social wellbeing of the society.
    CHALLENGESS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN LESS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Meaning of Developing countries: countries of Asia, Africa, the middle east, Latin America, eastern Europe, and for soviet union, that are presently characterized by low levels of living and other development literature as a synonym for less developed countries. Problem of conducting economic research in Nigeria:
    • Lack of public and private record (lack of record): This entails that records of
    Public and private sector are not reveal to the public or masses and this hide the effectiveness of sorting research information which might have led to “breakthrough” in the society. When vital information needed to implement or carry out policy formulation is not disclose for public consumption, development is at the “mercy” of mediocracy. So therefore, lack of information needed in carrying out research is a challenge
    • Lack of corporation from public and private sector institution: there is absolute lack of corporation between various institution and researcher and this impede development in developing countries.
    • Poor infrastructural base: this is the major challenge facing research in developing nation. These infrastructural base constrains are electricity, internet connection, bad rood such that in attempt of collecting data a researcher may be unable to get across the desired area due to bad road and it affects data collection.
    • Lack of funding and data collection: when the research is not well funded either by Government or self. This affect the research in the developing countries.
    • Problem of illiteracy: this is often associated with data collection, when the majority of the population cannot read how then can they provide answers to research question being administered by the researcher through Questionnaires and other means of data collection. This negatively affect the quality of data collection and is a big challenge in the developing countries
    • People perceive research as merely academic exercise and has no meaning.

  10. Okoye Adaezechukwu precious says:

    Name: Okoye Adaezechukwu precious
    Reg number: 2018/241831
    Department: Economics
    Course code: 391

    Assignments
    1. The purpose of research include:

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    a. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    b. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    c. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2. The importance of research include:

    1. A Knowledge Building Tool
    The most prominent reason to engage in research is to enhance your knowledge. Even if you are an expert of your field, there is always more to uncover. If researching about a topic entirely new to you, it will help build your unique perspective about it. The whole process of research opens new doors of learning and literary growth.

    2. Enables Efficient Learning
    Studies reveal that research helps restore and protect memory and enhances mathematic and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it prepares the mind for a better understanding of concepts and theories. A person’s learning capacity is improved and they can perform better in comparison who is reluctant to research.

    3. Aids Employment Prospects
    Research has an undeniable role in the business industry. Successful companies have resources invested in research and development to have all the information they need of the market. Your academic phase helps you prepare for any research tasks you will have to accomplish in the future

    4. Helps in Understanding Issues
    It sheds light on problems that have not yet come out in the open. It gives people the opportunity to address issues and answer questions that the society doesn’t respond to.

    5. Provides Truthful Evidence
    The process of research can prove to dispel various myths that have been built up in our minds. They can either develop because of common belief or a wrong resource. Logical and fact-based knowledge is easily accessible if you only reach out to find the truth.

    6. Develops a Love of Reading and Analyzing
    Reading and writing are the core elements of research. So, they automatically become familiar to you if you are involved in researching facts and figures. Reading helps open your mind to a never-ending horizon of knowledge. While developing writing skills gives you the ability to express in a constructive way.

    7. Exercises your Mind
    Letting your mind frequently absorb logic and creativity allows it to become more active. It creates a healthy curiosity that fuels the brain and makes it seek new answers.

    8. Keeps You Updated on Recent Information
    In various fields, especially ones that are related to science, there are always new discoveries to explore. Research prevents you from remaining behind or have inaccurate information about a topic. You can use the latest knowledge to build upon ideas or talk confidently about a subject if required. Which takes us to the next factor about building credibility.

    9. Builds Credibility
    People tend to take a person’s ideas seriously when it evident he or she are well informed about them. Being involved in research helps in forming a solid foundation to build an opinion upon. It also makes it much harder for people to find fault in something you have proposed.

    10. Focuses your Scope
    If you are delving into a topic for the first time, it might be confusing where to begin. Most of the time you have an overwhelming amount of information to sort through. Research helps in narrowing down to the most important and unique points so you are able to write meaningfully.

    11. Teaches Discernment
    When you become adept at research you can easily identify between low- and high-quality data. You will get better at discerning accurate from false information. Any gray areas will also become clear where the facts are correct but conclusions might be questionable.

    12. Introduces New Ideas
    It is possible that you already have ideas and opinions about a topic you are researching upon. The more research is done, the more viewpoints are unearthed. It encourages one to entertain fresh ideas and review your own perspective too. It can even change your mind about a concept or two.

    13. Raises Awareness
    By doing research on important issues like racial injustice, climate change and gender inequality, you can reach out to people. This type of research goes beyond data collection and consists sharing of real stories that create awareness.

    14. Encourages Curiosity
    A love for learning new things can last a lifetime if you have sources to fuel it. Even the most basic research opens up new possibilities and develops analytical skills. It is reward to the curiosity burning away inside any human being. When you have committed yourself to gaining knowledge it constantly helps you to grow.

    15. Prepares you to Deal with the Future
    If you are a business studies student, you can discover how to form plans and strategies once you are employed in the field. You can figure out your goals for ahead. In areas like medicine, research helps you identify diseases, symptoms and reveals new ways to eradicate them. Hence you can prepare for the real world by knowing more about the challenges you have to face.

    These were some of the reasons why research work is so important in education.

    3. discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    a. Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.

    b. Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.

    c. Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.

    d. Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.

    e. Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.

    f. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.

  11. Nnamani chidimma Esther says:

    Name: Nnamani Chidimma Esther
    Reg num: 2018/243795
    Department: Economics

    Assignment on ECO 391
    1) Purpose of research
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study, it can also be to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas.

    2) The importance of research

     Research helps to achieve your goal
    Many companies have achieved success by conducting research about their products and services through consumer satisfaction exercises. Through online surveys, companies offer feedback about their products and services to know customer satisfaction and it provides them with an opportunity to tailor their businesses and improve their services.

    A research scholar can’t complete his research degree without conducting proper and extensive research in his or her subject. He goes on to carry research work by observation and exploration that helps the scholars get closer to his or her target and submit a thesis for consideration to the supervisor.

    Research reveals new ideas and facts
     Research sparks new ideas and facts; enables the researcher to draw novel conclusions about his research topic. The more deeply one researches on a particular subject better he may get into the field and properly help position his or her ideas. Research stimulates different ideas and helps build discerning and analytical concepts.

    When a learner is curious to know, research provides him with a gateway to explore and explain different dimensions of the subject. Research provides a great learning curve and infuses positivity in the researcher and learners through the exploration of new ideas and facts. It also helps raise awareness about the subject matter and provide new facts to the people.

     Research develops understanding and decision-making
    It is the most valuable tool to understand the complexities of a problem, disapprove lies, uphold truth and build on to create knowledge that is reliable and authentic. Conducting research develops a better understanding and enhances decision-making capabilities. Researchers analyze the details of a project and help take the right and well-informed decisions.

    Understanding the problem and for decision making, it is important to know facts observed and explored through research for better results and not relying on imagination or intuition to fade the quality of the work. Research prompts decision making and develops a better understanding to solve the problems.

     Research helps understand what’s not working
    Research provides you with an opportunity to detect and investigate many new things that are not working for your project. Research helps you find a new concept or some amazing information about any particular topic, it also unfolds many antagonist elements not suitable for your project. Research not only helps explore what is beneficial and working for your project, but it also explains different aspects that are invalid and not working for your venture.

     Research builds credibility
    Any argument or statement based on imagination or intuition affects the reputation and credibility of the subject and researcher. Research on the subjects scales up credibility and weight to it and critics wouldn’t find holes and would appreciate the research project. It also helps boost the confidence in the researcher. Research builds a solid foundation when novel ideas are studied, experimented and explained to the learners and organizations for accelerating the success rate to gain credibility to the research project.

    3) Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

     Research facilities Scientific research is not cheap these days. At one time the most expensive item in a research programme was the salary of the research worker involved, nowadays the cost of equipment and its maintenance are ever increasing factors. Moreover, science is no longer neatly compartmented — every branch is interdependent with a number of other disciplines. Today, too, biological and agricultural research is more dependent on physical methods of analysis, isotope and radiation techniques, etc., and a modern research station requires a whole range of sophisticated equipment. Probably many developing countries might have made more progress in scientific research if they had concentrated their effort. Rich, developed countries can afford the luxury of many research institutes and centers, but the situation in developing countries is different.

     University policies on research ethics state that all research involving human subjects must comply with the 2007 National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. This policy applies to all researchers, including international PhD students enrolled at universities in developed countries but doing research in developing countries (often their own country of origin). There has been concern, however, that the ethical principles created in developed countries might not be universally appropriate to international PhD students from developing countries.

     In developing countries, where societies are often pluralistic, cultural background and security become important issues for social researchers in conducting fieldwork. This state of affairs can lead to the researchers finding it difficult to get letters of permission from the local authorities, and may lead to delays in conducting research.

     Research priorities and funding Scientists should realize that at least some of the responsibility for achieving general government support and specific funding rests on them. They cannot expect support just to come to them as of right. Members of government and higher civil servants are mostly nonscientists and it is necessary for scientists to go out and explain the significance of their work and what they hope to achieve, with the objective
    of building up a climate of support. This is true for scientists in developed countries, too, but it is especially important in developing countries.

  12. EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

    NAME::EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE

    REG NO::2018/251024

    DEPARTMENT:: ECONOMICS

    EMAIL:: sopuluchukwuluke@gmail.com

    COURSE:: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS

    COURSE CODE::ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENTS
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH?
    1..The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2.. THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH?
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Owlcation home

    REASONS WHY RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT

    FEB 23, 2021
    7 Reasons Why Research Is Important
    LEANN ZARAH
    Leann is a freelance qualitative researcher. She has been involved in projects related to gender, labor, and other social issues.

    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.

    Why Is Research Important?
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.

    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.

    Maxim Ilyahov via Unsplash; Canva

    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    Studies and Articles About the Importance of Research
    In his article, “Epistemology,” Yale University’s David Truncellito (n.d.) identifies three kinds of knowledge: procedural (competence or know-how), acquaintance (familiarity), and propositional (description of “a fact or a state of affairs”).

    Brain Research UK (formerly Brain Research Trust), a medical-research charity based in the United Kingdom, acknowledges the importance of research in building knowledge. It sees research as crucial to finding possible cures for diseases and ways to prevent them. Thus, research is necessary to ascertain whether one’s ideas are supported by previous studies or if these ideas still need further proof to be considered knowledge.

    An example of one such endeavor is a 2016 study conducted by several psychologists to examine how sleep affects memory reactivation. In “Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect,” they discovered that “interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention. Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.” This study supports the fact that both repetition and sleep improve a person’s long-term retention of information. Their findings also emphasize how highly important sleep is to healthy brain function.

    A study by The World Bank in 2006 also underscored sleep as a key factor in efficient learning, or the process of gaining optimal learning using few resources. The study reiterated the role of sleep in: (1) protecting and restoring memory, (2) advanced learning, and (3) enhancing mathematical ability and problem-solving. It further noted that “knowledge is better consolidated when people study at the time when they are supposed to be awake rather than, say, late-night sessions.” It cited the need for research on “the memory capacity of the poor in low-income countries” to enable teachers to better help underprivileged students learn basic skills.

    The effect of sleep on the human brain is just one of countless topics that have been examined by academics and specialists in various universities and medical institutions. A myriad of newer and even more specific research ideas likewise await the attention of avid scholars and inquisitive writers. Indeed, research is instrumental in building and improving knowledge and supporting existing knowledge with verifiable facts to facilitate learning.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017
    Good business is built on sound research.

    Dan Dimmock via Unsplash; Canva

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.
    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    3.. CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN LDCs?
    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.

    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

  13. OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    NAME: OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA
    REG.NO: 2018/242433
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.
    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT.
    TOPIC: The purpose, importance and problems of social science research in developing countries.

    THE PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Before I begin to list the purpose of research, let us first understand the meaning of Research. Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge,
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems,
    3.) Provide solutions to problems,
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues,
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems,
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    Research brings exploration towards a certain topic. It gives a deeper touch to a certain topic giving a person an understanding towards it until he or she comes up with a conclusion which is tested and proven by facts (Shemmarzan 2017).
    Now to the importance;
    THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Research gives people a means to come up with a conclusion and well as to come out with something new. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand. The importance of research include the following:
    1.) Well- conducted research is vital to the success of global health endeavors: Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs.
    2.) Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical
    3.) Research utilizes methodologies that can be replicated, and creates knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations.
    4.) With research, projects, assignments and term papers are carried out. A good example is this assignment I have carried out. It was done through research.
    5.) Research finds answers to things that are unknown: Through Research, new discoveries are being found and made.
    6.) Research helps allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    7.) Research gives you the latest information: In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there is always new information and discoveries being made. All these discoveries and latest information were made through research. However, with the latest information, you will be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    THE PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    1.) Nonexistence of scientific training: Due to the non-systematic nature of methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods.
    2.) Conducting social science research is usually costly and expensive.
    3.) It is time consuming.
    4.) Social science research is often stressful in developing countries.
    5.) Problems associated with importation: In developing countries, the complications and cost of importing equipment and requirements is a major limiting factor to research.
    6.) Conducting social science research is usually difficult to control the quality of responses.
    7.) Limitations such as “Hawthorne effects” or changes in behavior which result from the fact that individuals are subjects in an experimental study can be one main problem of social researches in developing countries ( Mahfuz Judeh 2019)
    8.) Poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge’s on the subject matter addressed.

  14. Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    2018/246412
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT:

    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    THE PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH:

    Etymologically, research means to examine, investigate phenomenon over and over again.
    According to Tuckman 1999, research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions.
    Martin Shuttleworth gave a broad definition of research as the gathering of data, information, and facts for the advancement of knowledge. Shuttleworth, Martin (2008).
    Research involves a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalized knowledge.

    PURPOSE:
    We have; pure research and applied research.
    Purpose of research is to understand the world around us or why things or process work the way they do and to understand the applications of these processes.
    Information gathering and/or
    Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    Theory testing
    Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios.
    In Summary, the purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas.
    Also, to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    IMPORTANCE:
    The importance of research can not be overemphasized;
    Research helps restore and protect memory and enhances mathematic and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it prepares the mind for a better understanding of concepts and theories. A person’s learning capacity is improved and they can perform better in comparison who is reluctant to research.
    It is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning. It is a means to understand issues and increase public awareness. It helps us succeed in business. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work.

    THE PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
    I will first of all let us know what research is and what social science research is;
    Research as said earlier is
    Etymologically, means to examine, investigate phenomenon over and over again.
    According to Tuckman 1999, research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions.
    Martin Shuttleworth gave a broad definition of research as the gathering of data, information, and facts for the advancement of knowledge. Shuttleworth, Martin (2008).
    Research involves a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalized knowledge.
    Social Science in other hand means the study of people and their relationships and interactions in society.
    They are a group of academic disciplines that focus on how individuals behave within society.
    THEN, social science research means the activity of gathering, analysing and interpreting information for a variety of social, economic, educational and political purposes.
    Social science research provides authentic information to the people that are scientifically proven so that end users can rely upon it. It also helps us in finding the solutions to different social problems.
    Social science research characteristics include:
    Accuracy & Precision. Accuracy and precision are also the basic requirements for a research. …
    Verifiability. Another characteristic of research is the researcher must verify the data. …
    Evidence of Facts. …
    Objectivity. …
    Reliability & Validity. …
    Qualification. …
    Recording and Reporting.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:

    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Performing scientific study in emerging countries has numerous obstructions comprising deficiency of planning, moral and financial motivations, and lack of time available for research.
    Difficulty in collecting the suitable sample size Poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge’s on the subject matter addressed and etc.
    Finding the suitable research method to conduct or carry out the intended study Interpretation of the data’ field with regard to the conceptual framework limited knowledge or background on the needed software to run the data or conducting the data analysis.
    These are some of many common problems in conducting social sciences research.
    Other problems are: Evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data Reliability and validity of the collected data
    The background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained), etc.
    Target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions
    Time management Quantification of qualitative data
    Preparing the final report/thesis/dissertation, etc.

  15. AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI says:

    AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI
    REG NO: 2018/248 680
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    EMAIL : lovethamarachi84@gmail.com

    Eco. 391 —26-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs)

    QUESTIONS:
    1. What do you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    2. Clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    QUESTION 1

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    To my own understanding, the purpose of research is to find answer to a problem by gathering of information or data, testing and analysis of such data to come up with new idea on a topic or to verify and expand existing knowledge.
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    Research is very important because through it, researchers discover new idea or solution to a problem, verify and expand existing knowledge thereby contributing to knowledge gained on a particular research topic and also get knowledge about various studies that have been carried out on a particular topic of research through literature review.
    QUESTION 2
    Social science research faces various challenges in developing countries as it uses the society as it’s laboratory , human being and their institutions in collecting data to conduct research; and in developing countries, institutions operate in low standard when compared to those in advanced countries.
    Some of the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries are:
    1. Lack Of Public and private sector record: Most of the public and private sector in developing countries do not keep relevant records of event. For example, in Nigeria, GDP of states are not recorded in each state, so if a researcher wants to conduct research on the growth level of GDP of a state, non availability of data becomes a problem.
    2. Lack of support from the public and private institutions: Most times in developing countries, public and private institutions always do not support a researcher through hiding the information of their organization for their personal consumption. This impede research in developing countries.
    3. Poor infrastructural base: Poor power supply and poor internet access always present challenge to research process or effort in developing countries. For example, charging of gadget and browsing on research topic ( literature review) becomes a challenge to research.
    4. Lack Of funding and data collection
    5. Problem of illiteracy: There is high level of illiteracy in developing countries and makes the collection of opinion on topic of research from the public cumbersome as vast majority of the illiterates always fear to say or disclose information because they do not really understand what research is all about.
    6. In developing countries, the greatest challenge in conducting research is that people perceive research as a mere academic exercise. For instance, in Nigeria, various research have been conducted by Economist researchers and their findings and recommendations to move the nation forward were not put into work. Even when policies are made on such, implementation becomes a problem and this makes people to perceive research as a mere academic exercise.

  16. Obodoike faith oluchi says:

    Name: Obodoike faith oluchi
    Reg No: 2018/245387
    Department: Economics education
    Course code Eco 391
    Course tittle: Research method in economics
    Email address: oluchifaith093@gmail.com
    Assignment: what are the purpose/important of research and challenges of conducting research?

    (1) The purpose of research is as follows
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied in our everyday life.
    (2) The importance of research
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams.

    6. It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.

    7. It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health

    (3) The following are the challenges of conducting research

    (1) Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.
    (2) Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.
    (3) Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    (4) Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    (5) choosing the right topic: These usually one of the problem that use to trouble the researcher on how to choose the right topic,the researcher use to find it difficult to choose a particular topic.

  17. NAME: MELONE BENEDETTE CHINENYE REG NO: 2018/242196. DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION: (EDUCATION ECONOMICS). says:

    A Research is the synthetic collection,analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain questions or to solve a problem.

    It is also something one does by his or her open mind in search of a particular issue bothering him in order to get a clarification.

    THE IMPORTANT AND PURPOSES OF THIS RESEARCH INCLUDES:

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives

    (1) It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.

    (2) It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    (3) It helps us succeed in business.

    (4) It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    (5) It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    (6) It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    (7) It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.

    EXPLANATIONS:

    (1). It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    A study by The World Bank in 2006 also underscored sleep as a key factor in efficient learning, or the process of gaining optimal learning using few resources. The study reiterated the role of sleep in: (1) protecting and restoring memory, (2) advanced learning, and (3) enhancing mathematical ability and problem-solving. It further noted that “knowledge is better consolidated when people study at the time when they are supposed to be awake rather than, say, late-night sessions.” It cited the need for research on “the memory capacity of the poor in low-income countries” to enable teachers to better help underprivileged students learn basic skills.

    (2). It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awarene
    Research helps to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):

    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.

    People both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.

    Research helps to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.

    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.

    (3.) It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.

    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.

    Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.

    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.

    (4.)It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.

    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.

    Professional and credible journalists also undertake thorough research to establish the veracity of their stories. The 2003 movie Shattered Glass tells the rise-and-fall story of a real-life journalist who worked for The New Republic based in New York City. If fellow journalists hadn’t debunked his stories as fabricated, Stephen Glass could have written even more dubious pieces that would have been taken at face value by readers of the publication.

    (5). It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Research helps toMaximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job candidates to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.
    Research helps to Maximize Investment
    Research also benefits civil society and its members. Securing funding for projects and research initiatives is a top concern for those who want to address social issues. However, not all funding organizations accept proposals year-round, nor are they all interested in solving the same types of social problems. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research to find agencies whose missions match the objectives of particular advocacy programs or social-change projects.
    An aspiring business owner can likewise meet potential investors through research. They can examine investor profiles to find a good fit in terms of vision, mission, goals work ethic, and available capital.
    Some hobbies and interests are expensive to pursue. One of these is traveling. For budget-conscious tourists, searching for airfare and hotel promos, discount rides, and cheap markets is certainly a must to maximize the value of their money.
    Seizing opportunities can broaden one’s social network, raise one’s awareness, or secure the support one direly needs to start a project or a business. Indeed, research contributes to a person’s ability to make life-changing decisions. It encourages self-growth, participation in worthwhile causes, and productive living.

    (6) It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research for Critical Thinking
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.

    Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral to conducting research. Conducting interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and participating in casual talks can help us gather information and formulate research topics. These things also facilitate our critical thinking process, much like reading and writing. Listening to experts discuss their work can help us analyze issues from new perspectives and add new techniques to our information-gathering arsenal.

    Sharing Research for Wider Understanding
    With the wide array of ideas floating around and the interconnectedness of people and places through the internet, scholars and non-scholars involved in research are able to share information with a larger audience. Some view this process as ego-boosting, while others see it as a means to stimulate interest and encourage further research into certain issues or situations.

    (7). It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    Research helps in Critical Thinking and Mental Health
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health. In “Educating the Brain to Avoid Dementia: Can Mental Exercise Prevent Alzheimer Disease?” Margaret Gatz (2005) enumerated research findings that support such a position. However, she also noted that there may be other factors involved in averting dementia and relates issues. One of these is intelligence. A study involving 11-year-old pupils in Scotland in 2000, for instance, pointed to intelligence quotient (IQ) scores as “predictive of future dementia risk”. Gatz opined that clinical trials are needed and that “conclusions must be based on large samples, followed over a long period of time.” She further posited:

    Indeed, doing research encourages people to explore possibilities, understand existing issues, and disprove fabrications. Without research, all of our technological advancements and other developments would have remained fantasies. Reading, writing, observing, and analyzing facilitate an inquisitive mind’s quest for knowledge, learning, and wisdom. Research is a bridge that we must cross to achieve all of our goals—both personal and societal

    QUESTION NO 2

    In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.

    PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Social Science research deals with social a phenomenon which is quite different than the natural phenomena. Hence, there are fundamental difference between research in social sciences and that of physical or natural sciences.

    (1) Absence of Quality Tertiary Education. : Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment andapparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations.

    (2) Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test.
    Funding : Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world owing to a major scarce resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research.

    (3). Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.

    (4) Insufficient adjustment to the demands of Information and Communication and Technology:
    The social research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. The problem here is not the absence of ICT in Nigerian’s social research nor the adjustment to its demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba (2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the Internet for literature searches and data collection. Equally, data can be processed and analyzed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. This knowledge is only prominent among students in Tertiary schools with very little obtainable in secondary schools. Some of the lecturers in tertiary institutions are also oblivious regarding the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research. Hence, they lack the know-how. More to just social research is the fact that the virtual world created by ICT has brought to bear several ingredients that could strengthen social research such as online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria

    (5). Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect:
    In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.

    (6) Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading.

    (7) Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.

    (8) Unpredictability. : Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.

    (9) Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.

    (10) Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.

    (11) Problems of inter-disciplinary research : Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.

    These are some of the problems one encounter in conducting a social science Research in developing Countries.

  18. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com
    QUESTIONS:
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    ANSWERS:
    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Reasons Why Research Is Important
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    *It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    *It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    *It helps us succeed in business.
    *It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    *It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    *It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    *It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    1.) It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning:
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.
    2.) It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.
    3.)Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.
    In her 2017 article about Daniel Day-Lewis, Lynn Hirschberg described how the award-winning actor prepared for his role as dressmaker Reynolds Woodcock in Paul Thomas Anderson’s film, Phantom Thread. She wrote:
    “To become Woodcock, Day-Lewis, who is 60, watched archival footage of fashion shows from the 1940s and ’50s, studied the lives of designers, and most important, learned to sew. He consulted with Cassie Davies-Strodder, then curator of fashion and textiles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. And for many months he apprenticed under Marc Happel, who is head of the costume department at the New York City Ballet, watching intently and then helping to reconstruct the famous Marc Chagall costumes for a production of Firebird. At the end of the ballet season, Day-Lewis decided he needed to build a couture piece from scratch.”
    People both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.
    4.)Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories:
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.
    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.
    Good business is built on sound research.
    Good business is built on sound research.
    5.) It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D);
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.
    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.
    6.) Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.
    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.
    Owlcation home
    7.) It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.
    8.) Field Testing and Peer Reviews;
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.
    9.) Professional and credible journalists also undertake thorough research to establish the veracity of their stories. The 2003 movie Shattered Glass tells the rise-and-fall story of a real-life journalist who worked for The New Republic based in New York City. If fellow journalists hadn’t debunked his stories as fabricated, Stephen Glass could have written even more dubious pieces that would have been taken at face value by readers of the publication.
    10.)Fact-Checking to Discover Research Bias, Propaganda, and Fake News
    With the use of internet technology and social media, pseudo-journalism has become a social concern. Fake news took center stage during the 2016 presidential campaign period in the United States. For instance, Snopes.com, a rumor research site, debunked the following “news stories” posted online:
    An FBI agent believed to be responsible for the latest email leaks “pertinent to the investigation” into Hillary Clinton’s private email server while she was Secretary of State, was found dead in an apparent murder-suicide. (Reported on November 5, 2016, by the Denver Guardian)
    In a final speech to the synod, Pope Francis endorsed Senator Bernie Sanders for President of the United States. (Reported on October 26, 2015, by the National Report and USAToday.com.co)
    Thousands of pre-marked ballots for Hillary Clinton and other Democratic candidates were found in a warehouse in Ohio. (Reported on September 30, 2016, by the Christian Times Newspaper)
    Assange: Bernie Sanders was threatened and told to drop out of the presidential race. (Reported on August 29, 2016, by USA Supreme)
    News outlets around the world are reporting on the news that Pope Francis has made the unprecedented decision to endorse US presidential candidate Donald Trump. (Reported in July 2016, by the WTOE 5 News)
    After gay club massacre, Phoenix LGBT officially endorses Trump. (Reported on June 13, 2016, by the Gateway Pundit)
    African-American supporter of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has died after allegedly sustaining gunshot wounds in the aftermath of Friday night’s chaos in Chicago. (Reported on March 12, 2016, by the Christian Times Newspaper)
    According to Pew Research, social media, especially Facebook, serves as a primary source of news for over 60 percent of adult Americans (Chang, Lefferman, Pedersen, and Martz, 2016). In addition to fueling social media company profits, fake news has become profitable for pseudo-journalists whose main goal is to attract reader clicks that lead to Google Adsense revenue.
    Fact-checking to determine the truth is integral to the process of research. Murray, Social News, and UGC Hub (2016) suggest that before news readers share information on social media, they need to assess the integrity of the news source and check for similar news on legitimate media outlets.
    Genuine journalists do not rely on imagination for their news reports, nor do they avoid doing research. They eschew propaganda and have no intention of misleading the public. They are messengers of useful information—not lies.
    Opportunities for success come more easily when we’re well informed.
    Opportunities for success come more easily when we’re well informed.
    11.) It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities:
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

  19. Name : Obodoagu somtochukwu Lilian
    Reg.Number: 2018/242452
    Department: Economics
    Course:Eco 391(Research Method1)
    ASSIGNMENT

    (1)The purpose of research.
    The purpose of research simply means the aims and goals of research, the reasons why research is carried out. It includes:
    (1)The purpose of research is to understand an existing phenomenon.
    (2)we carry out research in order to provide answers to a problems.
    (3) Research enables us to make prediction and formulate policies to Economics problems.
    (4)It also help to formulate theory.
    (5) Research help us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    Social research can serve a variety of purposes. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description and explanation.
    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration wsatisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.
    Discriptive involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.
    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why.
    (2)The importance of research.
    1. Research expands your knowledge base.
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    (3) Clinically discuss and analyse the problems of conducting social research in developing countries.
    1. Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    2. Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    3. Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    4. Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    5. Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    6. Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    7. Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    8. Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    9. Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.
    The above points discuss the main challenges or problems faced by researchers in developing countries which need immediate attention.

  20. Obi Chiedozie Joseph says:

    Name: Obi Chiedozie Joseph
    Department: Economics
    Reg number: 2018/241868

    ASSIGNMENT QUIZ ON ECO 391
    ANSWERS
    QUESTION 1
    1. The main purpose of research generally is to support a theory or to dispute the same theory. The research analytical system undertakes the findings of different theories with the primary aim of supporting or negating a particular proposed theory or statement. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas.(discoverphDs.com) Wikiversity(wikiversity.org)cites Six(6) main purposes of research which includes:
    1.Information gathering: Research is taken to gather information about a particular phenomenon.
    2.Exploratory: Research is undertaken to explore different things and different possibilities of a particular phenomenon.
    3.Descriptive: To describe attributes of a said phenomenon.
    4.Theory testing: To test the validity or otherwise of a proposed theory.
    5.Explanatory: Testing and understanding causal relations.
    6.Predictive: Predicting what might happen in various scenarios.

    Research is important because it helps to justify the truth or falsehood of a particular statement, theory or model.
    Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work.( Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS )
    The Important Site(theimportantsite.com) cites ten(10) importance of research
    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    QUESTION 2
    Several developing countries undertake research for different purposes but the bottom line is that due to their limited scope of operations and little or no level of equipped infrastructure, their research techniques usually experience a hitch in their research processes. Some problems as cited by D.K Beehera(2021) include:
    1. Evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data..
    2. Interpretations of field data in relation to a conceptual and theoretical framework.
    3. Reliability and validity of the collected data.
    4. The background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained).
    5. Target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions.
    6. Time management or wastage of research time.
    7. Quantification of qualitative data.
    8. Preparing the final report/thesis/dissertation.

    REFERENCES
    Samuelson, Paul A. “Complementarity: An Essay on The 40th Anniversary of the Hicks-Allen Revolution in Demand Theory.” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 12, no. 4, 1974, pp. 1255–1289. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2722379. Accessed 31 Aug. 2021.
    Streeten, Paul P. “Social Science Research on Development: Some Problems in the Use and Transfer of an Intellectual Technology.” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 12, no. 4, 1974, pp. 1290–1300. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2722380. Accessed 31 Aug. 2021.
    Parker, William N. Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 12, no. 4, 1974, pp. 1327–1329. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2722385. Accessed 31 Aug. 2021.

  21. Okonkwo chinaza favour says:

    Name: OKONKWO CHINAZA FAVOUR
    Reg no: 2018/242315
    Dept: ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 1
    As a special adviser to Mr President explain the purpose and importance of research.

    ANSWER
    The purpose of research is the specific or primary objective and aim of conducting a study while the importance of research is the benefits one gets from carrying out a research. The purpose and importance of research includes:
    1) To verify and certify postulations and speculations.
    2) Research helps to establish an accurate and real knowledge and facts on a particular topic, issues or problems.
    3) Research also help to increase the understanding of a phenomenon and gives room to invalidate and debunk deception or forgery.
    4) Research provide suggestions to address a diverse and deep socio-economic issues through the advancement of renewed inquiries.

    QUESTION 2
    Challenges of conducting research in less Developed countries

    ANSWER
    It is a well known fact that research is in it’s continual stage in Developing countries and there are several barriers and hindrances militating against research. It includes
    1) Limited number of well trained researchers to carry out good scientific research.
    2) Inadequate funding or grants is another challenge of conducting research in Developing nations.
    3) Limited number of public and private sector record leading to shortage of data for study i.e poor record keeping.
    4) Lack of cooperation and support from the public institutions and private establishments which makes data collection difficult.
    5) High level of ignorance on the part of the masses.
    6) Inadequate infrastructures like good roads, schools, hospitals, good telecommunication and information devices, electricity etc.
    7) cultural practices can also be a constraints or obstruction to conducting research.

  22. Name:Ugwueze Martha Chioma
    Reg no:2018/247847
    Dept: Economics
    Course code:Eco 391
    Assignment
    (1) purpose of research
    Research is a systematic investigation in order to establish facts as well as conclusions. It gives the people a means to come up with a conclusion.
    Main Purpose of a Research
    -inform action
    -prove theory
    -contribute to develop knowledge in a study
    -correcting a hypotheses
    -acceptance of facts as truths
    Other Purpose of a Research
    to build a knowledge
    to increase awareness
    to correct misconception or lies and prove facts
    Research brings exploration towards a certain topic. It gives a deeper touch to a certain topic giving a person an understanding towards it until he or she comes up with a conclusion which is tested and proven.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments

    (2)Problems of Social Science Research In The Developing Countries Include :

    1.poor attention given to the development of Human Capacity: Human resource is a major precedent for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It goes beyond population to the quality of the population evident in what is brought to the table by these humans for development to happen. In Nigeria, the poor attention given to the development of human capacity in all ramifications is worrisome and has affected the quality of social research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An enlightened and astute researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who lacks fundamental features of being properly educated. A social science researcher who does not have the penchant for research owing to lack of motivations and a research enabled environ might also not get
    the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent. The foregoing was captured in Kamba (2008) who stated that expected outcomes of a functional research and development initiatives entail equipping the people with the needed capacity with which they need to carry out their economic activities with appreciable degree of proficiency leading to the attainment of maximum output. They further inferred that these capacities encompass enhancing the people with the skills and competences needed to effectively harness and utilize the potentials found in one’s environment. In conclusion, they maintained that Nigeria’s case today is evidence of the fact that it is a nation highly populated with whole lot of potentials but with inadequate competences needed to translate these potentials into socio-economic transformations for the nation.

    2. Absence of a clear cut philosophy of national development: The foundation to achieving harmony between the demands/expectations of a state and the response/obligation of its citizens, is enshrined in clear cut philosophies that are engraved in the minds of the citizens through conscious teachings. If research in Nigeria becomes an inalienable philosophy for its development, citizens would concertedly
    act to achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new
    technologies. It is in the presence of such philosophies that the instability of government would no longer be a challenged since everyone must have to tailor his/her actions to the demands of the stated philosophies. In nations where this is present, people out of even involuntary compulsion tend to see themselves living in such ideals. A consistent, coherent and comprehensive philosophy of national
    development is essential for concerted research effort (Jimoh 1998).
    3.Absence of Quality Tertiary Education:
    Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space
    of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment and apparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can
    do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations. In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007), they lamented the poor synergy that exists between tertiary institutions and secondary education and those of research outcomes and intelligence for industries. This brings to the fore that social research conducted in Nigeria is mainly for
    academic purposes and promotional requirements as against proper application by significant persons and bodies to better the lots of the people. The absence of these and many more is no motivation at all. To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies
    have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and
    Omofonmwan (2013), nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to its people.
    Thus, the university serves as a broker between government and private interests. It also has the
    opportunity to serve the public and common good by provoking public debates with unbiased research (Orbach, 2001). In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) on Research and Development.

    4. Initiatives in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects, using the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, a significant large percentage of the respondents concurred to the fact that a nation’s level of development is a function of its research initiatives and development structure which is navigated by the works of quality tertiary institutions. Hence, social research in Nigeria would become only as good as the quality
    of tertiary institutions within the nation.

    5. Funding: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world, owing to scarce
    resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research
    like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research. The Nigerian government and related institutions could spend so much on space science, meteorological studies, geological mining and other relatives. Studies
    and research in the social sciences such as gerontology, criminology, religion studies, conflict
    management, human resource management, public relations, juvenile care, child welfare, policy studies etc, and among others, when in comparison with their contemporaries in the pure and physical sciences, suffer for lack of adequate funding. This has led to disciplines who are adequately funded to scorn those
    who are not, thus undermining their relevance. This has equally affected the real application of such knowledge within those areas of neglect to the actual course for which they have been informed. Suffice here that the myriad of social problems faced by Nigeria is a show of the neglect of these areas responsible to social research, which has been described people-centred. Therefore, development as a
    people-centered project becomes untenable for such a nation. To confirm the above, Okunamiri, Okoli and Okunamiri (2008) in their study, asserted that a nation’s pace of development is determined by its level of research funding.

  23. Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne says:

    Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne
    2018/242424
    Eco 361
    Developmental Economics
    1. Purposes and importance of research?
    1. Research expands your knowledge base:The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    2. Research gives you the latest information:Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against:In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility:People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope:When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    2. Discuss and analyze the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. However, when nurses participate in research they have to cope with three value systems; society; nursing and science which may be in conflict with the values of subjects, communities, and societies and create tensions and dilemmas in nursing. Method and material: Using the Medline and the Nursing Cinahl data base, the most important ethical issues which appear in bibliography, will be addressed. After a short description of the nature of nursing, and the advocacy role of nurses, the writer will attempt to highlight the possible conflicts that nurses have to deal with, when undertaking or participating in research. Results: The major ethical issues in conducting research are: a) Informed consent, b) Beneficence- Do not harm c) Respect for anonymity and confidentiality d) Respect for privacy. However, both the nature of nursing which focuses on caring, preventing harm and protecting dignity and the advocates role of nurses which calls for defending the rights of subjects, are sometimes incongruent with the ethics in research. Conclusions: Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research. Because of lack of clarity in ethical standards, nurses must develop an awareness waklert of these issues and an effective framework to deal with problems involving human rights.

  24. Okechukwu chioma Sandra says:

    NAME: OKECHUKWU CHIOMA SANDRA
    REG NO: 2018/243748
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: Okechukwukalia002@gmail.com

    Question :
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    3) Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    What will you tell your audience?

    Answers:
    1. What I understand by purpose of research .

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    **What is Research
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.

    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:

    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.

    **What is the Purpose of Research
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    A. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    B. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    C. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    3) Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    Lack of motivation
    A doctorate is a long project so your motivation will dip and peak along the way. Set yourself some short-term tasks when lacking motivation so that you can start to make progress again. Identify what motivates you and give yourself regular rewards. It is easier to motivate yourself if you know where you are headed so plan your research project and keep track of milestones achieved.

    Lack of self-confidence
    Doing a doctorate can be highly exposing. Be aware of your level of self-confidence and self-belief. If it drops, try to boost your confidence by _seeking positive feedback
    -acknowledging your achievements so far
    -taking stock of your competencies
    -stretching yourself by trying out new things.
    -If your lack of confidence is seriously affecting your ability to function then seek advice and professional help.

    Poor time management
    Try and spend time planning, make sure you are devoting an appropriate amount of time to the tasks you are undertaking and then review how things are going. If you are not achieving your goals think about why and make a change. More advice on time management is available.

    Lack of focus or direction
    If you feel that your research is drifting, refocus on your main objectives.

    -Discuss with your supervisor where you think the project is going
    -Rewrite your research proposal to help you articulate what the project is supposed to be about
    -Rework your project plan to try and give you a clearer idea about what to do next and how it fits into the big picture
    -Take a short break as you may just be bogged down with detail

    Limited support
    Doing a doctorate can be lonely and isolating. Try to take opportunities to build up your support network.
    Are you using all of your key contacts enough?
    -Find out if your department offers a mentoring scheme. If it does not, you can ask a more senior researcher whether they would be willing to give you some help and advice.
    -Try and work in teams if possible.
    -Improve your relationship with your supervisor.

    Stuck in your comfort zone
    Beware of only doing things that you are comfortable doing and know you are fully capable of doing. This is known as your comfort zone and tends to be highly limiting. Try continually to stretch yourself to ensure that you keep learning, for example by volunteering for something that you don’t see as one of your strengths.

    Fear of failure/taking risks
    You can learn more from your failures than successes: they are often catalysts for positive change in the medium/long term. Don’t take it personally. Remember that you are training to be a researcher. Understand what is expected of you and know where you can find support.

    Lack of relevant experience
    Identify where your gaps are and explore all options and take opportunities. Try to find some work experience to broaden your competencies.

  25. ASOGWA OBIORA says:

    NAME : ASOGWA OBIORA
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    REG.NO : 2018/242288
    COURSE : ECO 391
    Second Assignment.
    From my own perspective, the purpose of research and the importance of research can be discussed as follows:
    (a) Research bridges the gaps in literature: This is a situation whereby a Researcher contributes to knowledge by finding out what previous Researchers have not been able to find out. By so doing, he has added to literature.
    (a) Theory formulation: research helps in the formulation of new theory that would help in providing answer to a given problem. Theories when formulated help to classify and clarify things such as entities, processes, and causal relationships. It enables us to understand how and why already observed regularities take place. It also helps us to predict future events. (c) Model building: knowledge gained on the process of research can go a long way in building models. (d) policy formulation: knowledge gained during research can be of great help for policymakers in different areas of their endeavors. (e) Development planning: research can give us the the required data base for planning and designing developmental schemes and programmes. (f) Discovery of facts and their interpretation: research provides answer to questions of what, when, how, and why of human’s social life and institutions. Discovery of facts and their inter-relationship help us to discard distortions and contribute to our understanding of reality. The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are as follows: (a) problem of illiteracy: A greater number of the population in most developing countries are illiterates. They don’t know what research is all about, why it is important. Some times, when you approach them with a questionnaire, they think that you are a tax collector who has come to exploit them of their money, and as a result, they refuse to pay attention to you. Challenges of illiteracy are real in most developing countries like Nigeria. (b) Lack of funding and data collection: As a researcher, you need a lot of money to travel or buy equipments to facilitate your research findings. But, in most cases researchers do not have the required fund to purchase the needed equipment like application software etc. (c) Lack of support and cooperation from both public and private institutions: In most cases, these have constituted a bottleneck on the side of the researchers owing to the fact that most private and public institutions are unwilling to release data to researchers. And this has frustrated many researchers efforts in most developing countries like Nigeria. (d) Poor infrastructural facilities: Most of the infrastructural facilities needed by researchers to enhance their research journey are poorly supplied. Such facilities are electricity, road network, internet services etc. (e) Research in most developing countries are seen as a mere academic exercise instead of foundation for policy formulation.

  26. Onyilo Joseph dominic says:

    Name: Onyilo Joseph Dominic
    Reg no: 2018/ 250101
    Dept: Education/Economic
    Course: Research in Economics
    Question.
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?
    Answers
    It is a thing of pride for the opportunity given to me as an adviser to Mr. President on research matters, to speak on the purposes /important of research as well as the problems of conducting research in social sciences.
    I want to start by validating the argument put forward by the director of research that; Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken by a researcher to increase the stock of knowledge. However, the purpose of research in general could be stated as follows:
    1. Research provides us with data for the purpose of extrapolation, forecasting and policy especially during the occurrence or expectation of re- occurrence of similar events. Eg , if the socialist economic system has proven to be best method in improving the welfare of its citizens in many countries, then we can expect the same positive result to occur in other countries who wish to embrace such doctrine.
    2. Data obtained through research enables us to understand existing phenomenon. Understanding existing phenomenon deals with a comprehensive search on what exist. For an instance, how are the economic systems of capitalism and socialism operated in various countries, how does the government tackle issues of poverty etc.
    3. It enable researchers to established the existence and extent of relationship between variables.
    4. Researchers helps to provide answers to an unknown problems. The society is dynamic and hence is confronted with a myriad of new problems from time to time.
    5. Research provides the basis for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims made through deductive reasoning.
    6. Research helps us to formulates or refine theories in other to enrich the school curriculum or frontiers of knowledge. Information obtained from research enables us to accumulate a body of knowledge over a period of time which is used to either extend or modify an existing theory or formulate a new one.
    7. Research enables us to exercise our cognitive sense during the process of deductive or logical reasoning for the purpose of innovation.
    Despite the above purpose or importance of research, it does not however goes without a problems, hence there are problems of conducting research in social sciences, these problems are:
    1. The anthropocentric nature of social sciences: the disciplines in the social sciences deals with the study of human behavior. Data collected in their researches are in most cases subject to the feelings, idiosyncrasies, mood or understanding of research subjects. Such variables can change under different conditions.for example, Demand is said to increase when price fall but it react differently when consumers are faced with the purchase of ostentatious goods.
    2. Underdeveloped infrastructural base: infrastructural facilities in Many countries are underdeveloped and unreliable. It is worthy of mention that the advent of information technological facilities have made positive impacts to research in general.
    3. Lack of cooperation from the public: many developing countries are fettered with problems of corruption, thuggery, kidnapping, fraud, superstitious and cultural beliefs. Hence this affects public attitude negatively when researchers wish to collect information for research. Members of the public thus either distort information through fear or in many cases hoard such information for security reasons.
    4. Inadequate archival or public record: The experience of many social sciences researchers is that data to be collected is either unavailable or inadequate. In many instances when time series data is needful, researchers are confronted with gaps in research data for many months or years for various organization. This has led many researchers to make projections from existing data which might be wrong.
    Reference:
    African Development Foundation (1993) Research Grant Proposals
    Handbook USA: African Development Foundation
    Blaug, M(2007) The Social Sciences Economics. The new encyclopedia Britannica

  27. Obiajulu Olisaemeka charles says:

    NAME : OBIAJULU OLISAEMEKA CHARLES

    DEPT : ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE

    REG.NO : 2018/242803

    ASSIGNMENT.
    WHAT I UNDERSTAND AS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.

    To me, I think I think research has a lot of purposes, It can be used for a many important things and it’s very useful when it comes down to things like research project.
    Purpose for Research
    When you perform research, you are essentially trying to solve a mystery—you want to know how something works or why something happened. In other words, you want to answer a question that you (and other people) have about the world. This is one of the most basic reasons for performing research.

    But the research process does not end when you have solved your mystery. Imagine what would happen if a detective collected enough evidence to solve a criminal case, but she never shared her solution with the authorities. Presenting what you have learned from research can be just as important as performing the research. Research results can be presented in a variety of ways, but one of the most popular—and effective—presentation forms is the research paper. A research paper presents an original thesis, or purpose statement, about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a variety of sources.

    If you are curious about the possibility of life on Mars, for example, you might choose to research the topic. What will you do, though, when your research is complete? You will need a way to put your thoughts together in a logical, coherent manner. You may want to use the facts you have learned to create a narrative or to support an argument. And you may want to show the results of your research to your friends, your teachers, or even the editors of magazines and journals. Writing a research paper is an ideal way to organize thoughts, craft narratives or make arguments based on research, and share your newfound knowledge with the world.
    No matter what field of study you are interested in, you will most likely be asked to write a research paper during your academic career. For example, a student in an art history course might write a research paper about an artist’s work. Similarly, a student in a psychology course might write a research paper about current findings in childhood development.

    Having to write a research paper may feel intimidating at first. After all, researching and writing a long paper requires a lot of time, effort, and organization. However, writing a research paper can also be a great opportunity to explore a topic that is particularly interesting to you. The research process allows you to gain expertise on a topic of your choice, and the writing process helps you remember what you have learned and understand it on a deeper level.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    What is Research again for review purposes
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Furthermore, the results of your study may have implications for policy and future project implementation.

    One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Often, a disconnect exists between those who conduct research and those who are positioned to implement the research findings. The underlying problem is that “the production of evidence is organized institutionally with highly centralized mechanisms, whereas the application of that science is highly decentralized. This social distance prevails because scientists are more oriented to the international audiences of other scientists for which they publish than to the needs of practitioners, policy makers, or the local public.”

    Thus, as researchers, it is imperative to take steps to overcome this barrier. Publishing your study may be one initial step to make your research known to the global community. Other proactive measures can be taken to encourage the uptake of evidence-based interventions. For example, you can present your research findings at various venues, such as Unite for Sight’s Global Health and Innovation Conference. Furthermore, you can send the results of your study to local officials, policy-makers, and community leaders. There are relatively few published studies about eye care in developing countries, and Unite For Sight encourages all volunteers to consider developing a research study to contribute important knowledge to the eye care community on a global scale. Pursuing a research project will be a challenging and rewarding experience, and this opportunity enables you to pursue an in-depth original study about a topic of interest.

    Well-conducted research is vital to the success of global heath endeavors. Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs. Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions. Furthermore, good research utilizes methodologies that can be replicated, produces results that are examinable by peers, and creates knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations. Researchers work as a team to enhance our knowledge of how to best address the world’s problems.
    Purposes of Research
    Research skills can make professionals in therapeutic sciences better providers because they know how to examine their own Research has 2 general
    purposes: (1) increasing knowledge
    clients and note whether improvement has occurred within the discipline
    and (2) increasing knowledge
    within oneself as a professional consumer of research in order to Research Dimensions and Dichotomies evaluate
    and understand new developments within the discipline (Otrenbacher, 1986).

    Three Purposes of Research
    Social research can serve many purposes. Three
    of the most common and useful purposes are exploration, description, and explanation. Although
    a given study can have more than one of these pur￾poses-and most do-examining them separately
    is useful because each has different implications for
    other aspects of research design.
    a. Exploration
    Much of social research is conducted to explore a
    topic, or to start to familiarize the researcher with
    that topic. This approach typically occurs when a
    researcher examines a new interest or when the
    subject of study itself is relatively new.
    As an example, let’s suppose that widespread
    taxpayer dissatisfaction with the government erupts
    into a taxpayers’ revolt. People begin refusing to others remain conscious. Most sit down while
    channeling, but others stand and walk about. Some
    channels operate under pretty ordinary conditions;
    others seem to require metaphysical props such as
    dim lights, incense, and chanting. Many of these
    differences became apparent to me only in the
    course of my initial observations.
    Regarding the entities, I have been interested
    in dasslfylng where they say they come from. Over
    the course of my interviews, I’ve developed a set
    of questions about specific aspects of “reality” in an
    attempt to class* the answers they give. Similarly,
    I ask each to speak about future events.
    Over the course of this research, my examination of specific topics has become increasingly focused as I’ve identified variables that seem worth
    pursuing: gender, education, and religion, for example. Note, however, that I began with a relatively blank slate.
    Exploratory studies are quite valuable in social
    scientific research. They are essential whenever a
    researcher is brealcing new ground, and they almost always yield new insights into a topic for research. Exploratory studies are also a source of
    grounded theory, as discussed in Chapter 2.
    The chief shortcoming of exploratory studies
    is that they seldom provide satisfactory answers
    to research questions, though they can hint at the
    answers and can suggest which research methods
    could provide dehitive answers. The reason exploratory studies are seldom debitive in them￾selves has to do with representativeness; that is,
    the people you study in your exploratory research
    may not be typical of the larger population that
    interests you. Once you understand representativeness, you’ll be able to know whether a given
    exploratory study actually answered its research
    problem or only pointed the way toward an answer.
    b. Description
    A major purpose of many social scientific studies
    is to describe situations and events. The researcher
    observes and then describes what was observed.
    Because scientific observation is careful and deliberatehowever, scientific descriptions are typically
    more accurate and precise than are casual ones.
    The U.S. Census is an excellent example of descriptive social research. The goal of the census is
    to describe accurately and precisely a wide variety
    of characteristics of the U.S. population, as well as
    the populations of smaller areas such as states and
    counties. Other examples of descriptive studies are
    the computation of age-gender profiles of populations done by demographers, the computation
    of crime rates for Werent cities, and a productmarketing survey that desaibes the people who
    use, or would use, a particular product. A researcher who carefully chronicles the events that
    take place on a labor union picket line has, or at
    least serves, a descriptive purpose. A researcher
    who computes and reports the number of times individual legislators voted for or against organized
    labor also fulfills a descriptive purpose.
    Many qualitative studies aim primarily at description. An anthropological ethnography, for example, may try to detail the particular culture of
    some preliterate society. At the same time, such are seldom limited to a merely descriptive
    purpose. Researchers usually go on to examine why
    the observed patterns exist and what these patterns imply.
    c. Explanation
    The third general puIpose of social scientific research is to explain things. Descriptive studies answer questions of what, where, when, and how;
    explanatory questions, of why. So, when William
    Sanders (1994) set about describing the varieties of
    gang violence, he also wanted to reconstruct the
    process that brought about violent episodes among
    the gangs of different ethnic groups.
    Reporting the frequency of church attendance
    is a descriptive activity, but reporting why some
    people attend and others don’t is explanatory. Reporting the crime rates of different cities is a case of
    description; identrfylng variables that explain why
    some cities have higher crime rates than others involves explanation. A researcher who sets out to
    discover why an antiabortion demonstration ended
    in a violent confrontation with police, as opposed simply describing what happened, has an explanatory purpose.
    In a similar vein, a survey of attitudes toward legalizing marijuana might serve the worthwhile descriptive purpose of simply reporting the attitudes of
    various segments of the population. Or a researcher
    might set out to discover what factors shape people’s
    attitudes on this issue-a why question (“Why
    do people have the attitudes they do about marijuana?”).

    Importance of research

    1- Encourages learning beyond the classroom
    The first thing which makes research important is the fact that it encourages learning. Research makes it necessary for us to keep learning. The concept of learning beyond the boundaries of school/college/university was instead a new thing. We can say that just because of research, the human mind and their lifestyle have changed. The mere fact that mental development is just because we cannot deny the importance research has for developing our mindsets.

    2- It is used to prove theories
    Just like our brain development needs research, theoretical proofs need research, too. To understand the importance of research, we should realize that our life revolves around theories, and if we remove research from the equation, we can see that our lives are nothing but a mess. Moreover, we research a point of view where we do not have to keep things to ourselves, and instead, we do it to inform humankind about what change our theory might bring. The primary purpose of all the research has kept us connected.

    3- Provides the latest information
    Knowledge is one of the core reasons human beings have desired since the start of the human race. Being more knowledgeable powerful has made us addicted to the latter. And this is true as well. The countries with the most knowledge base are the ones that have shown development. However, there can be other reasons for doing research. With the help of tools and certifications like CIRS, we can get these skills very fast and with the lowest efforts. Anyone can become a researcher who will be certified and recognized by the AOFIRS. An opportunity of a lifetime.

    4- Research builds credibility
    Research provides a strong basis for you to construct your thoughts and beliefs on. You may talk confidently about something you know to be correct. When you’ve done your homework, it’s far more difficult for someone to find flaws in what you’re saying. Your study should concentrate on the most reliable sources. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5- Helps succeed in business
    A business, like any other technical work, demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proves and case studies. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business. The percentage of companies turning unsuccessful without proper research involved is near 90%. So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they had sensible owners who researched their product, and the market needs before launching it. Only if we pay attention to these nit-picks of a company and see the importance of research decision-making will there be a higher chance to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    6- Facilitates Learning Process
    Learning new things and implementing them in daily life can be a frustrating task. Learning is not made for just anyone and everyone; however, the short courses and certifications like CIRS keep the research process somewhat more manageable. The accreditation offers complete knowledge from beginner to expert level. You can become a Certified Online Researcher and land a high-paying job besides being far more efficient and skills in gathering reliable data. No wonder research is a daunting task, but with the help of tools and tricks, you can become a certified researcher very soon.

    7. Prepares you to Deal with the Future
    If you are a business studies student, you can discover how to form plans and strategies once you are employed in the field. You can figure out your goals for ahead. In areas like medicine, research helps you identify diseases, symptoms and reveals new ways to eradicate them. Hence you can prepare for the real world by knowing more about the challenges you have to face.

    8.. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    9. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    10. Research also benefits civil society and its members. Securing funding for projects and research initiatives is a top concern for those who want to address social issues. However, not all funding organizations accept proposals year-round, nor are they all interested in solving the same types of social problems.

    -Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    Social science research cannot uncover facts outside of its field. Also, it only examines society for facts and does not provide advice.
    In fact, social science research deals with social a phenomenon which is quite different than the natural phenomena. Hence, there are fundamental difference between research in social sciences and that of physical or natural sciences.

    a. Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test.
    b. Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.
    Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.
    c. Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading.
    d. Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.
    e. Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.
    f. Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.
    g. Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.
    h. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.
    Some major problems (other than the listed ones) in social science research (ssr) are: (1) evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data (2) interpretations of field data in relation to a conceptual and theoretical framework, (3) reliability and validity of the collected data, (4) the background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained), etc.
    Some major challenges in ssr are: (1) target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions, (2) time management, (3) quantification of qualitative data, (4) preparing the final repot/thesis/dissertation, etc.
    The most important problem facing the researcher in social sciences such as economics is data, and how to deal with it, I mean the ability of the researcher to use statistical and Econometric standard methods in dealing with these data to reach the truth and the appropriate solution. In my personal opinion, the common problem which may be faced in social sciences are: 1) difficulty in collection the suitable simple size, 2) poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge’s on the subject matter addressed and etc., 3) finding the suitable research method to conduct or carry out the intended study, 4) interpretation of the data’ field with regard to the conceptual framework, 5) limited knowledge or background on the needed software to run the data or conducting the data analysis. These some of many common problems in social sciences research. I will be excited to see other problems from the academic and experts who may respond to this question.

  28. Obiajulu Olisaemeka Charles says:

    NAME : OBIAJULU OLISAEMEKA CHARLES

    DEPT : ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE

    REG.NO : 2018/242803

    ASSIGNMENT.
    WHAT I UNDERSTAND AS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.

    To me, I think I think research has a lot of purposes, It can be used for a many important things and it’s very useful when it comes down to things like research project.
    Purpose for Research
    When you perform research, you are essentially trying to solve a mystery—you want to know how something works or why something happened. In other words, you want to answer a question that you (and other people) have about the world. This is one of the most basic reasons for performing research.

    But the research process does not end when you have solved your mystery. Imagine what would happen if a detective collected enough evidence to solve a criminal case, but she never shared her solution with the authorities. Presenting what you have learned from research can be just as important as performing the research. Research results can be presented in a variety of ways, but one of the most popular—and effective—presentation forms is the research paper. A research paper presents an original thesis, or purpose statement, about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a variety of sources.

    If you are curious about the possibility of life on Mars, for example, you might choose to research the topic. What will you do, though, when your research is complete? You will need a way to put your thoughts together in a logical, coherent manner. You may want to use the facts you have learned to create a narrative or to support an argument. And you may want to show the results of your research to your friends, your teachers, or even the editors of magazines and journals. Writing a research paper is an ideal way to organize thoughts, craft narratives or make arguments based on research, and share your newfound knowledge with the world.
    No matter what field of study you are interested in, you will most likely be asked to write a research paper during your academic career. For example, a student in an art history course might write a research paper about an artist’s work. Similarly, a student in a psychology course might write a research paper about current findings in childhood development.

    Having to write a research paper may feel intimidating at first. After all, researching and writing a long paper requires a lot of time, effort, and organization. However, writing a research paper can also be a great opportunity to explore a topic that is particularly interesting to you. The research process allows you to gain expertise on a topic of your choice, and the writing process helps you remember what you have learned and understand it on a deeper level.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    What is Research again for review purposes
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Furthermore, the results of your study may have implications for policy and future project implementation.

    One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Often, a disconnect exists between those who conduct research and those who are positioned to implement the research findings. The underlying problem is that “the production of evidence is organized institutionally with highly centralized mechanisms, whereas the application of that science is highly decentralized. This social distance prevails because scientists are more oriented to the international audiences of other scientists for which they publish than to the needs of practitioners, policy makers, or the local public.”

    Thus, as researchers, it is imperative to take steps to overcome this barrier. Publishing your study may be one initial step to make your research known to the global community. Other proactive measures can be taken to encourage the uptake of evidence-based interventions. For example, you can present your research findings at various venues, such as Unite for Sight’s Global Health and Innovation Conference. Furthermore, you can send the results of your study to local officials, policy-makers, and community leaders. There are relatively few published studies about eye care in developing countries, and Unite For Sight encourages all volunteers to consider developing a research study to contribute important knowledge to the eye care community on a global scale. Pursuing a research project will be a challenging and rewarding experience, and this opportunity enables you to pursue an in-depth original study about a topic of interest.

    Well-conducted research is vital to the success of global heath endeavors. Not only does research form the foundation of program development and policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs. Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions. Furthermore, good research utilizes methodologies that can be replicated, produces results that are examinable by peers, and creates knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations. Researchers work as a team to enhance our knowledge of how to best address the world’s problems.
    Purposes of Research
    Research skills can make professionals in therapeutic sciences better providers because they know how to examine their own Research has 2 general
    purposes: (1) increasing knowledge
    clients and note whether improvement has occurred within the discipline
    and (2) increasing knowledge
    within oneself as a professional consumer of research in order to Research Dimensions and Dichotomies evaluate
    and understand new developments within the discipline (Otrenbacher, 1986).

    Three Purposes of Research
    Social research can serve many purposes. Three
    of the most common and useful purposes are exploration, description, and explanation. Although
    a given study can have more than one of these pur￾poses-and most do-examining them separately
    is useful because each has different implications for
    other aspects of research design.
    a. Exploration
    Much of social research is conducted to explore a
    topic, or to start to familiarize the researcher with
    that topic. This approach typically occurs when a
    researcher examines a new interest or when the
    subject of study itself is relatively new.
    As an example, let’s suppose that widespread
    taxpayer dissatisfaction with the government erupts
    into a taxpayers’ revolt. People begin refusing to others remain conscious. Most sit down while
    channeling, but others stand and walk about. Some
    channels operate under pretty ordinary conditions;
    others seem to require metaphysical props such as
    dim lights, incense, and chanting. Many of these
    differences became apparent to me only in the
    course of my initial observations.
    Regarding the entities, I have been interested
    in dasslfylng where they say they come from. Over
    the course of my interviews, I’ve developed a set
    of questions about specific aspects of “reality” in an
    attempt to class* the answers they give. Similarly,
    I ask each to speak about future events.
    Over the course of this research, my examination of specific topics has become increasingly focused as I’ve identified variables that seem worth
    pursuing: gender, education, and religion, for example. Note, however, that I began with a relatively blank slate.
    Exploratory studies are quite valuable in social
    scientific research. They are essential whenever a
    researcher is brealcing new ground, and they almost always yield new insights into a topic for research. Exploratory studies are also a source of
    grounded theory, as discussed in Chapter 2.
    The chief shortcoming of exploratory studies
    is that they seldom provide satisfactory answers
    to research questions, though they can hint at the
    answers and can suggest which research methods
    could provide dehitive answers. The reason exploratory studies are seldom debitive in them￾selves has to do with representativeness; that is,
    the people you study in your exploratory research
    may not be typical of the larger population that
    interests you. Once you understand representativeness, you’ll be able to know whether a given
    exploratory study actually answered its research
    problem or only pointed the way toward an answer.
    b. Description
    A major purpose of many social scientific studies
    is to describe situations and events. The researcher
    observes and then describes what was observed.
    Because scientific observation is careful and deliberatehowever, scientific descriptions are typically
    more accurate and precise than are casual ones.
    The U.S. Census is an excellent example of descriptive social research. The goal of the census is
    to describe accurately and precisely a wide variety
    of characteristics of the U.S. population, as well as
    the populations of smaller areas such as states and
    counties. Other examples of descriptive studies are
    the computation of age-gender profiles of populations done by demographers, the computation
    of crime rates for Werent cities, and a productmarketing survey that desaibes the people who
    use, or would use, a particular product. A researcher who carefully chronicles the events that
    take place on a labor union picket line has, or at
    least serves, a descriptive purpose. A researcher
    who computes and reports the number of times individual legislators voted for or against organized
    labor also fulfills a descriptive purpose.
    Many qualitative studies aim primarily at description. An anthropological ethnography, for example, may try to detail the particular culture of
    some preliterate society. At the same time, such are seldom limited to a merely descriptive
    purpose. Researchers usually go on to examine why
    the observed patterns exist and what these patterns imply.
    c. Explanation
    The third general puIpose of social scientific research is to explain things. Descriptive studies answer questions of what, where, when, and how;
    explanatory questions, of why. So, when William
    Sanders (1994) set about describing the varieties of
    gang violence, he also wanted to reconstruct the
    process that brought about violent episodes among
    the gangs of different ethnic groups.
    Reporting the frequency of church attendance
    is a descriptive activity, but reporting why some
    people attend and others don’t is explanatory. Reporting the crime rates of different cities is a case of
    description; identrfylng variables that explain why
    some cities have higher crime rates than others involves explanation. A researcher who sets out to
    discover why an antiabortion demonstration ended
    in a violent confrontation with police, as opposed simply describing what happened, has an explanatory purpose.
    In a similar vein, a survey of attitudes toward legalizing marijuana might serve the worthwhile descriptive purpose of simply reporting the attitudes of
    various segments of the population. Or a researcher
    might set out to discover what factors shape people’s
    attitudes on this issue-a why question (“Why
    do people have the attitudes they do about marijuana?”).

    Importance of research

    1- Encourages learning beyond the classroom
    The first thing which makes research important is the fact that it encourages learning. Research makes it necessary for us to keep learning. The concept of learning beyond the boundaries of school/college/university was instead a new thing. We can say that just because of research, the human mind and their lifestyle have changed. The mere fact that mental development is just because we cannot deny the importance research has for developing our mindsets.

    2- It is used to prove theories
    Just like our brain development needs research, theoretical proofs need research, too. To understand the importance of research, we should realize that our life revolves around theories, and if we remove research from the equation, we can see that our lives are nothing but a mess. Moreover, we research a point of view where we do not have to keep things to ourselves, and instead, we do it to inform humankind about what change our theory might bring. The primary purpose of all the research has kept us connected.

    3- Provides the latest information
    Knowledge is one of the core reasons human beings have desired since the start of the human race. Being more knowledgeable powerful has made us addicted to the latter. And this is true as well. The countries with the most knowledge base are the ones that have shown development. However, there can be other reasons for doing research. With the help of tools and certifications like CIRS, we can get these skills very fast and with the lowest efforts. Anyone can become a researcher who will be certified and recognized by the AOFIRS. An opportunity of a lifetime.

    4- Research builds credibility
    Research provides a strong basis for you to construct your thoughts and beliefs on. You may talk confidently about something you know to be correct. When you’ve done your homework, it’s far more difficult for someone to find flaws in what you’re saying. Your study should concentrate on the most reliable sources. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5- Helps succeed in business
    A business, like any other technical work, demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proves and case studies. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business. The percentage of companies turning unsuccessful without proper research involved is near 90%. So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they had sensible owners who researched their product, and the market needs before launching it. Only if we pay attention to these nit-picks of a company and see the importance of research decision-making will there be a higher chance to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    6- Facilitates Learning Process
    Learning new things and implementing them in daily life can be a frustrating task. Learning is not made for just anyone and everyone; however, the short courses and certifications like CIRS keep the research process somewhat more manageable. The accreditation offers complete knowledge from beginner to expert level. You can become a Certified Online Researcher and land a high-paying job besides being far more efficient and skills in gathering reliable data. No wonder research is a daunting task, but with the help of tools and tricks, you can become a certified researcher very soon.

    7. Prepares you to Deal with the Future
    If you are a business studies student, you can discover how to form plans and strategies once you are employed in the field. You can figure out your goals for ahead. In areas like medicine, research helps you identify diseases, symptoms and reveals new ways to eradicate them. Hence you can prepare for the real world by knowing more about the challenges you have to face.

    8.. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    9. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    10. Research also benefits civil society and its members. Securing funding for projects and research initiatives is a top concern for those who want to address social issues. However, not all funding organizations accept proposals year-round, nor are they all interested in solving the same types of social problems.

    -Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    Social science research cannot uncover facts outside of its field. Also, it only examines society for facts and does not provide advice.
    In fact, social science research deals with social a phenomenon which is quite different than the natural phenomena. Hence, there are fundamental difference between research in social sciences and that of physical or natural sciences.

    a. Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test.
    b. Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.
    Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.
    c. Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading.
    d. Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.
    e. Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.
    f. Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.
    g. Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.
    h. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.
    Some major problems (other than the listed ones) in social science research (ssr) are: (1) evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data (2) interpretations of field data in relation to a conceptual and theoretical framework, (3) reliability and validity of the collected data, (4) the background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained), etc.
    Some major challenges in ssr are: (1) target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions, (2) time management, (3) quantification of qualitative data, (4) preparing the final repot/thesis/dissertation, etc.
    The most important problem facing the researcher in social sciences such as economics is data, and how to deal with it, I mean the ability of the researcher to use statistical and Econometric standard methods in dealing with these data to reach the truth and the appropriate solution. In my personal opinion, the common problem which may be faced in social sciences are: 1) difficulty in collection the suitable simple size, 2) poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge’s on the subject matter addressed and etc., 3) finding the suitable research method to conduct or carry out the intended study, 4) interpretation of the data’ field with regard to the conceptual framework, 5) limited knowledge or background on the needed software to run the data or conducting the data analysis. These some of many common problems in social sciences research. I will be excited to see other problems from the academic and experts who may respond to this question

  29. Unadike Fabian Chinemezu says:

    NAME: UNADIKE FABIAN CHIMEMEZU
    REG NO: 2018/249698
    EMAIL: Fabzycf@gmail.com
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS
    CODE: ECO 391

    QUESTION
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS
    Purpose of Research:
    It is believed that everything happening in this World has a Purpose/Reason.,so Research isn’t an exception.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    There are two major purpose of Research which has two subdivision each:
    1. Information gathering and/or
    – Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    – Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing

    2. Theory testing
    – Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    – Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios.
    To further clarify them..,it was broken down into three(3) main Purposes coined out from the two major Purposes..,and they are:
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    Importance of Research:
    This discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    I will list some of the importance of Research then explain like 2 or 3 of them…:
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Explanation
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning:
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness:
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures.
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better.

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business:
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    Research and Development can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value and it is essential to supporting a country’s economy.

    Clinically discuss and Analyse the Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries:
    Researching a study, a theorem or generally researching in other to accrue more facts sure has its numerous Problems facing them especially in Developing Countries like Nigeria.,etc.
    Examples of these Problems are:
    1. LACK OF PROPER RESEARCH ETHICS
    Because of the importance of Research in academics, modern inventions, general human life and culture, there are ethical applications and principles which must be judiciously followed when conducting any form of research.
    Research Ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a diversity of topics involving research like a Scientific Research.
    Researches done in Developing Countries needs to follow the proper ethical applications, approach and principles in conducting research to ensure credibility. Meaning that in other to properly tackle the problems of research in those Countries, researchers must be well trained.

    2. INEFFECTIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM
    Researchers must be well trained. How do you train your people to be professional without a functional education system? “Import Knowledge”.
    Developing Countries needs a total makeover in her education sector from basic up to tertiary level. The truth is that the educational system in Developing Countries are badly broken and barely functional; and it is not necessarily about the education structure, the education systems or the philosophies but the education system is completely ineffective because of the way we teach our future researchers.
    For example, some Nigerian schools mostly teach only about the theoretical aspect of research rather than the practical aspect of conducting a credible and acceptable research.

    3. LACK OF FUNDS FOR RESEARCH
    Time and Money are the two most valuable factors in life and the only two factors you can invest. Another problem of research in Developing Countries is the lack of money and time.
    Research facilities are not cheap to set up these days; neither is the cost of research equipment needed to conduct these research and then the need to properly manage these research facilities and apparatus effectively.
    Time also is a limiting factor of research in these Countries because most professionals are either joggling two jobs or too occupied in one job to give time to research. For instance a university lecturer who is also a clinical psychologist.

    4. LOW ACCESSIBILITY OF DATA AND INFORMATION
    Information these days is not cheap. With the ineffective educational and library system in Developing Countries.,getting access to data and information will pose somewhat of a barrier to researchers in there when conducting a research.
    Developing Countries also barely has a data base that is built to take stock of data and information which can easily be retrieved by authorised researchers like in the western countries.
    The access to journals, reports and statistics needed by researchers in conducting research whether on the internet or in print is outrageously expensive hence encouraging the researcher in these Countries to abandon the research before actually starting.

    5. Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.

    6. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.

  30. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN

    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    REG NO: 2018/250325

    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com

    QUESTIONS:
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS:

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Reasons Why Research Is Important
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    Why Is Research Important?
    This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    *It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.

    *It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    *It helps us succeed in business.

    *It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    *It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    *It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    *It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.

    1.) It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning:
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2.) It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    3.)Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.
    In her 2017 article about Daniel Day-Lewis, Lynn Hirschberg described how the award-winning actor prepared for his role as dressmaker Reynolds Woodcock in Paul Thomas Anderson’s film, Phantom Thread. She wrote:
    “To become Woodcock, Day-Lewis, who is 60, watched archival footage of fashion shows from the 1940s and ’50s, studied the lives of designers, and most important, learned to sew. He consulted with Cassie Davies-Strodder, then curator of fashion and textiles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. And for many months he apprenticed under Marc Happel, who is head of the costume department at the New York City Ballet, watching intently and then helping to reconstruct the famous Marc Chagall costumes for a production of Firebird. At the end of the ballet season, Day-Lewis decided he needed to build a couture piece from scratch.”
    People both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.

    4.)Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories:
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.
    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.
    Good business is built on sound research.
    Good business is built on sound research.

    5.) It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D);
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.
    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.

    6.) Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.
    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.

    7.) It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    8.) Critical Thinking and Mental Health
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health. In “Educating the Brain to Avoid Dementia: Can Mental Exercise Prevent Alzheimer Disease?” Margaret Gatz (2005) enumerated research findings that support such a position. However, she also noted that there may be other factors involved in averting dementia and relates issues. One of these is intelligence. A study involving 11-year-old pupils in Scotland in 2000, for instance, pointed to intelligence quotient (IQ) scores as “predictive of future dementia risk”. Gatz opined that clinical trials are needed and that “conclusions must be based on large samples, followed over a long period of time.” She further posited:
    “. . . we have little evidence that mental practice will help prevent the development of dementia. We have better evidence that good brain health is multiply determined, that brain development early in life matters, and that genetic influences are of great importance in accounting for individual differences in cognitive reserve and in explaining who develops Alzheimer disease and who does not . . .
    For older adults, health practices that could influence the brain include sound nutrition, sufficient sleep, stress management, treatment of mood or anxiety disorders, good vascular health, physical exercise, and avoidance of head trauma. But there is no convincing evidence that memory practice and other cognitively stimulating activities are sufficient to prevent Alzheimer disease; it is not just a case of “use it or lose it.”

    CHALLENGES IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including:

    * lack of planning

    * lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research;

    *underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding.

    *Growing Pressure for Positive Results
    Science is a competitive field. Scientists have intense pressure to produce meaningful results. As a result, fewer and fewer papers are being published that show “negative results”—i.e. that their hypothesis was false. In 1990, “negative results” accounted for 30% of published papers—that number has fallen to a mere 14%.
    Another problem is that scientists are under pressure to publish new, groundbreaking research, rather than performing studies to replicate results from previous research. Journals are exclusive and want to publish striking results that present a “major advance.” Replicating studies, however, is extremely important. It’s a key part of confirming findings and eliminating scientific fraud.

    *Sloppy Lab Work
    Labs can often be messy and chaotic. In far too many cases, samples and chemicals are mislabeled and even forgotten. The Wall Street Journal took a hard look at this issue after a cancer researcher had his work on head-and-neck cancer retracted from the journal Oral Oncology due to the fact that the cells he was studying were actually cervical cancer cells. The WSJ highlights the extent of the problem: “Cancer experts seeking to solve the problem have found that a fifth to a third or more of cancer cell lines tested were mistakenly identified—with researchers unwittingly studying the wrong cancers, slowing progress toward new treatments and wasting precious time and money.”
    The problem is incredibly widespread: “Cell repositories in the U.S., U.K., Germany and Japan have estimated that 18% to 36% of cancer cell lines are incorrectly identified.”
    While the National Institutes of Health and the scientific community are slowly trying to weed out these problems by increasing scrutiny on papers submitted using cell lines and setting up a central repository of cell lines, cell contamination remains a major problem in scientific research.
    Sloppy lab conditions can also lead to another major problem: mycoplasma infestations. Mycoplasma is a bacteria that can spread rapidly throughout lab cultures, compromising scientists’ potential findings. The problem is also widespread. A recent article in Nature covered the problem and interviewed researchers who “found that more than one-tenth of gene-expression studies, many published in leading journals, show evidence of Mycoplasma contamination.”

    *Fraudulent Findings
    Alarmingly, the pressure to produce prestigious research has led a number of scientists to simply fake results or plagiarize from other researchers. In the last year, articles have been retracted from prestigious journals in which authors:
    “Knowingly and intentionally falsifying” results in a study of cancerous tumors,
    Duplication or “self-plagiarism” in a study of liver cancer,
    “Large sections of text duplicated from previously published articles” in a study of gastrointestinal cancer.
    Unfortunately, this is just a small sample of the many instances of fraud every year. A recent study found that fraud is the reason for 43% of all journal retractions.
    Scientific fraud can have huge implications. Remember the study that linked vaccinations and autism? Even though it was retracted after researchers said it was based on doctored information about children’s medical records, the myth of the vaccine/autism link is pervasive and continues to be repeated.

    *Reliance on Self-Reported Data
    A number of frequently cited studies, particularly studies of nutrition, rely on the information that study participants self-report. This makes it difficult to fully trust a study’s findings–self-reported data is notoriously unreliable.
    Just how reliable is self-reported data? Consider that consumers consistently give the food on Southwest Airlines high marks…despite the fact that the airline doesn’t serve meals.
    During a recent session hosted by the American Society for Nutrition, Dr. David Allison took a highly critical look at self-reported data, highlighting a recent paper “that looked at energy intake of respondents in NHANES from 1971-2012, finding that 67.3% of women and 58.7% of men were not physiologically plausible – i.e. the number of calories is ‘incompatible with life.’”

  31. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN

    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    REG NO: 2018/250325

    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com

    QUESTIONS:
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    ANSWERS:

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Reasons Why Research Is Important
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.
    Why Is Research Important?
    This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    *It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.

    *It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    *It helps us succeed in business.

    *It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    *It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    *It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    *It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.

    1.) It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning:
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2.) It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    3.)Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.
    In her 2017 article about Daniel Day-Lewis, Lynn Hirschberg described how the award-winning actor prepared for his role as dressmaker Reynolds Woodcock in Paul Thomas Anderson’s film, Phantom Thread. She wrote:
    “To become Woodcock, Day-Lewis, who is 60, watched archival footage of fashion shows from the 1940s and ’50s, studied the lives of designers, and most important, learned to sew. He consulted with Cassie Davies-Strodder, then curator of fashion and textiles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. And for many months he apprenticed under Marc Happel, who is head of the costume department at the New York City Ballet, watching intently and then helping to reconstruct the famous Marc Chagall costumes for a production of Firebird. At the end of the ballet season, Day-Lewis decided he needed to build a couture piece from scratch.”
    People both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.

    4.)Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories:
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.
    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.
    Good business is built on sound research.
    Good business is built on sound research.

    5.) It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D);
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.
    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.

    6.) Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.
    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.

    7.) It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    8.) Critical Thinking and Mental Health
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health. In “Educating the Brain to Avoid Dementia: Can Mental Exercise Prevent Alzheimer Disease?” Margaret Gatz (2005) enumerated research findings that support such a position. However, she also noted that there may be other factors involved in averting dementia and relates issues. One of these is intelligence. A study involving 11-year-old pupils in Scotland in 2000, for instance, pointed to intelligence quotient (IQ) scores as “predictive of future dementia risk”. Gatz opined that clinical trials are needed and that “conclusions must be based on large samples, followed over a long period of time.” She further posited:
    “. . . we have little evidence that mental practice will help prevent the development of dementia. We have better evidence that good brain health is multiply determined, that brain development early in life matters, and that genetic influences are of great importance in accounting for individual differences in cognitive reserve and in explaining who develops Alzheimer disease and who does not . . .
    For older adults, health practices that could influence the brain include sound nutrition, sufficient sleep, stress management, treatment of mood or anxiety disorders, good vascular health, physical exercise, and avoidance of head trauma. But there is no convincing evidence that memory practice and other cognitively stimulating activities are sufficient to prevent Alzheimer disease; it is not just a case of “use it or lose it.”

    CHALLENGES IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including:

    * lack of planning

    * lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research;

    *underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding.

    *Growing Pressure for Positive Results
    Science is a competitive field. Scientists have intense pressure to produce meaningful results. As a result, fewer and fewer papers are being published that show “negative results”—i.e. that their hypothesis was false. In 1990, “negative results” accounted for 30% of published papers—that number has fallen to a mere 14%.
    Another problem is that scientists are under pressure to publish new, groundbreaking research, rather than performing studies to replicate results from previous research. Journals are exclusive and want to publish striking results that present a “major advance.” Replicating studies, however, is extremely important. It’s a key part of confirming findings and eliminating scientific fraud.

    *Sloppy Lab Work
    Labs can often be messy and chaotic. In far too many cases, samples and chemicals are mislabeled and even forgotten. The Wall Street Journal took a hard look at this issue after a cancer researcher had his work on head-and-neck cancer retracted from the journal Oral Oncology due to the fact that the cells he was studying were actually cervical cancer cells. The WSJ highlights the extent of the problem: “Cancer experts seeking to solve the problem have found that a fifth to a third or more of cancer cell lines tested were mistakenly identified—with researchers unwittingly studying the wrong cancers, slowing progress toward new treatments and wasting precious time and money.”
    The problem is incredibly widespread: “Cell repositories in the U.S., U.K., Germany and Japan have estimated that 18% to 36% of cancer cell lines are incorrectly identified.”
    While the National Institutes of Health and the scientific community are slowly trying to weed out these problems by increasing scrutiny on papers submitted using cell lines and setting up a central repository of cell lines, cell contamination remains a major problem in scientific research.
    Sloppy lab conditions can also lead to another major problem: mycoplasma infestations. Mycoplasma is a bacteria that can spread rapidly throughout lab cultures, compromising scientists’ potential findings. The problem is also widespread. A recent article in Nature covered the problem and interviewed researchers who “found that more than one-tenth of gene-expression studies, many published in leading journals, show evidence of Mycoplasma contamination.”

    *Fraudulent Findings
    Alarmingly, the pressure to produce prestigious research has led a number of scientists to simply fake results or plagiarize from other researchers. In the last year, articles have been retracted from prestigious journals in which authors:
    “Knowingly and intentionally falsifying” results in a study of cancerous tumors,
    Duplication or “self-plagiarism” in a study of liver cancer,
    “Large sections of text duplicated from previously published articles” in a study of gastrointestinal cancer.
    Unfortunately, this is just a small sample of the many instances of fraud every year. A recent study found that fraud is the reason for 43% of all journal retractions.
    Scientific fraud can have huge implications. Remember the study that linked vaccinations and autism? Even though it was retracted after researchers said it was based on doctored information about children’s medical records, the myth of the vaccine/autism link is pervasive and continues to be repeated.

    *Reliance on Self-Reported Data
    A number of frequently cited studies, particularly studies of nutrition, rely on the information that study participants self-report. This makes it difficult to fully trust a study’s findings–self-reported data is notoriously unreliable.
    Just how reliable is self-reported data? Consider that consumers consistently give the food on Southwest Airlines high marks…despite the fact that the airline doesn’t serve meals.
    During a recent session hosted by the American Society for Nutrition, Dr. David Allison took a highly critical look at self-reported data, highlighting a recent paper “that looked at energy intake of respondents in NHANES from 1971-2012, finding that 67.3% of women and 58.7% of men were not physiologically plausible – i.e. the number of calories is ‘incompatible with life.’”

  32. Ibukun Bamiduro says:

    NAME: BAMIDURO IBUKUN OBIANUJU

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG.NO : 2018/243749

    COURSE : ECO 391

    Ibukun.maya@gmail.com

    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyze the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    As the special adviser to Mr. President on research matters, I would say that the purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts, and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications, and forming new research questions.
    To understand what research means, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem-solving.

    Three main purposes of research:

    1) Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. It aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself.

    2) Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population.

    3) Explanatory: it is conducted to determine how variables interact.

    Importance of research:

    1) Through research, we can gather updated information and to-the-point data.

    2) By differentiating between valuable and vague data, it creates credibility.

    3) Proper research of products and markets will make your business succeed.

    4) Research facilitates the learning process

    Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    Performing clinical research in developing countries has multiple barriers including lack of planning, lack of moral and financial incentives, and shortage of time available for research; underdeveloped health informatics structure; and lack of available funding.

    1) Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem in conducting social science research. They think that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2) Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.

    3) Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people.

    4) Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers while conducting social science research.

    5) Shortage of Resources: For performing quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types.

  33. Eze Ugochukwu Ethel says:

    Name: Eze Ugochukwu Ethel
    Reg.no: 2018/245419
    Dept: Social Science Education (Education Education)
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Purpose of Research
    1.It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2.It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3.It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    4.It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    5.It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    6.It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Research being the primary source of human development has played a vital role throughout human transformation.
    The importance of Research are via:

    1. Research increases the quality of life
    As modern problem require modern solution. Research is a pathway for improving the world’s most pressing issue, the complexity of which evolves over time. The entire wealth of research findings throughout history has led us to this very point in civilisation, which brings us give us reason why research matters.

    2. Research empowers us with knowledge
    Research gives us the privilege of having a sure knowledge of a theory. We get to know the way of nature, and how our actions affect it. We gain a deeper understanding of people, and why they do the things they do. It is only through research that one can get a broader understanding of a theory.Best of all, we get to enrich our lives with the latest knowledge of health, nutrition, technology, and business, among others.

    3. Encourages learning beyond the classroom
    Research provides a situation for deeper learning of a theory beyond classroom level. It in encourages a continuous learning beyond the boundaries of university.We can say that just because of research, the human mind and their lifestyle have changed. The mere fact that mental development is just because we cannot deny the importance research has for developing our mindsets.

    4. It is used to prove theories
    Just like our brain development needs research, theoretical proofs need research, too. To understand the importance of research, we should realize that our life revolves around theories, and if we remove research from the equation, we can see that our lives are nothing but a mess.It help provide a testable result with a sure ground. Moreover, we research a point of view where we do not have to keep things to ourselves, and instead, we do it to inform humankind about what change our theory might bring. The primary purpose of all the research has kept us connected.

    5.Provides the latest information
    Research gives humans the most crucial update and valid information.Knowledge is one of the core reasons human beings have desired since the start of the human race. The countries with the most knowledge base are the ones that have shown development. However, there can be other reasons for doing research. With the help of tools and certifications like CIRS, we can get these skills very fast and with the lowest efforts. Anyone can become a researcher who will be certified and recognized by the AOFIRS.

    6.It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths.
    Research provides one with the insight of disproving or supporting a fact. It gives a background knowledge of a fact which will either disprove or support a theory.All research findings can either be rejected or accepted with the help of research.
    CHALLENGES OF RESEARCH
    The challenges are as follows:
    1.Choosing the Right Topic
    Research topic is the most crucial on which everything else rests. It is of great importance to know the research topic is the bedrock of reach. One has to choose a topic that is of interest to him or her, but when this is considered one can get pissed off with the research top which lies as a challenge to a researcher.

    2. Choosing the Right Methodology
    Once you’ve chosen a topic, you’ll need a methodology—a procedure for conducting your research—in order to move forward.you need to choose a methodology to suit your reach topic as a matter of fact when this is ignored it posit challenge to researcher

    3.Getting Institutions to Participate
    Sometimes recruiting study participants requires going through institutions, which may put up barriers, particularly if your research is controversial or sensitive, and this presents an additional challenge.

    4.Lack of relevant experience
    Identify where your gaps are and explore all options and take opportunities. Try to find some work experience to broaden your competencies.

    5.Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of tim

  34. CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    Name: CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA
    Reg No: 2018/243755
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment. Research Methods 1

    Before looking at the purpose and importance of research. It is important I do a recap of what exactly is research. Research according to Wanda (1981) is viewed as the process of finding out solutions to a problem. Oguniyi(1992) went further to view research as a careful and deligent search; studious and critical aimed at Discovery and interpretation of new knowledge.
    What then can we say is the purpose of research? I can simply sum up the purpose of research as;
    1. To understand existing phenomena. E.g factors that affect Economic growth in Nigeria
    2. It enables to establish and understand the existence and extent of Economic relationships.
    3. It enables us to provide answers to unknown problems. E.g. why do we have high level of unemployment in Nigeria.
    4. It helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    5. It helps us to formulate theories in order to enrich the frontiers in order to enrich the frontier of the problems.
    Knowing the purpose of research without knowing the importance is wrong. What then is the importance of research?
    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    2.Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    3.Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    What then are the implications of conducting research in developing countries: Below are key reasons for problems in conducting research.
    ✓. Ineffective Education System: The most important tool needed to surmount the challenges of research in Nigeria is adequate training. However, how do you train researchers adequately when the educational system itself is inadequate?. There are myriads of the problem facing the educational sector in Nigeria, ranging from the continuous industrial strikes of lecturers in tertiary institutions, inadequate funding from the government to mention just a few. There is a need for a complete overhaul of the current setup of the educational sector in Nigeria. Without this being done, researchers in Nigeria will continue to operate with inadequate knowledge. Take, for instance, most of the courses in Nigeria are taught theoretically even when there is a need for practical to make the students understand better. Bringing it to the current topic, for research to be credible, the researcher must be able to practice it; however, the opposite is the case in Nigeria.
    ✓Ineffective Library System:Following the broken educational system, it is only normal to expect a library system that is not functioning well. Most of the libraries in universities in Nigeria provide minimal research materials (books, journals, newspapers etc.) Most of the libraries well equipped in Nigeria are private-owned libraries.With the under stocking of libraries in Nigeria, researchers face a challenge when compiling data. Even those libraries that are seemingly well-stocked are filled with old materials. Even those few that are functioning well are not managed well, and many times researchers end up using up a lot of time looking for books, journals or reports needed to conduct proper and credible research.
    ✓Lack of public and private sector records.
    ✓Lack of corporation from public and private sector institutions.
    ✓Lack of funds and data collection.
    ✓Illetracy.

  35. Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara says:

    Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara
    2018/243088
    Department of Economics
    ECO 391
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1. Research expand oir knowledge base
    2. Research gives us the latest information
    3. Research helps us to know what we’re up to
    4. It builds our curiosity
    5. It helps to narrow our scope
    6. It introduces us to new ideas
    7. Research helps us with problem solving

    CHALLENGES OF RESEARCH
    Researchers encounter certain challenges in the course of their research. The challenges includes:
    1. Lack of motivation
    2. Lack of self-confidence
    3. Poor time management
    4. Lack of focus or direction
    5. Fair of failure / taking risk
    6. Lack of relevant experience

  36. Hassan Fadhilah Olamide
    2019/245672 (2/3)
    Education Economics
    ECO 391

    Question
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    Answer :
    1. Purpose and importance of research
    -Importance of research
    A. Introduces New Ideas
    It is possible that you already have ideas and opinions about a topic you are researching upon. The more research is done, the more viewpoints are unearthed. It encourages one to entertain fresh ideas and review your own perspective too. It can even change your mind about a concept or two.
    B. A Knowledge Building Tool
    The most prominent reason to engage in research is to enhance your knowledge. Even if you are an expert of your field, there is always more to uncover. If researching about a topic entirely new to you, it will help build your unique perspective about it. The whole process of research opens new doors of learning and literary growth.

    C. Enables Efficient Learning
    Studies reveal that research helps restore and protect memory and enhances mathematic and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it prepares the mind for a better understanding of concepts and theories. A person’s learning capacity is improved and they can perform better in comparison who is reluctant to research.
    D. Aids Employment Prospects
    Research has an undeniable role in the business industry. Successful companies have resources invested in research and development to have all the information they need of the market. Your academic phase helps you prepare for any research tasks you will have to accomplish in the future
    E. Helps in Understanding Issues
    It sheds light on problems that have not yet come out in the open. It gives people the opportunity to address issues and answer questions that the society doesn’t respond to.
    F. Provides Truthful Evidence
    The process of research can prove to dispel various myths that have been built up in our minds. They can either develop because of common belief or a wrong resource. Logical and fact-based knowledge is easily accessible if you only reach out to find the truth.

    -Purpose of research
    There are three main purposes of research
    A. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    B. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    C. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2.CLINICALLY DISCUSS AND ANALYSE THE PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Answer :
    A. Low Accessibility of Data and Information: The lack of a database for information and records that can be easily accessed from anywhere poses a serious barrier for researchers.
    B. Lack of Funds for Research:The lack of funds and time is perhaps the second on the list of challenges facing researchers . To use research facilities that are well equipped, one must be prepared to spend a lot. From the purchase of research equipment, transportation, books, etc., one would spend a lot.
    C. Poor Technological Advancement:The majority of researchers have not evolved with technology. Most researchers are only well versed with pen and paper, which is a challenge of research in the developing country. This is because most of the materials needed to carry out a study are now stored on a technological database. A lack of understanding of how this database works can lead to spending a lot of time surfing the internet for information without results to show for it. To combat this problem, there is a need for technological training to be inculcated into the educational curriculum to train the researcher on technological advancements.
    D. Political Uncertainty:The political instability in most developing countries also affects research development . It can be argued that the majority of the problems facing researchers are occasioned because of political uncertainty.

  37. Ikechukwu ifechukwu Victor says:

    NAME: IKECHUKWU IFECHUKWU VICTOR
    REG NO: 2018/248667
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT
    Purpose of research
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. The purpose of research are as follows;
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Challenges of research
    1. Lack of scientific training
    2. Lack of communication skill with the supervisor
    3. Poor time management
    4. Not having a definite deadline
    5. A quantity of literature
    6. Lack of confidence
    7. Insufficient data etc

  38. ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR)
    EMAIL: colettechinazaekpere@gmail.com
    COURSE: ECO 391

    PURPOSES/IMPORTANCE OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.

    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness.

    Using Research to Understand Current Issues.

    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures.

    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”

    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    Using Research to Understand People

    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.

    3.Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    4. It Helps Us Succeed in Business

    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high research and development expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies.

    With research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams.

    6. It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind.
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it feels the mind to seek answers.
    The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    Critical thinking and mental health
    Studies have shown that brain exercises/ practices such as; research helps to develop the brain and prevent it from dementia.

    CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
    Problems of research in a developing countries like Nigeria, are essential not only for academic circles, but also for the country and every aspect of development plans.

    research is the pillar of overall science. It concerns all industries where any project writing can be applied. No progress is made without it.
    Research requires several ingredients; some difficult to manage, while others are difficult to arrange. It is done by a single individual, but requires the acceptance/approval of several others; guides, supervisors, defense committee members, interviewees, focus group members, etc.

    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc.

    The Challenges are as follows:

    1. SECRECY
    Data collection is not always easy as it might seem. Ministries don’t want to make much information public. It led to the small information base. The absence of reliable sources makes the process of research writing difficult.
    Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2. LACK OF MONEY FOR WELL EQUIPPED EDUCATIONAL CENTERS
    It is a great challenge for Nigeria since no one can do research without access to research facilities. For many, it seems impossible to work having no specially equipped libraries and laboratories.

    3. INSTABILITY
    is no golden standard in Nigeria all researcher would keep to. It can be explained by the frequently changed administration. New authorities bring new programmes, plans, and standards. It makes total disorientation among students and scientists.
    4. THE DISINTEREST OF RESEARCHERS
    Those who search for the easiest and quickest way cannot be called researchers. Unfortunately, many are unwilling to go through thickets of proper writing. Such people are completely unmotivated. This is what gravely complicates the matter.

    5. LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
    Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

    6. TIME MANAGEMENT
    Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    7. QUANTITY OF LITERATURE
    It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

  39. Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem REG NO: 2018/241844 says:

    Name: Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem
    Reg No: 2018/241844
    Department : Economics
    1)Exploration involves a researcher finding out all that is invovled in the research topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration finds out the feasibility of carrying out a more extensive study. Exploration gives a helping hand in developing the methods that will be used in a study.
    a)Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are normally more on point than causal ones.
    b)Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why.

    Importance of research
    a) Research encourages curiosity
    b) Research builds your credibility
    c)Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. 
    d)I already have opinions and ideas about the topic when i start researching. The more i research, the more viewpoints i’ll come across. This encourages me to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at mine. 

    2) Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    a) lack of scientific training
    b) Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them.
    c) The overall problem is largely one of resources and their allocation, joint with a much smaller base of educated people in developing countries than usually found in the developed countries.
    d)Scientific research is not cheap these days. At one time the most expensive item in a research programme was the salary of the research worker involved, nowadays the cost of equipment and its maintenance are ever.

  40. Onyemelukwe Chinenye Favour says:

    Name: Onyemelukwe Chinenye Favour
    Reg. No: 2018/241854
    Dept: Economics

    Research involves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for: Information gathering, discovering, exploring data, describing, summarizing, data gotten, testing and understanding causal relations, predicting what might happen in various scenarios etc.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Important to a Nation:
    a. Research benefits business: Many successful companies invest highly in research because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services, to maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing.

    b. It is a means to understand issues and increase public awareness:
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, inflation rates and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that inflation rates are at an all-time high or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” actually means and how to help in their own corner.

    c. Research helps with problem-solving: Whether it’s a personal, professional or national problem, it helps to look beyond yourself and work with facts. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. The nation might just need more information, so as to make an informed decision. When good information have been collected, you can be confident in your solution.

    d. It helps to inform action: The government of a nation can take informed action on matters regarding poverty eradication, unemployment, resource allocation and general policy matters. Research also builds credibility as one isn’t just walking blind.

    e. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    Problems of conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries:

    a. Absence of a clear cut philosophy of national development: If developing countries embrace research as an inalienable part of development, citizens would eagerly work towards achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new
    technologies.

    b. Poor attention given to the development of Human Capacity: The importance of human resource is a major precedent for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It is the quality of the population which shows in efforts made towards research and development.
    In developing countries, poor attention is given to the development of human capacity and this affects the quality of social science research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An good researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who is uneducated. A social researcher without a research enabled environ might also not get the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels in developing countries. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent – Kamba (2008)

    c. Absence of Quality Tertiary Education:
    Tertiary education all over the world occupy a vital position in the heart of research for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Many tertiary institutions in developing countries lack proper research centers. This has adversely affected the quality of social research. The social research conducted in developing countries is mainly theoretical for classrooms than practical to real life.
    Social science research in developing countries would become only as good as the quality
    of tertiary institutions within them.

    d. Insufficient adjustment to the demands of Information and Communication and Technology: ICT is highly important to the social science research space. Online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others provided by the mechanism of ICT strengthen research. The Internet is needed for data collection, processing, analysis and information dissemination. Many are still oblivious to the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research, while some lack the know-how. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the smallest time portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria.

    e. Political Atmosphere: Social Science Research is aided by institutions and structures of the state. But most developing countries lack a thriving political atmosphere to back solid structures that will aid research. The truth (which research will expose) is abhorred in many developing countries, giving rise to issues with accuracy of data provided, especially when information is sought after from these politicians.

    f. Cultural and Ethical Issues: Certain cultural beliefs that are predominant in developing countries may blindside the researchers’ neutrality when carrying out research. For instance, the researcher from the South who embarks on an educational research in the North already has a bias of poor educational output which might end up influencing research findings even when the opposite is the real case. Also, superstitions, topics considered taboos may make researching such difficult and largely faulted.

  41. Anyanta Minah Ngozi says:

    NAME: ANYANTA MINAH NGOZI
    REG NO: 2018/249540
    Department: Combined Social sciences (ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY)
    COURSE: ECO 391
    QUESTION:
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?
    MY ANSWER
    Just like the Director of the Center argued, it is pertinent for us to understand that Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”.
    From the following definition above, I’m able to deduce the following Purposes and Importance of Research. And these includes the following:
    To increase the stock of Knowledge: one of the purpose and Importance of carrying out a research in a given field of work is to widen our scope about such phenomenon. Knowledge isn’t just acquired in a day, neither is there a limit to what we learn every day. A Research or an enquiry into a given field enables us to expand our understanding and knowledge that we already know about a problem, to know more about it, what others have researched concerning it and to find out the suitable or appropriate way of recommending effective solutions to the problem. For example A research into the effect of Okpa in the performance of Student, would enable us to know both the importance, the role and the effects of Okpa in the performance of Student, thereby increasing our already existing knowledge of Okpa.
    To test the Validity of instruments, procedures and experiments: The scientific process of carrying out research involves different methods, in which scientific practicals and experiments are often carried out to find answers to a problem. Therefore Research enables us to test and check how valid, relatable and replicable the extent of such instruments, and experiments employed are. If they are actually genuine and helpful or they need to be improved and worked more on.
    Comparing two or more Economic policies: As an Economist, Different Theories, models and Policies are required for some Micro and Macro Economic problems. Carrying out a research, and enquiry into these Policies and theories enables one to rightfully deduce the one which is more relevant, more reliable and more effective. So as to Foster Growth and improve the state of the Nation, since Right and Efficient Economic Policies fosters Development.
    For Personal Reasons: Sometimes the purpose and Importance of carrying out Research could be just for personal reasons such as to gain knowledge or for monetary purposes. A properly done Research has a way of attracting sponsors and fetching funds to the Researcher and of course Global recognition due to the fact that the Resaercher’s attention would be drawn to the World and in some needed areas.
    It enable us to dictate false facts and help the populace: A thorough research that is properly carried out enables one to be able to disagree with some certain theories, to see the truth in it through testing the falsifiability, so as to save the populace from following a blind notion disguised as truth.
    It enables one to become A Guru in one’s chosen field: Research is both exploring and fun. What is even more fun is getting new knowledge about a particular phenomenon. The only way one can gain mastery and become ahead of others in a given field of work is through research. Research exposes one to so many scopes of life. You can be able to speak with confidence about ones area of work, and even offer professional advice due to being more knowledgeable about it.
    Research helps in problem solving.
    THE PROBLEMS OF CARRYING OUT RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Some of the problems of conducting Research in Developing countries includes the Following:
    Unavailability of the needed Resources: e.g Power supply and Data Subscription: Most times when there’s need to carry out A Research Work, the poor power supply issues especially here in Nigeria will disrupt it. And sometimes the inability to purchase subscription due to funds issues is also a hindrance and a problem.
    The cost of carrying out the Research: one of the Problems associated with carrying out a Research work is the cost of running such program or project. A good research requires enough funding. In a case where there’s no fund, we find it difficult to do that or run a valid and presentable Research work.
    Data Availability: Unavailability of Data needed for such research work also serves as a hindrance to efficient and effective Research work. For example, most Data needed from CBN or Agric sector to run a given Project are most times out of bound, out of reach or most times not available. So sometimes, some of the Data used are false or based on Guess work.
    Societal Culture and Norms: Most Research work needed to be carried out in some parts of the nations are actually out of bound or restricted as a result of their cultures and Norms. Example: A research work that perhaps needs the head count of married women from the southern part of Nigeria, wouldn’t be found funny to be undertaken, due to their culture and tradition. The prohibition and How highly esteemed most cultures are held, prohibits carrying out some projects in such states, villages or community. For example: Running a project about the History or efficacy of a particular deity.
    Time Constraints: The time constraints or Time allocated to carry out certain Resaerch or Project works are sometimes small, and Limited to what is required to run a good research work.
    Problem of Insecurity: Most Research Areas needed to be travelled to for proper and adequate work are neglected because of the insecurity surrounding such countries. The fear of terrorism and possible killings and assassination are discouragement to emabrking on such journey.

    Therefore understanding the problems, Purpose and Importance of these Research work is needed for proper and adequate research work.

  42. OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2018/241833
    LEVEL: 300L
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    QUESTION
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of research may be either one or more of the following:
    1. Curiosity is an intrinsic characteristics of human brain and a powerful drive in the exploration of man’s surrounding environment. The researchers undertake research to discover and understand the fact underlying a phenomenon. Accordingly, curiosity for the unknown is the fundamental stimulating element in social research.

    2. Science sits on the implicit and unshakable belief of man that all events have cause and that practically nothing can occur uncaused. Business research is mainly worried about determination of cause-effect patterns of business phenomenon and not just with thorough description of it. Thus research for cause is another basic motivating element in research.

    3. Research makes use of quite a few techniques to examine various problems. The effectiveness of a technique is primarily responsible for fast and trustworthy results in any research. More sophisticated a technique, better are the outcomes by its use. In addition, certain problems can’t be studied unless appropriate methods are designed. As a result, a scientist is keenly interested in analyzing the existing techniques of research and making continuous advancement in them. Accordingly refinement of techniques is another reason for conducting research.
    4. A lot of events take place in the life of people, modern society and business that are unexpected and unforeseen and don’t easily fit into any known causation pattern. This kind of instances are highly stimulating for researchers to uncover the real nature of these facts and find out whether these can be made to fit in the accepted laws of causation or if not, do these demand customization of our laws. Accordingly an out of the ordinary happening encourages research.

    OTHER PURPOSE OF A RESEARCH
    •to build a knowledge
    •to increase awareness
    •to correct misconception or lies and prove facts.
    •inform action
    •prove theory
    •contribute to develop knowledge in a study
    •correcting a hypotheses
    •acceptance of facts as truths

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
    1. ABSENCE OF A CLEAR CUT PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: The foundation to achieving harmony between the demands/expectations of a state and the response/obligation of its citizens, is enshrined in clear cut philosophies that are engraved in the minds of the citizens through conscious teachings. If research in Nigeria becomes an inalienable philosophy for its development, citizens would concertedly act to achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new technologies. It is in the presence of such philosophies that the instability of government would no longer be a challenged since everyone must have to tailor his/her actions to the demands of the stated philosophies. In nations where this is present, people out of even involuntary compulsion tend to see themselves living in such ideals. A consistent, coherent and comprehensive philosophy of national development is essential for concerted research effort (Jimoh 1998).

    2. POOR ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPACITY: Human resource is a major precedent
    for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It goes beyond population to the quality of the population evident in what is brought to the table by these humans for development to happen. In Nigeria, the poor attention given to the development of human capacity in all ramifications is worrisome and has affected the quality of social research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An enlightened and astute researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who lacks fundamental features of being properly educated. A social researcher who does not have the penchant for research owing to lack of motivations and a research enabled environ might also not get the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent. The foregoing was captured in Kamba (2008) who stated that expected outcomes of a functional research and development initiatives entail equipping the people with the needed capacity with which they need to carry out their economic activities with appreciable degree of proficiency leading to the attainment of maximum output. They further inferred that these capacities encompass enhancing the people with the skills and competences needed to effectively harness and utilize the potentials found in one’s environment. In conclusion, they maintained that Nigeria’s case today is evidence of the fact that it is a nation highly populated with whole lot of potentials but with inadequate competences needed to translate these potentials into socio-
    economic transformations for the nation.

    3. ABSENCE OF QUALITY TERTIARY EDUCATION: Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment and apparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of
    their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations. In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007), they lamented the poor synergy that exists between tertiary institutions and secondary education and those of research outcomes and intelligence for industries. This brings to the fore that social research conducted in Nigeria is mainly for academic purposes and promotional requirements as against proper application by significant persons and bodies to better the lots of the people. The absence of these and many more is no motivation at all.
    To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and Omofonmwan (2013), nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to its people. Thus, the university serves as a broker between government and private interests. It also has the opportunity to serve the public and common good by provoking public debates with unbiased research (Orbach, 2001). In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2013) on Research and Development Initiatives in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects, using the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, a significant large percentage of the respondents concurred to the fact that a nation’s level of development is a function of its research initiatives and development structure which is navigated by the works of quality tertiary institutions. Hence, social research in Nigeria would become only as good as the quality of tertiary institutions within the nation.

    4. FUNDING: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world, owing to scarce resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research. The Nigerian government and related institutions could spend so much on space science, meteorological studies, geological mining and other relatives. Studies and research in the social sciences such as gerontology, criminology, religion studies, conflict management, human resource management, public relations, juvenile care, child welfare, policy studies and among others, when in comparison with their contemporaries in the pure and physical sciences, suffer for lack of adequate funding. This has led to disciplines who are adequately funded to scorn those who are not, thus undermining their relevance. This has equally affected the real application of such knowledge within those areas of neglect to the actual course for which they have been informed. Suffice here that the myriad of social problems faced by Nigeria is a show of the neglect of these areas responsible to social research, which has been described people-centred. Therefore, development as a people-centered project becomes untenable for such a nation. To confirm the above, Okunamiri, Okoli and Okunamiri (2008) in their study, asserted that a nation’s pace of development is determined by its
    level of research funding.

    5. Neo-colonialism: The foundation for colonialism is expressed in the principle of Manicheanism that holds the superiority of white over black (Achebe, 1958). This prejudice has been sustained over time dating back to colonialism and hitherto through neo-colonialism. This factor has largely influenced scholarship in Africa and adversely affects social research in Nigeria. Very pathetic is the fact that the mentality of dependency created by colonialism for the black population still features prominently in the activities of the blacks, with little or no efforts boldly taken to overturn the table. Most Nigerian scholars depend on foreign scholarships, grants and aids to sponsor their research projects since the Nigerian government poorly funds such venture. The Nigerian government equally gets to partner with these foreign agencies for the purpose of research which can solely be done by them if they commit themselves unwaveringly. Jimoh (1998) confirms the foregoing when he asserted that consequently, developing African countries still depend on all forms of foreign aid to support research, such as those provided by the USAID and the UNESCO. Over-reliance on foreign aid would only reduce the relevance of research activities to the Nigerian situation. In order to sustain scientific and technological impetus regardless of general depression, Sub-Saharan nations must inject huge amounts of funds into initiating and expanding training and research facilities (Jimoh 1998). More so, the fact that African
    Scholars who venture into varying research projects seek to be scored and rated on impact factor by some foreign controlled bodies is worrisome. At times, research made to promote and emancipate indigenous cultural heritage and pride of Africans tend to hit the rock when to be reviewed and published by some foreign based bodies who feel affected. This obviously impedes on actual rating based on originality of research content since the raters might not have relevant socio-cultural experience to justify such scores and the sweet savour of African pride. Nonetheless, Africans can cease
    being victims of neo-colonialism the moment they start forming world class scholarship forums and assessment grounds, hence social research in Nigeria would remain in its not so good condition. More so, one area that neo-colonialism has affected social research is the aspect of brain-drain. Very principle to this is the neglect of these scholarly ventures by principally the government and its institutions. This has culminated to many social researchers who travel out of the country in search for greener pastures
    and self-actualization. Thereby, making the venture back home to suffer.

    6. INSUFFICIENT ADJUSTMENT TO THE DEMANDS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY: The social research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. The problem here is not the absence of ICT in Nigerian’s social research nor the adjustment to its demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba (2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the Internet for literature searches and data collection. Equally, data can be processed and analyzed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. This knowledge is only prominent among students in Tertiary
    schools with very little obtainable in secondary schools. Some of the lecturers in tertiary institutions are
    also oblivious regarding the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research. Hence, they lack the
    know-how. More to just social research is the fact that the virtual world created by ICT has brought to bear several ingredients that could strengthen social research such as online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of
    time, which portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria.

    7. POLITICAL ATMOSPHERE: Very key to the progress of any happening in a State is politics. Social researchers oft do research into relationship between people and the State and the influence of the State on this people. Such researches are conducted through the structures and institutions of the state. Thus, most of these researchers would rely on data and information from these institutions and their elements.
    Most nations in Africa fall short of comprehensiveness and thus usually have issues with accuracy of data that in turn tell negatively on the research and consequently, interventions.

    8. CULTURAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES: The fallible nature of humans as part of their complexities have made research carriers to immune themselves in order to represent the idea of being scientific. However, this tends to be a factor that can be ameliorated as against being eradicated. Ethics are set of principles
    governing interactions at varying levels. Social researchers are guided by ethics while carrying out their enterprise. Nonetheless, they are still faced with certain structural problems in this regard. The absence of a veritable yardstick in curbing and penalizing plagiarism issues in Nigeria impedes on the ethical performance of social researchers. More so, the traditional culture of Nigerians as culture loving people and the ethnic divide/prejudice tend to influence the perceptions and perspectives of most Nigerian social researchers while carrying out certain social research activities that would demand conflict of ppvalues. The researcher from the South who embarks on an educational research in the North already has a bias that imply poor educational output which might end up influencing instruments for data collection and as well research findings even when the opposite is the real case. This is the need for the advocacy of an ethical board and veritable data management software to ascertain the quality of research instruments in line with ethical demands and standards for social research ventures. Obikeze
    (1979) in reaction to the foregoing stated that researchers harbour orientations and philosophies acquired in the course of their training and professional practice. Differences in these orientations have created sharp divisions among individuals and groups of social scientists. The cultural belief of the people in Nigeria also affects the quality of social research in Nigeria. Among the superstitious beliefs still current among some groups of Nigerians is the belief that children are not to be counted. More so, Nigerians do not seem to have acquired a scientific concept of causality that teaches them that effects could be traced to certain causes that must be scientifically investigated for truth to be discovered, which predicates problem solving and development on the continuum. This impedes on the efficacy of the scientific community in the social sciences. Again, as a result of cultural factors, Nigerians still largely regard certain concepts, issues and topics as taboo and obscene subjects that should not be discussed in public or openly. And although the Nigerian undergraduate might discuss sex, family planning, politics, AIDS with his peers, he might feel too shy or otherwise uncomfortable to let an adult who might be a stranger (researcher) into the secret of how he feels about any of these subjects.
    Thereby, making findings to be largely faulted (Jimoh, 1998).
    References
    https://universalteacher.com/1/reasons-for-conducting-research/

    https://brainly.ph/question/650822

    https://owlcation.com/academia/Why-Research-is-Important-Within-and-Beyond-the-Academe#:~:text=Why%20Research%20Is%20Necessary%20and,disprove%20lies%20and%20support%20truths.

    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url

  43. Akushie chukwuemeka johnbosco says:

    NAME : AKUSHIE CHUKWUEMEKA JOHNBOSCO REG NO:: 2018/249384
    DEPT :ECONOMICS
    EMAIL :Akushiejohnbosco@gmail.com
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?
    Answers
    1. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    What is Research
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.

    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:

    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.

    What is the Purpose of Research
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, but it has many benefits. Here are ten reasons why research is important:

    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    #4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    #6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    #7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    #8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    #9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    #10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    3. Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    in developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc. Here’s a list of top 10 challenges that we found intimidating for budding researchers:

    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.

    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.

    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

  44. UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH says:

    ME: UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH
    REG NO: 2018/247368
    DEPT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: umeayoekwomchukwuelijah@gmail.com

    1: As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    It’s an honor to address the audience on the purpose and importance of research as the special adviser to Mr President on Research matters.

    The aforementioned by the Director of the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis has given a detailed explanation of research. Therefore, these are the purpose and importance of research:

    Research involves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:

    1: Exploratory: Exploratory entail discovering, uncovering, exploring a situation or event in an environment.
    2: Descriptive: This involves gathering information, describing, summarizing an event or situation.
    3: Explanatory: This explains testing and understanding causal relations among variables.
    4: Predictive: predicting what might happen in various scenarios.

    THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning:
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For non professionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness:

    Using Research to Understand Current Issues.

    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017).
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories.

    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.

    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business:

    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)

    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.

    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths:

    Background Research and Private Investigations

    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.

    Field Testing and Peer Reviews

    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities:

    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options.

    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job candidates to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.

    2: Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries?.

    Below certain major and the most general challenges that a researcher in the developing country encounters are discussed:

    1: Nonexistence of Scientific Training:
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    2: Financial issues:
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.

    3: Lack of communication with the guide:
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.

    4: Proper Time management:
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.

    5: Stress:
    Pursuing a doctorate can be highly nerve-wracking. To overcome this stressful life, below are the points that should be followed:

    6: Seeking positive feedback:
    Acknowledging your achievements so far
    Taking stock of your competencies
    Trying out new things
    Aside from humans, pets can get stressed too. The good thing is there is a list of CBD brands which are meant to alleviate their troubles.

    7: Lack of confidence:
    The absence of confidence is one of the most common problems among scientists in developing countries. Scientists with low self-confidence feel less stirred thus affecting the quality of the work.

    8: Problems associated with importation:
    In most developing countries the complications and cost of importing scientific equipment, instruments, and spare parts is a major limiting factor to scientific research.

    9: Library management:
    The proper management and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journals, reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.

    In summary, scientific research is provided with a very low priority in the case of Developing countries.

    REFERENCE

    https://en.m.wikiversity.org/wiki/Research_purposes

    https://owlcation.com/academia/Why-Research-is-Important-Within-and-Beyond-the-Academe

    https://www.manuscriptedit.com/scholar-hangout/challenges-faced-researchers-developing-countries/

  45. Phil -eze chidiogo emmanuella says:

    NAME:PHIL-EZE EMMANUELLA CHIDIOGO
    REG NO: 2018/241626
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    EMAIL:philella602@gmail.com
    QUESTIONS
    1. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    #4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    Take a short course on research

    Understanding Research Methods (SOAS University of London)
    How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (École Polytechnique)
    Research for Impact (Oxfam)
    Qualitative Research Methods: Conversational Interviewing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    #6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    #7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    #8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    #9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.

    #10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    3. Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries

    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc. Here’s a list of top 10 challenges that we found intimidating for budding researchers:

    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.

    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.

    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

  46. EZECHUKWU RITA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: Ezechukwu Rita Chioma
    REG NUMBER: 2018/250327
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    Eco 391: Research methods in economics 1
    Eco 391–( online discussion Quiz 2- purpose/importance of Research and challenges of conducting Research in LDCs)

    DISCUSSION 1: Purpose of research
    Research is a diligent activity done to critically evaluate a problem/ theory, through structured investigation which brings about solution or greater understanding of the problem or theory under consideration or lead on to new insight. Research thus, is carried out mainly for three main purposes;
    EXPLORATION: A research is said to be carried out for the purpose of exploration when the researcher aims at; discovering, uncovering and exploring new ideas. This type of research helps a researcher to gain better understanding of the exact nature of a problem, hence, giving room for more in depth research in the future.
    DESCRIPTION: This is when a researcher carries out a research for the purpose of gathering information, to expand knowledge about a problem by describing it according to it’s characteristics and population, leading to summary of what the problem is all about and the solution to it. Such research answers the questions of, “how” and ” what” . Thus, it aids the description of a concept more accurately.
    EXPLANATION: When a research is carried out for the purpose of determining how variables interact (based on experiment), then it is done for the purpose of ” explanation” and to answer the question ” why”. Such research is carried out for testing and understanding of causal relationship.
    In summary, the first two purpose of research, increases the stock of knowledge, whereas the third purpose has to do with testing/ verification and understanding of existing theories. Research aims at solving mysteries and usually end up predicting what might happen in various scenarios.

    DISCUSSION 2: Importance or research
    Research is important as it gives answers to many questions bothering man. It aims at providing solutions to problem of men. Summarily, research is important because;
    a) It helps disprove lies and support truth.
    b) It builds credibility, teaches new idea, and helps with problem solving.
    c) It expands knowledge base and gives latest information.
    d) It prepares man to deal with the future.
    e) It introduces new ideas, which improves the life of men.

    DISCUSSION 3: Problem of social science research in developing countries.
    The problem of social science research in developing countries has to do with lack of infrastructures/ information to support research and illiteracy or the way people in developing countries view research which in one way or the other hinders research processes. Some of the problems of social science research in developing countries are, to mention but few:
    a) Lack of public and private sector record.
    b) unpredictability, as social science research deals with behavior of human.
    c) Lack of infrastructures.
    d) Lack of grants for data collection.
    e) Lack of support/corporation from public/private institutions.
    f) perception of research by people as mere academic exercise.
    g) problem of maintaining objectivity.
    h) High level of illiteracy/ ignorance.

  47. ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA. REG NO: 2018/248582 says:

    ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA
    2018/248582
    ECONOMICS MAJOR
    ECO 391
    QUESTION
    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?
    ANSWER
    Reasons Why Research Is Important
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Reasons why Research is Important can Further be Discussed below;
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.

    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.

    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.
    In his article, “Epistemology,” Yale University’s David Truncellito (n.d.) identifies three kinds of knowledge: procedural (competence or know-how), acquaintance (familiarity), and propositional (description of “a fact or a state of affairs”).

    Brain Research UK (formerly Brain Research Trust), a medical-research charity based in the United Kingdom, acknowledges the importance of research in building knowledge. It sees research as crucial to finding possible cures for diseases and ways to prevent them. Thus, research is necessary to ascertain whether one’s ideas are supported by previous studies or if these ideas still need further proof to be considered knowledge.

    An example of one such endeavor is a 2016 study conducted by several psychologists to examine how sleep affects memory reactivation. In “Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect,” they discovered that “interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention. Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.” This study supports the fact that both repetition and sleep improve a person’s long-term retention of information. Their findings also emphasize how highly important sleep is to healthy brain function.

    A study by The World Bank in 2006 also underscored sleep as a key factor in efficient learning, or the process of gaining optimal learning using few resources. The study reiterated the role of sleep in: (1) protecting and restoring memory, (2) advanced learning, and (3) enhancing mathematical ability and problem-solving. It further noted that “knowledge is better consolidated when people study at the time when they are supposed to be awake rather than, say, late-night sessions.” It cited the need for research on “the memory capacity of the poor in low-income countries” to enable teachers to better help underprivileged students learn basic skills.

    The effect of sleep on the human brain is just one of countless topics that have been examined by academics and specialists in various universities and medical institutions. A myriad of newer and even more specific research ideas likewise await the attention of avid scholars and inquisitive writers. Indeed, research is instrumental in building and improving knowledge and supporting existing knowledge with verifiable facts to facilitate learning.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):

    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”

    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.

    In her 2017 article about Daniel Day-Lewis, Lynn Hirschberg described how the award-winning actor prepared for his role as dressmaker Reynolds Woodcock in Paul Thomas Anderson’s film, Phantom Thread. She wrote:

    “To become Woodcock, Day-Lewis, who is 60, watched archival footage of fashion shows from the 1940s and ’50s, studied the lives of designers, and most important, learned to sew. He consulted with Cassie Davies-Strodder, then curator of fashion and textiles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. And for many months he apprenticed under Marc Happel, who is head of the costume department at the New York City Ballet, watching intently and then helping to reconstruct the famous Marc Chagall costumes for a production of Firebird. At the end of the ballet season, Day-Lewis decided he needed to build a couture piece from scratch.”

    People both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.

    Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.

    As Terry Freedman opined in “The Importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): “Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed, and can raise questions we hadn’t realised even needed asking.” Thus, almost all writers of both imaginary tales and non-fictive accounts do research, as doing so helps them create good stories and achieve credibility.
    Dan Dimmock via Unsplash; Canva

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.

    In addition, R and D is essential to supporting a country’s economy. For instance, the United Kingdom’s Department of Business Innovation and Skills, or BIS (now known as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), used to publish an annual R and D Scoreboard. The report served “. . . as a benchmarking tool for companies, investors and policymakers” for 20 years. However, due to the UK government’s austerity measures, it has not been produced since 2010.

    Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.

    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.

    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.

    Professional and credible journalists also undertake thorough research to establish the veracity of their stories. The 2003 movie Shattered Glass tells the rise-and-fall story of a real-life journalist who worked for The New Republic based in New York City. If fellow journalists hadn’t debunked his stories as fabricated, Stephen Glass could have written even more dubious pieces that would have been taken at face value by readers of the publication.

    Fact-Checking to Discover Research Bias, Propaganda, and Fake News
    With the use of internet technology and social media, pseudo-journalism has become a social concern. Fake news took center stage during the 2016 presidential campaign period in the United States. For instance, Snopes.com, a rumor research site, debunked the following “news stories” posted online:

    An FBI agent believed to be responsible for the latest email leaks “pertinent to the investigation” into Hillary Clinton’s private email server while she was Secretary of State, was found dead in an apparent murder-suicide. (Reported on November 5, 2016, by the Denver Guardian)
    In a final speech to the synod, Pope Francis endorsed Senator Bernie Sanders for President of the United States. (Reported on October 26, 2015, by the National Report and USAToday.com.co)
    Thousands of pre-marked ballots for Hillary Clinton and other Democratic candidates were found in a warehouse in Ohio. (Reported on September 30, 2016, by the Christian Times Newspaper)
    Assange: Bernie Sanders was threatened and told to drop out of the presidential race. (Reported on August 29, 2016, by USA Supreme)
    News outlets around the world are reporting on the news that Pope Francis has made the unprecedented decision to endorse US presidential candidate Donald Trump. (Reported in July 2016, by the WTOE 5 News)
    After gay club massacre, Phoenix LGBT officially endorses Trump. (Reported on June 13, 2016, by the Gateway Pundit)
    African-American supporter of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has died after allegedly sustaining gunshot wounds in the aftermath of Friday night’s chaos in Chicago. (Reported on March 12, 2016, by the Christian Times Newspaper)
    According to Pew Research, social media, especially Facebook, serves as a primary source of news for over 60 percent of adult Americans (Chang, Lefferman, Pedersen, and Martz, 2016). In addition to fueling social media company profits, fake news has become profitable for pseudo-journalists whose main goal is to attract reader clicks that lead to Google Adsense revenue.

    Fact-checking to determine the truth is integral to the process of research. Murray, Social News, and UGC Hub (2016) suggest that before news readers share information on social media, they need to assess the integrity of the news source and check for similar news on legitimate media outlets.

    Genuine journalists do not rely on imagination for their news reports, nor do they avoid doing research. They eschew propaganda and have no intention of misleading the public. They are messengers of useful information—not lies.

    Opportunities for success come more easily when we’re well informed.

    Kelly Sikkema via Unsplash; Canva

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job candidates to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.

    Using Research to Maximize Investment
    Research also benefits civil society and its members. Securing funding for projects and research initiatives is a top concern for those who want to address social issues. However, not all funding organizations accept proposals year-round, nor are they all interested in solving the same types of social problems. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research to find agencies whose missions match the objectives of particular advocacy programs or social-change projects.

    An aspiring business owner can likewise meet potential investors through research. They can examine investor profiles to find a good fit in terms of vision, mission, goals work ethic, and available capital.

    Some hobbies and interests are expensive to pursue. One of these is traveling. For budget-conscious tourists, searching for airfare and hotel promos, discount rides, and cheap markets is certainly a must to maximize the value of their money.

    Seizing opportunities can broaden one’s social network, raise one’s awareness, or secure the support one direly needs to start a project or a business. Indeed, research contributes to a person’s ability to make life-changing decisions. It encourages self-growth, participation in worthwhile causes, and productive living.

    6. It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research for Critical Thinking
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.

    Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral to conducting research. Conducting interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and participating in casual talks can help us gather information and formulate research topics. These things also facilitate our critical thinking process, much like reading and writing. Listening to experts discuss their work can help us analyze issues from new perspectives and add new techniques to our information-gathering arsenal.

    Sharing Research for Wider Understanding
    With the wide array of ideas floating around and the interconnectedness of people and places through the internet, scholars and non-scholars involved in research are able to share information with a larger audience. Some view this process as ego-boosting, while others see it as a means to stimulate interest and encourage further research into certain issues or situations.

    Literacy is integral in improving a person’s social and economic mobility and in increasing awareness, and research hones these basic life skills and makes learning a lifelong endeavor.

    Exercising your mind is just as important as exercising your body.

    Heath Vester via Unsplash; Canva

    7. It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    Critical Thinking and Mental Health
    Several studies have shown that mentally stimulating activities like doing research can contribute to brain health. In “Educating the Brain to Avoid Dementia: Can Mental Exercise Prevent Alzheimer Disease?” Margaret Gatz (2005) enumerated research findings that support such a position. However, she also noted that there may be other factors involved in averting dementia and relates issues. One of these is intelligence. A study involving 11-year-old pupils in Scotland in 2000, for instance, pointed to intelligence quotient (IQ) scores as “predictive of future dementia risk”. Gatz opined that clinical trials are needed and that “conclusions must be based on large samples, followed over a long period of time.” She further posited:

    “. . . we have little evidence that mental practice will help prevent the development of dementia. We have better evidence that good brain health is multiply determined, that brain development early in life matters, and that genetic influences are of great importance in accounting for individual differences in cognitive reserve and in explaining who develops Alzheimer disease and who does not . . .

    For older adults, health practices that could influence the brain include sound nutrition, sufficient sleep, stress management, treatment of mood or anxiety disorders, good vascular health, physical exercise, and avoidance of head trauma. But there is no convincing evidence that memory practice and other cognitively stimulating activities are sufficient to prevent Alzheimer disease; it is not just a case of “use it or lose it.”

    Gatz would have not formed such a perspective if she failed to conduct her own research about the effects of mentally stimulating activities on the human brain. This demonstrates how research can be both an exciting and challenging cerebral endeavor. Various studies may or may not support each other based on gathered information and other evidence. Data collection and analysis are vital aspects of the research process. These are mental activities that both expend mental energy and nurture the brain.

    Indeed, doing research encourages people to explore possibilities, understand existing issues, and disprove fabrications. Without research, all of our technological advancements and other developments would have remained fantasies. Reading, writing, observing, and analyzing facilitate an inquisitive mind’s quest for knowledge, learning, and wisdom. Research is a bridge that we must cross to achieve all of our goals—both personal and societal.
    Top 10 Challenges Faced by Researchers in Developing Countries
    Research requires several ingredients; some difficult to manage, while others are difficult to arrange. It is done by a single individual, but requires the acceptance/approval of several others; guides, supervisors, defense committee members, interviewees, focus group members, etc.

    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc. Here’s a list of top 10 challenges that we found intimidating for budding researchers:

    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.

    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.

    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

  48. Onyemaechi Favour ozioma says:

    Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma
    2018/244292
    Eco/Education
    An Assignment: What do you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research. Again, you are required to clinically discus and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries. What will u tell ur audience?
    Question 1
    Research came because there was a problems that need solutions and this entails the purpose, aim, objectives of undergoing a research. Among the the purposes of research are:
    1. Is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.
    2. To find out the truth which is hidden and has not been discovered as yet.
    Though each research study has its own scientific purpose, we may think of research objective as falling into a number of following broad groupings:
    a. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
    b. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group and not hearsay.
    c. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.

    Importance of Research
    “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than over confidence, for it leads to inquiry and inquiry leads to invention” is a famous Hudson Maxim in context of which the significance of research can well be understood. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Research had made a lot of impact it will make on the society and the country and they are as follows:
    1.Research inculcate scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.
    2. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole has greatly increased in modern times. The increasly complex nature of business and government has focused attention in the use of research in solving operational problems.
    3. Research provides the basis of nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budget rest on part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequence of each of this alternatives.
    Another area in government where research is necessary or important is collecting information on the economic and social structure if the nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place. These statistical information can be gotten through research technician or experts in the work.
    4. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operational research and market research along with motivational research are considered crucial and their result assist in more than one way in taking business decision. Research with regards to demand and market factors has great utility in business.
    Given knowledge of future demands, it is generally not difficult for a firm or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limits of its projected capacity and it all depends on research.
    5. Research is equally important for social scientist in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems, it is concerned both with knowledge for what it can contribute to social problems.
    With these points one can understand how important research is in every facet of life and for the development and growth of a country.

    Question 2
    Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.what will you tell your audience?
    Several issues have clogged on the wheels of social research in most developing countries here by slowing the pace of growth. Such problems are;
    a.Human resources: The overall problems is largely one of resources and their allocation, coupled with a much smaller base of educated people in developing countries than usually found in the developed countries. At the graduate level many countries do not have adequate training and this leads to going abroad for training and at the end the government fails to provide employment, lack of adequate status and inadequate career structure which are major deterrent to proper advancement of science in developing countries.
    b.Absence of quality tertiary education: Institutions all over the world are known to be seats of research, they are instrumental in carrying out research and contribute to knowledge base and applied purposes. Some tertiary institutions lack special equipment and apparatus for disciplines like psychology and archeology and this equipment makes experimental studies to be verifiable, which to a large extent affect the degree of its productivity in having excellent research.
    c. Insufficient adjustment to the demands of information and communication technology. The social science research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. Some lectures are ignorance of the functionality of ICT in strengthening social science research, they lack the know_ how, the use of electronic library, virtual opinions sampling and among others and this pose a problem in research.
    d. Political atmosphere: Politics is s essential to the progress of a country and for a research to take place it must analyze the relationship between the people and state, structure and institutions, information are gotten from this institution and structure and us being use for analysis but most African nations fall short of comprehensiveness and accuracy of data and also most political structures or individuals abhors truth telling which has an effect on research.
    In conclusion, some of these problems can be solved through providing more resources and strengthening the whole National infrastructure and these can be solved through time.
    Also the special encouragement of existing effective research groups and the concentration of facilities are often more a matter of wise planning rather than requiring massive additional expenditure.These can actually help social science research in developing countries.

  49. Ani Ozoemena Emmanuel 2018/248134 says:

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, provide evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Purpose of research includes the following:
    *To understand existing problem
    *To provide solution to existing problems
    *To make predictions and formulate policies to tackle similar problems
    *To introduce new theories to enrich the frontiers of knowledge
    *To cover gaps left by previous researchers.
    Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding.some of the importance of research are listed below but are not limited to the numbers provided below:
    1: Research is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2: Research is a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3: Research helps us succeed in business.
    4: Research allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5:Research introduces us to new ideas
    6:Research helps us with problem-solving
    *Research is a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    * Research is a means to understanding issues and increase public awareness
    Research through television shows,films and news which are products of research, issues affecting the society are discussed for better understanding and and awareness are made to the general public.
    *Research helps us to succeed in business
    Business firms also depend on research for effective and efficient allocation of their productive scares resources. It enable them to know what to produce, how to produce,who to produce for and the quantity to produce.
    *Research allows us to disprove lies and support truths
    Through research,we can verify a theory using the same methodology to see if the theory is to be supported or disproved.
    *Research introduces us to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    *Research helps us with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    2:the common problem which may be faced in social sciences are:
    * difficulty in collection the suitable simple size
    * poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge’s on the subject matter addressed, Illiteracy, fear of the unknown etc
    * difficulty in finding the suitable research method to conduct or carry out the intended research
    * interpretation of the data’ field with regard to the conceptual framework,
    * limited knowledge or background on the needed software to run the data or conducting the data analysis.

  50. BENJAMIN GIFT IHUNANYA. 2018/241855 says:

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
    The foremost problem of conducting social science research in developing countries is absence of a research conducive environment : Research cannot be conducted successfully in an environment characterised by lack of funding , institutional capacity , manpower , right philosophy ( people percieve research as a mere academic exercise), infrastructure ( electricity , access to Internet , access to reliable data e.t.c)
    Another paramount constraint of conducting social science research is cultural belief: This has been a major issue as superstitions , taboo , traditions has impeded research in developing countries as data cannot be obtained from topics/areas regarded as off limit.
    Poor record keeping : Developing countries lack both public and private sector records..
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH .
    1) Gather evidence for theories .
    2) Expand existing knowledge base.
    3) Seeking the truth.
    4) To solve problems or provide solutions to problem.
    5) Discovery of new facts / updated knowledge about real life phenomenon.
    6) To boost understanding of a topic.
    7) Research seek to answer questions.
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1) It aids the understanding of existing phenomenal.
    2) It serves as a aid for knowledge expansion and learning
    3) It helps in acceptance or rejection of hypothesis/ theories.
    4) It helps to identify Gap in knowledge base and fill it.
    5) It enables us to understand and establish the effects and relationship.
    6) It helps to proffer solutions to problem.

    • Nwokobia Adaeze says:

      NAME: Nwokobia Adaeze
      REG NO:2018/241865
      DEPARTMENT: Economics
      Assignment
      As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

      Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

      THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

      Research can satisfy various purposes but the exploratory, descriptive and explanatory purposes are the three most common purposes for research.
      Exploratory purpose: This involves the researcher exploring i.e investigating or examining the topic of research. Exploration tests the possibility of embarking on a more extensive study. This provides useful information which could further be used as a tool or a method in various studies.
      Descriptive purposes: This is when a research is carried out to describe certain events and conditions using scientific observation methods. Scientific observation methods are more precise and reliable than casual methods. For example, a consensus in Nigeria is a descriptive research used to examine the features and proportion of the population.
      Explanatory purposes: In this case, research is executed to answer the questions of why, when, where ,who, what and how in order explain a situation or to provide a detailed report with the statistics developed.

      IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

      1) Research is a tool which facilitates knowledge and education: Research is required for both Educators and students for explicit explanation and and understanding.
      Research gives a more practical illustration of the topic being discussed.

      2) Research is an instrument used for understanding current issues an increasing public awareness: information conveyed by the media are all based on research. Without research, Societal issues would not be debatable and the public would not be fully aware of such issues.

      3) Research is extremely benefital for business: Research is very crucial in any business venture. Many successful businesses invest in research which would lead to potential development. From efficient methods of production to effective marketing, research is required to achieve them. Research also gives the upper hand over competitors.

      4) Research is used for maximizing career opportunities: With proper research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by examining job-posting sites and contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if job opportunities are legitimate.

      5) Research is used to maximize investment: research gives us valid information about the potentials, legitimacy, failures and risks associated with companies before investing in their stock or shares, therefore enabling investors to pinpoint the best and most profitable investment opportunity.

      PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTIES

      1) Lack of scientific training: Research needs scientific methods to be carried out systematically. Due to the lack of these scientific skills, proper research can not be executed.

      2) Financial issues: Research can be quite expensive and it would need sufficient funding to be carried out. Limited funds and resources negatively affects research.

      3) Problem of importation: Due to the lack of technological advancement in developing countries, equipments needed for research have to be imported leading to extra complications and cost which could be a limiting factor to scientific research.

  51. NAME: Obiora Chidinma Jennifer
    COURSE:ECO 391 [Development Economics]
    REG NO: 2018/241834
    DEPT: Economics major

    Assignment
    1. Purpose of research are :
    a. Information gathering
    – Exploratory : e.g. ,Discovery, uncovering, Exploring
    – Descriptive : e.g., Gathering info, describing, Summarizing.
    b. Theory testing
    – Explanatory : e.g., Testing and understanding casual relations
    – Predictive : e.g., Predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    2.- Research is a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    – It helps us to succeed in business.
    – It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    – It is a means to find, guage and seize opportunities.
    – Research is an invaluable tool for building on crucial knowledge.

    3.a. Using India as a case of study;
    Research Output: Variable
    The wide spectrum of organizations engaged in academic and policy research in the social sciences with different organizational forms, different research mandates, links to policy objectives, and different sources of funding, make it difficult to compare these organizations. There have been different attempts to assess research output in the country based on bibliometric studies. Gupta et al. [2009] report that India ranks 13th among the top 26 productive countries with 1% global publication share with an average annual publication rate of 10.9% during 1996 to 2007.

    b. Research quality : difficult to assess
    Assessment of quality of social science research in India is complicated. A bibliometric study conducted by Gupta, Dhawan and Singh [2009] led to the identification of 19 ‘high productivity institutions’. However, a quantitative analysis of research output is not an accurate predictor of the quality of research that is carried out by these institutes. Further, a bibliometric analysis is not an adequate measure as most of the journals for instance in India are not registered in the international citation databases. Although Scopus covers around 15,000 journals, its coverage of social science journals from India is limited to 15. Similarly, the coverage of the social Science Citation Index [SSCI] Published by Thomson Reuters is not as comprehensive as that from North America and Western Europe. This is a particular problem as many Indian academics make a conscious decision to publish in Indian Journals to reach an Indian audience, often driven by the subject matter of their research.

    c. Constraints : Largely structural
    One of the fundamental shortcomings of social science research in India is the Lack of Proper institutional support and funding. Driven largely by the huge volume of undergraduate enrolment in the social sciences, as mentioned earlier in the report, less than 20% of Indian Universities combine teaching and research with most universities emphasizing teaching over research. This limits the scope of research opportunities within universities.
    – The Problem of Language was Highlighted by most of the resource persons consulted for this report. The medium of instruction up to the undergraduate level in most provincial colleges is a regional language while most postgraduate education and almost all advanced research [with the exception of language studies] uses English as a language of communication. With the Critical vocabulary of disciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted primilarly in English, a large majority of students find it difficult to make the transition. Much of the primary research itself is conducted in local dialects and languages used in the field. Unlike the natural sciences, Social science research, especially in those disciplines where description and the written essay are primary, this necessarily means that lack of facility with the English language acts as a fetter.

    REFERENCES:
    – Arunachalam, S. 2008. Social science research in South Asia: An analysis of the published journal literature. New Delhi: IDRC.
    – Chatterjee, P. 2002. Institutional context of social science research in South Asia. Economic and political weekly August 31: 3604-3612.
    – en.m.wikiversity.org.

  52. Okpara Favour Amarachi says:

    Name : OKPARA FAVOUR AMARACHI
    Reg number : 2018/248953
    Department : ECONOMICS
    Email : favouramy363@gmail.com

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    1). EXPLORATORY; Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2).DESCRIPTIVE; descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    3). EXPLANATORY; Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    In a nutshell,the purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1).It is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning :Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and non professionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives.

    2).It is used to prove theories:we research a point of view where we do not have to keep things to ourselves, and instead, we do it to inform humankind about what change our theory might bring. The primary purpose of all the research has kept us connected.

    3).Helps succeed in business; A successful business cannot be done without solid proves and case studies. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business.So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they had sensible owners who researched their product, and the market needs before launching it.

    4).Research is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways.

    5).Learn to create a balance between collaborative and individual work; Individual work in which the student has to do, while the collaborative work means that work which has already been done by the previous researchers.
    So, in this manner, the students get to know which points to take into consideration and which points are to be ignored.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Research requires several ingredients; some difficult to manage, while others are difficult to arrange. It is done by a single individual, but requires the acceptance/approval of several others; guides, supervisors, defense committee members, interviewees, focus group members, etc.Below is a compilation of some problems of conducting social science research in developing countries;

    1).Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2).Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    3).Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    4).Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions.

    5).Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    6).Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)

    • IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR says:

      NAME: IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR
      REG NO: 2018/245647
      DEPT: ECONOMICS
      EMAIL: justicejunior2018@gmail.com
      COURSE: ECO 391- Research Methods in Economics 1

      Second Quiz
      Question:
      During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

      Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing ?

      Answers
      I am humble to stand before such a great audience to share my thoughts on “Research, it’s purpose, importance and problems”
      We all know and understand the concept research in different Ways, but the most popular understanding of research is that “ Research can be seen as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods”.
      Now according to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon which involves inductive and deductive methods.”
      There are three main purposes of research Study
      a. To inform action
      b. To gather evidence for theories
      c. To contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study
      Why is research Important?
      We can not be intellectually successful without research. Research is like a bright lamp in the dark. Although not generally proven, but I can say that research is a key tool in determining how the future might look like. It gives us(the researchers) an edge over many things. This goes a long way in telling us how important research is.
      Below are seven other importance of Research
      1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
      2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
      3. It helps us succeed in business.
      4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
      5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
      6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
      7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

      Problems of conducting social science research in developing Countries
      Research is not easy to carry out. It requires patience, perseverance, knowledge, wisdom and understanding. In carrying out research, there are a lot of problems that can be encountered. Some of them are below:

      1).Mismanagement of Data : Many researchers today fail to carry out adequate research due to personal reasons like laziness. As a result, they end up misinforming any researcher who comes across their work.This affects the aim of research studies that that specific data could also be of utmost importance.

      2).Unequipped Libraries : Most developing countries don’t have equipped functioning libraries. And this makes it hard for researchers to carry out their research because there is no current information that they can make use of thereby causing a huge problem in carrying out their research

      3).Lack of Trust: The effect of the first problem we considered can lead to this third problem because, in most developing countries resources are hard to come by, so if a researcher mismanages data and thereby feeds the general public a false information which resources were invested in but with no results, it’ll be hard for those that don’t have a means of getting their resources back to trust another research.

      4). Illiteracy: Most people who did not go to school find it hard to believe in research calling it “white mans thinking” while others who could participate in research do not know anything about research because they did not go to school.

      5). Poverty: This is a major problem that most developing countries face. And due to these situation, they can not provide the needed information, materials, institutions that can help aid research.
      For example: Building equipped libraries, providing communication network so that research can research online.

      References
      https://owlcation.com/academia/Why-Research-is-Important-Within-and-Beyond-the-Academe
      what is the purpose of research?
      https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-research/
      problems of analysis social science research in developing countries

    • OGBU EMMANUEL CHIMAOBIM says:

      NAME: OGBU EMMANUEL CHIMAOBIM
      REG NO. 2018/246272
      DEPARTMENT: COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES ( ECONOMICS/ POLITICAL SCIENCE)
      EMAIL: emmanuelogbu571@gmail.com

      Question
      Eco. 391 —26-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 2—Purpose/Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research

      During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

      ANSWERS:
      Am very grateful to be given the opportunity to address to you the purpose of research and importance of research.
      But first of all what is research?
      Research according to oxford dictionary is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
      Curiosity leads to research, it is what propels humanity forward, without curiosity and research there will no or slow progress in life.
      There are Three main purposes of Research

      1. Exploratory: one of the main purpose of research is to explore a group of questions. This exploratory process helps for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
      2. Descriptive: it helps in expanding our knowledge on issues through process of data collection. Here it describes the behavior of the sample population.
      3. Explanatory: Research helps us to understand and know the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

      In researching, we must begin by asking the right questions and choosing the appropriate method to investigate them and get conclusions or answers.
      There are two types of research:
      1. Qualitative research: collects data using conversational methods.
      2. Quantitative research: it deals with numbers and measurable forms.

      IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

      1. Research helps In generating knowledge to be able to innovate technologies to benefit humanity.
      2. Research helps man in solving his day to day challenges and problems.
      3. Research helps in expanding our knowledge, build’s our personal experience with the subject of enquiry.
      4. Research open up an opportunity for learning and introduces us to new ideas.
      5. Research helps in creative direct implications for change in the current knowledge subsequently beneficial to the society.

      QUESTION 2.
      Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

      What will you tell your audience?

      ANSWERS:

      In developing countries today, there are many problems of conducting social science research, These includes:
      1.The lack of experience in dealing with bureaucratized ethics procedures
      2. The need for cultural sensitivity
      3. security concerns
      4. The consequences of administrative and political practices in developing countries. 
      5. Lack of confidence
      6. Financial crunches etc

      *References*
      Ethical Issues in Social Science Researchin Developing Countries: Useful or Symbolic Julius A. Mollet
      Flinders University  

      https://www.google.com/search?q=purpose+and+importance+of+research&oq=purpose+and+importance+of+research&aqs=chrome.0.0i512l4j69i60.14743j0j7&client=ms-android-transsion-tecno-rev1&sourceid=chrome-mobile&ie=UTF-8

      https://owlcation.com/academia/Why-Research-is-Important-Within-and-Beyond-the-Academe

  53. Aroh oluchukwu perpetua says:

    Aroh oluchukwu perpetua
    Economics
    2018/243120
    Eco 391 assignment
    I will first and explain what research Is all about
    Research can be said to be the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge,it involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue.A research project maybe an expansion on past work in the field.

    Purpose of research
    The purpose of research is to explore the nature and get an answer for why/how or to generate a new knowledge. The cell phone you use came out of research done by several thousand researchers. The camera in your phone is an outcome of research done by hundreds of research. The thermal scanners we use to find temperature is an outcome of research. Many a times people do research to find an answer to a phemena or go for creating a new process or method that results new technology which is implemented by many companies that reach the common man. Many times research outcome were not implemented for want of facilities or demand.
    .
    Importance of research
    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.
    #7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    #8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries?
    1) Time management: spending time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes alot of time.in such cases, taking out time for intense research and to draft out a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    2)Lack of scientific training:many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods, even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking any research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    3)Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quanlity of work.
    4)Library management: library management and function is not satisfactory in many universities. Alot of time and effort is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports e.t.c also many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

  54. Nwankwo chidubem pascal says:

    Name:Nwankwo chidubem pascal
    Reg No:2018/245467
    department: Economics
    Email: nwankwochidube44@gmail.com
    Course code: Eco391

    Questions
    Purpose of research
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    1.Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2.Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3.Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    2.Important of research
    1.It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2.It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3.It helps us succeed in business.
    4.It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5.It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6.It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7.It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    3.The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    1. Lack of Proper Research Ethics
    In academia, research is placed on the highest pedestal. Owing to this value placed on research, specific ethical guidelines must be observed with good sense when carrying out research of any kind.

    When we talk about ethics in research, we mean the usage of basic ethical guidelines to a wide range of issues involving research such as scientific research. Many researchers in Nigeria ignore the appropriate ethical applications, methods and usage when carrying out their study to guarantee credibility.

    2. Ineffective Research Methodology
    A lot of academics in Nigeria consider research methodology to be the just a systematic technique of carrying out a study; however, the truth is that methodology encompasses all the guidelines, strategies and principles a researcher should follow when carrying out his research.

    Methodology aids in the identification of the system to be adopted by the researcher for thorough study. In Nigeria, however, many researchers adopt the wrong methods for their research works which inadvertently affects the result that will be gotten.
    3.Ineffective Education System
    The most important tool needed to surmount the challenges of research in Nigeria is adequate training. However, how do you train researchers adequately when the educational system itself is inadequate?

    There are myriads of the problem facing the educational sector in Nigeria, ranging from the continuous industrial strikes of lecturers in tertiary institutions, inadequate funding from the government to mention just a few. There is a need for a complete overhaul of the current setup of the educational sector in Nigeria. Without this being done, researchers in Nigeria will continue to operate with inadequate knowledge. Take, for instance, most of the courses in Nigeria are taught theoretically even when there is a need for practical to make the students understand better. Bringing it to the current topic, for research to be credible, the researcher must be able to practice it; however, the opposite is the case in Nigeria.

    4. Ineffective Library System
    Following the broken educational system, it is only normal to expect a library system that is not functioning well. Most of the libraries in universities in Nigeria provide minimal research materials (books, journals, newspapers etc.) Most of the libraries well equipped in Nigeria are private-owned libraries.

    With the under stocking of libraries in Nigeria, researchers face a challenge when compiling data. Even those libraries that are seemingly well-stocked are filled with old materials. Even those few that are functioning well are not managed well, and many times researchers end up using up a lot of time looking for books, journals or reports needed to conduct proper and credible research.

    5. Poor Infrastructural Management
    The poor state of infrastructure in Nigeria is a substantial contributing factor to the underdevelopment of research. In many schools in the country, laboratories are under-equipped, mismanaged and not maintained properly. This leads to heaping more load on the already heavy load of researchers in Nigeria. Take, for instance, a microbiology laboratory lacking a refrigerator, microscopes and test tubes; this will push the researcher to go outside his/her institution to look for a laboratory that has all the needed equipment which will likely happen at a massive cost to the researcher’s finance.

    6. Low Accessibility of Data and Information
    Although there is numerous information on the internet, getting valid information is not cheap in Nigeria, which is aided by the ineffective educational and library systems. Hence, the difficulty in accessing information poses a serious challenge for researchers when carrying out a study.

    Related Article: Study in the UK: Scholarships for Nigerian students
    In addition to this, the lack of a database for information and records that can be easily accessed from anywhere poses a serious barrier for researchers.

    Also, the price to access journals, reports, and statistics to carry out research work is quite high, thus demotivating the researcher from carrying out the work.

    7. Insecurity
    Another major challenge for research in Nigeria is insecurity. Researchers’ inability to move freely within the country while carrying out research affects many researchers in Nigeria. When you couple insecurity with the unavailability of published works from academic institutions, non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and many more, one begins to understand the magnitude of the problems facing a researcher in Nigeria.

    8. Lack of Funds for Research
    The lack of funds and time is perhaps the second on the list of challenges facing researchers in Nigeria. To use research facilities that are well equipped in Nigeria, one must be prepared to spend a lot. From the purchase of research equipment, transportation, books, etc., one would spend a lot. In addition to this, the lack of time is another problem facing research in Nigeria. Many researchers in Nigeria are either juggling between two or three jobs, so they only have little time to spare for adequate research. For example, you might have seen a lawyer, who is also a lecturer.

    9. Poor Technological Advancement
    The majority of researchers in Nigeria have not evolved with technology. What do we mean by this? Most researchers in Nigeria are only well versed with pen and paper, which is a challenge of research in the country. This is because most of the materials needed to carry out a study are now stored on a technological database. A lack of understanding of how this database works can lead to spending a lot of time surfing the internet for information without results to show for it. To combat this problem, there is a need for technological training to be inculcated into the educational curriculum to train the researcher on technological advancements.

    10. Political Uncertainty
    The political instability in Nigeria also affects research development in Nigeria. It can be argued that the majority of the problems facing researchers in Nigeria are occasioned because of political uncertainty.

  55. Eze Ngozi Josephine says:

    Name: Eze Ngozi Josephine
    Reg no: 2018/241825
    Department: Economics
    Email: josephinengozi2030@gmail.com
    Eco 391

    Research has a primary purpose, for applied research, the purpose is discovery, interpretating and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.
    Research also involves the systematic investigations of phenomena, the purpose could be any of the following below:
    1. Information gathering, which could be,
    *Exploratory examples are, discovering, uncovering, exploring curiosity.
    *Descriptive examples are, gathering information, describing, summarizing, scientific observations.

    2. Theory testing, which could be
    *Exploratory examples are, testing and understanding causal relations.
    *Predictive examples are, predicting what might happen in various scenarios.

    3. Explanation, this involves answering questions of what, where, when, how and why.

    Research also plays an important role in discovering new treatments and making sure individuals use existing treatments in the best ways. Research help to get answers to questions or things unknown, like filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that many professionals work.
    The general essential role of research include:
    1. Helps to build knowledge and facilitate efficienct learning processes.
    2. It explains vastly various problems and helps to understand them too.
    3. Help to know the truth and prove lies.
    4. Research seek opportunities among others.
    5. It also help to restore and protect memory for students and prepare the mind for good and better understanding of concepts and theories

    Problems faced by developing countries when conduct research.
    Performing clinical research in the developing countries has multiple barriers including:
    1. Lack of planning
    2. Lack of moral and financial incentives
    3. Shortage of time available for research
    4. Lack of available funding
    5. Lack of interaction
    6. Lack of proper training
    7. Difficulty in hiring good data entry assistants.

  56. Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice says:

    Name: Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice
    Reg No: 2018/249548
    Department: Social Science Education
    Unit: Economics Education
    Email: paulbeatrice3417@gmail.com

    According to Wanna (1989), research is the process of finding out a solution to any problem. Therefore, research is a very important tool that can help in solving problems and can not be underestimated. However, the importance of research include:
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    4. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    5. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    As much as research is important there are various purposes that can be highlighted:
    1. One of the purpose of research is to help an individual understand existing phenomenon.
    2. Research can also help us to find answers to the unknown
    3. Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies
    4. Research helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    5. Research also help us to formulate theories in order to enrich the fronteir of knowledge.

    Furthermore, there are so many problems encountered by less developing countries during the process of conducting research particularly in social sciences which includes:
    1. Lack of record taking by both public and private sectors can fraustrate a researcher
    2. Public and private sectors most likely do not cooperate or support the researcher by providing them with the required data
    3. Developing countries like Nigeria experience poor infrastructural bases which include; poor internet access, poor electricity supply among others
    4. Lack of literacy; due to the fact that many institutions and individuals are not enlightened (educated) about the importance of research is also a big challenge.
    5. Research requires finance for collection of data for analysis. Hence, fund are not available to help support the efforts of researchers.

    In conclusion, research is very important and cannot be avoided. It is relevant for effective growth in problem solving although, faced with various challenges as listed above. However, these challenges should be looked into.

  57. Nnamani Dorathy nchido 2018/245743 Economics major says:

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments
    .. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.
    IMPORTANT OF RESEARCH
    1. It sees research as crucial to finding possible cures for diseases and ways to prevent them. Thus, research is necessary to ascertain whether one’s ideas are supported by previous studies or if these ideas still need further proof to be considered knowledge.
    An example of one such endeavor is a 2016 study conducted by several psychologists to examine how sleep affects memory reactivation. In “Relearn Faster and Retain Longer: Along With Practice, Sleep Makes Perfect,” they discovered that “interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention. Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.” This study supports the fact that both repetition and sleep improve a person’s long-term retention of information. Their findings also emphasize how highly important sleep is to healthy brain function.
    A study by The World Bank in 2006 also underscored sleep as a key factor in efficient learning, or the process of gaining optimal learning using few resources. The study reiterated the role of sleep in: (1) protecting and restoring memory, (2) advanced learning, and (3) enhancing mathematical ability and problem-solving. It further noted that “knowledge is better consolidated when people study at the time when they are supposed to be awake rather than, say, late-night sessions.” It cited the need for research on “the memory capacity of the poor in low-income countries” to enable teachers to better help underprivileged students learn basic skills.
    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.
    Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell. people both within and outside of the entertainment industry have, on occasion, belittled what actors do or even the profession of acting itself. However, professional thespians like Daniel Day-Lewis exert a great deal of effort to make their characters believable. The dedication they pour into studying their roles involves a tremendous amount of research.
    Using Research to Create Realistic Fiction and Stories
    A number of films, theater plays, broadcast dramas, and online videos present stories based on real-life events and problems. A serious writer or content producer sees how vital research is in substantiating the context of the stories they are telling to entertain and educate audiences through different media platforms.
    3.. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.
    4.Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.
    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.
    Fact-Checking to Discover Research Bias, Propaganda, and Fake News
    With the use of internet technology and social media, pseudo-journalism has become a social concern. Fake news took center stage during the 2016 presidential campaign period in the United States. For instance, Snopes.com, a rumor research site, debunked the following “news stories” posted online:
    5.. It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research for Critical Thinking
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.
    Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral to conducting research. Conducting interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and participating in casual talks can help us gather information and formulate research topics. These things also facilitate our critical thinking process, much like reading and writing. Listening to experts discuss their work can help us analyze issues from new perspectives and add new techniques to our information-gathering arsenal.
    Sharing Research for Wider Understanding
    With the wide array of ideas floating around and the interconnectedness of people and places through the internet, scholars and non-scholars involved in research are able to share information with a larger audience. Some view this process as ego-boosting, while others see it as a means to stimulate interest and encourage further research into certain issues or situations.
    6.Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

  58. Omeke Chinenye Joy says:

    Name: Omeke Chinenye Joy
    Reg. No.: 2018/244290
    Department: Education Economics
    Second discussion quiz on research methods in economics (Eco 391)
    Purpose of Research
    Before discussing the purposes of research I would like to explain first what research is all about. First as was extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations: “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknown, let’s you explore the world from different perspectives and fuels a deeper understanding.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The main purpose of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Importance of Research
    Research is important to everyone in our daily lives and not just as students or scientist. Ways by which research can help us includes:
    1. It is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning: Research helps not necessarily as students, scientist or professionals but also as members of a society to equip us with the knowledge about the world and skills to help us survive and improve our lives. Thus, it is an essential component in generating knowledge.
    2. It is a means to understanding past and current issues and increase public awareness: for example one can gather information about the happenings in a particular country and share to people in your community, this helps to create social consciousness or public awareness. Terry Freedman opined in “The importance of Research for ICT Teachers” (2011): Research can shed light on issues we didn’t even know existed and can raise questions we hadn’t realized even needed asking”.
    3. It helps us to succeed in business: Research and development helps businesses to secure n advantage over competitors by finding out how to make things happen more efficiently in the creation and improvement of their products and services. Research helps companies to differentiate their products or offerings from those of their competitors which can inturn raise their market value.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths: Research is used by scientist to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Also professionals and credible journalists undertake thorough research to establish the veracity of their stories. Therefore investigating facts to ascertain the truth is essential to research process.
    5. Research is an integral part of problem solving: research helps us to understand the world and also find solutions to problems we encounter in our everyday lives.
    6. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities: Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.
    Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries
    The challenges in social science research include:
    1. Difficulty in the verification of the inferences: this is as a result of the fact that social scientists are ill-equipped and therefore there is non-availability of tools to verify inferences.
    2. Problemof maintaining objectivity: it is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientists because their own interest is affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.
    3. Problem of evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data: there existed the problem of finding the suitable methods to adopt during data collection when conducting social research.
    4. Poor response from the respondents to the required survey due to other factors like limited knowledge on the subject matter addressed.
    5. There is the problem of quantification of qualitative data.
    6. Problem of reliability and validity of the collected data: lack of reliable data and database for information and records that can be easily accessed from anywhere poses a serious barrier for researchers.
    7. Problem of conceptualization: there is the problem of interpretation of field data in relation to conceptual and theoretical framework.
    8. Lack of training: there is scarcity of qualified research workers. An organized study of research methodology is a necessary requirement for research work as research workers are expected to be well equipped with methodologies of research and as a result there is need to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.
    9. Inadequate fund: lack of fund is one of the main challenges facing researchers. To provide well equipped research facilities will lead to more spending.

  59. Okafor Ifunanya Chioma says:

    Name: Okafor Ifunanya Chioma
    Reg number: 2018/241851
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment.
    Email:ifunanya.okafor.241851@unn.edu.ng

    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. From the meaning we can see so many purposes of research.

    1. To understand an existing knowledge or phenomena: This is the basic of research to understand what is already going on, or the information established, example malaria. We need to understand what malaria entails before adding to the knowledge that is finding cure or causes.
    2. To increase the stock of knowledge: This is the second basic of research to increase what ever is being known that is to expand knowledge.
    3. To formulate new theories and policy: Research can be carried out to improve the state of human being on a particular idea
    4. To provide solution to an existing issue.
    5. In discovering problems

    Now from the purposes we can list the importance.
    1. It helps in achieving goals example for a firm. They carry out research for their benefit.
    2.It helps in building and increasing knowledge.
    3.It helps in providing solution to problems
    4.It helps in creating awareness on an existing phenomena
    5.It reveals new ideas
    6. It helps in disproving lies and upholding truth

    Regardless of the purposes and importance of research it has its shortfalls especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
    1. Low accessibility data: Nigeria also barely has a data base that is built to take stock of data and information which can easily be retrieved by authorized researchers like in the western countries. For example,When you want to conduct a research on Enugu state, you might discover that the data to enable you conduct your research is not available or not for public consumption.

    2. Improper education system:For example, some Nigerian schools mostly teach only about the theoretical aspect of research rather than the practical aspect of conducting a credible and acceptable research.

    3. Poor infrastructure management:Another major problem of research in Nigeria is the poor state of infrastructure. The laboratories in some Nigerian schools are ill kept, mismanaged and under-maintained hence, discouraging and toting more heaviness on the workload of researchers in Nigeria.

    4.Insecurity: Security generally is a problem in Nigeria. The improvised availability of published data from academic institutes, government agencies and other corporate agencies operating in Nigeria is a huge problem of research in Nigeria.

    5. Lack of funds for research: This is another huge problem. Some research might be important but very expensive to carry out and will need government fundings or support and they do not get it. These also include research equipments.

    6. Lack of interest by the government: Most developing countries are not interested in research because it might be capital intensive and so depend on the developed countries research carried out.

    7. Cultural and ethical differences.

    8.Illiteracy

  60. Chidozie Julieth chisom says:

    Name- CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    Reg no- 2018/250055
    Dept – EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email – chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH:
    (1) Research is carried out in order to understand a distinct existing phenomenon such as the factors affecting economic growth in Nigeria.
    (2). We carry out Research to establish or understand the extent of economic relationship
    (3). Research is carried out to provide answers to handle problems
    (4). Research is conducted to accept or reject hypothesis
    (5). Research is carried out to formulate theories

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH:
    (1) Research is as important as life itself. It provides the building block upon which societal growth and advancement is hinged. Our understanding of the way things are, how things happen and what is responsible for such occurrences is due to the help of research. Research also helps us study patterns in the past, feelings, attitudes and opinion then use it to determine what should happen next.With research we can extrapolate how a city would likely expand and the level of infrastructural development such a city would require to cope with the expansion
    (2). Without research , advancements that have improved some lives and saved others may not have come to pass. For universities, the research component allows for a broader educational experience whereby students are able to explore the effects of applying new thought processes through study and testing.
    (3) It helps us develop skepticism – conducting a research can be tough at times, but it can certainly make you become more of a critical thinker and become more skeptic. Researching can help you to acquire a certain attitude of not believing on anything you see and hear of, but to make clarifications and to further investigate about a specific answer.
    (4). It can give explanation to certain questions – since research is a systematic investigation, it can also answer our questions. It can provide explanation to a specific idea and it can clear one’s thoughts.

    CHALANGES OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN LDCS:

    (1) Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects
    (2) Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.
    (3) Illiteracy problems :due to hight level of illiteracy in low developed countries,getting data to conduct research will be difficult .
    (4)Lack of support from public and private sector institutions when it comes to realising of vital data.

  61. Ukwueze Destiny Amarachi says:

    NAME:UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI

    REG NO:2018/242416

    COURSE: ECONOMICS
    Email: amarachidestiny06@gmail.com

    No1 Answer

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving
    These are different purpose for research.they include:

    *Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    *Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    *Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments

    No 2 Answer

    Reasons Why Research is Important is because
    no matter what career field you’re in or how high you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, but it has many benefits.

    These are some of the reasons why research is important:

    1. Research expands your knowledge base_

    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research gives you the latest information_

    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving information that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest information, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    5. Research helps you narrow your scope_
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point.

    7 Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes._
    You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    These are some of the challenges of research
    They include

    *Insufficient data: Insufficiency data is a potential Problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    *Lack of confidence:
    Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    *A quantity of literature:
    It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    *Implementing quality of writing within the literature review:
    A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    *Lack of Scientific Training:
    The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    *Lack of communication with the supervisor:
    A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research

    *Lack of definite deadline:
    Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

  62. Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya (2018/242412) Economics major says:

    1. Purposes of research
    1. It is used for exploration purposes : To discovery new facts about the research work.
    2. It is used for descriptive purposes : one can use research to discribe the research work eg population etc.
    3. It is also used for explanatory purposes:it helps in expanding and expanding specific notifications about the research work.
    Importanance of Research :
    Research help in building knowledge and facilitating understanding about the economy one is in.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase in public history and the surroundings of the past even in the economy
    Research helps is discovering new and exciting theories
    Research helps in reducing and disproving lies and support truths which surrounds the research work.
    Research gives more opportunities to the economy on how to tackle the situation on ground.
    Research helps to analyze and give valuable information about an exciting data.

    2. Problem s of conducting social science research in developing countries.

    ¹Low funding ability : Due to the instability and unhealthy economy it is very possible that one who is doing a research work can fund it.
    ²Lack research skills by the researcher
    ³ Problem of focusing on the objectivity of the research
    ⁴ Unpredictability circumstances
    5 Inadequate equipment for the research
    6 Illiteracy in the developing country seriously affects the research work.

  63. Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn says:

    Name: Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn
    Reg no: 2018/241821
    Department: Economics
    Course: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS ( Eco 391 )

    Assignment
    Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Purpose/Importance of Research and Challenges of Conducting Research

    i. THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis. Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    ii. IMPORTANT OF RESEARCH
    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.
    10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    iii. CHALLENGES OR PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
    1. Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials.
    2. Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    3. Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    4. Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    5. Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    6. Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    7. Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    8. Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    9. Problem of Conceptualization: Many a time problems of conceptualization and problems concerning the procedure for data collection and related things crop up leading to frittering of resources.
    10. Scanty Information Base: This narrows down the volume and quality of literature accessible to a researcher. Put simply, not much research findings have been collected from where a researcher can take help.

  64. Ugwu chidiebere loveth says:

    NAME: UGWU CHIDIEBERE LOVETH
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242902
    DEPTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    Email: ugwuchidiebereloveth1@gmail.com

    ASSIGNMENT :
    What I understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 1. What I understand as purpose of research

    PURPOSE OF FINDING RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and non professionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For non professionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor,information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    6. It Promotes a Love of Reading, Writing, Analyzing, and Sharing Valuable Information
    Research for Critical Thinking
    Research entails both reading and writing. These two literacy functions help maintain critical thinking and comprehension. Without these skills, research is far more difficult. Reading opens the mind to a vast reservoir of knowledge, while writing helps us express our own perspectives and transform our thoughts into more concrete ideas in a way others can understand.

    Apart from reading and writing, listening and speaking are also integral to conducting research. Conducting interviews, attending knowledge-generating events, and participating in casual talks can help us gather information and formulate research topics. These things also facilitate our critical thinking process, much like reading and writing. Listening to experts discuss their work can help us analyze issues from new perspectives and add new techniques to our information-gathering arsenal.

    7. It Provides Nourishment and Exercise for the Mind
    Curiosity may kill the cat, but it also fuels the mind to seek answers. An article by Todd Johnson for College Admission Partners (n.d.) notes how scientific research in particular “helps students develop critical reasoning skills . . . helpful for any field of higher education . . .” The acts of searching for information and thinking critically serve as food for the brain, allowing our inherent creativity and logic to remain active. Keeping the mind active may also help prevent certain mental illnesses like Alzheimer’s.

    NO. 3 problems of social science research in the developing countries are :

    1. Absence of a clear cut philosophy of national development: The foundation to achieving harmony between the demands/expectations of a state and the response/obligation of its citizens, is enshrined in clear cut philosophies that are engraved in the minds of the citizens through conscious teachings. If research in Nigeria becomes an inalienable philosophy for its development, citizens would concertedly act to achieving development via the production and reproduction of ideas, innovations and new technologies. It is in the presence of such philosophies that the instability of government would no longer be a challenged since everyone must have to tailor his/her actions to the demands of the stated philosophies. In nations where this is present, people out of even involuntary compulsion tend to see themselves living in such ideals. A consistent, coherent and comprehensive philosophy of national development is essential for concerted research effort (Jimoh 1998).

    2. Poor attention given to the development of Human Capacity: Human resource is a major precedent for development whose importance cannot be overemphasized. It goes beyond population to the quality of the population evident in what is brought to the table by these humans for development to happen. In Nigeria, the poor attention given to the development of human capacity in all ramifications is worrisome and has affected the quality of social research both on the part of the researchers and their respondents. An enlightened and astute researcher might not get the best of results from a respondent who lacks fundamental features of being properly educated. A social science researcher who does not have the penchant for research owing to lack of motivations and a research enabled environ might also not get the best of results no matter how enlightened his/her respondents might be. All of these boils down to the absence of quality attention offered to the development of human capacity, most importantly at institutional levels. Even a clear cut philosophy of national development would not survive in an environment of mediocrity, in as much as they are interdependent. The foregoing was captured in Kamba (2008) who stated that expected outcomes of a functional research and development initiatives entail equipping the people with the needed capacity with which they need to carry out their economic activities with appreciable degree of proficiency leading to the attainment of maximum output. They further inferred that these capacities encompass enhancing the people with the skills and competences needed to effectively harness and utilize the potentials found in one’s environment. In conclusion, they maintained that Nigeria’s case today is evidence of the fact that it is a nation highly populated with whole lot of potentials but with inadequate competences needed to translate these potentials into socio-economic transformations for the nation.

    3. Absence of Quality Tertiary Education:
    Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out these researches for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Most research centres are located within these tertiary institutions for the purpose of intelligence, logistics and manpower. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of text materials, to mention but few. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spends six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures. This has adversely affected the quality of social research in Nigeria, in relation to researchers who are expected to know all in a space of four, five or six years as the case may be. It has also affected the quality of social research results especially when these students in these secondary schools are expected to be respondents for a particular study. More so, disciplines like psychology and archeology lack those special equipment and apparatus that make experimental studies veritable, which to a very large extent affect the degree of their productivity in having excellent research results. This poses limits on the scope of what they can do, thus, having them to be poorly rated when in comparison with their contemporaries in advanced nations. In a study conducted by Odia and Omofonmwan (2007), they lamented the poor synergy that exists between tertiary institutions and secondary education and those of research outcomes and intelligence for industries. This brings to the fore that social research conducted in Nigeria is mainly for academic purposes and promotional requirements as against proper application by significant persons and bodies to better the lots of the people. The absence of these and many more is no motivation at all. To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and

    4. Initiatives in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects, using the six geo-political zones of Nigeria, a significant large percentage of the respondents concurred to the fact that a nation’s level of development is a function of its research initiatives and development structure which is navigated by the works of quality tertiary institutions. Hence, social research in Nigeria would become only as good as the quality of tertiary institutions within the nation.

    5. Funding: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world, owing to scarce
    resources. Nonetheless, nations have resorted to getting priorities right to circumvent the ills of poor funding on productivity. This is evident in the fact that areas that are capable of yielding more resources are prioritized in their budgets. One of such areas is education and research which have been proven to be major precursors and requisites for development to happen. In the Nigeria’s case, these areas have long been affected which tells on its development. Lack of adequate funds for a people-centred research
    like that of the social research has clogged the wheels of advancement for such developmental germane venture. The overbearing preference given to the pure and physical sciences over the social sciences has also affected the funding of social research. The Nigerian government and related institutions could spend so much on space science, meteorological studies, geological mining and other relatives. Studies
    and research in the social sciences such as gerontology, criminology, religion studies, conflict
    management, human resource management, public relations, juvenile care, child welfare, policy studies etc, and among others, when in comparison with their contemporaries in the pure and physical sciences, suffer for lack of adequate funding. This has led to disciplines who are adequately funded to scorn those
    who are not, thus undermining their relevance. This has equally affected the real application of such knowledge within those areas of neglect to the actual course for which they have been informed. Suffice here that the myriad of social problems faced by Nigeria is a show of the neglect of these areas responsible to social research, which has been described people-centred. Therefore, development as a
    people-centered project becomes untenable for such a nation. To confirm the above, Okunamiri, Okoli and Okunamiri (2008) in their study, asserted that a nation’s pace of development is determined by its level of research funding.

    6. Neo-colonialism: The foundation for colonialism is expressed in the principle of Manicheanism that holds the superiority of white over black (Achebe, 1958). This prejudice has been sustained over time dating back to colonialism and hitherto through neo-colonialism. This factor has largely influenced
    scholarship in Africa and adversely affects social research in Nigeria. Very pathetic is the fact that the mentality of dependency created by colonialism for the black population still features prominently in the activities of the blacks, with little or no efforts boldly taken to overturn the table. Most Nigerian scholars depend on foreign scholarships, grants and aids to sponsor their research projects since the Nigerian government poorly funds such venture. The Nigerian government equally gets to partner with
    these foreign agencies for the purpose of research which can solely be done by them if they commit themselves unwaveringly. Jimoh (1998) confirms the foregoing when he asserted that consequently, developing African countries still depend on all forms of foreign aid to support research, such as those provided by the USAID and the UNESCO. Over-reliance on foreign aid would only reduce the relevance of research activities to the Nigerian situation. In order to sustain scientific and technological impetus regardless of general depression, Sub-Saharan nations must inject huge amounts of funds into initiating and expanding training and research facilities (Jimoh 1998). More so, the fact that African Scholars who venture into varying research projects seek to be scored and rated on impact factor by some foreign controlled bodies is worrisome. At times, research made to promote and emancipate indigenous cultural heritage and pride of Africans tend to hit the rock when to be reviewed and published by some foreign based bodies who feel affected. This obviously impedes on actual rating based on originality of research content since the raters might not have relevant socio-cultural experience to justify such scores and the sweet savour of African pride. Nonetheless, Africans can cease being victims of neo-colonialism the moment they start forming world class scholarship forums and assessment grounds, hence social research in Nigeria would remain in its not so good condition. More so, one area that neo-colonialism has affected social research is the aspect of brain-drain. Very principle to this is the neglect of these scholarly ventures by principally the government and its institutions.
    7. Insufficient adjustment to the demands of Information and Communication and Technology: The social research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. The problem here is not the absence of ICT in Nigerian’s social research nor the adjustment to its demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba (2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the Internet for literature searches and data collection. Equally, data can be processed and analyzed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. This knowledge is only prominent among students in Tertiary schools with very little obtainable in secondary schools. Some of the lecturers in tertiary institutions are also oblivious regarding the functionality of ICT in strengthening social research. Hence, they lack the know-how. More to just social research is the fact that the virtual world created by ICT has brought to bear several ingredients that could strengthen social research such as online courses/trainings, electronic libraries, virtual opinion sampling and among others. Pathetically, several social researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social research in Nigeria.

  65. Mbah Chidimma Judith 2018/243101.department: Economic nd sociology says:

    PURPOSE OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.

    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    1:It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2:It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3:It helps us succeed in business.
    4:It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5:It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6:It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7:It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH.
    1;Lack of motivation
    A doctorate is a long project so your motivation will dip and peak along the way. Set yourself some short-term tasks when lacking motivation so that you can start to make progress again. Identify what motivates you and give yourself regular rewards. It is easier to motivate yourself if you know where you are headed so plan your research project and keep track of milestones achieved.

    2:Lack of self-confidence
    Doing a doctorate can be highly exposing. Be aware of your level of self-confidence and self-belief. If it drops, try to boost your confidence by:

    3:seeking positive feedback
    acknowledging your achievements so far
    taking stock of your competencies
    stretching yourself by trying out new things.
    If your lack of confidence is seriously affecting your ability to function then seek advice and professional help.

    4:Poor time management
    Try and spend time planning, make sure you are devoting an appropriate amount of time to the tasks you are undertaking and then review how things are going. If you are not achieving your goals think about why and make a change. More advice on time management is available.

    5:Lack of focus or direction
    If you feel that your research is drifting, refocus on your main objectives.

    Discuss with your supervisor where you think the project is going
    Rewrite your research proposal to help you articulate what the project is supposed to be about
    Rework your project plan to try and give you a clearer idea about what to do next and how it fits into the big picture
    Take a short break as you may just be bogged down with detail
    Limited support
    Doing a doctorate can be lonely and isolating. Try to take opportunities to build up your support network.

    Are you using all of your key contacts enough?
    Find out if your department offers a mentoring scheme. If it does not, you can ask a more senior researcher whether they would be willing to give you some help and advice.
    Try and work in teams if possible.
    Improve your relationship with your supervisor.
    Stuck in your comfort zone
    Beware of only doing things that you are comfortable doing and know you are fully capable of doing. This is known as your comfort zone and tends to be highly limiting. Try continually to stretch yourself to ensure that you keep learning, for example by volunteering for something that you don’t see as one of your strengths.

    5;Fear of failure/taking risks
    You can learn more from your failures than successes: they are often catalysts for positive change in the medium/long term. Don’t take it personally. Remember that you are training to be a researcher. Understand what is expected of you and know where you can find support.

    6:Lack of relevant experience
    Identify where your gaps are and explore all options and take opportunities. Try to find some work experience to broaden your competencies.

  66. Stephen Ifessy Precious says:

    Importance and Purpose of Research
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    1. Research aids and facilitates learning process
    It is the best tool to develop or enhance knowledge and to facilitate learning. Academic research conducted by students is important not just for students only, rather for the entire scholastic world. Knowledge is associated with research objectives and findings. Research allows comprehending specific issues through varied angles that were never identified or talked much. While conducting the research, a scholar goes beyond the personal experience and collect the evidence on the basis of facts and rationality. That is how academic research papers open the gates for further discourse and discussions.
    2. Research highlights the social, economic and political problems
    Academic researches not always but often highlight various issues that are being prevalent in society. These issues could be related to cultural norms, health, education, certain practices, government etc For example, during the pandemic, the medical field had to research on the cure for the coronavirus. This way research puts light on various issues of society.
    3. Research helps in the growth of a business
    In the field of business, research plays a crucial role.can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value. Market research can help any organization to see the ongoing trends and work accordingly. Different business industries such as healthcare, agriculture, Pharmaceuticals, constructions, robotics, aerospace, aviation, have Research and development centers in order to bring product innovation and enhance the products. They do a market analysis and understand the demands of society. Based on their research, they manufacture the products as per the demands and for the development of the economy.
    4. Academic research leads to the personal growth of students
    Academic research helps students in their personal growth as well. Research helps in the development of skills. Students learn how to identify a problem and reach a possible solution or develop a point of view on a specific topic. Students develop the following skills through academic research.

    Issues associated in social science research
    1. Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.
    2. Problems in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.
    3. Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    4. Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.
    5. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.

  67. Ugwuoke Godwin Izuchukwu says:

    Name: Ugwuoke Godwin Izuchukwu
    Reg no: 2018/249529
    Department: Economics
    Purpose of research.
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.

    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.

    5. It Is a Means to Find, Gauge, and Seize Opportunities
    Research helps people nurture their potential and achieve goals by taking advantage of various opportunities. This can mean securing employment, being awarded scholarships or grants, securing project funding, initiating a business collaboration, finding budget travel opportunities, or securing other little wins.

    Using Research to Maximize Job and Career Options
    For those looking for a job or seeking greener pastures, research is necessary. With thorough research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by scouring job-posting sites, contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if work opportunities are legitimate. Without research, the gullible-yet-hopeful jobseeker or traveling worker may fall prey to unscrupulous headhunters, bogus employment opportunities, or even full-on scams. Sites like Glassdoor and organizations like the Better Business Bureau allow job to find out what experiences others have had with an employer they are considering or a placement agency they are thinking of using. After finding a free or low-cost academic course or skills-development training, students and professionals can assess their eligibility for certain roles and find out about application requirements and deadlines by conducting additional research.

    Challenges of conducting research in LDC’s
    1. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2. Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.

    3. Lack of corporation from public and private sector institution: there is absolute lack of corporation between various institution and researcher and this impede development in developing countries.

    4.Problem of illiteracy: this is often associated with data collection, when the majority of the population cannot read how then can they provide answers to research question being administered by the researcher through Questionnaires and other means of data collection. This negatively affect the quality of data collection and is a big challenge in the developing countries.

    5. Lack of fund to carry out the research as required. There is always poor funding in LDC’s for research development. This has an adverse effect on the research as it limits the researchers to a very few fields and due to lack of finance to obtain the required materials needed for the research.

  68. Ajuluchukwu joy says:

    Name: Ajuluchukwu Joy ifeoma.

    Reg no: 2018/241840.

    Email: jlady3936@gmail.com

    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.

    The purpose of research is to solve mystery, to know how something works and how something occurred.
    we conduct research to provide answers to questions, improve knowledge about a phenomenon or an existing idea or concept.
    there are three purposes of research which are:
    a). Exploratory research: here the purpose is to gain better understanding of the exact nature of the problem or phenomenon that has not been clearly defined, rather than providing a conclusive answer.
    b). Descriptive research: the purpose of descriptive research is to expand knowledge about a phenomenal by describing it according to characteristics and population.
    c). Explanatory research also known as casual research is carried out to determine how variables interact.

    THE IMPORTANT OF RESEARCH.

    the importance of research are as follows;
    1. It exposes one to new ideas
    2. Research create awareness about an event, a phenomenon or a problem.
    3. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    4. It enhances our knowledge and help our way of thinking.
    5. Information gotten from research can be used in businesses, policy-making and for investment purposes.
    6. Research builds and facilitates knowledge.
    7. Research gives us latest information.

    PROBLEM OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH.
    1. There is a problem in interpreting relationship between cause and effect.

    2. Difficulty in the use of experimental method because human being can not be subjected to laboratory test.
    3. Incapability of being dealt with through empirical method.
    4. Problem of interdisciplinary research.
    5. Difficulty in the verification of the inferences, repeating the process is difficult.
    6. Dynamic nature of social phenomena.
    7. Unpredictability ( human behavior is unpredictable.

  69. Ugwu Emmanuel chibuike says:

    Name :Ugwu Emmanuel chibuike
    Reg.no:2019/248403
    Dept: Education/Economics
    Email: ugwuchibuike1992@gmail.com
    Assignment on eco391

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of research is to discover answer to questions thorough the applications of scientific procedure. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet . Through each research study has its own specific purpose.
    (1)To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it(studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).
    (2).To portraye accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situations or a group(studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies)
    (3)To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with it is associated with something els(studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies).
    (4)To test a hypothesis of causal relationship between variable (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing researche studies).

    IMPORTANT OF RESEARCH
    (1)Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promote the development of logical habits of thinking and organizations.
    (2) The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whither related to business or to the economy as a whole,has greatly increased in modern time.
    (3) Research provides the basis for neatly all government policies inour economic system.
    (4) Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planing problems of business and industry.
    (5) Research is equally important for social scientists studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Numerous factors hinder research efforts in developing countries, such as;
    (1) ILLITERACY: Illiteracy remains the most serious problems facing the people of developing countries. Most of West Africa have a disquietingly high percentage of illiteracy. For example, according to the 1963 census, the percentage of illiteracy in Nigeria was put at 81 percent. Although this figure has been substantial improved since then ,yet most people in Nigeria are still illiterate. In Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and other West African countries, the percentage of the illiteracy population is outstanding high.
    (2) SECRECY: Many African countries tend to have a special liking for secrecy. Even in government ministries, information that otherwise would be for public consumption is considered secret. People dislike any activity that appear as nosing around or trying to probe them.
    (3) SCANTY STATISTICS: Research in west Africa is still in its infancy .most of the background data are not readily available. The need to research is constantly felt by both the public and private sectors but priority HSA often shifted to other competing needs because of Africa’s resources. Many police makers think that it is a waste of time thinking of research when many of the countries of west Africa lack adequate transportation, reliable water supply ,electricity and so forth . The basic statistics that form the bed- rock of research are often not available.The shortcomings of the universal primary education scheme in Nigeria ,for example are attributed to the lack of reliable statistics required for the planning and execution of the programme.

  70. Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram says:

    Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram
    2018/241843
    Economics
    Eco 391
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    The purpose or research is too bring more insight on existing facts, to provide knowledge on how to tackle a situation, to discover the best approach at solving a problem, research have so many purposes as a special advisor to the president researches will be important to inform the president about current conditions, about what best policies should be implemented , how effective those policies are and so many other purposes.
    Researches are very important their importance could be:
    • Imparting more knowledge on the researcher and the immediate public.
    • Helping in decision making.
    • It helps the researcher and the public to check the clarity of a statement or idea
    • It keeps the human mind alert, always getting new insights.
    • It could help a country grow, know which policies would give the best result.
    • It helps one to be updated and current on facts.
    • Researches feed the curious mind
    PROBLEMS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCHES
    • Inadequate funds: the funds are not sufficient to thoroughly investigate facts
    • Peoples cultural beliefs: some individuals may be reluctant to answer some questions due to their backgrounds and their fetish beliefs
    • Inaccessibility of some areas: so me places are incredible and they pone a problem for researchers in search of data
    • Lack of motivation
    • Insecurity: in the course of conducting a research in some specific areas the researcher may be attacked, that would make so many abstain from research
    • Low educational level: illiteracy is a main hindrance to adequate research, the public might be unable to fill a questionnaire or the researcher may not posses proper knowledge

  71. Unegbu Charles Emeka says:

    Name: Unegbu Emeka Charles
    Reg no: 2018/241829
    Dept. :Economics
    Course: Eco391
    Question: Discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    Answer:
    In fact, social research deals with social a phenomenon which is quite different than the natural phenomena. Hence, there are fundamental difference between research in social sciences and that of physical or natural sciences.
    1) Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.
    2) Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.
    3) Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    4)Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.
    5)Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social sciences.

  72. Name: Kalu Melody Chinaza
    Department: Economics
    Reg number: 2018/245127
    An assignment on Eco 391

    1. Purpose of research

    Research involves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:
    A. Information gathering and/or
    1. Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    2. Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing, also to inform action and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study
    B. Theory testing:
    1 Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations and also gather evidence of theories.
    2 Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    2. Importance of Research:
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    3. Problems of social science research in developing countries.

    1. Nonexistence of Scientific Training
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    2. Financial issues
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.
    3. Lack of communication with the guide
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    4. Proper Time management
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work Neld.
    5. Stress
    Pursuing a doctorate can be highly nerve-wracking. To overcome this stressful life, below are the points that should be followed:
    Seeking positive feedback
    Acknowledging your achievements so far
    Taking stock of your competencies
    Trying out new things
    Aside from humans, pets can get stressed too. The good thing is there is a list of CBD brands which are meant to alleviate their troubles.
    6. Lack of confidence
    The absence of confidence is one of the most common problems among scientists in developing countries. Scientists with low self-confidence feel less stirred thus affecting the quality of the work.
    7. Problems associated with importation
    In most developing countries the complications and cost of importing scientific equipment, instruments, and spare parts is a major limiting factor to scientific research.
    8. Library management
    The proper management and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journals, reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.

    SOURCE: https://www.manuscriptedit.com/scholar-hangout/challenges-faced-researchers-developing-countries/

  73. Unegbu Charles Emeka says:

    Name: Unegbu Emeka Charles
    Reg no: 2018/241829
    Dept. Economics
    Course: Eco391
    Question: what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Answer

    1)It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.

    2)It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    3)It helps us succeed in business.

    4)It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    5)It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    6)It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    7)It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

  74. ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY says:

    NAME : ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY
    REG. NO : 2018/242474
    DEPARTMENT : COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/political science)
    EMAIL : Ebubeilouba@gmail.com
    COURSE : Eco 391: Research methods in economics 1
    ASSIGNMENT :
    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?
    ANSWERS:
    The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Furthermore, the results of your study may have implications for policy and future project implementation.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research and they are:
    1)EXPLORATION: A research is said to be carried out for the purpose of exploration when the researcher aims at; discovering, uncovering and exploring new ideas. This type of research helps a researcher to gain better understanding of the exact nature of a problem, hence, giving room for more in depth research in the future.
    2)DESCRIPTION: This is when a researcher carries out a research for the purpose of gathering information, to expand knowledge about a problem by describing it according to it’s characteristics and population, leading to summary of what the problem is all about and the solution to it. Such research answers the questions of, “how” and ” what” . Thus, it aids the description of a concept more accurately.
    3)EXPLANATION: When a research is carried out for the purpose of determining how variables interact (based on experiment), then it is done for the purpose of ” explanation” and to answer the question ” why”. Such research is carried out for testing and understanding of causal relationship.
    In summary, the first two purpose of research, increases the stock of knowledge, whereas the third purpose has to do with testing/ verification and understanding of existing theories. Research aims at solving mysteries and usually end up predicting what might happen in various scenarios.
    Importance of Research:
    1.Research inculcate scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.
    2. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole has greatly increased in modern times. The increasly complex nature of business and government has focused attention in the use of research in solving operational problems.
    3. Research provides the basis of nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budget rest on part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequence of each of this alternatives.
    Another area in government where research is necessary or important is collecting information on the economic and social structure if the nation. Such information indicates what is happening in the economy and what changes are taking place. These statistical information can be gotten through research technician or experts in the work.
    4. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Operational research and market research along with motivational research are considered crucial and their result assist in more than one way in taking business decision. Research with regards to demand and market factors has great utility in business.
    Given knowledge of future demands, it is generally not difficult for a firm or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limits of its projected capacity and it all depends on research.
    5. Research is equally important for social scientist in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems, it is concerned both with knowledge for what it can contribute to social problems.
    With these points one can understand how important research is in every facet of life and for the development and growth of a country.
    Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries:
    1)Human resources: The overall problems is largely one of resources and their allocation, coupled with a much smaller base of educated people in developing countries than usually found in the developed countries. At the graduate level many countries do not have adequate training and this leads to going abroad for training and at the end the government fails to provide employment, lack of adequate status and inadequate career structure which are major deterrent to proper advancement of science in developing countries.
    2)Absence of quality tertiary education: Institutions all over the world are known to be seats of research, they are instrumental in carrying out research and contribute to knowledge base and applied purposes. Some tertiary institutions lack special equipment and apparatus for disciplines like psychology and archeology and this equipment makes experimental studies to be verifiable, which to a large extent affect the degree of its productivity in having excellent research.
    3)Insufficient adjustment to the demands of information and communication technology. The social science research space has been largely affected by the demands of ICT. Some lectures are ignorance of the functionality of ICT in strengthening social science research, they lack the know_ how, the use of electronic library, virtual opinions sampling and among others and this pose a problem in research.
    4)Political atmosphere: Politics is s essential to the progress of a country and for a research to take place it must analyze the relationship between the people and state, structure and institutions, information are gotten from this institution and structure and us being use for analysis but most African nations fall short of comprehensiveness and accuracy of data and also most political structures or individuals abhors truth telling which has an effect on research.
    In conclusion, some of these problems can be solved through providing more resources and strengthening the whole National infrastructure and these can be solved through time.
    Also the special encouragement of existing effective research groups and the concentration of facilities are often more a matter of wise planning rather than requiring massive additional expenditure.These can actually help social science research in developing countries.

  75. PETER EMMANUEL says:

    Name : Peter Emmanuel uzoma
    Reg no: 2018/246577
    Department: education economics
    1. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    There are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3 Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    *Identify potential and new customers
    *Understand existing customers
    *Set pragmatic goals
    *Develop productive market strategies
    *Address business challenges
    *Put together a business expansion plan
    *Identify new business opportunities
    Importance of research are:
    1 Supports learning past the study hall:
    The main thing which makes research significant is the way that it energizes learning. Exploration makes it important for us to continue to learn. The idea of learning past the limits of school/university/college was rather another thing.
    2. It is utilized to demonstrate theories :
    Actually like our mental health needs research, hypothetical verifications need research, as well. To comprehend the significance of exploration, we ought to understand that our life spins
    around hypotheses, and in the event that we eliminate research from the situation, we can see that our lives are only a wreck.
    3. Gives the most recent data :
    Information is one of the center reasons people have wanted since the beginning of humanity. Being more learned amazing has made us dependent on the last mentioned. What’s more, this is valid too. The nations with the most information base are the ones that have shown advancement.
    4. Examination assembles believability :
    Examination gives a solid premise to you to develop your contemplations and convictions on. You might speak certainly about something you know to be right. At the point when you’ve gotten your work done, it’s undeniably more hard for somebody to discover imperfections in the thing you’re saying. Your investigation should focus on the most solid sources.
    5. Prevails in business:
    A business, similar to some other specialized work, requests a great deal of energy. A fruitful business is impossible without strong demonstrates and contextual analyses. That being said, it makes research the first step prior to doing any business. The level of organizations turning fruitless without appropriate exploration included is close 90%.

    2. Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries. What will you tell your audience?
    Some of the problems are
    A. Absence of inspiration :
    A research is a long undertaking so your inspiration will plunge and top en route. Set yourself some momentary undertakings while lacking inspiration so you can begin to gain ground once more. Distinguish what spurs you and give yourself normal prizes. It is simpler to propel yourself on the off chance that you know where you are going so plan your examination task and monitor achievements accomplished.
    B: Lack of self-confidence
    Doing a research can be highly exposing. Be aware of your level of self-confidence and self-belief. If it drops, try to boost your confidence by:
    seeking positive feedback
    acknowledging your achievements so far
    taking stock of your competencies
    stretching yourself by trying out new things.
    C. Helpless using time productively :
    Attempt to invest energy arranging, ensure you are giving a fitting measure of time to the assignments you are embraced and afterward audit how things are going. In case you are not accomplishing your objectives contemplate why and roll out an improvement. More guidance on using time productively is accessible.
    D. Dread of disappointment/facing challenges :
    You can gain more from your disappointments than triumphs: they are regularly impetuses for positive change in the medium/long haul. Try not to think about it literally. Recollect that you are preparing to be a scientist. Get what is generally anticipated of you and know where you can discover support.
    E. Lack of important experience :
    Recognize where your holes are and investigate all alternatives and accept open doors. Attempt to discover some work insight to widen your capabilities.

  76. The main purpose of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague, yet for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not conducting research is not just important. It is imperative.
    The following are the importance of research :
    * It’s a means to find, guage, and seize opportunities.
    * It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    * It helps one succeed in business.
    * It is a means to understanding issues and increasing public awareness.
    * It allows one to disprove lies and support truths.
    * It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analysing and sharing valuable information.
    * It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    2.
    Social science research has long been concerned with ethical issues which involves cultural, legal, economic and political phenomenal. This complexity means that social science research must concern itself with moral integrity in order that research process and findings arsenal trust worthy and valid. (Biber 2005).
    Research involving human subjects or participants is required to show respect for ethical issues by obtaining approval from the Institution’s Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) prior to commencement.
    In developing countries, where societies are often pluralistic, cultural background and security becomes important issues for social researchers in conducting field work. This state of affairs can lead to the researchers finding it difficult to get letters of permission from the local authorities and may lead to delays in conducting research. It is compulsory for a social researcher conducting research involving humans to apply for ethical clearance. The ethical principles set out in the national statement, states that all research involving human subject should be conducted in accordance with the following principles :
    * people must be respected.
    * Benefits must be maximized and harms minimized.
    * Harms shall not be done and subjects in studies must be treated equally.
    Several difficult issues or problems have arisen I’m the application of ethical principles in social science research.
    Firstly, is the problem associated with covert research. It is still questionable whether or not it is ethical for social science research scholars to covert research. According to Biber (2005 Pg. 91). Covert research is appropriate where it’s necessary to achieve a better understanding of certain social phenomenon. An example of this kind of research is the investigation of the social life of drug dealers and drug users. As pointed out by Williams (1996), it is impossible to ask for informed consent from members of such communities because they do not want to be investigated. It has also been argued that the very act of seeking informed consent from some research participants can lead to a change in attitude of the research participants towards giving information to the researchers. Other authorities however have argued against the covert research stating that it is unnecessary in social research. Homan (1991) argues moreover that covert research may have a negative impact for the researchers. He believes that as long as the respondent trust the researcher, there is no need to conduct covert research. Homan claims that covert research is likely to invade the privacy of the respondent to an unacceptable degree and he argues that using covert research makes social science research no different from journalism.
    Secondly, is the issue which relates to the role of researcher as a participant-observer. The main concern here is that the researcher should be neutral in order to maintain their aim of objectivity in their research project (Gans 1982). In research experience, where the researcher also acts as a participant, he or she must normally develop and maintain close relationship with other community members. Some ethnographers have argued that a closer relationship between the researcher and participants of this kind can lead to conflict and deception (Biber 2005 Pg 93). Researchers may find it difficult to make objective judgement in their research if they are personally connected with their respondents.
    Thirdly, is the issue which bothers the nature of ethical regulation. With universities setting up ethics committees to review research proposals through a process of ethical review and with academics under pressure to obtain for research grants (Biber, 2005), researchers have raised concerns that increased ethical review is circumscribing their ability to make their own decisions about ethical issues relating to their specific projects. Ethical regulation has produced a formulaic approach to research ethics, in which researchers may feel constrained to tick the right boxes, rather than to think through ethical principles themselves. There is also a problem, that basic ethical principles may lead to different and conflicting prescriptions(Social Research Association, 2003 Pg 12).
    Haggerty (2004) expresses her point by using the term ethics creep to characterise the change in social science research that has taken place in the name of ethics.
    A futher issue relates to vulnerable groups. In most ethical clearance processes, the social science research category vulnerable group refers to children and young people, people with mental health problems and people with learning disabilities. In considering application for ethics clearance, ethics committees ask for special consideration to be given to vulnerable groups, because they have difficulties in providing initial and continued informed consent to conduct research. This concern has Led to an insistence on more complicated procedures to protect the interest of such groups. Moreover, some social researchers, however argued strongly against defining such groups as vulnerable and incompetent on the grounds that it makes researchers more likely to exclude from research and thus to deprive them of the benefits of research. These researchers insist that it is unethical to exclude people from research on this basis. Researchers have argued particularly in the area of child research that interpreting groups as vulnerable has had a negative impact on the focus of research and the ways of obtaining consent from individuals that is meaningful to to them, regardless of their abilities.
    The final problem concerns the issue of informed consent. Increased bureaucratisation of social science research resulting from the broad change taking place in research governance and regulation, means that social researchers increasingly have to have their research projects assessed by ethics committees. One of the results of this increased bureaucratisation has been the expectation that researchers will prove that they have obtained informed consent by providing forms signed by research participants.
    The main reasons that ethics committees insist on informed consent are:
    * To ensure that participants understand what participation will involve and that they know their rights in relation to participation and issues of confidentiality and anonymity.
    * To protect researchers from later accusations by study participants.
    Some social researchers argue that the use of informed consent is not appropriate in all types of research, for instance in research involving public figures. This concern is that respect for confidentiality and anonymity may contribute to secrecy in matters of public interest. The objections to signed consent forms have been raised particularly by researchers working in the area of criminology.

  77. Chime Doris chinenye says:

    Chime Doris chinenye
    2018/250191
    Economics major

    (i) Purpose/Importance of Research
    1. It’s a Tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual. It essentially refers to facts based on objective insights and/or study findings processed by the human brain. It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy

    2. It’s a Means to Understand Issues and Increase Public Awareness
    Using Research to Understand Current Issues
    Television shows and movies—both fictional and nonfictional—ooze with research. For instance, Oprah Winfrey would have not achieved remarkable success as a news anchor and television show host had she eschewed doing her own research about certain topics and public figures. According to entrepreneur and lifestyle coach Paul C. Brunson, in his interview with emotional intelligence expert and author Justin Bariso (2017):
    “Oprah spends a disproportionate amount of her time gathering information from communities of people outside of her core (different age groups, social classes, ethnicities, education levels, careers, etc.) and then she shares that information within her community.”
    This kind of effort shows the necessary role of research in helping others and raising social consciousness.
    Using Research to Understand People
    Many film and TV actors also take time to interview individuals to better understand their roles. Actors have worked with detectives, boxers, scientists, business owners, criminals, and teachers, among others to gain an inside understanding of what it’s like to have a certain identity. Others even go through immersion so they can begin to understand their characters’ issues better. This might look like living in jail or in a drug rehabilitation center for a while, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, or learning to captain a sailboat. Many read literature, biographies, or journals to have a better view or context of the story they’ve been hired to tell.

    3. It Helps Us Succeed in Business
    The Importance of Research and Development (R&D)
    Research benefits business. Many successful companies, such as those producing consumer goods or mass-market items, invest in research and development, or R and D. Different industries that involve science and engineering processes (like agriculture, food and beverage, manufacturing, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, computer software, semiconductor, information and communication technology, construction, robotics, aerospace, aviation, and energy) have high R and D expenses because it is critical to the creation and improvement of their products and services.
    R and D can also help secure an advantage over competitors. Finding out how to make things happen more efficiently and differentiate a business’s offerings from those of its competitors can raise a company’s market value.
    Market Research and Targeted Marketing
    Research can also help a company maintain a positive commercial image, retain existing customers, and attract new customers through targeted marketing. Marketing is a type of communication, and for that communication to be effective, businesses need to understand their customers.
    This usually happens through market research, which can involve examining psychological studies about consumption, hosting focus groups, beta testing products with a select group of customers, sending satisfaction surveys to existing customers, and researching the business’s main competitors, among other strategies. The most successful businesses, large and small, base their product design, service offerings, and marketing communications on insights gleaned from thorough research processes.

    4. It Allows Us to Disprove Lies and Support Truths
    Background Research and Private Investigations
    Have you ever experienced the feeling that your partner is having an affair behind your back? Some people would overlook this and say that it’s better not to know; others though would take discreet action, hiring a private detective to find out for sure. What does research have to do with this situation? A lot. Doing research to reveal lies or truths involving personal affairs can contribute to either making a relationship work or breaking away from a dysfunctional one. For the monogamous lot, doing research to disprove or prove infidelity is one way to find out the truth.
    Field Testing and Peer Reviews
    Scientists also deal with research to test the validity and reliability of their claims or those of other scientists. Their integrity and competence depend on the quality of their research. Nevertheless, not everything scientists come up with gets accepted. Scientific work is typically peer-reviewed before being published. This means that when an individual publishes research, it is fact-checked and investigated for common biases, statistical errors, and methodological issues by others in the field before being shared with the scientific community at large.

    (ii) Challenges of Conducting Research in LDCs)

    Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the cliterature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.

    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    The social sciences have always been treated as a poor cousin of the natural and physical sciences. The latter have for long enjoyed the enviable status of the darlings of the state. And the reasons are not far to seek. It is they, so runs the argument, who find solutions for areas ranging all the way from agriculture to the country’s defence. That virtually every problem which science and technology tackles has societal ramifications is rarely perceived with any degree of clarity. Worse, it is all too easy to overlook the fact that policy, be it in agriculture, irrigation or defence, has to be informed by a more holistic understanding of social processes. And not many in the higher echelons of power are guilty of such a broad view. Inevitably such a technocentric view results in gross unfairness in resource allocation between the physical and social sciences. Admittedly the former need more resources given their input requirements but even so the social sciences get short shrift. The inequity is compounded by the declining share of higher education in the overall budget for education.

    What are the major problems and challenges in social science research and let us proposed comprehensive solution accordingly. The considerable known challenges are development of conceptualisations, problem of maintaining objectivity, difficulty in the verification of the inferences, unpredictability and problem of universalisation etc? Besides above mentioned problems, what would be other other challenges in respect to different societies, conditions and different nations.
    Prior to independence research in the social sciences was carried out almost exclusively in universities. There was hardly any funding from outside. Despite this Indian social scientists produced trail-blazing work. After independence the picture has changed dramatically. A host of institutions emerged mainly due to the initiative of the state, in particular the central government. At least in part the support extended to social sciences was a fairly explicit recognition of the contribution they could make to policy. A landmark was the creation of the ICSSR which even today is a sort of an apex body in this sphere

  78. Okonkwo Theophilus Nwabueze 2018/241839 says:

    Name : OKONKWO THEOPHILUS NWABUEZE
    Reg number : 2018/241839
    Department : ECONOMICS
    Email : OFFICIALTHEO16@GMAIL.COM
    An Assignment: What do you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research. Again, you are required to clinically discus and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries. What will u tell ur audience?
    Question 1 : Purpose of research
    Answer
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    EXPLORATORY: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    DESCRIPTIVE: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    EXPLANATORY: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiment.
    OTHER PURPOSE OF RESEARCH INCLUDE:
    to build a knowledge
    to increase awareness
    to correct misconception or lies and prove facts

    Question 2
    Discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries .what will you tell your audience?
    1. Lack of support from the public and private institutions: Most times in developing countries, public and private institutions always do not support a researcher through hiding the information of their organization for their personal consumption. This impede research in developing countries.

    2. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem in conducting social science research. They think that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    3. Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    4.Financial issues:
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.

  79. CHUKWUDUBEM CHINEMEREM PEACE says:

    NAME: Chukwudubem Chinemerem Peace
    REG NO: 2018/245426
    DEPARTMENT: Education/Economics
    EMAIL: chukwudubemchinemerem459@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT
    1: During a paper presentation at the centre for Economics Research and Scientific Analysis, the director of the centre argued that “Research is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A Research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole Importance/purpose of research. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and then what you understand as the purpose of Research and the importance of Research.
    ANSWER
    According to Dieco Hardman and Hart 1996, Research is a systematic way of asking questions i.e a systematic method of inquiry.
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Research can search a variety of purposes. They include:
    1: EXPLORATORY: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. It involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic and to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem. It satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding.
    2: DESCRIPTIVE: It expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to it’s characteristics and population.
    3: EXPLANATORY: It is also referred to casual research. It is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e to identity cause_and_effect relationship.
    THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1: RESEARCH INTRODUCES YOU TO NEW IDEAS:
    For example, I’ve have this mindset that there is only two ways to finance a business but as i started researching on how to finance a business i found out that there are many ways to finance a business apart from the two ways I’ve already known. This encouraged me to entertain new ideas.
    2: RESEARCH HELPS WITH PROBLEM_SOLVING: Whether it’s professional or personal problem, research helps you to think the box by researching about the present situation. For example, if an entrepreneur encountered problems as a start up, he will research on other businesses and try to find out how they arrived past that stage and he uses that information to improve his business.
    3: RESEARCH HELPS YOU KNOW YOU’RE UP AGAINST: In business, there are competitions. Researching about your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies and it helps you to improve where and when necessary.
    4: RESEARCH BUILDS YOUR CREDIBILITY: Doing research gives you a solid foundation of what you can build your ideas and opinions on. You can speak with confidence to people about what you know when it’s accurate and they will take it seriously when they can tell you’re informed.
    5: RESEARCH GIVES YOU THE LATEST INFORMATION: Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In Economics there’s always new theories and models being discovered. Staying updated prevents you from lagging behind. With the latest information, you will be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    2. Again u are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    What will u tell your audience?
    ANSWER
    1: FUNDING: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world owing to scarce resources. Lack of adequate funds for a people_centred research like that of the social science research has clogged the wheel of advancement for such developmental germane venture.
    2: INSUFFICIENT ADJUSTMENT TO THE DEMANDS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TE CHNOLOGY: The social science research space has been largely affected by the demand of ICT. The problem is not the absence of ICT in Nigeria’s social science research nor the adjustment to it’s demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba(2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the interest for literature searches and data collection. Equally data can be processed and analysed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. Pathetically, several social science researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social science research in Nigeria.
    3:ETHICAL ISSUES: Social science research has long been concerned with ethical issues. Social science investigates complex issues which involves cultural, legal, economic and political phenomena(Freed Taylor_1994). This complexity means that social science research must concern itself with “Moral Integrity” to ensure that research process and findings are “trustworthy” and valid(Biber 2003). Research involving human subjects (or ‘participants’, in the current terminology) is required to show respect for ethical issues by obtaining approval from the Institution’s Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) prior to commencement.
    4: ABSENCE OF QUALITY TERTIARY EDUCATION: Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out this researchers for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of textbooks. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spend six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures.
    To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and Omofonmwan(2013),nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to it’s people.

  80. CHUKWUDUBEM CHINEMEREM PEACE says:

    NAME: Chukwudubem Chinemerem Peace
    REG NO: 2018/245426
    DEPARTMENT: Education/Economics
    EMAIL: chukwudubemchinemerem459@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT
    1: During a paper presentation at the centre for Economics Research and Scientific Analysis, the director of the centre argued that “Research is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A Research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole Importance/purpose of research. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and then what you understand as the purpose of Research and the importance of Research.
    ANSWER
    According to Dieco Hardman and Hart 1996, Research is a systematic way of asking questions i.e a systematic method of inquiry.
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Research can search a variety of purposes. They include:
    1: EXPLORATORY: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. It involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic and to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem. It satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding.
    2: DESCRIPTIVE: It expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to it’s characteristics and population.
    3: EXPLANATORY: It is also referred to casual research. It is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e to identity cause_and_effect relationship.
    THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1: RESEARCH INTRODUCES YOU TO NEW IDEAS: For example, I’ve have this mindset that there is only two ways to finance a business but as i started researching on how to finance a business i found out that there are many ways to finance a business apart from the two ways I’ve already known. This encouraged me to entertain new ideas.
    2: RESEARCH HELPS WITH PROBLEM_SOLVING: Whether it’s professional or personal problem, research helps you to think the box by researching about the present situation. For example, if an entrepreneur encountered problems as a start up, he will research on other businesses and try to find out how they arrived past that stage and he uses that information to improve his business.
    3: RESEARCH HELPS YOU KNOW YOU’RE UP AGAINST: In business, there are competitions. Researching about your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies and it helps you to improve where and when necessary.
    4: RESEARCH BUILDS YOUR CREDIBILITY: Doing research gives you a solid foundation of what you can build your ideas and opinions on. You can speak with confidence to people about what you know when it’s accurate and they will take it seriously when they can tell you’re informed.
    5: RESEARCH GIVES YOU THE LATEST INFORMATION: Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In Economics there’s always new theories and models being discovered. Staying updated prevents you from lagging behind. With the latest information, you will be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    2. Again u are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    What will u tell your audience?
    ANSWER
    1: FUNDING: Funding has been a major issue for most ventures all over the world owing to scarce resources. Lack of adequate funds for a people_centred research like that of the social science research has clogged the wheel of advancement for such developmental germane venture.
    2: INSUFFICIENT ADJUSTMENT TO THE DEMANDS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TE CHNOLOGY: The social science research space has been largely affected by the demand of ICT. The problem is not the absence of ICT in Nigeria’s social science research nor the adjustment to it’s demands but the insufficiency of the expected adjustments required. Kamba(2008) highlighted that researchers and scholars need the interest for literature searches and data collection. Equally data can be processed and analysed using ICT and findings can be disseminated. Pathetically, several social science researchers in Nigeria cannot have access to such logistics to enable them bring the best to the table within the minutest of time, which portends enormous problem for social science research in Nigeria.
    3:ETHICAL ISSUES: Social science research has long been concerned with ethical issues. Social science investigates complex issues which involves cultural, legal, economic and political phenomena(Freed Taylor_1994). This complexity means that social science research must concern itself with “Moral Integrity” to ensure that research process and findings are “trustworthy” and valid(Biber 2003). Research involving human subjects (or ‘participants’, in the current terminology) is required to show respect for ethical issues by obtaining approval from the Institution’s Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) prior to commencement.
    4: ABSENCE OF QUALITY TERTIARY EDUCATION: Tertiary education all over the world are known to be seats of research. They occupy a vital position in the heart of research. They are instrumental to carrying out this researchers for contribution to knowledge base and for applied purposes. They also train researchers at different levels. Tertiary institutions are supposedly to assume a mentorship position for those at the secondary level of education via exchange of ideas either on special invites, provision of secondary schools’ research educators, provision of textbooks. It is pathetic that a Nigerian student spend six years all through secondary education without having an introduction or quality experience in proper research ventures.
    To this end, it is obvious that the absence of quality tertiary education in content, logistics and synergies have clamped on the advancement of social research in Nigeria. As rightly stated by Odia and Omofonmwan(2013),nations in the world that have attained a reasonable degree of development and those who aspire to attain similar height are nations that have identified and embraced the tenets of qualitative education, research and development as well as making their services accessible to it’s people.

  81. Ugochukwu ugonnaya Judith 2018/244297 says:

    Name : Ugochukwu Ugonnaya Judith
    Dept : social science education (education economics)
    Regno : 2018/244297.
    .
    What do you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research?
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. Research purpose is also to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts, and ideas. From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work- with the ultimate goal of improving our lives. The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is unknown, and what can be developed further. In this way, researchers can develop new theories, ideas, and products that shape our society and our lives.
    There are three main purposes of research;
    1. Exploratory- it means the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. It aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a solution to the problem, this will enable further research later on.
    2. Descriptive- it expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to it’s characteristics and population. It focuses on ‘how’ and ‘what’ but not ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory- it is also refered to as casual research. It is conducted to determine how variables interact, e.g cause and effect relationships. It deals with ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Importance of research
    1. Research is essential to find out which treatment works better for patients.
    2. Research helps in discovering new treatments and making sure that we use existing treatment in the best possible way.
    3. Research helps to give answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way we live.
    4. Research expands your knowledge base because we learn more when we research.
    5. Research builds your credibility because people will take you seriously when they can tell you are informed.
    Discuss and analyse the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries
    1. Covert research- It is still questionable whether or not it is ethical for social science researchers to covert research. According to Biber 2005 it is appropriate, where it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of certain social phenomenon. As pointed out by Williams 1996, it is impossible to ask for informed consent from members of communities because they do not want to be investigated. Even seeking consent from a research participants may prove difficult and cause change in attitude of the research participant towards giving information to researchers. Homan 1991 argues that covert research may be a negative impact on researchers. He believes that as long as the respondent trust the researcher there is no need to conduct covert research.
    2. Researcher as participant observers- The main concern here is that the researcher should be neutral in order to maintain their aim of objectivity in their reservation project (Gans 1982). In research experience where the researcher also acts as a participant, he or she must normally develop and maintain close relationship with other community members. Researchers may find it difficult to make objective judgements in their research if they are personally connected with their respondents.
    3. Nature of ethical regulations- Ethical regulations has produced a formulaic approach ethics, in which researchers may feel constrained to tick the right boxes, rather than to think through ethical principles themselves. There is also a prospect that basic ethical principles may lead to different and conflicting prescriptions.
    4. Vulnerable groups- This group refers to children, young people, people with mental health problems and disabilities. Researchers has argued that this group of people should not be seen as vulnerable and cannot give useful and valuable information because researchers tend to exclude them from research and it may hamper research process.

  82. Uweh ifeanyi Shedrack says:

    Choosing the Right Methodology
    After you have chosen a topic, you will need procedure for conducting your research. It is important for you to formulate a research question to adopt the best methodology. Then you can now allow your answers to guide you, be clear with your studies and honest about your abilities, give time to the planning process.

    Assembling a Research Team
    Once you selected your topic and methodology, the next thing you will need is a research team to support your study. Research is never conducted in a space. You must look out for useful feedback and be certain about your needs.

    Finding Study Participants
    Once you have your team together, you then look for participants to help conduct your study. You must be bold to reach out and avoid wastage of

  83. Mbah Chisom Mary says:

    NAME: Mbah Chisom Mary
    DEPARTMENT: Social Science Education
    REG: 2018/244295
    EMAIL: chisommary111@gmail.com

    ANSWERS
    1) Research is an inevitable aspect of man’s existence, it plays a very vital role in our world today. For every inventions in place, research made it possible. Research is an inexcusable aspect of man. The purposes of research are numerous. They includes:

    A) Information gathering: With the aid of research new discoverings have been made, new findings have come in place which have helped to solve problems. It also helps in uncovering and exploring new ideas.
    B) Descriptive: It have also been in the position of research in gathering information, describing and summarizing them in other to solve problems and impact positively to mankind. Through research findings facts have been simplified and verified.
    C) Theory testing /Explanatory: Research aids in theory testing in other to get to a verifiable conclusion e.g., testing and understanding causal relations.
    D) Predictive: Research also helps in forcasting what might happen in various scenarios.
    2) In whatever field you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences or exposure you are been there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. The importance of research includes the following:
    A) Research expands your knowledge base
    A) One of the most important reason for research is that you’ll learn more. It gives you insight to know more,it widens your horizons of knowledge. Learning is continuous even if you are already well-versed in a field, there is always more learnt. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    B) Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields if not every new things keeps on evolving . Research equip you with the contemporary happening. It keeps one updated and prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest information you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    C) credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. . Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    D). . Research helps you narrow your scope.
    Research helps you to be focused and precise. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.

    E) Research teaches you better discernment.
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.

    F) Research introduces you to new ideas.
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This makes for adjustment on the stock of existing knowledge. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    G) Research helps with problem-solving.
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    3) The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries includes the following:
    A) Evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data
    B) Interpretations of field data in relation to a conceptual and theoretical framework.
    C) Reliability and validity of the collected data.
    D) The background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained), etc.
    E) Target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions.
    F) Time management,
    G) Quantification of qualitative data.
    H) Limited knowledge or background on the needed software to run the data or conducting the data analysis.

  84. CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT 2018/242447. says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI CHINWUBA
    CLASS: 300LVL
    REG NO: 2018/242447
    COURSE CODE : ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT
    1. As the special adviser to Mr President on research matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose and importance of research.
    2. Clinically discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries.
    ANSWER
    1. Research has great purpose and importance to Economics and the world at large as it helps to seek, improve and verify knowledge. Below are the purposes and importance of research :
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge,
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems,
    3.) Provide solutions to problems,
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues,
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems,
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    Research brings exploration towards a certain topic. It gives a deeper touch to a certain topic giving a person an understanding towards it until he or she comes up with a conclusion which is tested and proven by facts (Shemmarzan 2017).
    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Research is important in that:
    1. It is a means of building knowledge and aiding learning
    2. It helps to understand issues and create public awareness
    3. It helps to disprove lies and support truths (through verification of existing knowledge)
    4. Conducting research adds to the existing body of knowledge.
    5. It introduces us to new and various ideas
    6. It encourages a love for learning and acquiring knowledge.
    ANSWER
    2. The problems of conducting social science research in developing countries are :
    *Lack of Training: This is a big problem faced by
    researchers in least developed countries (LDCs). There
    is paucity of research workers available in these
    countries. Many of the researchers’ work does not make
    use of the required research techniques and this results
    in publication of a research work which is lacking in
    sound research methodology. Finally, researchers in
    LDCs engage in copy and paste job without contributing
    any new idea to existing knowledge.
    *Lack of Support from Public and Private Sector
    Institutions: Private and public sector institutions are not
    usually willing to provide the data needed by a
    researcher in a LDC because of fear of misuse of
    information, facts or data.
    *Lack of Adequate Data: You will find in LDCs a dearth of
    quality in research work, this is due to non availability of
    relevant data or literature. Also, there is repetition or
    overlapping of research works due to lack of adequate
    data.
    *Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value
    of research findings by the majority of researchers in
    LDCs because in these countries, people see research
    as a purely academic exercise which contribute nothing
    to solving a problem in the society.
    *Lack of Funding: Sufficient funds for conducting quality
    research are not made available by
    Government/Organizations because they see research
    as not being capable of contributing to national
    development. This discourages all types of research in
    LDCs.
    *Poor Infrastructural Base: Another problem of
    conducting research in LDCs manifest in the form of
    poor infrastructure. This can contribute to poor power
    supply, limited access to Information Communication
    Technology etc., these further discourages research
    venture in these countries.

  85. UKACHUKWU DIVINE AMARACHI- 2018/242426 says:

    UKACHUKWU DIVINE AMARACHI
    2018/242426
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT

    As special adviser to the president that attended the Paper Presentation on Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, I will explain to my audience that Research is carried out for the purposes of understanding the world around us and why things work the way it does.

    The two main purposes of research include;
    1. Information Gathering in which as a researcher you explore or discover information
    and describe the information. Explorative and Descriptive purpose.
    2. Theory Testing in which you explain causal relations and predict what might happen in
    various scenarios. Explanatory and Predictive purpose.

    Research is very important because;
    1. It broadens your knowledge capacity and opens up new chances for learning and
    growing.
    2. It makes recent information available to you.
    3. It gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions.
    4. When you are working on a topic for the first time, research helps you to identify the
    most unique subject.
    5. Research helps you identify what is accurate and what is not.
    6. Research helps you with problem-solving by making you think outside yourself.
    7. It builds your analytical skills.
    8. It creates awareness of issues like gender inequality, culture, climate changes etc.

    Problems of Social Science Research in Developing Countries
    1. Multiplicity of Social Data: Because human beings behaviour depends on several
    factors like physical, biological, socio-cultural, psychological, temperamental, it is
    difficult for them to put them to test.
    2. Difficulty in interpretation of the relationship between cause and effect: in social
    science it is difficult to explain the interdependent relationship between cause and
    effect.
    3. Constant change of social phenomena: Man is a social being that undergoes constant
    changes therefore, techniques used in the previous experiment can’t be used in
    present or future.
    4. Complexity in using experimental technique: Human beings cannot be put to laboratory
    test.
    5. Difficulty in Predictability: predictability is an important characteristic of science. There
    is high level of predictability in physical science than in social science.

  86. Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg No: 2019/247552
    Department: Education/Economics

    Question:
    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    What will you tell your audience

    Answer: Firstly I will start by defining research to the audience.

    What is Research?
    According to Oxford diction, the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.5 Jan 2020

    Purpose of Research in Economics;

    Humans have always been intrigued by the purpose of their existence and their actions. Economic research is one of these actions. The term purpose is complex and can be answered on different levels. I start by differentiating between absolute and relative purpose. Next, I recognize that relative purpose can take at least two forms – individual (or personal) and collective. Creation of knowledge is at the root of both the collective and the individual purposes of economic research. These terms, and all other terms and definitions in this essay, are my attempt to articulate the problem of the purpose of economic research, and may or may not coincide with any definitions in the existing literature.
    The term purpose embodies both the reason for existence and the goal of existence. In my view, there are two main categories of purpose – absolute purpose and relative purpose. If you believe in any kind of an absolute being, you may identify the absolute purpose as God’s plan for everything that exists. It is questionable whether humans can ever develop an understanding of this type of purpose.
    On the other hand, relative purpose is, to be consistent with the previous definition, man’s plan for everything that exists. The term man from the previous sentence is a metaphor. It includes both men and women. It can represent an individual, a group, as well as the whole humanity. Conditionally, we could say that relative purpose can take two forms – personal and collective purpose. Within this framework, the personal purpose of an action is an individual’s perception of the reason for or goal of that action. The collective purpose of an action is the most widely accepted reason for or goal of that action by the members of society. I will now focus on the collective and the individual purpose of the human activity called economic research. This will show that these two types of purpose may or may not coincide.
    Throughout history there has been an immense amount of economic research. All the studies, projects, dissertations, analyses, papers, reports and many other forms of research were attempts to solve specific problems. Now, the question is what do we get from solving these problems? We get an understanding of the existing world and an ability to change it or to improve it according to a specific objective. Various groups, organizations, or institutions within society may have predetermined goals, but they lack the knowledge to achieve them. Therefore, these groups cooperate with researchers who discover the needed knowledge. This acquisition of knowledge corresponds to the collective purpose of economic research.

    How does new economic knowledge improve things? Let us first define improvement as a transition to a state of the world that is preferred over the current state. There are many different avenues through which new knowledge makes us humans happier. Homo sapiens seems to show a tendency to explore things just for the sake of knowing more about them. It appears that he or she derives specific pleasure from learning. Whether or not he or she cares about the well being that his or her discovery will bring to other people is harder to answer. Personal satisfaction from conducting research may be the only purpose one can see in research. If we take this personal satisfaction in the neoclassical sense, then we can say that utility maximization is the individual purpose of economic research.

    To conclude, the absolute purpose of the world and everything in it is not known to the human kind. Humans determine the relative purpose of things, and we can only talk about the relative purpose of economic research. The relative purpose of economic research can be collective or individual. Individual purpose relates to the researcher’s personal reasons for doing research. These may or may not include the desire to improve other people’s well being. Collective purpose is the reason why a group of individuals, and, in the broadest sense, humanity, supports economic research activities. There are as many reasons as there are specific objectives that these individuals or groups want to achieve. All possible collective and individual objectives have one common characteristic – improvement – achieving a more desirable (or preferred) state of the world (or state of one’s being) than the current state. A researcher prefers to have more economic knowledge than he or she currently has. The majority of the human kind may agree they prefer less poverty in the world than the current level. In the world of incomplete knowledge, economic research is needed to discover the necessary knowledge that will move the world (or an individual) to a more preferred state.

    Importance Of Research

    Research is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work. Some of the common aims for conducting research studies are to:

    1. Diagnose diseases and health problems
    Prevent the development or recurrence of disease and reduce the number of people who become ill
    Treat illness to improve survival rates or increase the number of people who are cured
    Improve the quality of life for people living with illness
    Research and clinical trials are an everyday part of the NHS. People being cared for in the NHS benefit from past research, and continue to benefit from research that is currently being carried out. Ultimately, high-quality clinical research helps the NHS to improve future healthcare.

    Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries include:

    1. Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test.

    2. Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.
    Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.

    3. Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading.
    Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.

    4. Unpredictability: Predictability is one of the most important characteristics of science. In case of physical science, high degree of predictability is possible but it is not so in case of social data. But this statement is also partially true; the social scientist can roughly estimate the behavior of the group.

    5. Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.

    6. Difficulty in the Use of Experimental Method: In case of social science research, its product being a human being cannot be put to laboratory test. Even if it is done, their responses wouldn’t be natural but subject to the awareness of the artificial condition. Thus the social scientist has to watch them in wide world.
    Incapability of being dealt through empirical method: An empirical method cannot be applied in case of social science research as repeated experiment is not possible, for example, the problem of unbiased sampling, selection of data etc.

    7. Problems of inter-disciplinary research: Social science being, inter-disciplinary one related with, Economics, Political Science and Sociology, we cannot draw water-tight compartments for each other social science.

  87. Aziude Favour Ifunanyachukwu says:

    Reg number:2018/246568
    Dpt: Economics/Sociology and Anthropology

    The main purpose of research is to collect and develop evidence of scientific theories to contribute to developing knowledge on a field of study.
    The importance of research is a means or tool used to find answers to things unknown and also improving knowledge on existing issues or ideas. It’s a means of improving knowledge about certain things. It helps the mind better understand concepts and theories.

    Problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    The most common and known problems are:
    – Lack of adequate financial aid.
    – Inadequate and shortage of time available for research.
    – Difficulty in the verification of inferences.
    – Unpredictability.
    – Problem of universalization.
    – Underdeveloped informatics structure.
    – Lack of adequate planning.

  88. Nwokobia Adaeze says:

    NAME: Nwokobia Adaeze
    REG NO:2018/241865
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    Assignment
    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.

    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

    Research can satisfy various purposes but the exploratory, descriptive and explanatory purposes are the three most common purposes for research.
    Exploratory purpose: This involves the researcher exploring i.e investigating or examining the topic of research. Exploration tests the possibility of embarking on a more extensive study. This provides useful information which could further be used as a tool or a method in various studies.
    Descriptive purposes: This is when a research is carried out to describe certain events and conditions using scientific observation methods. Scientific observation methods are more precise and reliable than casual methods. For example, a consensus in Nigeria is a descriptive research used to examine the features and proportion of the population.
    Explanatory purposes: In this case, research is executed to answer the questions of why, when, where ,who, what and how in order explain a situation or to provide a detailed report with the statistics developed.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    1) Research is a tool which facilitates knowledge and education: Research is required for both Educators and students for explicit explanation and and understanding.
    Research gives a more practical illustration of the topic being discussed.

    2) Research is an instrument used for understanding current issues an increasing public awareness: information conveyed by the media are all based on research. Without research, Societal issues would not be debatable and the public would not be fully aware of such issues.

    3) Research is extremely benefital for business: Research is very crucial in any business venture. Many successful businesses invest in research which would lead to potential development. From efficient methods of production to effective marketing, research is required to achieve them. Research also gives the upper hand over competitors.

    4) Research is used for maximizing career opportunities: With proper research, an individual can increase their chances of finding employment by examining job-posting sites and contacting employment agencies. Research can also help inform them if job opportunities are legitimate.

    5) Research is used to maximize investment: research gives us valid information about the potentials, legitimacy, failures and risks associated with companies before investing in their stock or shares, therefore enabling investors to pinpoint the best and most profitable investment opportunity.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTIES

    1) Lack of scientific training: Research needs scientific methods to be carried out systematically. Due to the lack of these scientific skills, proper research can not be executed.

    2) Financial issues: Research can be quite expensive and it would need sufficient funding to be carried out. Limited funds and resources negatively affects research.

    3) Problem of importation: Due to the lack of technological advancement in developing countries, equipments needed for research have to be imported leading to extra complications and cost which could be a limiting factor to scientific research.

  89. OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO. 2018/241820 says:

    Okoye Arthur-Kingsley Kanayo. 2018/241820
    Department of Economics
    ECO 391

    QUESTION 1
    what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research

    Answer
    Purpose of Research
    • It promotes a niche of confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    • Research serves as a tool for building ones knowledge and facilitating learning.

    • It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    • It helps ones business to propel quicker.

    • It allows us to note lies and support truths.

    • It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    • It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Importance of Research
    Research unveils the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely necessary, but it has many benefits. To mention but a few, here are some of the importances of Research:-
    1) Research broadens the knowledge base:-
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, because no matter how well-versed you are, no one is an island of knowledge. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research exposes one to new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2) Research updates you on latest informations:-
    Research aggrandizes and exposes one to recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3) Research prepares one for forthcomings of the future:-
    Take for example , a perfect monopolistic competition whereby there are other competitors.  Research propels one to formulate plans and strategies. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    4) Research builds one’s credibilty:-
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5)Research introduces one to new Ideas
    One may already have opinions and ideas about a topic prior to when one begins researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones

    6)Research helps with problem-solving

    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    7)Research Links you to People:-
    Research is used to help raise awareness of pressing issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people thereby fostering a nexus between the researchers and the partners or audience.
       Other importances includes;
    – Research encourages ones curiosity enabling him or her to fervently acquire more knowledge
    – Research teaches one better discernment

    QUESTION 2
    you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries

    Answers
    In the 2nd half of 20th century, there was basically a tonne of research methodologies implemented in carrying out research. I’d like to opine that modern research methods are sometimes unsuitable and unreliable therefore making researchers still date back to prehistoric and supposedly obsolete methods. To mention but a few problems facing Research in social science fields, the following are what I opine in the case of developing countries :-
    • Development of abstract conceptualisations
                    
    • Problem of maintaining Objectivity

    • Difficulty in the verification of inferences

    • Unpredictability

    • Problem of universalisation

    • Poor participation in implementation of new theoretical approaches

    • Unreliability and invalidity of collected data

  90. Onuh Onyinye says:

    Name :Onuh Onyinye
    Reg number :2018 /241872
    Department :Economics department
    Email :onuhonyinye7@gmail.com

    On the purpose and importance of research :

    Whether it’s for a student assignment, a study, or in attempt in form policies, or the creation of a new innovation(technology), Research plays a very vital role in how we live our lives.

    The purpose of research is to inform action. Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Furthermore, the results of your study may have implications for policy and future project implementation.

    One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Often, a disconnect exists between those who conduct research and those who are positioned to implement the research findings. The underlying problem is that “the production of evidence is organized institutionally with highly centralized mechanisms, whereas the application of that science is highly decentralized. This social distance prevails because scientists are more oriented to the international audiences of other scientists for which they publish than to the needs of practitioners, policy makers, or the local public.”

    Thus, as researchers, it is imperative to take steps to overcome this barrier. Publishing your study may be one initial step to make your research known to the global community. Other proactive measures can be taken to encourage the uptake of evidence-based interventions. For example, you can present your research findings at various venues, such as Unite for Sight’s Global Health and Innovation Conference. Furthermore, you can send the results of your study to local officials, policy-makers, and community leaders.

    Here are a few reasons why research is Important to our daily lives:
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.

    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.

    3.It helps us succeed in business.

    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.

    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Knowledge is commonly described as a factual proposition in the mind of an individual . It can be acquired through various means, such as reading books and articles, listening to experts, watching documentaries or investigative shows, conducting scientific experiments, and interacting with other people, among others. Facts collected during research can be checked against other sources to ensure their truthfulness and accuracy.

    Problems of conducting social research in developing countries :

    1. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2.Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    3. There is insufficient interaction between the university research departments on one side
    and business establishments, government departments and research institutions on the other
    side. A great deal of primary data of non-confidential nature remain untouched/untreated
    by the researchers for want of proper contacts. Efforts should be made to develop
    satisfactory liaison among all concerned for better and realistic researches. There is
    need for developing some mechanisms of a university—industry interaction programme so
    that academics can get ideas from practitioners on what needs to be researched and
    practitioners can apply the research done by the academics.

    4. Most of the business units in developing nations, do not have the confidence that the material supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy seems to be sacrosanct to business organisations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a business unit will not be misused.

    5. There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and inter￾departmental rivalries are also quite common. Hence, there is need for developing a code
    of conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win over this problem.

    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc.

  91. Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    Name: Udeze Obianuju Charity
    Reg No: 2018/244283
    Department: Education Economics
    Course code: ECO 391

    The purposes of research simply means the reason, objective or what a research seeks to achieve. There are basically three main purposes of research. The purposes are:
    1. Exploratory
    2. Descriptive
    3. Explanatory
    Exploratory: here, the purpose of research is basically to explore, try to find explanation or find solutions to a problem. This is usually the case when one is researching on new areas that hasn’t been researched on.
    Discriptive: research is descriptive when it seems to expand ones knowledge about a particular phenomenon. This kind of research wants to describe, explain and validate previous findings. It is most likely the purpose of research into areas that others have researched on.
    Explanatory: this is also called casual research. The aim or purpose of this kind of research is to understand the impact of changes on a particular phenomenon.

    The importance of research are:
    1. Research is a way of discovering new knowledge.
    2. It is a way of gaining more knowledge about an existing phenomenon.
    3. It helps us to understand public issues.
    4. It helps us to disprove lies or false propositions.
    5. It is an instrument for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    6. It helps us to follow a systematic and testable ways in trying to solve a problem.

    The challenges to conducting research in less developed countries are:
    1. Illiteracy and ignorance: most of the people in the less developed countries are not educated. They don’t know about research or even its importance and therefore dodge from researchers.
    2. Lack of access to public documents: there are certain information that a researcher may need but the public workers wl not allow them access to those documents that they need in order to assist their research work.
    3. Lack of proper record keeping: most of our public institutions do not keep proper record of their activities and it therefore hinders research.
    4. Lack of capital: another huge hinderance to research in less developed countries are the limited capital available to the researcher which prevents their research process. Capital is needed to employ and pay enumerators, print questionaires, etc.
    5. Poor road network: most of the roads in less developed countries are bad and not motorable and this hinders researchers from conducting their research properly.
    6. Time frame: another hinderance to a research work is the time that the research is required to be completed. At times, the time available to a researcher may be too short to complete such a research topic and may lead to the change of such a research topic.
    7. Strength of the researcher: the strength of the researcher may lead to the termination of a research work where he does not have the enough strength required to complete a particular research work.
    8. Availability of supervisors: some research work cannot be supervised by every supervisor. Therefore, when the strength of the supervisor is not enough for such research work, then such research topic may be terminated where there is no capable supervisor to supervise such a work and is therefore a challenge sometimes.
    L

  92. Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Name :Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept:Economics
    Reg No:2018/249531
    Eco 391(development research)

    (1)
    All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for this leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Under this context, the importance of research can better be understood. Explained below are some of the major importance of research :-
    The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times.
    The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. •
    Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs.
    The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is an aspect where research is mostly welcomed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and
    can as well examine the implications of each of these alternative.
    Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions. The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence services are matters requiring investigation.
    Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nations’ resources. • Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.
    Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, production and sales. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimization or of profit maximization or the combination of the two called optimization problems.
    Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is concerned with the determination of drives underlying the consumer (market) behaviour. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for business decisions making.
    Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to alter its supply schedule within the bounds of its anticipated capacity. Market analysis has become an essential device of making business policy these days. Business budgeting, which eventually results in a projected profit and loss account, is founded primarily on sales estimates which in turn depend on business research. Once an organization is able to project her sales, efficient production and investment programmes can be planned, this will include the purchasing and financing plans. Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. •
    Research is equally significant for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
    It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also, it has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner.
    Research is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake and knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. “This double emphasis is perhaps especially appropriate in the case of social science.” On the one hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of principles that make possible the understanding and prediction of the whole range of human interactions.
    Objectives of Research :-
    The purpose of any research is to find solutions to problems through the application of scientific procedures.
    The main purpose of research is to find out the truth which is not known and is yet to be revealed.
    Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of groups. These include: •
    To gain acquaintance with a phenomenon or to have understandings into it (studies with this object in mind are tagged exploratory or formativeresearch); •

    To show accurately the features of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this objective are known as descriptiveresearch); •

    To determine the rate at which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this kind of objective in view are known as diagnosticresearch);

    To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between two or more variables (such studies are referred to as hypothesis-testingresearch).

    (2) there are many problems associated with social science research in developing countries which includes the following:-
    lack of money for well-equipped educational centers:-It is a great challenge for Nigeria since no one can do research without access to research facilities. For many, it seems impossible to work having no specially equipped libraries and laboratories.
    The disinterest of researchers:-Those who search for the easiest and quickest way cannot be called researchers. Unfortunately, many are unwilling to go through thickets of proper writing. Such people are completely unmotivated. This is what gravely complicates the matter
    Lack of money for well-equipped educational centers:- It is a great challenge for Nigeria since no one can do research without access to research facilities. For many, it seems impossible to work having no specially equipped libraries and laboratories.
    The disinterest of researchers:-Those who search for the easiest and quickest way cannot be called researchers. Unfortunately, many are unwilling to go through thickets of proper writing. Such people are completely unmotivated. This is what gravely complicates the matter.
    illiteracy :- Lots of Nigerians are not educated. It is impossible for them to value any findings. Researchers don’t try to impress.
    Instability:-There is no golden standard in Nigeria all researcher would keep to. It can be explained by the frequently changed administration. New authorities bring new programmes, plans, and standards. It makes total disorientation among students and scientists.
    Secrecy:-Data collection is not always easy as it might seem. Ministries don’t want to make much information public. It led to the small information base. The absence of reliable sources makes the process of research writing difficult.

  93. Nwosu Sochima Anne says:

    NAME: Nwosu Sochima Anne
    REG NO: 2018/24229
    DEP: Economics
    Assignment on Eco 391
    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    ANSWERS
    Why do people conduct research?
    The main reason why people conduct research is to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study, enhancing the society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. We can also say in simple words that the purpose of research is to understand the world around us or why things or process work the way they do and to understand the applications of these processes. In other words, either pure research is carried out or applied research is carried out.
    Other reasons include;
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    WHAT IS/ARE THE IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH?
    1. Research expands your knowledge base;
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject.
    2. Research gives you the latest information;
    Research encourages you to find the most resent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against;
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility;
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope;
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment;
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas;
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    8. Research helps with problem-solving;
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    9. Research helps you reach people;
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.
    10. Research encourages curiosity;
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.
    CLINICALLY DISCUSS AND ANALYZE THE PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
    In developing nations, research is in its incessant stage. Researchers face challenges in choosing a research topic, statement etc. In addition, researchers are faced with challenges associated with growth, infrastructural deficiencies, financial crunches, etc. Here are some of the problems:
    1. Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    2. Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.
    3. Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.  
    4. Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.
    5. Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance. 
    6. Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.
    7. Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

  94. Lawal precious 2018/243819 says:

    Lawal precious
    2018/243819
    1>It encourages a love of learning that extends beyond classrooms.
    2>The importance of research can be visible if we see it as the only means of proving theories.
    3>Through research, we can gather updated information and to-the-point data.
    4>By differentiating between valuable and vague data, it creates credibility.
    5>Proper research of products and markets will make your business succeed.
    6>Research facilitates learning process

    2) Lack of Training: It is a big problem faced by researchers in developing countries. There is scarcity of qualified research workers. Many research workers take a step in the dark not understanding research techniques. The majority of the work, which goes in the name of research is not methodologically sound. Research to a lot of investigators is mainly a cut and paste job with no insight shed on the collated materials. The impact is obvious, viz., the research results, frequently, don’t reveal the reality. Therefore, an organized study of research methodology is definitely an immediate requirement. Prior to undertaking research projects, investigators must be well equipped with all the methodological aspects. As such, efforts need to be made to provide short term intensive courses for achieving this requirement.
    Lack of confidence: The business houses are usually unwilling to provide the necessary information to researchers because of fear of misuse of information.
    Repetition: Research studies overlapping one another are carried out in many cases for want of adequate information.
    Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions, on the other.
    Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.
    Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.
    Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.

  95. OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of
    involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience.
    Name: OBETTA CHISOM GRACE
    Email: , obettachisom16@gmail.com
    Reg no:2018/242216
    Dep: Education Economics
    Course: Research methods in Economics (Eco 391)
    Date: 2 September,2021.

    Answers
    As a special advicer to Mr President on research matters, I will start by defining research an a strategic procedure of defining a phenomenon, according to Martin shuttle worth; Research is any gathering of data, information,and facts for the advancement of knowledge.(Martin Shuttle Worth 2008) .right from time research has played and is still playing a crucial role in our societies and the world at large .many of the inventions and discoveries we have today is as a result of research, nevertheless the important and purpose of research cannot be over emphasized, one purpose of research is that:
    Research gives the fundamental idea about all administration strategies in our economic frame work: Research gives the premise to almost all administration approaches in our economic framework. Research has its unique centrality in taking care of different operational and arranging issues of business , education and industry as Research enhances technological advancement, Development expenditure can be more productive if made on high-tech sector than other sectors (Nadiri, 1993) further more research helps to balance the gap between demand and supply in an economy : social research provides accurate and timely information on the behaviour, needs, attitudes, opinions and motivations of a population. Armed with this knowledge, businesses are able to develop products and services to meet the desires of their customers and governments can tailor policies and programs to the needs of citizens. Also, important national statistics on social issues, television ratings, tourism movements, unemployment could be adequately determined.
    Moreover It serves as a tool for Building Knowledge and Facilitating Learning
    Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and nonprofessionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives. Among professionals and scribes, on the other hand, finding an interesting topic to discuss and/or to write about should go beyond personal experience. Determining either what the general public may want to know or what researchers want others to realize or to think about can serve as a reason to do research. Thus, research is an essential component in generating knowledge, and vice-versa.
    • In conclusion , since research plays a vital role in our economic growth and development I urge Mr President and other ministers of both economic and social sectors to consider carrying out research from time to check the situation s on ground so as to tackle their immidiate issues and secure a better future.
     Problems of conducting social science research in developing countries includes:
    A .Lack of Scientific Training
    Due to the non-systemic nature of research methodology, numerous researchers, even their supervisors, carry out research without knowing the exact research methods. Before starting the research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.
    B.Inadequate funding,
    Funding can be insecure at times. A number of Ph.D. scholars depend on their parents or friends financially, which is tremendously worrying and traumatic to secure new funding. Preferably, the research supervisors should be available to support this. However, to overcome this problem it is advised that scholars should secure themselves financially in case of crisis.
    C.Lack of communication with the guide
    Staying in contact with ideas and development is one of the problems for researchers in developing countries. It is essential for a researcher to have proper guidance on the research project. It is imperative to converse with the supervisor so as to clarify the doubts concerning the research topic and to learn more about your research topic.
    D.Proper Time management
    It is better to perform fewer things in a perfect manner than numerous things full of mistakes. A proper timetable should be prepared and followed strictly by the Ph.D. candidate to avoid half-finished tasks management. This will help the candidates to be more organized and professional in their work field.
    E.Lack of confidence
    The absence of confidence is one of the most common problems among scientists in developing countries. Scientists with low self-confidence feel less stirred thus affecting the quality of the work.
    F.Problems associated with importation
    In most developing countries the complications and cost of importing scientific equipment, instruments, and spare parts is a major limiting factor to scientific research.
    G.Library mismanagement
    The proper ormanagement and functioning of the library are not adequate in numerous Universities in developing countries. To get appropriate books, journals, reports, etc., an ample amount of time and energy is spent.
    In summary, scientific research is provided with a very low priority in the case of developing countries.
    References
    Http/www.mbaknol.com.significance problems of research
    http://www.manuscript.com
    http://Www.discover PhD.com
    Http/www.researchgate.net
    www. Google.Nig.com.

  96. Ekpe Esther Chidinma says:

    Name: Ekpe Esther Chidinma
    Reg. Number:2018/250324
    Department: Economic
    Question 1.What is the purpose of research.
    The purpose of research is to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further in the future. By this, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our societies and our everyday lives.
    Research means trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge collected from the research can be applied to better our everyday life. It is an significant part of problem solving.
    Although research can take different forms, but there are three main purposes of research:
    A. Exploratory: This type is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. The goal of exploration research therefore is to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables researchers to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    B.Descriptive:
    Descriptive research expatiate knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    C .Explanatory:
    Explanatory research, also referred to as casual researchis carried out to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Question 2. What is the importance of research? The main purpose of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.Research is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.portant?
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to clearifyand increase in public awareness
    It helps us to disprove lies and support truths.

    It promotes love and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Question 3.Challenges of conducting Research in LDCs
    1.Domestic resource mobilisation?
    There was strong emphasis on LDCs building capacity to mobilise financial resources locally. Tax reform – including the ability of the state to efficiently collect and manage tax revenues it could help to raise finance in LDCs.
    2. Limited economic diversification?
    Low Developed Countrirs depend solely on primary commodities, leaving them exposed to volatility in commodity prices. This leads to imbalances in balance of payment and economic instability.
    3. Lack of progress on ‘means of implementation’
    Many LDCs expressed frustration at lack of global support for means of implementation, including lack of reform to insistently unfavourable trade regimes, the divergence between pledged financial assistance and monies actually delivered, and token technology transfer.
    4.Proliferation of goals and targets
    Low Developed Countries delegates voiced concern about the mind-boggling number of goals and targets set by various global frameworks, including the Sustainable Development Goals, IPoA, the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, to name a few.

    Keeping track of all these targets is exhausting and not necessarily the most efficient way of implementing development agendas. A coherent process with streamlined reporting mechanisms is the preferred way.
    5.The private sector: high expectation
    This affected the role of emphasis on the role of the private sector both in financing and delivering development in LDCs. This has gained attention following growing donor fatigue and dwindling Official Development Assistance (ODA).

    Indeed, it is evident that ODA flows to LDCs have declined in real terms in the past few years. This is due to some of reasons including a slowing economy in the developed world, corruption and ‘poor governance’ on the recipient side, the recent shift of resources to humanitarian crises, not to mention the rise of right-leaning populist governments .

    But how will the private sector enhance aid effectiveness? For me, the incentives for private, for-profit stakeholders to engage in poverty eradication in the LDCs are still not clear.

  97. Name: EKE SUNDAY
    Reg No:2018/245405
    Department: Economics education
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course tittle: Research method in economics
    Assignment:

    Question No 1
    The purpose of research and the importance of research.

    Answer,
    To address the audience on the purpose and importance of research, can be explained below:

    Research in general, plays a vital role and purpose in human history and existence.
    It is an undeniable fact that the improvements in the condition of human existence today have been made possible by the application of the findings of scientific research. The evidence is overwhelming in respect of the immense contribution of scientific research to progress and development in the world. This has been possible through the collective research efforts of various disciplines. This is true of the pure and applied sciences as it is true of the social sciences.

    In the field of social sciences, research play a very vital purposes

    Which includes:

    (A) The advancement of knowledge
    Through research, the frontier of knowledge in the discipline of Social science are extended. Much of human knowledge today in the field of social science is derived from conclusions of Economic investigations accumulated over the years. Each economic investigation generate some results which are tentative.

    In this way, knowledge in a particular field continues to build up and extend. Consider what we know today about how children learn, the optimum conditions for learning, how to shape behaviour, assessment and programming for exceptional children etc. All these were derived from the accumulated results of scientific investigations in the field of psychology over the years.

    Today the rate at research is expanding the frontiers of knowledge in every discipline is astonishing.
    Perhaps, man now faces the problem of his average life span being too small for him to know enough in any particular field.

    (B) Increasing understanding of economic phenomena
    Research In social science plays a vital purpose in increasing our awareness and understanding of economic phenomena.
    Findings from educational research lead to development and refinement of economic theories. These theories help in explaining certain economic phenomena , thereby increasing our knowledge and understanding of such phenomena.
    In fact, Economic research has increase our understanding of every facet of disciplines to extend that we can fairly well explain most of our actions as an Economists.

    (C) Providing solution to economic problems
    One of the fundamental roles and purpose of economics research is to help in solving economic problems.
    Of course, the major motivation for understanding any research projects is economics is to solve identified economic problems. Such as the problems of what to produce and how to utilise resources in the economy.
    Solving these problem helps to smooth out the course of economic practice.
    Their elimination therefore help in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of economic endeavours.

    (D) Bringing about over all development and progress
    In the long run , economic research brings about Development and progress which come as a result of the advances and accomplishment in a particular field.
    Every now and then, research breaks new grounds , which help to bring about development and progress .
    Without research, much of the development and progress that has been recorded in this field would not have been possible.

    (No 2)
    Importance of research,

    Research is very important in the field of sciences and social sciences
    Generally,
    Research in economics is very important because it can help policy makers and decision makers.
    The most importance skill that Research on economics can offer
    According to Prof Dominic Rohner

    Includes:
    (A) Policy Evaluation

    (B) Predictions

    (3) Broad /Global view

    *POLICY EVALUATION*
    Through Research, some policy Evaluation can be perform by using Statistics to properly evaluate the effect of a police,
    For instance,
    A good and quality policy Evaluation basically helps us to understand the effect and quantifies a measures on an effect of a policy.

    *PREDICTIONS*
    Prediction help us in using Statistics to predict the effect of a policy in different region.
    For instance,
    We are so much good in using theoretical model,
    Predictions help us to create a theoretical modern and text them in reality to be quite confidence about the
    conclusion.

    *GLOBAL/BROAD VIEW*
    Research also help in using broad perspective that offer problem and profer a solution to the problem.
    A researcher are able to provide a broader and larger view of the bigger picture 📸
    Example,
    A measure of mean and media effect on the larger scale.

    (No3)
    discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    To discuss the problem of social science research
    Some major problems in social science research (ssr) are:
    (1) evolving a sound methodology for collection of field data

    (2) interpretations of field data in relation to a conceptual and theoretical framework,
    (3) reliability and validity of the collected data,

    (4) the background of the fieldworker(s) or researcher(s) (trained/untrained), etc.

    (5) target group unwillingness to participate either in the form of interaction or answering questions,

    (6) time management, .

    (7) quantification of qualitative data

  98. NAME: uwa chioma Maryjane
    Reg no: 2018/241876
    Department: Economics
    Email: chioma.uwa.241876@unn.edu.ng
    Assignment
    What do you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research?
    Research is undertaken for the following purposes and they include:
    1) Exploratory research is defined as a research used to investigate a problem which is not clearly defined. It is conducted to have a better understanding of the existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results. For such a research, a researcher starts with a general idea and uses this research as a medium to identify issues, that can be the focus for future research. An important aspect here is that the researcher should be willing to change his/her direction subject to the revelation of new data or insight. Such a research is usually carried out when the problem is at a preliminary stage.
    2) Descriptive research : Descriptive research is defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the population or phenomenon studied. This methodology focuses more on the “what” of the research subject than the “why” of the research subject.The descriptive research method primarily focuses on describing the nature of a demographic segment, without focusing on “why” a particular phenomenon occurs. In other words, it “describes” the subject of the research, without covering “why” it happens.
    3) Explanatory research: Explanatory research allows researchers to find a phenomenon that was not studied in depth. Although it does not give a conclusion of such a study, it helps to efficiently understand the problem. People who conduct explanatory research, do so with the objective of studying in detail the interaction of the phenomenon.
    4) Applied research: Applied research is designed to answer specific questions aimed at solving practical problems.Applied research is conducted when there is a need for facts or information regarding a policy or implications. Evaluation and policy/problem analysis are the two main types of applied research. Evaluation compares the results to the goal, whereas policy/problem analysis seeks to address future issues or implications of alternative decisions.
    The following are reasons why research is important and they include:
    1. Research expands your knowledge base: The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.
    2. Research gives you the latest information: Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against: In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    4. Research builds your credibility: People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope: When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    6. Research introduces you to new ideas: You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    7. Research helps with problem-solving: Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    Question 2:
    Clinically discuss and analyze the problems of conducting social science research in developing countries:
    The following are some of the problems encountered by researchers when undertaking research in social sciences;
    1. Complexity of Social Data: It is a well-known that social science studies the human behavior which depends on several factors such a physical, social, temperamental, psychological, geographical, biological socio-cultural etc. Because of these factors a researcher is generally confused. It is therefore said that because of this complexity of social fata human beings cannot be put to scientific test.
    2. Problems of Concepts: In social science research, one has to face number of problems among which of a) abstraction, and b) faulty reasoning, plays major role in formulating and defining the concepts and law. Abstraction is both the central strength and one of the weaknesses of economics, for example full-employment or perfect competition and pure competition. Faulty reasoning leads to wrong conclusion, for example classical theory of employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment was based on a faulty reasoning that wage cut will increase employment opportunities, however later on J.M.Keynes proved the faulty reasoning of this classical theory and presented alternative theory.
    3. Problems in Interpreting Relationship between Cause and effect: In social science research, we generally find interdependent relationship between cause and effect. The cause and effect are one and the same, for example, in underdeveloped countries, the economic development cannot be accelerated due to lack of technical know how and capital cannot be obtained due to underdevelopment of the country.
    4. Dynamic Nature of Social Phenomena: Man is a social animal and the human societies undergo constant change. What is true today may be not useful tomorrow. The techniques used in past may prove useless for present and future studies. On account of this dynamic nature of social phenomena our task of analyzing data becomes very much complicated and the inferences drawn may be misleading.
    5. Problem of maintaining objectivity: The problem of impartiality is in part a problem of objectivity. It is generally argued that the social scientists are less objective than natural scientist because their own interest affected by the findings of their studies, hence leading to prejudice and bias.
    6. Difficulty in the Verification of the Inferences: In social science research, the events of social sciences are non repetitive and the social scientists are ill-equipped with their tools to verify inferences.

  99. Oyibe Ebere Izuinya. 2018/245131 says:

    NAME: OYIBE EBERE IZUINYA

    REG NUMBER: 2018/245131

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS)

    During a paper presentation at the Centre for Economic Research and Scientific Analysis, the Director of the Centre argued that “Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.Importance/Purpose of research”. As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    The importance of research are as follows:

    1. Research encourages learning beyond the classroom.
    Research makes it necessary for us to keep learning. The concept of learning beyond the boundaries of school/college/university was instead a new thing.
    2. Research helps succeed in business.
    A business, like any other technical work, demands a lot of energy. A successful business cannot be done without solid proves and case studies. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business.
    3. It is used to prove theories.
    Just like our brain development needs research, theoretical proofs need research, too. To understand the importance of research, we should realize that our life revolves around theories, and if we remove research from the equation, we can see that our lives are nothing but a mess.
    4. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision.
    5. Research helps us to come up with new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages the researcher to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at his/her opinion. At a point, the researcher might change his/her mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position their ideas as the best ones.
    6. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.

    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research, they as follows:
    1. Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    2. Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    3. Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    Some of the problems of social science research in developing countries are:

    i. Lack of Code of Conduct: There doesn’t exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-University and inter-departmental rivalries are also quite common.

    ii. Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types. This therefore makes research uninteresting and unattractive.
    iii. Absence of Coordination: There exists lack of coordination among various organizations responsible for performing research.
    iv. Development of concepts: there is always the problem of concept development while conducting social science research in developing countries.
    v. Changes in human behavior: since social science is the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around us, human behavior is not static (it changes from time to time). Therefore it constitue a problem in social science research.
    vi. Difficulties in verifying inferences: inferences helps us to link concepts,to create theory, to apply our own results, etc. In most cases, it is difficult to verify inferences made in social science research.
    vii. Problem of data interpretation: most researchers in the social sciences finds it difficult to interpret the data collected.
    viii. Limited knowledge on the needed software to run data analysis: this has to do with the ability of the researcher to use statistical and econometrics standard methods in dealing with these data to reach the truth and appropriate solutions.
    ix. Problem of maintaining objectivity: in most cases, social science researchers tends to deviate from their basic objectives thereby leading to biased results.
    x. Inadequate data records by both private and public sectors and hoarding of information: most public and private sectors do not keep adequate records of their activities and in most cases, if records are kept, it is always difficult for researchers to access the data in developing countries. Therefore, it constitute a very big problem in social science research in developing countries.

  100. Onoh Chikaodinaka Harriet.E. says:

    Reg no: 2018/242338
    Course: Eco 361

    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research.
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?
    ANSWER
    Reasons Why Research Is Important
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.
    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, a and analyzing.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    1). EXPLORATORY; Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2).DESCRIPTIVE; descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    3). EXPLANATORY; Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    In a nutshell,the purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    1).It is a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning :Research is required not just for students and academics but for all professionals and non professionals alike. It is also important for budding and veteran writers, both offline and online.
    For nonprofessionals who value learning, doing research equips them with knowledge about the world and skills to help them survive and improve their lives.

    2).It is used to prove theories:we research a point of view where we do not have to keep things to ourselves, and instead, we do it to inform humankind about what change our theory might bring. The primary purpose of all the research has kept us connected.

    3).Helps succeed in business; A successful business cannot be done without solid proves and case studies. That being said, it makes research the foremost step before doing any business.So, it is always better to do appropriate research in every way before jumping into any business. Businesses prosper because they had sensible owners who researched their product, and the market needs before launching it.

    4).Research is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways.

    5).Learn to create a balance between collaborative and individual work; Individual work in which the student has to do, while the collaborative work means that work which has already been done by the previous researchers.
    So, in this manner, the students get to know which points to take into consideration and which points are to be ignored.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Research requires several ingredients; some difficult to manage, while others are difficult to arrange. It is done by a single individual, but requires the acceptance/approval of several others; guides, supervisors, defense committee members, interviewees, focus group members, etc.Below is a compilation of some problems of conducting social science research in developing countries;

    1).Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    2).Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    3).Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. Even the guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. Before undertaking research projects, researchers should be well equipped with all the methodological aspects.

    4).Lack of Interaction: You will find inadequate interaction between the university research department, on one side and business establishments, government departments and research institutions.

    5).Shortage of Resources: For performing a quality research sufficient funds are not provided. This discourages research of all types. Governments, institutions/organizations don’t appreciate the contributions of research findings to economic development and for that reason do not offer adequate amounts for research of all types.

    6).Illiteracy: This has affected the appreciation of the value of research findings by the vast majority of the people (social workers and business executive)
    Reply

  101. OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY says:

    ECO 391 –ASSIGNMENT
    NAME: OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY
    REG: NO: 2018/247843
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 300L
    EMAIL: victoryokeleke556@gmail.com
    PURPOSE/ IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH AND CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTIRES(LDCs)
    Importance/purpose of Research are as follows:
    (a)To solve problems: every research in intend to address a specific issues and the proffer solution to the problem identified
    (b) Research helps in making sound and valuable decision: Decision making rely solemnly on the findings of researchers and this aid decision making
    (c) Research helps in fulfillment for obtaining degree in academic setting
    (d) To unveil the truth
    (e) Generation of new theories: when research is carried out, new theories are implemented to support the findings

    (f) Research in determining whether to accept or reject hypotheses
    (g)We establish relationship between two variables
    (i) Research helps us to get acquainted with facts
    Purpose of Research
    (a) Explanation
    (b) Prediction
    (c) Monitoring
    (d) Discovery
    (e) Hypotheses testing
    (f) For control purpose

    EXPLANATION: explaining why something is occurring to acquire knowledge, establish facts and develop new method
    PREDICTION: Accessing a situation and giving certain conclusions something is likely to happen
    MONITORING: helps to make decisions that ensure that goals are attained
    DISCOVERING: find out new situations
    HYPOTHESES TESTING: this is the heart of scientific research which relies on scientific analysis to evaluate hypothesis
    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING NATIONS
    Lack of corporation from public
    Inadequate public record
    Insufficient data
    The anthropocentric nature of human being: Data collected sometimes are subjected to feelings, mood or understanding, since it studying of facts and data and its interpretation.

  102. Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam says:

    NAME: OGBUEWU COSMOS NNACHETAM
    REG NO: 2018/243754
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Apart from research been the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions, it can also be defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings for which it houses its own importance and purposes. For instance, Research conducts specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. In a research paper, the methodology section allows the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability of which in a sense highlights it’s importance and purposes. But according to wikibooks, there are 3 main purposes of research. which are –
    1. Exploration
    2. Description
    3. Explanation

    1. EXPLORATION: As the name implies, it showcases research’s objective to be the act of seeking, examining, investigating or searching for something. it involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.

    2. DESCRIPTION: This shows research as trying to analyze a phenomenon, it’s features, ways, acts and behaviours.
    it also involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones.

    3. EXPLANATION: This purpose is mainly known as it portrays research’s ability to give a sufficiently detailed report about the reason for something, why something happened, a causal chain of events; how something works, how elements in a system interact; how to do something, the steps which need to be accomplished in order to accomplish a certain goal.
    it involves answering the questions of what, where, when, why, and how.

    Of all these objectives of research, it is of no doubt that Research has its own importance since it exists for positive reasons.
    According to owlcation, these are the most significant importance for the existence of research to even a layman.

    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    Despite all these purposes and importance of Research, of no doubt there have to be some problems in conducting research in the field of social sciences especially in developing nations.

    some key challenges such as;
    1. Lack of Funds for Research
    2. Ineffective Education System
    3. Ineffective Library System
    4. Low Accessibility of Data and Information
    5. Insecurity
    6. Lack of Proper Research Ethics
    7. Poor Infrastructural Management
    8. Poor Technological Advancement

    1. Lack of Funds and adequate time for Research:
    Generally, doing anything on planet earth always involves the use financial resources and research is not an exemption. The lack of funds and time is among if not the most challenge faced by researchers in developing countries. the purchase of research equipment, transportation, books, etc., are all essential for carrying out any essential research and it’s inadequacy is of a huge deficit to the researchers. furthermore, the lack of time is another problem. Many of the researchers are either juggling between two or three jobs, so they only have little time to spare for adequate research.

    2. Ineffective Education System
    Adequate training and skills enhancement is one of the most important tools needed to develop and researcher and it is the education system that houses this function.
    But in developing countries, there are lots of problems facing the education system which renders it ineffective. problems like: continuous industrial strikes of lecturers in tertiary institutions, inadequate funding from the government, depleted structures and equipments etc. Furthermore, most of the courses taught in developing countries are taught theoretically even when there is a need for practical to make the students understand better, meanwhile researches are mainly practical with less to more theories involved.

    3. Ineffective Library System
    Due to the weak educational system in developing countries, it is only expect to find a malfunctioned library system. Most of the federal, state and even libraries in tertiary institutions in developing countries provide minimal research materials (books, journals, newspapers etc.) only privately owned libraries are modernly equipped and are up to standard.
    A researcher needs modern libraries to help them update their researches and for further studies.

    4. Low Accessibility of Data and Information:
    Even when numerous informations are flooding the internet, getting valid information is not cheap in developing countries, which is aided by the ineffective educational and library systems. Hence, the difficulty in accessing information poses a serious challenge for researchers when carrying out a study.
    Also, the lack of a database for information and records that can be easily accessed from anywhere poses a serious barrier for researchers.

    5. Insecurity:
    Another major challenge for research in developing countries is insecurity.
    Researchers’ inability to move freely while carrying out research affects many researchers. With cases like Fulani herdsmen, kidnappers, gunmen, Boko Haram etc in Nigeria and other terror related events in other developing countries which limits a researchers movement.

    6. Lack of Proper Research Ethics:
    Ethics in research, means the usage of basic ethical guidelines to a wide range of issues involving research such as scientific research. Many researchers in developing countries ignore the appropriate ethical applications, methods and usage when carrying out their study to guarantee credibility.

    7. Poor Infrastructural Management:
    The poor state of infrastructure in developing countries is a substantial contributing factor to the underdevelopment of research. in cases such as good transportation network to allow the researcher move around to gather data needed for the research, good and reliable electricity, clean and useful water resources and a host of other basic amenities, are all lacking in the developing countries making it a hindrance for researchers to carry out their works professionally.

    8. Poor Technological Advancement:
    The majority of researchers in developing countries have not evolved with technology. Most researchers are only well versed with pen and paper, which is a challenge of research in the country. This is because most of the materials needed to carry out a study are now stored on a technological database. A lack of understanding of how this database works can lead to spending a lot of time surfing the internet for information without results to show for it. To combat this problem, there is a need for technological training to be inculcated into the educational curriculum to train the researcher on technological advancements.

    To every problem, there is a remedy. from my perspective, there should be government intervention for researchers in developing countries in cases such as ensuring maximum security in the nation or providing special escorts for researchers, updating the libraries and keeping them in check, develop and enhance the nation’s infrastructures and basic amenities, and Create policies which can be of favour to the researchers financially.
    furthermore, the researchers themselves need to train and develop themselves in all ramifications and get accustomed to the modern way of doing things and I believe with all these, researches can be done effortlessly to the growth and development of developing countries.

  103. Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel says:

    Name: Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel
    Department: Economics
    Reg no:2018/249 788
    Email:ezekielikukennaya4@gmail.com

    IMPORTANCE AND PURPOSES OF RESEARCH

    Research purposes are relatively broad
    Whether you are a scientist, an artist, a student,or a parent, you probably perform research in your everyday life.
    Research begins when we want to know something. Research is concerned with building our understanding. Research gives us information and knowledge needed for problem solving and making decisions.
    The purpose of research aims at uncovering mystery,finding solutions and enhancing an already existing idea or knowledge.

    Importance of research or why we conduct research
    No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research is very important to humanity and it’s importance are numerous but below are some of the importance of research:-

    1. Research builds your credibility:
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you are exposed to some certain kind of knowledge.

    2. Research gives you the latest information
    Most researchers are updated with current info. Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. Research helps people not to be left out in the evolving world.

    3. Research builds your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well grounded in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build.

    4. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas.

    CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Less developed countries encounter alot of challenges in conducting social science based research including Nigeria.

    1. Lack of Proper Research Ethics
    2. Ineffective education system
    3. Ignorance of the People in LDC’s : most people in developing countries don’t have the habit of researching on their own,they only research for academic purposes alone just to prepare for an examination.

    4. Insecurity
    Another major challenge for research in Nigeria is insecurity. Researchers’ inability to move freely within the country while carrying out research affects many researchers.

    5. . Poor Technological Advancement
    The majority of researchers in developing countries like Nigeria have not evolved with technology. What do we mean by this? Most researchers in Nigeria are only good with pen and paper research, which is a challenge of research in these countries. This is because most of the raw data needed to carry out a study are now stored on a technological database.

  104. Adigwe ifeoma Favour says:

    Name: Adigwe ifeoma Favour
    Reg no :2018/241871
    Course code: Eco 391
    Department: Economics department

    Assignment
    As the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research Matters who was also invited to grace the occasion, you are required to address the audience and tell them what you understand as the purpose of research and the importance of research
    Solution
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative

    We have 5 purpose of research

    1:Information gathering and exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    2:Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    3: Theory testing
    4:Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    5:Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios

    What is the importance of research

    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    #4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    Other importance of research includes:
    * It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    * It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    * It helps us succeed in business.
    * It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    * It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    * It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    * It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Question 2
    Again, you are also required to clinically discuss and analyse the problems of Conducting Social Science Research in Developing Countries.
    What will you tell your audience?

    Solution 2

    1. Financial crunch in academia

    Researchers face perpetual struggle to secure and sustain funding. While the scientific workforce is increasing, the funding in most countries has been on a decline over the past decade. The situation is particularly perilous for early career researchers who find it hard to compete for funds with senior researchers. This extreme competition is also impacting the way science is conducted. The respondents of the Vox survey pointed out that since most grants are allotted only for a couple of years, researchers tend to opt for short-term projects, which can sometimes be insufficient to study complex research questions. This means researchers make choices based on what would keep the funding bodies and their institutions happy. However, the consequences of these choices are an increasing number of published papers with sub-standard quality and low research impact.

    2. Poor study design in published papers

    Poorly designed studies have become a major concern for academia. One of the primary reasons behind this problem is that statistical flaws in published research often go undetected. Since breakthrough results are valued the most, researchers feel compelled to hype their results in order to get published. Moreover, they tend to focus on particular patterns in data and manipulate their study designs to make the results more attractive for the journals. Instances of “p-hacking” in which researchers report only those hypotheses that end in statistically significant results are also on a rise. In particular, biomedical studies have come under the spotlight for misusing p-values. Thus, a huge chunk of published results are scientifically insignificant, which also means a routine waste of money and resources.

    3. Lack of replication studies

    The inability to reproduce and replicate results is a major problem plaguing research. Recently, Nature published the results of a survey that attempted to understand researchers’ views on reproducibility and reported that a majority of participants believed the “crisis of reproducibility” is real. Inherent problems in studies also hinder replication, such as inadequate data and complicated study design. However, major stakeholders of science are in general skeptical about pursuing replication studies. Most journals prefer publishing original and groundbreaking results because replication studies lack novelty. Researchers and funding bodies are reluctant to invest their resources in replication studies on similar grounds. This is a major loss to academia since results of most experiments are never validated and tested.

    4. Problems with peer review

    Although peer review is often considered the backbone of scientific publishing, it is not without problems. Peer reviewers help in weeding out bad research and ensuring that a manuscript does not have any obvious flaws. However, because it is not an incentivized task, reviewers have been known to delay their work or provide unhelpful reviews. Moreover, authors regularly report facing reviewer bullying wherein reviewers force authors to conduct additional experiments, cite certain papers, make unnecessary changes, and so on. Most journals opt for single-blind peer review, which leaves room for biases and professional jealousy to creep in. Apart from this, the excessive dependence on the peer review system has led authors, editors, and third-party services to take advantage of it leading to peer review scams. As a result, the peer review system in its present form is questioned by many academics.

    5. Lack of adequate and accurate science communication

    It is a well-known fact that a wide communication gap exists between the scientific and the non-scientific community. This has resulted in miscommunication of science, divided opinions about scientific matters, and lack of informed decision-making among the public. Researchers are partly responsible for this because they lack time or sometimes the inclination to engage with the public about their research work. Therefore, the public is largely dependent on the media, which is often blamed for misconstruing scientific facts. The competitive nature of academic research is also responsible for poor communication of research. In an attempt to grab attention, sometimes researchers, universities, and even journals mislead the public by hyping the results or promoting only positive results. However, the science community should take the responsibility of projecting an accurate picture of science to the public since so that they can become cognizant of scientific issues and have a say in the way their tax money is invested in research.

  105. Joseph chioma Mercy says:

    NAME: JOSEPH CHIOMA MERCY
    REG. NO: 2018/242205
    DEPT. EDUCATION /ECONOMICS

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

    FORMATION/TESTING OF NEW THEORIES
    One of the purposes of research is to find out what is known, by so doing scientist can develop new theories, ideas, and products that can add value to the society.

    UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL PROBLEMS
    Exploratory research is for better understanding of the nature of a problem.

    DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE
    Exploratory satisfies a research desire to improve understanding and undertake a more extensive study which will develop his/her knowledge about a particular problem.

    HELPS IN POLICY FORMATION
    Research helps one understand existing phenomenal or economic situation; this can be used to formulate the right policy needed in a particular country or place.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    There are so many importance for the use of Research; some of which I listed below
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning: research helps to increase or build knowledge and also improves one’s learning capacity.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness: In other to understand a problem, proper research needs to be carried out. Research also helps to create the right awareness among citizens.
    3. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths: Research helps us to either accept or research a given hypothesis after a research Is carried out on it.
    4. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities: A researcher never misses opportunities ad he is currently updated on every aspect he’s research on.
    5. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    6. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

    PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Performing social science research in the developing countries has multiple barriers or problems including:

    LACK OF TRAINING
    To tackle the problems of research in developing countries, researchers must be well trained. Most developing countries do not have a functional education system and as such their researchers should have to Import Knowledge in other to acquire training. The truth is that the education system of these countries are badly broken and barely functional; the education system is ineffective because of the methods been used to teach the future researchers. For example, schools only teach about the theoretical aspect rather than the practical aspect of conducting an acceptable research.

    INSECURITY
    Insecurity is one of the problems of underdeveloped/developing countries, The availability of published data from academic institutes, government agencies and other corporate agencies operating is a huge problem of research in such countries as researchers can hardly achieve much in such environment.

    UNDERDEVELOPED FORMATIC STRUCTURE
    these days information is expensive. With the ineffective educational and library system, getting access to data and info