Eco. 362(5-3-2022—Online Discussion/Quiz 4—Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs)

1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

 

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  1. Nnamani Chidimma Esther says:

    Name: Nnamani Chidimma Esther
    Reg no: 2018/243795
    Department: Economics
    Assignment on ECO 362

    QUESTION
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyze them in details

    ANSWERS
     The global goals will leave no one behind: the goal is for everyone, it is not peculiar to any particular country, whether developed, underdeveloped; the young, the old is involved. The rich and the poor are also involved, nobody is excluded.

     The global goals are hands on: the goals contain realistic ideas on how to grow and change the world for better, it contains how to carry out the plans, how to pay for it and make sure everyone is inclusive.

     The core feature of the global goal has been the means of implementation: the mobilization of financial resources, as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.

     The global goals need everyone: the global goals need you and me, it is not meant for the government alone but for all beings on the planet earth. Every individual has a role to play in sustaining the environment and the globe a conducive one for all to live in it.

     The global goals are global: the goals are made to tackle challenges for all countries in the globe; this is what that made it to be so different from millennium development goals (MDGs), it is not meant for only the under developing countries alone but all countries are involved.

     The global goals address the issue of climate change: climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent; the goal recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication, it aims to promote urgent action to combat climate change and its impact.

     The global goals will eradicate poverty: the global goals aim to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030, the rate of poverty in under developed countries are very high, this goals are aimed at bringing down poverty to do the minimum, so they will be high rate of employment and standard of living.

     The goals are one for all and all for one: no goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other, no goal can be seen as being more important, we can’t choose people and leave the environment or choose eradicating poverty over peace.

     The global goals aim to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels, this will reduce global wars, and there is peace is the globe, business will thrive, there will be global economic growth and development.

     The global goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years: the 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which include ending poverty, fighting, inequality and fixing climate change

    2) clearly analyze, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    I. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    II. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    III. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    IV. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    V. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    VI. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    VII. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (example high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  2. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    course : ECO 362 ( DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ll)

    ASSIGNMENT :
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    2 . clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    ANSWERS :

    N0. 1

    Ten facts of the new global goals :

    1. The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to re-direct humanity towards a sustainable pathway.

    2. The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability-environmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21 (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).

    3. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    4. Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015. The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad legitimacy among all parties.

    5. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on Sustainable Development.

    6. The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.

    7. The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and ethical trade.

    8. A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda. The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer and director Richard Curtis.

    9. As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments. These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of these commitments.

    10. Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile, Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.

    N0 . 2

    How the sustainable development goals is different from MDGs :

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    1. Zero Goals : The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals : The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals : There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars : While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting : The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty : In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding : The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building : Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution : The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education : The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  3. JOSEPH CHIOMA MERCY says:

    Name: Joseph chioma Mercy
    Reg No.: 2018/242205
    Dept: Education/Economics

    FACTS ABOUT THE GLOBAL GOALS
    1. The global goal will change the way the world does business: it aim at helping the world economy to work without trampling on workers right and harming the environment.
    2. The Global goals need you: the change here doesn’t necessarily involves the government alone but all of us as citizens. Out little impacts matters a lot
    3. It addresses climate change: the constant change in climate is not left out in this goal as it affects every country.
    4. The global goals leaves no one behind: it encompasses all area and all levels, the young and old, rural and urban area, developed and developing countries etc.
    5. The goal is one for all and all for one: No goal is taken for granted as no goal is more important than the other. They all complements each other, as you can’t eradicate poverty without providing employment.
    6. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: it aim to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    7. The Global Goals are “global”: it involves all countries across the globes and tends to tackle their challenges.
    8. The global goals are the world ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years: this global goals which are 17 in number are goals aimed at making the planet a better place by 2030.
    9. The global goals are hand-on: they contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is involved.
    10. The global goals are the people’s goal: the goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member state, NGOs and people like you and I are all working together to make it a success.

    2. Difference between SDGs and MDGs
    1. Building on the success of the MDGs, the new global goals will cover more grounds with ambition to address inequities, economic growth, decent jobs industrialization etc
    2. The sustainable development goals are broader in scope as there are 17 in number with 169 targets, and will further address the root causes of poverty and universal need for development than the MDGs.
    3. The word sustainability describes the SDGs are a futuristic goals I.e the future of the generations to come.
    4. The core feature of the SDGs has been the means of implementation – the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
    5. The new goals are universal and applies to all countries, and all level of people while the MDGs were intended to act or be implemented in developing countries only.

  4. Name: Ugwueze Martha Chioma
    Reg No:2018/247847
    Dept: Economics
    Course code:Eco362
    Date:9/03/2022
    Assignment
    (1)There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    Answer(1)
    Key facts
    Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013.
    In developing countries, the percentage of underweight children under 5 years old dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013.
    Globally, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013.
    Existing cases of tuberculosis are declining, along with deaths among HIV-negative tuberculosis cases.
    In 2010, the world met the United Nations Millennium Development Goals target on access to safe drinking-water, as measured by the proxy indicator of access to improved drinking-water sources, but more needs to be done to achieve the sanitation target.
    The MDGs have been superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.

    Progress report on the health-related MDGs
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.

    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.

    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.

    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.

    Tuberculosis
    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).

    Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.

    Other diseases
    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.

    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.

    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development
    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries
    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

    WHO response
    WHO works with partners to support national efforts to achieve the health-related MDGs. WHO’s activities include:

    setting prevention and treatment guidelines and other global norms and standards;
    providing technical support to countries to implement guidelines;
    analysing social and economic factors and highlighting the broader risks and opportunities for health.
    WHO assists national authorities as they develop health policies and plans, and helps governments work with development partners to align external assistance with domestic priorities. WHO also collects and disseminates data on health so countries can plan health spending and track progress.

    (2)clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs
    Answer(2)

    MDGs to SDGs: Top 10 Differences

    The purpose of this note is to provide a brief outline the similarities and differences between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) launched in 2000, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be launched in 2015 when the MDGs expire.

    (Update 4 December 2014)The Secretary-General has released his Synthesis Report on SDGs, which affirms and strengthens the 17 goals described below).

    This note must be somewhat speculative, since the governments will not finalize their agreement on the SDGs until September 2015 at the earliest. However, for the past two years, the general “shape” of the SDGs has remained surprisingly stable.

    There are certain key similarities. The UN Secretary-General has mandated that the SDGs not lose the key successful elements of the MDGs – that they were clear, concise, time-bound and measurable.

    The first “draft” of the SDGs was created by a High-Level Panel in 2013 (click here) which distinguished “Five Transformative Shifts” that would characterize the SDGs:

    The spirit of these transformative shifts has largely been maintained through negotiations by member states in an Open World Group, which released its final report (click here).

    At the bottom of this note, I’ve included a shorthand list of the 17 Goals of the current draft of the SDGs.

    From the perspective of THP, here is what I see as the Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.

    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”
    SDGs identified in the final report of the Open Working Group

    Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

    Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

    Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

    Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

    Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all

    Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

    Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

    Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

    Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

    Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

    Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

    Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

    Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

    Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

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    ‘An evening of advocacy at the pub’ with Dr John Coonrod | The Hunger Project UK says:
    January 7, 2015 at 1:03 pm
    […] Development Goals, which have been largely successful, to the bolder and more long-term aims of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDG’s are a more comprehensive, crowd-sourced set of goals over topics such as local […]

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    John Coonrod’s Year in Review – The Hunger Project says:
    January 7, 2015 at 3:33 pm
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    kasozimulindwa says:
    January 19, 2015 at 2:05 pm
    Reblogged this on kasozimulindwa and commented:
    Keeping informed…

    It is a Self-organizing World | Atlas Corps says:
    January 30, 2015 at 10:08 pm
    […] http://advocacy.thp.org/2014/08/08/mdgs-to-sdgs/ […]

    Analysis of the Zero Draft SDGs | Global Advocacy: Bottom-Up, Gender-Focused Development for All says:
    June 15, 2015 at 5:13 pm
    […] as 9: The precise same structure of 17 goals and 169 targets that emerged from the member state Open Working Group (OWG) Proposal a year ago have been included here in full — while at the same time “summarizing” […]

    The Spark – goodbye_MDGs_Hello_SDGs says:
    June 17, 2015 at 3:51 pm
    […] The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has c… […]

    Eun Woo NAM says:
    August 22, 2015 at 7:04 am
    Thanks for your kindness for provide information.

    mussa raphael says:
    January 13, 2016 at 9:30 am
    it is so good to end up poverty but so challenging

    Tshanduko Thembi says:
    September 24, 2019 at 7:16 am
    It becomes easy to accomplish this if there is collaboration between organisations and individuals themselves

    Neha says:
    December 11, 2020 at 9:56 am
    Challenging but we have to be optimistic.

    Nusaiba says:
    October 7, 2020 at 12:49 pm
    Yes

    VINCENT says:
    February 8, 2016 at 12:26 pm
    THEY ARE GOOD IF NATIONS CAN WORK TO ACHIEVE THEM

    dimples says:
    May 18, 2016 at 10:46 am
    helped me very well in my exams thanx

    Syed sohail Ahmad says:
    October 6, 2016 at 1:32 pm
    It really helped me to differentiate between sdgs and mdgs

    greenpaperweight says:
    December 22, 2016 at 4:00 am
    Reblogged this on Green warrior and commented:
    Let us all work towards a Sustainable Future! 🙂

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    […] Article Source | Image Source. […]

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    […] Article Source | Image Source. […]

    Spotlight Series: SDG 4 – Quality Education – Building a Sustainable Future says:
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    Top 10: How to think about the SDGs | Global Advocacy: Gender-Focused Community-led Development for All says:
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    Aliyu Aminu says:
    November 11, 2017 at 7:11 pm
    This is a very correct goals plan if to be achieve , the world would be a very good place to live. Although the good earth is riched that can provide for everyone. Life will be free and beautiful again is definitely warth preserve.

    Arinaitwe Dickens says:
    February 27, 2018 at 6:13 am
    Notify me about some of the similarities between millennium development goals and sustainable development goals if any. Thanks.

    AINERIC says:
    May 11, 2018 at 2:44 pm
    It is within our power to shape the good future we so much anticipate! As long as all nations work towards the achievement of these set SDGs then paradise can be achieved! With the SDGs I believe “we gon’ be alright! ”

    Stephen musyoka says:
    May 20, 2018 at 2:16 pm
    Well highlighted.

    New Development Data – Excitements and Limitations | Dan Brockington says:
    August 16, 2018 at 5:08 pm
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    shuaibu kabiru says:
    September 13, 2018 at 9:05 am
    i appreciated it and it help me in my exam

    ‘An evening of advocacy at the pub’ with Dr John Coonrod – The Hunger Project says:
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    […] Development Goals, which have been largely successful, to the bolder and more long-term aims of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDG’s are a more comprehensive, crowd-sourced set of goals over topics such as local .

  5. Enemuo paul Onyedikachi ...Reg number :2018/248652 says:

    1)•The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    ●The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    ●Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    ●The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says
    .
    ●From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    ●Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    ●This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    ●The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    ●While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    2)Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    Some differences between MDGs and SDGs include :
    ● Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach.
    ●universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    ●more Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs
    ●Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    ●Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever see– with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015.

    ●Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    ●Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities

    ●Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    ●Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    ●Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  6. UGWU SERAH IZUNNA says:

    NAME: UGWU SERAH IZUNNA.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.
    REG NUMBER. 2018/247399
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENTAL ECONOMICS.
    COURSE CODE: ECO362.
    ASSIGNMENT.
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain How the Sustainable Development Goals different from MDGs?

    Answer
    Ten key facts about the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or global Goals.
    1. The Global Goals need you:
    it’s not only up to governments, but it’s up to all of us to take action. Even little things can make a big impact.

    2. The Global Goals will change the way the world does business:
    They want to transform the world economy soit works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.

    3. The Global Goals are one for all and all for one:
    No goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.

    4. The Global Goals will address climate change:
    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.

    5. The Global Goals will eradicate extreme poverty:
    The predecessors of the Global Goals, MDGs have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 until today. That is a great achievement but it is not enough. The Global Goals aim to end poverty in all it’s form and everywhere by 2030.

    6. The Global Goals are hands-on:
    They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.

    7. The Global Goals will leave no one behind:
    They are for young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities. They will leave no one behind.

    8: The Global Goals are “Global ”
    They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.

    9. The Global Goals are the people’s goals:
    The goals have been developed by all 193UN member states , NGOs and people like you, all working together.

    10: The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years:
    The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.

    Number 2.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    MDGs SDGs
    Number of Goals 8 17
    Number of Targets 21 169
    Number of Indicators 60 232
    General scope/ focus Social Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    Target Developing countries, particularly the poorest Entire world (rich and poor)
    Formulation Produced by a group of experts
    Result of consultation process among:

    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

  7. Osike+Solomon+Ugochukwu says:

    Name: OSIKE SOLOMON UGOCHUKWU
    Rey.No: 2018/242458
    Department: Economics
    course code: Eco 362
    Assignment:
    Question 1
    There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    Answer

    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4.The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8.The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9.While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Question 2

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    Answer

    What are Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.

    The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

    MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.

    MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.

    **What are Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.

    SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.

    It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015

    SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    From the perspective of THP, here is what I see as the Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.

    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2.Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3.More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    6. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  8. Name: Chioma Maryjane Uwa
    Reg no: 2018/241876
    Department: Economics
    Course code: Eco 362
    Course title: Development Economics II
    Assignment
    Question 1
    There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details:
    I) The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    II) The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    III) Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    IV) The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    V)From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up..
    VI) Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    VII) The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    VIII) While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    Question 2
    clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    Answers
    1) MDGs are predecessor of SDGs, while SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    2) MDGs consists of 8 goals while SDGs consists of 17 goals
    3)MDG had 21 targets while SDG has 169 targets
    4)MDG had 60 indicators while SDG has 232 indicators
    5MDG was produced by a small group of technical experts while SDG was produced by the UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries.
    6) The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. While, The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.
    7) MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. While, SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

  9. Stephen Ifessy Precious says:

    Stephen Ifessy Precious
    2018/244261
    Economics Education
    Ten Facts that makes the Global Goals Stupendously Spectacular
    – The global goals are global. They tackle challenges for all countries across the world. The goals are universal and apply to all countries.
    – The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years. The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.
    – The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    – The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    – Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    – “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    – Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties which is a big deal.
    – The Global Goals needs everyone, It’s not only up to the government. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of goalkeepers.
    – The new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    – The Global Goals will change the way the world does business. They want to transform the world economy so it’s work without violating workers right and harming the environment.

    Differences between Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals
    – Formulation of the goals in the MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries while the SDG formulation process includes intense consultation process among: 193 UN member states, Civil societies, academicians, businesses, private sectors and other actors all around the world.
    – The goals of MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction while the SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to eradicate extreme hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    – MDGs mainly targeted developing or poor countries. It was designed in the context of rich donors aiding poor recipients while the SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. The SDG was designed not to leave anyone behind, It appeals all countries to take action.
    – The MDG mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection while SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    – MDG could not focus holistically on development agendas. It also missed to address root causes of poverty in the developing countries. While the SDG focuses holistically on development.
    – MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize. SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    – MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals. SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger and peace building will lead to greater sustainable development in nations
    – The MDGs agenda on quality education was not promoted well they focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

  10. JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU says:

    JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU
    2018/245132
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    ECO 361 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    ONLINE DISCUSSION QUIZ 4: COMPARING the MDGs AND the SDGs
    1. Clearly discuss and analyze at least 10 facts about the new global goals in details.
    The Goals are universal: This means that the global goals are not targeted towards a particular group of people or race, but cuts across all kinds of people of the world irrespective of their social, cultural, religious, spiritual and economic background.
    The Goals will address the issue of climate change: This means that the global goals aim to address the root causes of climate change especially in relation to depletion of the ozone layer. To tackle this problem there have been programs enacted that is focused on the use of green energy. If the use of green energy can be successfully implemented, it will reduce extreme temperatures experienced in some parts of the earth and also slow the melting of the ice caps in the North Pole and South Pole hence reducing the rise of the sea level across the globe. These issues regarding the earth`s changing climate constitute one of the most pressing issue in this period; SDGs aim to combat climate change as it affects every country in every continent of the world.
    The Goals need everyone pulling their own weight: Now it is not only up to the United Nations, the governments or the NGOs, everyone is expected to contribute their own quota in order to ensure the attainment of the global goals; even a simple gesture can make a great impact.
    The Goals will eradicate extreme poverty: Although the MDGs have succeeded in reducing by half the proportion of those living in extreme poverty, it is not adequate. Poverty constitute a scourge on every society and should not be managed or reduced but be eliminated completely. The global goals aim to achieve these–ending poverty in all its guises and across all countries—by the year 2030.
    The Goals will leave no one behind: The SDGs are for the youths and adults, for wealthy and poor individuals, for the haves and have-nots, for small nations and mighty nations, for developed countries and developing countries, for persons living in the slums, rural centers or urban centers. The global goals will ensure that everybody will be carried along.
    The Goals are interdependent: Like the components of a system working together, the global goals all complement each other. You cannot say that one goal is more crucial than the other, for instance; one cannot say that ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for people of all ages is more important than ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    The Goals will transform the way business is done globally: The global goals will change the way business is done in every country of the world especially in respect to the provision of full and productive employment and decent jobs for all people in addition to ensuring sustainable production, consumption and distribution channels.
    The Goals are the people`s goals: The global goals were drafted out of a consultation involving all 193 member countries of the United Nations, Non Governmental Organizations and experts in different fields. These people and organizations involved in developing the SDGs are people like you and me, all putting hands on deck in their efforts for the creation of a better world.
    The Goals are action-based: This means that the global goals contain tangible plans on how to make the world a better place as well as how these plans can be backed financially and how to make people understand the importance of these goals by creating awareness in order to bring everybody aboard in these plans for global sustainable development.
    The Goals are basically the world`s to-do list for the next decade and half: The seventeen goals and one hundred and sixty-nine targets outlined in the global goals are geared towards making the world a better place within a 15-year span. The goals are meant to continue and go beyond the MDGs to incorporate inclusiveness (in respect to jobs, infrastructure, industrialization, and distribution) and sustainability & urbanization (in respect to sustainable cities, climate change, peace & justice, life in the oceans etc.).
    2. Clearly analyze, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the SDGs are different from the MDGs.
    The SDGs have a greater scope than the MDGs: The SDGs with 17 goals and 169 targets are greater in scope than the MDGs with 8 goals and 18 targets. This means that the SDGs goes beyond the MDGs to tackle the root causes of poverty and impoverishment and also address the need for global or universal development that is based on inclusiveness & sustainability.
    The SDGs covers more ground than the MDGs: The SDGs covers more ground than the MDGs because it has ambitions that encompasses that of the MDGs to include ensuring sustainable economic growth, combating climate change and its impacts, addressing inequality, ensuring sustainable production and consumption, ensuring sustainable use of ocean resources and its conservation, promoting peaceful and prosperous existence for all people and so on.
    The SDGs are universal, while the MDGs were targeted towards the LDCs: While the MDGs were targeted towards improving the conditions in developing countries, the SDGs are targeted towards a global sustainable development need that works for all people.
    The SDGs were more hands-on than the MDGs: The SDGs were more action based than the MDGs in respect to funding and implementation. The global goals have concrete plan of actions to ensure mobilization of resources (financial and otherwise), capacity building and actions to get everyone on board.
    The SDGs are geared to trigger actions for the next fifteen years in five crucial areas: People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership, while the MDGs do not incorporate these five crucial areas in its implementation.
    The SDGs recognize the negative impact of climate change to sustainable development and sought for means to tackle climate change and curtail its impacts, while the MDGs have no such dispensation.

  11. Ani+Obinwanne+Fortune says:

    Answer;-
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation.While MDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targets and 63 indicators, SDGs include 17 goals with 169 targets in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

  12. Eze Amarachi Ruth says:

    Name: Eze Amarachi Ruth
    Reg no: 2018/248529
    Department: Economics
    Assignment

    Q1).
    1- The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20
    Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set
    of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to redirect humanity towards a sustainable pathway.

    2- The SDGs were meant to balance the three
    dimensions of sustainabilityenvironmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned
    from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21
    (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).

    3- The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member
    States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of
    actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN
    history.

    4- Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015.
    The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a
    rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and
    promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it
    sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural
    resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it
    ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily
    negotiated, having a broad
    legitimacy among all parties.

    5-While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the
    new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with
    each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on
    Sustainable Development.

    6- The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for
    Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of
    action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and
    integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the
    purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.

    7- The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda
    adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the
    Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official
    Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and
    individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient
    aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond
    ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and
    ethical trade.

    8- A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda.
    The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer
    and director Richard Curtis.

    9- As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due
    to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of
    stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments.
    These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many
    countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of
    these commitments.

    10- Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent
    study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the
    countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian
    nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in
    fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile,
    Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.

    Q2).

    1.Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  13. Ubechu Agatha Chidinma says:

    Ubechu Agatha Chidinma
    2018/242441
    dinmagatha@gmail.com
    Economics department

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.

    The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says

    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goal.

    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

  14. MELONE BENEDETTE CHINENYE REG NO: 2018/242196. DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION: (EDUCATION ECONOMICS) says:

    Here are 10 key facts that make the SDGs stupendously spectacular
    QUESTION 1

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8. Globa goals will leave no one behind..These goals are for young and old people, for small and big countries, For people living in rural areas and people in big cities.No one will be left behind

    9. While the Millennium Development Goals
    were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. These Global goals are “Global”…They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe

    10 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MDG’s AND SDG’s
    QUESTION 2

    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country

    .
    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs

    .
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  15. Ezeozue+Chinedum+Success+Lotachukwu says:

    Name: Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu

    Reg No: 2018/246452

    Dept: Economics

    Email: chineduezeozue@gmail.com

    1. Here are 10 key facts that make the new SDGs stupendously spectacular:

    i. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN
    history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the
    Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015.
    Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting
    goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align
    their agendas and prioritize funding.

    ii. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83
    national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest
    consultation in UN history.

    iii. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that
    17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend
    in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    iv. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development
    agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet
    and prosperity,” it says.

    v. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community
    largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s
    independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    vi. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales,
    dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with
    the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state
    failure”.

    vii. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been
    heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values.
    However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    viii. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one
    notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum.
    This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date.
    British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people.
    Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob
    Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of
    #goalkeepers.

    ix. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries
    (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a
    monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview
    where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where
    the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing
    important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate,
    the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    x. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden,
    according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close
    behind.

    2. i. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the
    goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other
    fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical
    “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This
    approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there”
    encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero
    requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach.
    Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes
    from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the
    second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    ii. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor
    recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official
    development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows,
    and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries.
    Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to
    rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals
    applicable to every country.

    iii. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel
    recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17
    “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace,
    stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make
    mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that
    the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by
    the MDGs.

    iv. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the
    MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for
    the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and
    partnering with local government. The SDGs are being created in one of the
    most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen – with face-to-
    face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs
    on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated
    globally through Beyond2015.

    vi. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were
    lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much
    has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the
    issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    vii. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows –
    which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic
    development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries
    to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue
    generating capabilities.

    viii. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful,
    reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that
    the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected
    states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of
    ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is
    controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    ix. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and
    accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the
    availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by
    income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability,
    geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national
    contexts.”

    x. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity
    (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in
    many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community
    to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of
    education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable
    development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality,
    promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and
    appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to
    sustainable development.”

  16. MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI says:

    NAME: MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI
    REG. NO.: 2018/242336
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 362 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    Discussion Quiz-4: Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs
    Clearly discuss and analyze the facts about the new global goals.
    The global goals are universal: unlike the MDGs which were limited to the developing countries, the SDGs were drafted to include all the people (irrespective of colour, status, religion or race) in every country of the world.
    The global goals were born out of a great consultation: the new global goals were based on the greatest summit in the UN`s history and involved over eighty surveys on over seven million people from the 193 UN member nations.
    The global goals aim to carry everyone along: the new global goals will leave no one behind: old or young, rich or poor, developed countries or less developed countries, people living in urban areas or those living in rural areas, will all be carried along in order to achieve global sustainable development.
    The global goals need everyone: the new global goals need everyone pulling their own weight in order to actualize global sustainable development. Everyone is expected to join hands to achieve the goals; a simple act initiated by a person can create an immense impact that can be felt globally.
    The global goals will change how global businesses operate: the ways in which business activities are carried out on earth will be changed by the new global goals. The global economy will be transformed with emphasis on promoting workers` rights and utilizing resources in the ecosystem for production without harming the environment.
    The global goals are interconnected: the new global goals cannot be discussed independently but as components constituting part of a whole (in which each component is as pivotal as the other) in the world`s quest for making the earth a better place for all.
    The global goals aim to address climate change: the global goal of sustainable development can only be achieved in an enabling environment. Thus the SDGs are geared towards tackling the issue of climate change and finding ways to negate its harmful effects.
    The global goals are hands-on: this means that the new global goals contain concrete plans for its implementation in regards to mobilization of resources, transfer of ecologically friendly technology and creating awareness in order to get everyone on board.
    The global goals will eliminate extreme poverty and hunger: the predecessor of the new global goals—the MDGs—have succeeded in reducing hunger and poverty in all its forms by half, yet it is not enough. The SDGs aim to completely put an end to the issue of poverty and hunger everywhere in the world over the next 15 years.
    The global goals promote peace: the new global goals aim to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for global sustainable development in addition to the provision of access to justice for all people of the earth and also maintain harmony between individuals and their environment.
    Clearly analyze, discuss and explain unequivocally how the SDGs differ from the MDGs.
    The MDGs targets for the year 2015 were meant to reduce hunger and poverty in all its forms by half, while the SDGs were designed to finish up what the MDGs started by completely obliterating hunger, impoverishment or poverty in all its forms and fulfill other targets in all countries of the world by 2030.
    The SDGs were more comprehensive than the MDGs. The new global goals go beyond tackling hunger, poverty and other issues plaguing developing countries to address global issues such as climate change, inequality, sustainable economic growth, loss of biodiversity, peace & justice etc. One can agree that the SDGs perfectly capture the convoluted nature of global sustainable development than the MDGs.
    The MDGs did not clearly differentiate hunger from poverty, instead it lumped the two terms together as if they were one and as if providing solution to one will solve the other, but the new global goals were able to distinguish between the two problems and sought ways to tackle them as two separate problems with the aim of achieving better results.
    The funding of the MDGs were meant to be done through aid flows or funds from donor countries, but it was found out that these aid flows were either not forthcoming or when they come, they were largely insignificant to serve the purpose for which they were envisioned. Conversely, the SDGs put sustainable economic growth at the forefront of its strategy; this act was able to equip countries with the means to address their own social problems by enhancing their revenue generating capacity.
    The MDGs were drafted in the context where industrialized countries bail out developing countries by contributing aid flows to the countries, but the SDGs in its quest for global sustainable development looked at the activities of these developed countries as they concern the issue of climate change and global warming, hence the SDGs affects all countries of the world whereas the MDGs were limited to the LDCs.
    The SDGs were created through a very inclusive process featuring over 80 surveys in over 100 countries and includes over 7 million people: in fact it was the greatest summit or consultation in the UN`s history in which every country was represented. But the MDGs did not follow this top-down process or procedure in its implementation.

  17. ABONYI AMAKA MARY says:

    NAME: ABONYI AMAKA MARY
    REG NO: 2018/241874
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    The following are 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.
    1. The Global Goals need you
    It’s not only up to the governments, but it’s up to all of is to take action. Even little things can make a big impact. Without you the global goals will be achieved.
    2. The Global Goals will change the way the world does business.
    They want to transform the world economy so it works without violating workers’ right and harming the environment.
    3. The Global Goals are for all and all for one
    No goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other. The goals are non-excludable.
    4. The Global Goals will address climate change
    Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.
    5. The Global Goals will eradicate extreme poverty.
    The predecessors of the Global Goals, the MDGs, have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 but it is not enough! Th Global Goals aim to end poverty in all forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6. The Global Goals will leave no one behind.
    They are for young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities. They will leave no one behind.
    7. The Global Goals are hands-on
    They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    8. The Global Goals are “Global ”
    They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9. The Global Goals are the People’s goals
    The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN members states NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    10. The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years
    The 17 Goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting Inequality and fixing climate change.

    The following are the ways in which the SDGs are different from the MDGs.
    1. More Comprehensive Goals: The 17 sustainable Development Goals with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MDGs by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people. There were 8 MDGs, this will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs
    2. Zero Goals: Building on the success and momentum of the mdgs, the new global goals will cover more ground with ambitions to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialisation, energy, climate change, sustainable consumption and production, peace and justice. The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach.
    3. The sustainable goals are universal and apply to all countries, where as the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only.
    4. A core feature of the Sustainable Development Goals has been the means of implementation, the mobilisation of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
    5. The global goals recognise that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. SDG aims to promote urgent action to combat climate change and its impact.
    6. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    9. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”
    10. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

  18. Kalu Melody Chinaza says:

    Name: Kalu Melody Chinaza
    Department: Economics
    Registration number: 2018/245127
    An assignment on Eco 362

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    The 10 facts are:
    Based on assumptions:
    a. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: It is assumed that the predecessors of the Global/Sustainable Development Goals, the MDGs, have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 until today. That is a great achievement. The global goals aim to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.

    b. The global goals are one for all and all for one: No goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.

    c. The global goals are “global.” They aim at tackling challenges for all countries across the globe.

    d. The global goals will leave no one behind: They are for young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities.

    e. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 year: The 17 goals aimed at making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fighting climate change.

    f. The global goals are the peoples’ goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member-states, NGOs and people, all working together.

    g. The global goals will change the way the world does business: They want to transform the world economy so it works without violating workers’ rights and harming the environment.

    h. The global goals will address climate change: Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.

    i. The global goals need you: It’s not only up to governments, but it’s up to everyone to take action.

    j. The global goals are hands-on: They contain concrete plan on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everyone is on board.

    2.
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen– with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites.

    5. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    6. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    7. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    8. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    9. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

    SOURCE: https://advocacy.thp.org/2014/08/mdgs-to-sdgs/

  19. ASOGWA OBIORA says:

    NAME: ASOGWA OBIORA
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242288
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ll
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    Online discussion quiz lV
    1.10 facts about the Sustainable Development Goals.
    (a).The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    (b) The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    (c)Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    (d)The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says

    (e)From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    (f)Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    (g)This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    (h)The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    (i)While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    (j)So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. The differences between SDGs and MDGs are as follow:
    (a) The MDGS has eight goals while the SDGS has seventeen goals.

    (b) The MDGS has 21 targets while the SDGS has 169 Targets.

    (c) The MDGS has 60 Indicators while the SDGS has 232 Indicators.

    (d) The general scope/focus of the MDGS is social while the general scope/focus of SDGS is on economic growth, social inclusion, and environmental protection.

    (e) The target of the MDGS is on developing countries, particularly the poorest. While the target of the SDGS is on entire world (the rich and the poor)

    (f) The formulation of the MDGs is produced by a group of experts. While the formulation of the SDGs is a result of the consultation process among;
    i.193 United Nations member states.
    ii.Civil society.
    iii.Other stakeholders.

  20. Ibukun Bamiduro says:

    Name: Bamiduro ibukun obianuju
    Reg no: 2018/243749
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 362

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Discuss and analyze them in details

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embody specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities, and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption, and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only target developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle, or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. Given the foregoing discourse, analyzealyzeidly discuss, and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals are different from the MDGs.

    Answers

    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    1 The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2 The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3 Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4 The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet, and prosperity,” it says.

    5 From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs-up.

    6 Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7 This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8 The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British filmmaker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9 While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity, and the forests.

    10 So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland, nd, and Switzerland are close behind.

    Answer 2

    1 Number of Goals are 8 for MDG’s and 17 for SDG’s.

    2 Number of Targets are 21 for MDG’S and 169 for SDG’s.

    3 Number of Indicators are 60 for MDG’s and 232 for SDG’S.

    4 General scope/ focus on Social for MDG’s and Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection for SDG’s

    5 MDG’s target Developing countries, particularly the poorest while SDG’s target the Entire world (rich and poor).

    6 MDG’s Formulation are Produced by a group of experts while for SDG’s Result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

    7 Based on Pillars for sustainable end of hunger, MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation

    8 Development agendas MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. While SDG focuses holistically on development.

    9 Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty, Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG while SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.

    10 For Cost MDGs were less costly compared to SDG while SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.

  21. Okonkwo chinaza favour says:

    NAME: OKONKWO CHINAZA FAVOUR
    REG NO: 2018/242315
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ANSWER ONE
    There are 10 facts that made the new global goal spectacular and they include;
    1) The global are the people’s goals: this means all every individual, government,non governmental organization, businesses, countries etc are expected to work together for the realization of the goals.
    2) The global goals are universal: the goal address the challenges and problems encounter by every nation not just developing economy or countries.
    3) The global goal will ensure that everyone is carried along: Both the developed and developing countries, poor and rich people, urban and rural areas, young and old, male and female, etc will all be carried along in the actualization of these goals.
    4) The global goals needs us: This means that all hands should be on desk. The task should not be left alone to government but individuals should support in small ways they can.
    5) The global goals will change the way the world does business. It will ensure that the right and interest of workers are protected in various workplace and that businesses go on without harming the environment.
    6)The global goals will address one of the most disturbing issue affecting the globe which is increase in the atmospheric temperature ( climate change)
    7)The global goals also aims at eradicating extreme poverty not only in developing countries but across the globe by the year, 2030.
    8) The global goals are proactive and experimental: there are solid plans on how the actions to take to change the world, how to raise funds and how to carry everyone along.
    9) The global goals are the world’s Paramount to do list for the next 15 years aiming to make the world a better place by eradicating extreme poverty, reducing gender inequality, achieving food security and quality education etc.
    10) Non of the global goal is more important than the other rather they complement each other in actualization of a better planet.

    QUESTION TWO
    Difference between the sustainable development goals and the millennium goals?
    1) The sustainable development goals has a wider dimension and capacity with 17 goals and 169 targets while the millennium goals has 8 goals and 18 targets.
    2) The sustainable development goals will go further in tackling the root causes of extreme poverty than the millennium goals.
    3) The sustainable development goals are global and applies to all the countries while the millennium goals were targeted towards the developing nations exclusively.
    4) The sustainable development goals acknowledges that addressing climate change is crucial and imperative for sustainable development and poverty eradication and calls for immediate response and action to combat climate change and it’s influence on the planet.
    5) The sustainable development goals will cover more ground with ambition to address other pressing issues not contained in the millennium goals like climate change, protection of ecosystem and achieving more inclusive society and justice.
    6)The sustainable development goals has a concrete plans on how to funds and carry out the goals.

  22. Ezeamenyi chinonso ifesorochukwu says:

    NAME: EZEAMENYI CHINONSO IFESOROCHUKWU
    REG: 2018/251370
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    EMAIL ADDRESS: nonsofavour732@gmail.com
    ANSWER ONE:
    10 key facts about the SDGs are:
    1: The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2: The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3: Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4: The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    5: From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6: Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7: This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    8: The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9: While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    10: So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    ANSWER TWO:
    Difference Between SDGs and MDGs
    SDGs benefit from the valuable lessons learned from MDGs. These also carry forward the unfinished agenda of MDGs for continuity and sustain the momentum generated while addressing the additional challenges of inclusiveness, equity, and urbanization and further strengthening global partnership by including CSOs and private sector. They reflect continuity and consolidation of MDGs while making these more sustainable by strengthening environmental goals.
    There are seven major differences in MDGs and SDGs;
    1: MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the ‘basement of UN headquarters’ whereas SDGs have evolved after a long and extensive consultative process including 70 Open Working Groups, Civil Society Organizations, thematic consultations, country consultations, participation of general public through face-to-face meetings and online mechanisms and door to door survey;
    2: While MDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targets and 63 indicators, SDGs include 17 goals with 169 targets. An expert analyses by noble laureates at Copenhagen consensus, suggest that if the UN concentrates on 19 top targets, it can get $20 to $40 in social benefits per dollar spent, while allocating it evenly across all 169 targets would reduce the figure to less than $10. Being smart about spending could be better than doubling or quadrupling the aid budget.
    3: MDGs had a focus on developing countries with funding came from rich countries. All countries, developed or developing, are expected to work towards achieving SDGs.
    4: The pillars of human development, human rights and equity are deeply rooted in SDGs and several targets seven explicitly refer to people with disabilities, six to people in vulnerable situations, and two to non-discrimination. These were not even mentioned in the MDGs; (iv) MDGs had 3 direct health goals, 4 targets and 15 indicators with emphasis on child, maternal mortality and communicable diseases. SDGs have one comprehensive goal emphasizing well-being and healthy living including NCDs.
    5: MDGs had a time span of 25 years though adopted in 2002 baseline data for the year 1990 was used and some of the baselines were revised subsequently which shifted ‘the goal post’. For the SDGs, the baseline is from 2015 estimates. It may be revised as more recent data becomes available.
    6: SDGs include a vision of building vibrant and systematic partnerships with private sector to achieve sustainable development. It builds on, UN Compact which was launched in year 2000 and IMPACT 2030.
    7: MDGs had no concrete role for the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), whereas SDGs have paid attention to this right from the framing stage itself with significant engagement of civil society actors.
    Also, From the perspective of The hunger project advocacy, here is what I see as the Top Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.
    1: Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2: Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3: More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4: Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5: Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    6: Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7: Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8: Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9: Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10: Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  23. EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

    NAME::EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE
    REG NO::2018/251024
    DEPARTMENT:: ECONOMICS (major)
    COURSE::ECO 362 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    EMAIL ADDRESS:: sopuluchukwuluke@gmail.com
    Assignment
    1..The SDGs also explicitly include disability and persons with disabilities 11 times. Disability is referenced in multiple parts of the SDGs, specifically in the parts related to education, growth and employment, inequality, accessibility of human settlements, as well as data collection and the monitoring of the SDGs.

    Although, the word “disability” is not cited directly in all goals, the goals are indeed relevant to ensure the inclusion and development of persons with disabilities.

    Inforgraphic that shows where disability is explicitly included in the 17 SDGs

    The newly implemented 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development holds a deep promise for persons with disabilities everywhere.

    The year 2016 marks the first year of the implementation of the SDGs. At this critical point, #Envision2030 will work to promote the mainstreaming of disability and the implementation of the SDGs throughout its 15-year lifespan with objectives to:

    Raise awareness of the 2030 Agenda and the achievement of the SDGs for persons with disabilities;
    Promote an active dialogue among stakeholders on the SDGs with a view to create a better world for persons with disabilities; and
    Establish an ongoing live web resource on each SDG and disability.
    The campaign invites all interested parties in sharing their vision of the world in 2030 to be inclusive of persons with disabilities.

    Please forward your comments, suggestions, references and/or new information on the SDGs and persons with disabilities to enable@un.org or follow us @UNEnable on Facebook and Twitter and use hashtag #Envision2030 to join the global conversation and help create a world in 2030 that is fully inclusive of persons with disabilities.
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    2..How are the Sustainable Development Goals different from MDGs?
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    What are Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
    1.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.
    2.The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
    3.MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    4.MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.

    What are Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?
    1.Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    2.These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.
    3.SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    4.It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    5.It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015
    6.SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    7.It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution.

  24. Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy Reg no: 2018/241847 says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847
    Economics Department 300l

    A. Facts about the SDGs
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals are global goals.
    2. The goals need every person to take action and not just governments.
    3. The goals will change the way the world does business without violating the environment.
    4. No goal is more important than the other.
    5. The goals will address climate change.
    6. The goals seek to eradicate extreme poverty in all entirety, not merely reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty.
    7. The goals are for everybody irrespective of age or status.
    8. The goals are hands-on
    9. The goals are the people’s goals. They were made/developed by the people, not only experts.
    10. The goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for 15 years from 2015.
    11. The goals are based on the 5 P’s; People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership.

    B. Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs as sourced from “The Hunger Project”

    • Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    • Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    • More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    • Addressing The Hunger Project (THP) Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    • Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015

    • Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    • Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    • Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    • Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    • Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  25. Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness says:

    Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness
    Economics
    2018/242393

    1. GOAL 1: No Poverty.
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger.
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being.
    GOAL 4: Quality Education.
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality.
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation.
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy.
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Targets: Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries

    2.
    Differences based on
    Millennium Development Goals
    Sustainable Development Goals
    Successor or predecessor MDGs are predecessor of SDGs. SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    Number of Goals MDGs consists of 8 goals SDGs consists of 17 goals
    Number of targets MDG had 21 targets SDG has 169 targets
    Number of indicators MDG had 60 indicators SDG has 232 indicators
    Formulation of the goals It was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    – 193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world

    Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction.

    – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”

    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.

    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    Focused areas It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    Development agendas MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. SDG focuses holistically on development.
    Scope of work MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security
    Cost MDGs were less costly compared to SDG SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    Peace Building MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

  26. Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn says:

    Name: Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn
    Reg no: 2018/241821
    Department: Economics ( Major )
    Course: Development Economics ( Eco 362 )

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    1). It seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. We recognise that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, will implement this plan. We are resolved to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet. We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path

    2). They seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what these did not achieve. They seek to realize the human rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental

    3). Each country faces specific challenges in its pursuit of sustainable development. The most vulnerable countries and, in particular, African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states deserve special attention, as do countries in situations of conflict and post-conflict countries. There are also serious challenges within many middle-income countries.

    4). We will seek to build strong economic foundations for all our countries. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth is essential for prosperity. This will only be possible if wealth is shared and income inequality is addressed. We will work to build dynamic, sustainable, innovative and people-centred economies, promoting youth employment and women’s economic empowerment, in particular, and decent work for all

    5). Sustainable development cannot be realized without peace and security; and peace and security will be at risk without sustainable development. The new Agenda recognizes the need to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies that provide equal access to justice and that are based on respect for human rights (including the right to development), on effective rule of law and good governance at all levels and on transparent, effective and accountable institutions.

    6). The future of humanity and of our planet lies in our hands. It lies also in the hands of today’s younger generation who will pass the torch to future generations. We have mapped the road to sustainable development; it will be for all of us to ensure that the journey is successful and its gains irreversible.

    7). The SDGs and targets are integrated and indivisible, global in nature and universally applicable, taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities.

    8). We recognize that baseline data for several of the targets remain unavailable, and we call for increased support for strengthening data collection and capacity building in Member States, to develop national and global baselines where they do not yet exist. We commit to addressing this gap in data collection so as to better inform the measurement of progress, in particular for those targets below which do not have clear numerical targets.

    9). We resolve to build a better future for all people, including the millions who have been denied the chance to lead decent, dignified and rewarding lives and to achieve their full human potential. We can be the first generation to succeed in ending poverty; just as we may be the last to have a chance of saving the planet. The world will be a better place in 2030 if we succeed in our objectives.

    10). We recognise that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities, to achieve sustainable development; and we reaffirm that planet Earth and its ecosystems are our common home and that ‘Mother Earth’ is a common expression in a number of countries and regions.

    2. discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    a). Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country
    b). Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    c). Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015
    d). Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    e). Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    f). Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    g). Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  27. Ogbonnaya Geraldine Ugochi says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2018/241833
    LEVEL: 300L
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    QUESTION1
    1. The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to redirect humanity towards a sustainable pathway.
    2. The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainabilityenvironmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21(1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).
    3. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    4. Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015. The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad legitimacy among all parties.
    5. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on Sustainable Development.
    6. The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.
    7. The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and ethical trade.
    8. A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda. The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer and director Richard Curtis.
    9. As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments. These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of these commitments.
    10. Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile, Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.

    QUESTION 2
    1. MDGs are predecessor of SDGs WHILE SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    2. MDGs consists of 8 goals WHILE SDGs consists of 17 goals.
    3. MDGs had 21 targets WHILE SDGs has 169 targets.
    4. MDGs had 60 indicators WHILE SDGs has 232 indicators.
    5. MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts WHILE SDGs was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    (i) 193 UN member states
    (ii) Civil society organizations
    (iii) Academicians
    (iv) Scientists
    (v) Private sectors and
    (vi) Other stakeholders all around the world
    6. MDGs targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction WHILE the SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    7. MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients” WHILE SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.
    8. MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government WHILE SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.
    9. MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health WHILE SDGs focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.

    10. MDGs could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty WHILE SDGs focuses holistically on development.

    11. MDGs only emphasized on the prevalent challenges WHILE SDGs emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.

    12. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG WHILE SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.

    13. MDGs were less costly compared to SDGs WHILE SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.

    14. MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize WHILE SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.

    15. MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals WHILE SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.

    16. MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability WHILE SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    17. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies WHILE SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.
    10. MDGs could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty WHILE SDGs focuses holistically on development.
    11. MDGs only emphasized on the prevalent challenges WHILE SDGs emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.
    12. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG WHILE SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.
    13. MDGs were less costly compared to SDGs WHILE SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.
    14. MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize WHILE SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.
    15. MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals WHILE SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    16. MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability WHILE SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    17. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies WHILE SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  28. Eze Ngozi Josephine says:

    Name: Eze Ngozi Josephine
    Reg No: 2018/241825
    Email: josephinengozi2030@gmail.com
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Eco 362

    QUESTION 1.
    Problems of this scale can be overwhelming, but the Global Goals(also known as the Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs) are the solution to tackling them.

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    Targets for Goal 1
    * By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
    * By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
    * Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
    * By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of 13 property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including micro-finance.
    * By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
    * Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.
    * Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.

    Targets for Goal 2
    * By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
    * By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
    * By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
    * By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality
    * By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed
    * Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countriesCorrect and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
    * Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.

    Targets for Goal 3
    * By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
    * By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
    * By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
    * By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
    * Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
    * By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents 3.7
    * By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
    * Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
    * By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
    * Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
    * Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
    * Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
    * Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.

    Targets for Goal 4
    * By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes
    * By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education
    * By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
    * By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
    * By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
    * By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
    * By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
    * Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
    * By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
    * By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states.

    Targets for Goal 5
    * End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
    * Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
    * Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
    * Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
    * Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic and public life
    * Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
    * Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
    * Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
    * Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.

     Targets for Goal 6
    * By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
    * By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
    * By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
    * By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
    * By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
    * By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
    * By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
    * Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.

    Targets for Goal 7
    * By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
    * By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
    * By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
    * By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
    * By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support.

    Targets of Goal 8
    * Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
    * Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
    * Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
    * Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
    * By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
    * By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
    * Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
    * Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
    * By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
    * Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
    * Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
    * By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization.

    Targets for Goal 9
    * Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
    * Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
    * Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
    * By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
    * Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
    * Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 18
    * Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
    * Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.

    Targets for Goal 10
    * By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
    * By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
    * Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
    * Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
    * Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
    * Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
    * Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
    * Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
    * Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
    * By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.

    Targets for Goal 11
    * By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
    * By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
    * By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
    * Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
    * By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
    * By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
    * By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
    * Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
    * By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
    * Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials.

    Targets for Goal 12
    * Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
    * By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
    * By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
    * By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
    * By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
    * Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
    * Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
    * By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
    * Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
    * Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
    * Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.

    Targets for Goal 13
    * Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
    * Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
    * Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
    * Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
    * Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities.

    Targets for Goal 14
    * By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
    * By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
    * Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
    * By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
    * By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
    * By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
    * By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
    * Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
    * Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
    * Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want.

    Targets for Goal 15
    * By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
    * By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
    * By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
    * By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
    * Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
    * Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed
    * Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
    * By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
    * By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
    * Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
    * Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
    * Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.

    Targets for Goal 16
    * Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere.
    * End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children.
    * Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.
    * By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organised crime.
    * Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms.
    * Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels.
    * Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.
    * Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance.
    * By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration.
    * Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements.
    * Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.
    * Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development.

    Targets for Goal 17
    Finance
    * Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
    * Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
    * Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
    * Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
    * Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
    Technology
    * Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
    * Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
    * Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
    Capacity building
    * Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
    Trade
    * Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
    * Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
    * Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
    Systemic issues
    Policy and institutional coherence
    * Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
    * Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
    * Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
    Multi-stakeholder partnerships
    * Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
    * Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
    Data, monitoring and accountability
    * By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
    * By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries.

    QUESTION 2.

    Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    MDGs SDGs
    Number of Goals 8 17
    Number of Targets 21 169
    Number of Indicators 60 232
    General scope/ focus Social Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    Target Developing countries, particularly the poorest Entire world (rich and poor)
    Formulation Produced by a group of experts Result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

  29. EZE UCHECHUKWU says:

    Eco. 362(5-3-2022—Online Discussion/Quiz 4—Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs
    By
    NAME:EZE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO:2018/241866
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    Email :uchechukwu.eze.241866@unn.edu.ng
    Question:
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    2 The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    Answers
    1.The 10 facts or keys of sustainable Development Goals or “Global Goals” as fondly called that make it specular are as follows:
    (a) The Global Goals need you :this entails that it’s not only up to the government’s or officials, but it’s up to all of us to take immediately actions, even I, the things can make a big impact. Everybody must contribute and responsible.
    (b) The Global Goals will change the way the world does business: They want to transform the world economy so it works without violating works rights and harming the environment.
    (c) The Global Goals are one for all and all for one: this entails no goals is more superior or important than the others, all the goals are complementary in nat8.
    (d) The Global Goals will address climate change issues: owing to the facts that climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects everyone, everything, every country and every continent.
    (e) The Global Goals will eradicate extreme poverty: The predecessors of the Global Goals, the MDGS, have helped cut extreme poverty by halt from there establishment in 2000 till today. That is a great achievement but it is not enough! The Global Goals aim to end poverty in all it’s forms and everywhere by 2030.
    (f) The Global Goals will leave no one behind: They are for young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in Minor areas and people in busy cities. They will leave no one behind.
    (g) The Global Goals are hands on: They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to sure that everybody is on board.
    (h) The Global Goals are “GLOBAL”: this entails they tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    (I) The Global Goals are the people’s goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member started, NGOs and people like you all working together.
    (j) The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years (9-8 year’s remaining.
    The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, tighting in equality and fixing climate change.
    2 How are the SDGS Different from the millennium Goals.
    1.The 17 sustainable development goals with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MGDS by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for Development that works for all people.
    2. Building in the success and momentum of the MDGS, The New global goals will cover more ground with ambitious to address inequalities economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialization, Energy, climate change, sustainable consumption, and production, peace and justice.
    3. The new goals are universal goal applying to all countries of the world whereas the MDGS were intended for action in developing countries only.
    4.A core feature of the SDGS has been the means of implementation – the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
    5. The new goals recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. SDGS aims to promote urgent action to combat climate and it’s consequences and nagetive impacts

  30. Nwakpa Ruth Nnenna. 2018/242402. Economics department department says:

    1.Seven years on, we have made progress, but there is still work to be done, and the Goals are more important than ever. The climate crisis. Ensuring no one goes hungry. Human rights abuses. Extreme poverty. Problems of this scale can be overwhelming, but the Global Goals(also known as the Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs) are the solution to tackling them.
    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:
    GOAL 1: No Poverty
    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
    GOAL 4: Quality Education
    GOAL 5: Gender Equality
    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
    GOAL 13: Climate Action
    GOAL 14: Life Below Water
    GOAL 15: Life on Land
    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

    2.The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

  31. Obodoike Faith Oluchi says:

    Name: Obodoike Faith Oluchi
    Reg no: 2018/245387
    Department: Economics Education
    Course code: Eco 362
    Course tittle: Development economics
    Assignment:
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make new global goals stupendously spectacular, clearly discuss and analysis them in details.
    2. Explain how the sustainable development goals different from the MDGs.

    Answers to number one question
    The following are the ten facts that made SDGs stupendously spectacular:
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3.Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Answers to number two question
    The following are the different between sustainable development goals and the MDGs:

    1. Millennium development goals are the predecessor of Sustainable development goals while SDGs are the successor to the MDGs
    2. MDGs had 21 targets while SDGs has 169 targets .
    3. The millennium development goals consist of 8 goals while sustainable development goals consist of 17 gaols
    4. The MDGs had 60 indicators, it was produced by a small group of technical experts while SDGs has 232 indicators, it was produced by UN open working group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries
    5. The millennium development goals focused on social dimensions and better health while SDGs,it focuse on social inclusion economics growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human right and non- discrimination.
    6. The millennium development goals ignored the three crucial pillar for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering woman, mobilizing everyone and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDGs have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.

    7. The Sustainable development goals are universal and apply to all countries whereas the millennium development goals were interested for action in developing countries only.

  32. Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. 2018/242306 says:

    The Millineum Development Goals, consisted of 8 goal which focused on developing nations, seeking to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, promote gender inequality, achieve universal primary education, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/Aids, ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development.

    These goals were set to be achieved by 2015.

    The MDGs had some drawback, some of which are

    Insufficient emphasis on environmental sustainability

    Agriculture was not specifically mentioned in the MDGs even though most of the world’s poor are farmers

    The MDGs lack strong objectives and indicators for within-country equality, despite significant disparities in many developing nations.

    Hence came the New Sustainable Development Goals.

    These goals are 17 in Number, designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. For some of the targets in the SDGs, there is no target date.

    The SDGs include

    1. No poverty: This seeks to end every form of poverty by 2030. It consists of 7 target and 13 indicators. The five outcome targets includes:

    *Eradication of extreme poverty

    *Reduction of all poverty by half

    *Implementation of social protection systems

    *Ensuring equal rights to ownership, basic services, technology and economic resources and,

    *Building of resilience to environmental, economic and social disasters.

    The two targets related to “means of achieving” SDG first goal are

    *mobilization of resources to end poverty.

    *Establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.

    Despite the ongoing progress, extreme poverty remains prevalent in low-income countries particularly those affected by conflict and political upheaval. A study published in September 2020 found that poverty increased by 7 per cent due to the COVID-19 pandemic, even though it had been steadily decreasing for the last 20 years.

    2. Zero hunger: This seeks to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. It has eight targets and 14 indicators.

    the five outcome targets includes

    *Ending hunger and improving access to food.
    *Ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity.
    *Sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices. *Genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals.
    *Investments, research and technology.

    The means of achieving the targets includes:
    *Addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets.
    *Food commodity markets and their derivatives.
    Despite the above there is a high global rate of undernourished persons in the world, 1 in 9 persons are undernourished.

    3: Good Health and Well-being: It seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. It has 13 targets and 28 indicators. This first 9 targets includes:
    *Reduction of maternal mortality. *Ending all preventable deaths under five years of age.
    *Fight communicable diseases.
    *Ensure reduction of mortality from non-communicable diseases and promote mental health.
    *Prevent and treat substance abuse.
    *Reduce road injuries and deaths.
    *Grant universal access to sexual and reproductive care, family planning and education
    *Achieve universal health coverage *Reduce illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals and pollution.

    means to achieving this targets includes:
    *Implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
    *Support research, development and universal access to affordable vaccines and medicines.
    *Increase health financing and support health workforce in developing countries.
    *Improve early warning systems for global health risks.

    Global mortality rate has reduced over time by more that 47 percent but the number of children dying under the age of five is very high.

    4. Quality Education: It seeks to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. It has ten targets which are measured by 11 indicators. They include:
    *Free primary and secondary education. *Equal access to quality pre-primary education.
    *Affordable technical, vocational and higher education.
    *Increased number of people with relevant skills for financial success. *Elimination of all discrimination in education.
    *Universal literacy and numeracy. *Education for sustainable development and global citizenship.

    means of achieving targets include: *build and upgrade inclusive and safe schools
    *expand higher education scholarships for developing countries
    *increase the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries.

    Progress has been made towards access to Education especially at the primary level. The number of out of school children has reduced from 112 million in 1997 to 60 million in 2014.

    5. Gender Equality: It seeks to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
    it aims to grant women and girls equal rights, opportunities to live free without discrimination, including workplace discrimination or any violence. In 2020, representation by women in single or lower houses of national parliament reached 25 per cent, up slightly from 22 per cent in 2015. Women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, holding 36 per cent of elected seats in local deliberative bodies.

    6. Clean Water and Sanitation: It seeks to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. It consists of eight targets which are measured by 11 indicators.

    The six “outcome-oriented targets” include:
    *Safe and affordable drinking water. *End open defecation and provide access to sanitation and hygiene. *Improve water quality, wastewater treatment and safe reuse.
    *Increase water-use efficiency and ensure freshwater supplies.
    *Implement IWRM, protect and restore water-related ecosystems.

    The means of achieving targets are to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management. In 2017, only 71 per cent of the global population used safely managed drinking water and 2.2 billion persons were still without safely managed drinking water.

    7. Affordable and Clean Energy:
    It seeks to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

    The goal has five targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards the targets is measured by six indicators. Progress in expanding access to electricity has been made in several countries, notably India, Bangladesh, and Kenya. The global population without access to electricity decreased to about 840 million in 2017 from 1.2 billion in 2010 (sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with the largest access deficit).

    8. Decent Work and Economic Growth: It seeks to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. It has 12 targets in total to be achieved by 2030. Over the past five years, economic growth in least developed countries has been increasing at an average rate of 4.3 per cent. In 2018, the global growth rate of real GDP per capita was 2 per cent.

    9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: It seeks to build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. It has eight targets and progress is measured by twelve indicators. The first five targets are “outcome targets”:
    *Develop sustainable, resilient and inclusive infrastructures
    *Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization
    *Increase access to financial services and markets.
    *upgrade all industries and infrastructures for sustainability. *Enhance research and upgrade industrial technologies.

    The remaining three targets are “means of achieving” targets:
    *Facilitate sustainable infrastructure development for developing countries. *support domestic technology development and industrial diversification.
    *universal access to information and communications technology.
    In 2019, 14% of the world’s workers were employed in manufacturing activities. This percentage has not changed much since 2000. Millions of people are still unable to access the internet due to cost, coverage and other reasons.It is estimated that just 53% of the world’s population are currently internet users.

    10. Reduced Inequality: It seeks to reduce income inequality within and among countries. The Goal has ten targets to be achieved by 2030. Progress towards targets will be measured by indicators. The first seven targets are “outcome targets”:
    *Reduce income inequalities.
    *Promote universal social, economic and political inclusion.
    *Ensure equal opportunities and end discrimination.
    *Adopt fiscal and social policies that promotes equality.
    *Improved regulation of global financial markets and institutions.
    *Enhanced representation for developing countries in financial institutions
    *Responsible and well-managed migration policies.

    The other three targets are “means of achievement” targets:
    *Special and differential treatment for developing countries.
    *Encourage development assistance and investment in least developed countries.
    *Reduce transaction costs for migrant remittances.
    Women are more likely to be victims of discrimination than men. Among those with disabilities, 3 in 10 persons experienced discrimination, with higher levels still among women with disabilities. The main grounds of discrimination mentioned by these women was not the disability itself, but religion, ethnicity and sex, pointing to the urgent need for measures to tackle multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination.

    11. Sustainable Cities and Communities: Which seeks to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. Sustainable Development Goal 11 is divided into 10 targets and 14 indicators at the global level.
    In 2019, only half of the world’s urban population had convenient access to public transport, defined as living within 500 metres’ walking distance from a low-capacity transport system (such as a bus stop) and within 1 km of a high-capacity transport system.

    12. Responsible Consumption and Production: Which seeks to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. It has 11 targets. The first 8 are “outcome targets”, which are: *Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programs on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns.
    *Achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources. *Reducing by half the per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and the reduction of food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses. *Achieving the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle. *Reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.
    *Encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices.
    *Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable.
    *Ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development.

    The three means of achieving targets are:
    *support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity
    *develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts.
    *remove market distortions, like fossil fuel subsidies, that encourage wasteful consumption. By 2019, 79 countries and the European Union have reported on at least one national policy instrument to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns.

    13. Climate action:

    It seeks to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy. The decade between 2010 – 2019 was the warmest decade recorded in history. Currently climate change is affecting the global community in every nation across the world. The impact of climate change not only impacts national economies, but also lives and livelihoods, especially those in vulnerable conditions.

    14. Life below water: It seeks to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. Oceans and fisheries support the global population’s economic, social and environmental needs. Oceans are the source of life of the planet and the global climate system regulator. They are the world’s largest ecosystem, home to nearly a million known species. Oceans cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. The current efforts to protect oceans, marine environments and small-scale fishers are not meeting the need to protect the resources. One of the key drivers of global overfishing is illegal fishing. It threatens marine ecosystems, puts food security and regional stability at risk and is linked to major human rights violations and even organized crime. Increased ocean temperatures and oxygen loss act concurrently with ocean acidification and constitute the “deadly trio” of climate change pressures on the marine environment.

    Other development goals includes:

    15. Life on Land: It seeks to Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

    16. Peace Justice and Strong Institution: Which seeks to Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

    17. Partnership for the goals: Which seeks to strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

    Never the less, there are several notable differences between the MDGs and the SDGs, these includes:

    1. MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries, whereas SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.

    2. MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government, SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.

    3. MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health while focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.

    4. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDGs whereas SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and food and nutrition security.

    5. MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals whereas SDGs included peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.

    6. MDGs are predecessor of SDGs while SDGs are successor to the MDGs.

  33. EZECHUKWU RITA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: Ezechukwu Rita Chioma
    REG NUMBER : 2018/250327
    DEPARTMENT : Economics
    ECO 362 (DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2) 4TH ASSIGNMENT
    COMPARING THE MDGs AND THE SDGs
    ANSWER TO QUESTION NO 1
    The SDGs or new global goals were found to be spectacular because of the following 10 key facts:
    1) The SDGs were to change the way businesses are done in the world, by transforming the world economy so it works without violating workers right and harming the environment.
    2) The new goals involves everybody and needs you: It’s not only dependent on government to take action but also on all of us, as even little things can make a big impact.
    3) The new global goals are one for all and all for one: no goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.
    4) The new global goals will address climate change: the new global goals will help address one of the most pressing issue of our time which is climate change, which affects every country on every continent.
    5) The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: The MDGs from their establishment in 2000 till date, have helped out extreme poverty by half. Thou it is a great achievement, but it is not enough. The global goals aim to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6) The global goals will leave no one behind : The global goals are all encompassing. They involve the young and the old people, the small and big country, and those people living in urban and rural areas.
    7) The global goals are the people’s goal : The goals have been developed by all the 193 U.N member states, NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    8) The SDGs are global: they tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9) The global goals are hands on: they contain concrete plans on how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    10) The new global goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years: The seventeen goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030, which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.

    ANSWER TO QUESTION NO 2
    The sustainable development goals are different from the milenium development goals in the following ways:
    a) The MDGs only target the developing countries, whereas the SDGs are universal. It applies to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries.
    b) The seventeen SDGs with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MDGs by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people.
    c) A core feature of the SDGs has been the means of implementation, the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building, and the transfer of environmentallly sound technology.
    d) Building on the success and momentum of the MDGs, the new goals will cover ground with ambitions to address inequalities, economic growth, cities and human settlement, industrialization, decent jobs, energy, climate change, sustainable consumption and production, peace and justice.
    e) The new goals recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradictions. SDGs aims to promote urgent action to combat climate change and it’s impact unlike the MDGs that focussed only on developing the economy of developing countries.
    f) The new goals are nationally owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the new goals.

  34. AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI says:

    NAME : AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI
    REG.NO: 2018/ 248 680
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email: lovethamarachi84@gmail.com

    Eco. 362(5-3-2022—Online Discussion/Quiz 4—Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs)
    Comments:
    Question 1
    The new global goals have 10 key facts that embodied what the goals tend to achieve and how to achieve them in an effort to make this planet a better place by 2030. The following are the key facts and what they emphasize on:
    1. The Global goals need you : This stresses on the fact that efforts to achieve the new global goals should not be left to governments alone , instead, all of us should take action the much we can as little things can make a big impact.
    2. The Global goals will change the way the world does business: This fact emphasize that the global goals want to transform the world economy so that it will be such that works without violating workers right and harming the environment.
    3. The Global goals are one for all and all for one: This stresses on the fact that no goal is more important than the other and they complement each other.
    4. The Global goals will address Climate change : Climate change being one of the most pressing issue in our time as it alters the normal state of the atmosphere, causes the seas to rise and alters the healthy living of the water bodies and lots more, the global goals intend to address it to save every country on every continent.
    5. The Global goals will eradicate extreme poverty : The millennium development goals have great achievement because it helped to cut extreme poverty by halt, However, the new global goals aim to eradicate poverty in all it’s forms across the globe by 2030
    6. The Global goals will leave no one behind: They are for everyone irrespective of their age, country, and where they reside because the new global goals intend to leave no one behind.
    7. The Global goals are hands-on: This fact emphasizes that the global goals contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    8. The Global goals are global: The goals tackle challenges for all countries of the world.
    9. The Global goals are the people’s goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member States, NGOs and people like you ,all working together to achieve the goals.
    10. The Global goals are the world’s ultimate to- do list for the next 15 years: The 17 goals of the new global goals are for making the world a better place by 2030 as it aim at ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate.
    Question 2:
    The Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs) also known as the new global goals are different from the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs) in the following ways:
    First, the 17 sustainable development goals with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go farther than MDGs by not focusing on reducing poverty level in developing countries but seeking to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people
    Secondly, the new global goals build on the success and moment of the MDGs to cover more grounds with ambitions to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialization, energy, climate change, Sustainable consumption and production, peace and justice in a view to making life meaningful for all people across the globe.
    Thirdly, the SDGs are universal and apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries whereas the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only.
    Moreover, the new global goals differ from the MDGs in the means of implementation. The new goals has a plan on how to mobilize financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies while MDGs did not have such specified plan.
    Also, the SDGs recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication and seeks to promote urgent action to combat climate change and it’s impacts whereas the MDGs did not have such recognition.
    Lastly, the SDGs in addition to being universally applicable to all countries, recognizes that counties may have different realities and capabilities, and thus, gives room for the goals to be nationally -owned and country-led so that each nation can establish national framework in achieving the goals while the MDGs did not.

  35. Okechukwu Chioma Sandra says:

    Name: Okechukwu Chioma Sandra
    Reg no: 2018/243748
    Dept: Economics
    Email: Okechukwukalia002@gmail.com

    Assignment
    1. Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    A. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    B. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    C. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    D. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    E. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    F. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    G. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    H. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    I. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. At the Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, UN Member States adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030.

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. These 17 Goals build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another.

    The SDGs work in the spirit of partnership and pragmatism to make the right choices now to improve life, in a sustainable way, for future generations. They provide clear guidelines and targets for all countries to adopt in accordance with their own priorities and the environmental challenges of the world at large. The SDGs are an inclusive agenda. They tackle the root causes of poverty and unite us together to make a positive change for both people and planet. “Poverty eradication is at the heart of the 2030 Agenda, and so is the commitment to leave no-one behind.

    The SDGs are a bold commitment to finish what we started, and tackle some of the more pressing challenges facing the world today. All 17 Goals interconnect, meaning success in one affects success for others. Dealing with the threat of climate change impacts how we manage our fragile natural resources, achieving gender equality or better health helps eradicate poverty, and fostering peace and inclusive societies will reduce inequalities and help economies prosper. In short, this is the greatest chance we have to improve life for future generations.

    Pakistan Sustainable Development Goals
    Pakistan has displayed commendable commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as it was one of the first countries to endorse it globally in 2015. On 16th February 2016, the Parliament unanimously approved the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as the national development agenda. It also formed the Parliamentary SDGs Secretariat based at the National Assembly – one of the few countries to do so. This process of legislation was the first and crucial step in mainstreaming and localizing the SDGs.

    The process of localizing the SDGs in Pakistan has been more than just agreeing to formal arrangements with government partners. It has also been an inclusive process relying on evidence based solutions to transform abstract SDG aspirations into real and objective targets for all stakeholders, including local actors. The 18th constitutional amendment devolved several public functions including the provision of social services from the federal to the provincial governments. The government of Pakistan conducted discussions on the post-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with all stakeholders for coordinating and strengthening efforts at federal and provincial levels to achieve Pakistan’s sustainable development and poverty reduction targets. The consultation process emphasized the need for national categorisation of SDGs, improved data collection and enforcement of monitoring mechanisms.

    The seven pillars of Vision-2025 are fully aligned with the SDGs, providing a comprehensive long-term strategy for achieving inclusive growth and sustainable development.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    I. Number of Goals
    MDGs —8 SDGs —17
    II.Number of Targets
    MDGs— 21 SDGs—169
    III. Number of Indicators.
    MDGs—60 SDGs—232
    Iv. General scope/ focus
    MDGs —Social SDGs—Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    V. Target
    MDGs— Developing countries, particularly the poorest SDGs—Entire world (rich and poor)
    Vi. Formulation
    MDGs—Produced by a group of experts
    SDGs—Result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

  36. Okafor Ifunanya Chioma says:

    Name: Okafor Ifunanya Chioma
    Department: Economics
    Reg No:2018/241851
    Eco 362 Assignment.

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals also know as Global Goals encompasses 17 Goals that is more Goals were added compared to the MDGs.
    2.The Sustainable Development Goals has 169 targets
    3.The SDGs is a global goal that it aims to be relevant to all countries – poor, rich and middle-income.
    4.The SDGs will address climate change: Climate affects all countries both the developed and developing.
    5. The SDGs looks at five critical areas; people, planet, prosperity, peace and patternship.
    6. The SDGs also talks about the economy like Goal 8, Goal 12, Goal 17.
    7. The Global Goals are not only up to government but it’s up to all of us to take action.
    8. The SDGs wants to transform the world’s economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.
    9. The SDGs are the people’s goals. The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member States.
    10. The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years. Which will be the planet a better place by ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    1. SDGs are 17 Goals, 169 Targets and 232 Indicators while the MDGs are 8 Goals, 21 Targets and 60 Indicators.
    2. SDGs has a general focus on economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection while the MDGs general focus was on Social well being.
    3. SDGs was made for the entire world both the rich and poor or the developed and developing countries while the MDGs was made for the Developing countries, particularly the poorest.
    4. The SDGs was formulated as a result of Result of consultation process among: 193 UN Member States, Civil society, and other stakeholders while the MDGs was Produced by a group of experts or were created through a top-down process.
    5. Zero Goals: The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. MDGs targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields.
    6. The SDGs are more comprehensive goals. That go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    7.The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world while the MDGs were concerned with the quantity of school enrollment whereas the quality declined.

  37. Julius Loveth Olachi says:

    NAME : JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI
    REG NO: 2018/242294
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    No. 1
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world.

    The SDGs replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which started a global effort in 2000 to tackle the indignity of poverty. The MDGs established measurable, universally-agreed objectives for tackling extreme poverty and hunger, preventing deadly diseases, and expanding primary education to all children, among other development priorities. The SDGs are unique in that they cover issues that affect us all. They reaffirm our international commitment to end poverty, permanently, everywhere. They are ambitious in making sure no one is left behind. More importantly, they involve us all to build a more sustainable, safer, more prosperous plan.

    Who are the sustainability goals for?
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are aimed at everyone: policymakers, civil society, business, academia and each and every individual. At the political level, they provide the framework for action to be taken by policymakers, and government delegations report annually on the progress of each goal to the UN High Level Political Forum. But along with the public sector, it is crucial that the private sector and companies are involved in achieving the SDGs.
    The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reduced Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.

    1.)
    END EXTREME POVERTY IN ALL FORMS
    BY 2030.
    Yes, it’s an ambitious goal—but we believe it can be done. In 2000, the world committed to halving the number of people living in extreme poverty by the year 2015 and we met this goal. However, more than 800 million people around the world still live on less than $1.25 a day—
    that’s about the equivalent of the entire population of Europe living in extreme poverty. Now it’s time to build on what we learned and end poverty altogether.

    2.)
    END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY
    AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE
    SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
    In the past 20 years, hunger has dropped by almost half. Many countries that used to suffer from famine and hunger can now meet the nutritional needs of their most vulnerable people. It’s an incredible accomplishment. Now we can go further and end hunger and malnutrition once and for all. That means doing things such as
    promoting sustainable agriculture and supporting small farmers. It’s a tall order. But for the sake of the nearly 1 out of every 9 people on earth who go to bed hungry every night, we’ve got to try. Imagine a world where
    everyone has access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round. Together, we can make that a reality by 2030.

    3.)ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE
    WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES
    We all know how important it is to be in good health. Our health affects everything from how much we enjoy life to what work we can perform. That’s why there’s a Goal to make sure everyone has health coverage and access to safe and effective medicines and vaccines. In the 25
    years before the SDGs, we made big strides—preventable child deaths dropped by more than half, and maternal mortality went down by almost as much. And yet some other numbers remain tragically high, like the fact that 6 million children die every year before their fifth birthday,
    or that AIDS is the leading cause of death for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. We have the means to turn that around and make good health more than just a wish.

    4.)ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY
    EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFELONG
    LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL
    First, the bad news on education. Poverty, armed conflict and other emergencies keep many, many kids around the world out of school. In fact, kids from the poorest households are four times more likely to be out of school than those of the richest households. Now for some good news. Since 2000, there has been enormous progress on the goal to provide primary education to all children worldwide: the total enrolment rate in developing regions has reached 91%. By measures in any school, that’s a good grade. Now, let’s get an even better grade for all kids, and achieve the goal of universal primary and secondary education, affordable vocational training, access to higher education and more.

    5.)ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND
    EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS
    We can celebrate the great progress the world has made in becoming more prosperous and fair. But there’s a shadow to the celebration. In just about every way, women and girls lag behind. There are still gross inequalities in work and wages, lots of unpaid “women’s work” such as child care and domestic work, and discrimination in public decision￾making. But there are grounds for hope. More girls are in school now compared to in 2000. Most regions have reached gender parity in primary education. The percentage of women getting paid for their work is on the rise. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to build on these achievements to ensure that there is an end to discrimination against women and girls everywhere.

    6.)ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE
    MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION
    FOR ALL.
    Everyone on earth should have access to safe and affordable drinking water. That’s the goal for 2030. While many people take clean drinking water and sanitation for granted, many others don’t. Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, and that number is projected to go even higher as a result of climate change. If we continue the path we’re on, by 2050 at least one in four people are likely to be affected by recurring water shortages. But we can take a new path—more international cooperation, protecting wetlands and rivers, sharing water-treatment technologies—that leads to accomplishing this Goal.

    7.)ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE,
    SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY FOR
    ALL
    Between 1990 and 2010, the number of people with access to electricity increased by 1.7 billion. That’s progress to be proud of. And yet as the world’s population continues to rise, still more people will need cheap energy to light their homes and streets, use phones and computers, and do their everyday business. How we get that energy is at issue; fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions are making drastic changes in the climate, leading to big problems on every continent. Instead, we can become more energy-efficient and invest in clean energy sources such as solar and wind. That way we’ll meet electricity needs and protect the environment. How’s that for a balancing act?

    8.)PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND
    SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL
    AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND
    DECENT WORK FOR ALL
    An important part of economic growth is that people have jobs that pay enough to support themselves and their families. The good news is that the middle class is growing worldwide—almost tripling in size in developing countries in the last 25 years, to more than a third of the population. But today, job growth is not keeping pace with the growing labour force. Things don’t have to be that way. We can promote policies that encourage entrepreneurship and job creation. We can eradicate forced labour, slavery and human trafficking. And in the end we can achieve the goal of decent work for all women and menby 2030.

    9.)BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE,
    PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE
    INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTER
    INNOVATION
    Technological progress helps us address big global challenges such as creating jobs and becoming more energy efficient. For example, the world is becoming ever more interconnected and prosperous thanks to the internet. The more connected we are, the more we can all benefit from the wisdom and contributions of people everywhere on earth. And yet four billion people have no way of getting online, the vast majority of them in developing countries. The more we invest in innovation and infrastructure, the better off we’ll all be. Bridging the digital divide, promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.

    10.)REDUCE INEQUALITY WITHIN AND AMONG
    COUNTRIES
    It’s an old story: the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer. The divide has never been starker. We can and must adopt policies that create opportunity for everyone, regardless of who they are or where they come from. Income inequality is a global problem that requires global solutions. That means improving the regulation of financial markets and institutions, sending development aid where it is most needed and helping people migrate safely so they can pursue opportunities. Together, we can now change the direction of the oldstory of inequality.

    11.)MAKE CITIES AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
    INCLUSIVE, SAFE, RESILIENT AND
    SUSTAINABLE
    If you’re like most people, you live in a city. More than half the world’s population now lives in cities, and that figure will go to about two-thirds of humanity by the year 2050. Cities are getting bigger. In 1990 there were ten “mega-cities” with 10 million inhabitants or more. In 2014, there were 28 mega-cities, home to 453 million people. Incredible, huh? A lot of people love cities; they’re centers of culture and business and life. The thing is, they’re also often centers of extreme poverty. To make cities sustainable for all, we can create good, affordable public housing. We can upgrade slum settlements. We can invest in public transport, create green spaces, and get a broader range of people involved in urban planning decisions. That way, we can keep the things we love about cities, and change the things we don’t.

    12.)ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND
    PRODUCTION PATTERNS
    Some people use a lot of stuff, and some people use very little—in fact, a big share of the world population is consuming too little to meet even their basic needs. Instead, we can have a world where everybody gets what they need to survive and thrive. And we can consume in a way that preserves our natural resources so that our children can enjoy them, and their children and their children after that. The hard part is how to achieve that goal. We can manage our natural resources more efficiently and dispose of toxic waste better. Cut per capita food waste in half globally. Get businesses and consumers to reduce and recycle waste. And help countries that have typically not consumed a lot to move towards more responsible consumption patterns.

    13.)TAKE URGENT ACTION TO COMBAT CLIMATE
    CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS
    Every country in the world is seeing the drastic effects of climate change, some more than others. On average, the annual losses just from earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars. We can reduce the loss of life and property by helping more vulnerable regions—such as land-locked countries and island states—become more resilient. It is still possible, with the political will and technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels—and thus avoid the worst effects of climate change. The Sustainable Development Goals lay out a way for countries to work together to meet this urgent challenge.

    14.)CONSERVE AND SUSTAINABLY USE THE
    OCEANS, SEAS AND MARINE RESOURCES
    FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    The oceans make human life possible. Their temperature, their chemistry, their currents, their life forms. For one thing, more than 3 billion people depend on marine and coastal diversity for their livelihoods. But today we are seeing nearly a third of the world’s fish stocks overexploited. That’s not a sustainable way of life. Even people who live nowhere near the ocean can’t live without it. Oceans absorb about 30 percent of the carbon dioxide that humans produce; but we’re producing more carbon dioxide than ever before and that makes the oceans more acidic—26% more, since the start of the industrial revolution. Our trash doesn’t help either—13,000 pieces of plastic litter on every square kilometer of ocean. Sounds bad, right? Don’t despair! The Sustainable Development Goals indicate targets for managing and protecting life below water.

    15.)PROTECT, RESTORE AND PROMOTE
    SUSTAINABLE USE OF TERRESTRIAL
    ECOSYSTEMS, SUSTAINABLY MANAGE
    FORESTS, COMBAT DESERTIFICATION, AND
    HALT AND REVERSE LAND DEGRADATION
    AND HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS
    Humans and other animals rely on other forms of life on land for food, clean air, clean water, and as a means of combatting climate change. Plant life makes up 80% of the human diet. Forests, which cover 30% of the Earth’s surface, help keep the air and water clean and the Earth’s climate in balance. That’s not to mention they’re home to millions of animal species. But the land and life on it are in trouble. Arable land is disappearing 30 to 35 times faster than it has historically. Deserts are spreading. Animal breeds are going extinct. We can turn these trends around. Fortunately, the Sustainable DevelopmentGoals aim to conserve and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, drylands and mountains by 2030.

    16.)PROMOTE PEACEFUL AND INCLUSIVE
    SOCIETIES FOR SUSTAINABLE
    DEVELOPMENT, PROVIDE ACCESS TO
    JUSTICE FOR ALL AND BUILD EFFECTIVE,
    ACCOUNTABLE AND INCLUSIVE
    INSTITUTIONS AT ALL LEVELS
    How can a country develop—how can people eat and teach and learn and work and raise families—without peace? And how can a country have peace without justice, without human rights, without government based on the rule of law? Some parts of the world enjoy relative peace and justice, and may come to take it for granted. Other parts seem to be plagued by armed conflict, crime, torture and exploitation, all of which hinders their development. The goal of peace and justice is one for all countries to strive towards. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to reduce all forms of violence and propose that governments and communities find lasting solutions to conflict and insecurity. That means strengthening the rule of law, reducing the flow of illicit arms, and bringing developing countries more into the center of institutions of global governance.

    17.)STRENGTHEN THE MEANS OF
    IMPLEMENTATION AND REVITALIZE THE
    GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR SUSTAINABLE
    DEVELOPMENT
    The Sustainable Development Goals are pretty big to-do list, don’t you think? In fact, it’s so big, you may just want to throw your hands up in the air. “Forget it! Can’t be done! Why even try!” But we’ve got a lot going for us. The world is more interconnected today than ever before, thanks to the internet, travel and global institutions. There’s a growing consensus about the need to work together to stop climate change. And the Sustainable Development Goals are no small matter either. 193 countries agreed on these goals. Pretty incredible, isn’t it? 193 countries agreeing on anything? The final goal lays out a way for nations to work together to achieve all the other Goals.

    No.2 answer
    The differences between MDGs and SDGs are:
    1.)Successor or predecessor:MDGs are predecessor of SDGs whileSDGs are successor to the MDGs.

    2.)Number of Goals:MDGs consists of 8 goals while SDGs consists of 17 goals

    3)Number of targets:MDG had 21 targets while SDG has 169 targets

    4)Number of indicators:MDG had 60 indicators while
    SDG has 232 indicators.

    5.)Formulation of the goals: MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts while SDGs was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    – 193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world

    6.)around the world

    Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction.
    While
    – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    7.)Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”
    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.

    8.)Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.

    9)Focused areas: MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination

    10.)Development agendas MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. SDG focuses holistically on
    Scope of work MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges while SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges

    11.)Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG while SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.

    12.) Cost: MDGs were less costly compared to SDG SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs

    13.)Source of funding :MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize while SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy

    14.) Peace Building MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals while SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.

    15.) Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

  38. ANEKE NELSON MADUAKONAM says:

    NAME: ANEKE NELSON MADUAKONAM
    REG NO: 2018/242192
    DEPT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email: nelsonmadu80@gmail.com
    NO: 1_ Ten facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    1:The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2: The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history, it takes every every economy and welfare into consideration across the globe.

    3: Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4: Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihoods. Plant life provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resources. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5: There is no country that is not experiencing the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions are more than 50 percent higher than in 1990. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6: Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7: This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    ,
    8: The SDGs can only be realized with strong global partnerships and cooperation. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date.
    9: While the Millennium poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10: Income inequality is on the rise—the richest 10 percent have up to 40 percent of global income whereas the poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 to 7 percent. If we take into account population growth inequality in developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    NO: 2_discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015, while SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, while SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards while SDGs are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.

  39. Oguegbu chiamaka maureen says:

    NAME : OGUEGBU MAUREEN CHIAMAKA
    REGNO: 2018/242309
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    No.1 : 10 facts that make the new global goals spectacular:
    • The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    • The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    • Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    • The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    • From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    • Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    • This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    • The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    • While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    No.2 Differences between SDGs and MDGs
    Number of Goals: MDGs have 8 goals while SDGs are17
    Number of Targets: Targets for Mdgs is21 while SDGs is 169
    1.) Number of Indicators: for MDGs60 while SDGs is 232
    General scope/ focus : MDGs focused on Social while SDGs focusedEconomic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    2.) Target: MDGs focused onDeveloping countries, particularly the poorest WHILE SDGs focused on Entire world (rich and poor)
    3.)Formulation: MDGs was Produced by a group of experts while SDGs is as a Result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member
    193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world

    4.)Data Revolution :MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    5.)Quality Education : The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

  40. Kalu Ezinne obiwe says:

    NAME: KALU EZINNE OBIWE
    REG NO: 2018/247194
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    COURSE TITLE: ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT 2
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (education economics)
    EMAIL: kaluezinne007@gmail.com
    Assignment
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    a. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012, the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    b. The new goals are the result of a three year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    c. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    d. The 35 page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”.
    e. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    f. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation state failure”.
    g. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    h. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army.
    i. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    j. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    a. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job ie “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    b. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    c. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    d. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger, empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    e. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout coordinated globally through Beyond 2015.
    f. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, while the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    g. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    h. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    i. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability, the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    j. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  41. JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI says:

    NAME: JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI
    REG NO: 2018/242294
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    SIR, PLEASE I’VE SUBMITTED BEFORE BUT THIS IS MY NO.1 ANSWER. THERE WAS A MISTAKE IN THE PREVIOUS NO.1 ANSWER

    No.1 : 10 facts that make the new global goals spectacular:
    • The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    • The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    • Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    • The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    • From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    • Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    • This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    • The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    • While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

  42. Okoye Arthur-Kingsley Kanayo says:

    NAME: OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO
    REG NUMBER:- 2018/241820
    Lecturer:- Dr. Tony Orji

    1) The SDGs are the current global framework  for assessing key aspects of development progress; and each are addressed, to varying degrees.
    Although the scale of challenges for sustainable economic development and ending poverty remains enormous, one could say there has been substantial – even dramatic – progress in growth and poverty reduction in Africa, Asia and Latin America in the last three decades. Many countries in these regions have enjoyed faster albeit uneven, growth than rich countries.  Also the income poverty rate has been more than halved – International economic relations have become less one sided  – if also more fragile . Here are some other stupendously spectacular facts about the New Global Goals(i.e the Sustainable Development Goals):-

    i) Universality:- The SDGs apply to every nation(with action enocouraged from every sector)

    ii) Integration principle:- All goals must be achieved; to do so, it is necessary to account for their interrelationships.

    iii) The Transformational principle:- It is an intentional commitment therefore, piecemeal steps are highly insufficient.

    iv) SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development”.

    v) Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) insights are tilted on ending poverty and hunger in all their forms and dimensions to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality in a healthy environment.

    vi) Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) are the United Nations Global development goals which took a long time to finalise, incorporating ideas from stakeholders around the globe.

    vii) SDG contains 17 Goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspedts of growth and development , furthermore implementing 304 indices to monitor its progress.

    viii) It is built on the general echoed principle: “The future we want”. So practically, it wasn’t forced upon any nation.

    ix) SDG channels strong focus on means of implementation  – the mobilisation of financial resources  – capacity building and technology as well as data and institutions.

    x)  The idea came from Rio +20 summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history – These goals were as a result of 3 year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    2) Outside the obvious, which is the fact that the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) are predecessors of Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs). Passively and in other words, the SDGs are successors of the MDGs. There exists other notable differences between the MDGs and SDGs Viz:

    a) Formulation:
          The MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts while the SDGs was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries.

    b) Applicability:
         MDGs main objectives were channeled towards developing/least developed or poor countries while SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.

    c) Number of Goals
        MDGs consists of 8 goals while the SDGs consists of 17 Goals.

    d) Number of targets
         MDG had 21 targets meanwhile, the SDGs are working on 169 targets.

    e) Number of Indicators:
        MDG had 60 indicators while the SDG has 232 Indicators.

    f) Point of focus:
       MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health. However, the SDGs focused on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. It also strengthens equity, human rights and non-discrimination.

    g) Development agendas:
        MDGs couldn’t not focus holistically on Development and couldn’t address the root causes of poverty. Meanwhile, the SDGs focuses holistically on Development.

    h) Peace building:
        MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals meanwhile SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.

    i) Cost:
       MSGs were less costly to maintain compared to SDG. SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.

    j) Scope of Work:
        MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges while the SDG emphasizes on present and forthcoming challenges.

    k) Diverse views on education:
         The MDGs were meticulous on quantity (e.g. high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies meanwhile the SDGs scrutinises on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  43. Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg No.: 2019/247552 (2/3)
    Department: Education Economics
    Course Code: Eco 362
    Course Title: Development Economics
    Email: chiamaka.owoh@gmail.com.
    4th Quiz on Eco 362
    Answer;
    The 10 Global Goals/Sustainable Development Goals include:
    1. The Global Goals Needs You:
    It is not only up to the government to get things right in the country but it’s up to us the citizens to take action for the development and betterment of the country.
    2. The Global Goal will Change the World Business:
    This is so through the transformation of the world economy and it can work without violating works right and harming the environment.
    3. The Global Goal Will Address Climate Chang:
    The climate change of every country is one of the most pressing issues of our time because it affect every country and every continent and it brings down the economy if aids from other countries are not met.
    4. The Global Goal are not for One but for All:
    No goal is more important than the other, they all compliment each other and works hand in hand.
    5. The Global Change Will Eradicate Extreme Poverty:
    MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    The processors of the Global Goal, the MDGs have helped in extreme Poverty by establishing half of their establishments 2000 untill today. That is a great achievement but it’s not enough, the Global Goal aim to end Poverty in all its forms and everywhere in 2023.
    6. The Global Goal are hands-on:
    They contain concrete plans in how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody I on board.
    7. The Global Goals are Global:
    They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    8. The Golbal Goal are People’s Goal:
    It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015, the NGOs and people like you and I are working together. Togetherness brings unity and peace which every country must adopt.
    9. The Global Goal are the worlds ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years:
    10. SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    How are the Sustainable Development Goals different from MDGs?
    1.The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation.
    2.The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions.
    3. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    4. The core feature if the MDGs has been the means of implementation. The mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally strong technologies.
    5. Building on the success and movement of the MDGs the new Global Goal Will over come more ground with animation to address irregularities, economic growth, descent job, cities and human settlements, energy, production and justice.

  44. Okpara Favour Amarachi says:

    NAME : OKPARA FAVOUR AMARACHI
    REG NUMBER : 2018/248953
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    Answers to question 1
    Below are 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.

    1).In September 2015, the member countries of the United Nations adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be achieved by 2030, thereby committing to substantial achievements in ending multidimensional poverty and improving the quality of life.

    2).Along with the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), OECD, and the World Trade Organization (WTO), NGOs from developing as well as developed countries had a voice in their formulation. The goals are officially used by most development agencies and many independent NGOs.

    3).The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    4).The scope and expanded ambition of the SDGs would not have been possible without the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a precedent. The MDGs were a milestone in thinking and policy about development, and were considered surprisingly successful, given other UN resolutions and programmes that were not.

    5).Measurement is generally vital to the achievement of goals. In addition to the 17 SDGs and 169 targets, there are at least 232 indices intended to track progress, to be measured regularly.

    6).The universality principle: The SDGs apply to every nation (with action encouraged from every sector).While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries the global goals are designed to be universal.

    7).The process of developing and adopting the SDGs was complex and took a long time to finalise, incorporating ideas from stakeholders around the world.

    8).Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    9).The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date.

    10).Progress reports toward achieving the SDGs: The United Nations issues annual reports on progress and challenges toward achieving the SDGs. Each year, different sets of goals receive the primary focus

    Answers to question 2
    Differences between Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    1.Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    2.A group mainly comprised of financial and social experts drafted the MDGs based on the world’s poorest countries whereas individual UN member states, stakeholders and civil society organizations all contributed to the final SDGs.

    3.Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    4.The MDGs were intended to lessen or halve the rates of poverty, mortality and other detrimental social occurrences. The SDGs are building upon the previous goals to implement finality and completely solve these issues.

    5.Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    6.Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

    With the above differences being stated it is significant to note that the main difference between development and sustainable development is that development aims at raising the quality of life of only present generation whereas sustainable development aims at raising the quality of life of both present and future generations without threatening natural endowment and environment.

  45. OBELEZE CHRISTIANTUS IFEANYI says:

    NAME: OBELEZE CHRISTIANTUS IFEANYI
    REG NO: 2018/242407
    EMAIL: OBELEZECHRISTIANTUS@GMAIL.COM

    ANSWER NO 1.

    NO POVERTY
    Eradicating poverty is not a task of charity, it’s an act of justice and the key to unlocking an enormous human potential. Still, nearly half of the world’s population lives in poverty, and lack of food and clean water is killing thousands every single day of the year. Together, we can feed the hungry, wipe out disease and give everyone in the world a chance to prosper and live a productive and rich life.
    These are seven targets to create action to end poverty in all its forms.
    1. ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY
    By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.

    2. REDUCE POVERTY BY AT LEAST 50%
    By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.

    3. IMPLEMENT SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS
    Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.

    4. EQUAL RIGHTS TO OWNERSHIP, BASIC SERVICES, TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES
    By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance.

    5. BUILD RESILIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DISASTERS
    By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.

    6. MOBILIZE RESOURCES TO IMPLEMENT POLICIES TO END POVERTY
    Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.

    7. CREATE PRO-POOR AND GENDER-SENSITIVE POLICY FRAMEWORKS
    Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.

    ZERO HUNGER
    Hunger is the leading cause of death in the world. Our planet has provided us with tremendous resources, but unequal access and inefficient handling leaves millions of people malnourished. If we promote sustainable agriculture with modern technologies and fair distribution systems, we can sustain the whole world’s population and make sure that nobody will ever suffer from hunger again.

    These are eight targets to create action to end hunger in all its forms.
    1. UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO SAFE AND NUTRITIOUS FOOD
    By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.

    2. END ALL FORMS OF MALNUTRITION
    By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.

    3. DOUBLE THE PRODUCTIVITY AND INCOMES OF SMALL-SCALE FOOD PRODUCERS
    By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.

    4. SUSTAINABLE FOOD PRODUCTION AND RESILIENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES
    By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.

    5. MAINTAIN THE GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION
    By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.

    6. INVEST IN RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY AND GENE BANKS
    Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.

    7. PREVENT AGRICULTURAL TRADE RESTRICTIONS, MARKET DISTORTIONS AND EXPORT SUBSIDIES
    Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.

    8. ENSURE STABLE FOOD COMMODITY MARKETS AND TIMELY ACCESS TO INFORMATION
    Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.

    GOOG HEALTH AND WELL BEING
    Over the last 15 years, the number of childhood deaths has been cut in half. This proves that it is possible to win the fight against almost every disease. Still, we are spending an astonishing amount of money and resources on treating illnesses that are surprisingly easy to prevent. The new goal for worldwide Good Health promotes healthy lifestyles, preventive measures and modern, efficient healthcare for everyone.
    These are targets to create action to improve in good health and well being in all its forms.
    1. REDUCE MATERNAL MORTALITY
    By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
    2. END ALL PREVENTABLE DEATHS UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE
    By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under 5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
    3. FIGHT COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
    By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.
    4. REDUCE MORTALITY FROM NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND PROMOTE MENTAL HEALTH
    By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.
    5. PREVENT AND TREAT SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
    6. REDUCE ROAD INJURIES AND DEATHS
    By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
    7. UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE CARE, FAMILY PLANNING AND EDUCATION
    By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
    8. ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE
    Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
    9. REDUCE ILLNESSES AND DEATH FROM HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND POLLUTION
    By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.
    10. IMPLEMENT THE WHO FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL
    Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.
    11. SUPPORT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE VACCINES AND MEDICINES
    Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all.
    12. INCREASE HEALTH FINANCING AND SUPPORT HEALTH WORKFORCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States.
    13. IMPROVE EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS
    Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.

    QUALITY EDUCATION
    Education liberates the intellect, unlocks the imagination and is fundamental for self-respect. It is the key to prosperity and opens a world of opportunities, making it possible for each of us to contribute to a progressive, healthy society. Learning benefits every human being and should be available to all.

    These are ten targets to create action to ensure in all its forms.
    1. FREE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
    By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.

    2. EQUAL ACCESS TO QUALITY PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
    By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education.

    3. EQUAL ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE TECHNICAL, VOCATIONAL AND HIGHER EDUCATION
    By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university.

    4. INCREASE THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITH RELEVANT SKILLS FOR FINANCIAL SUCCESS
    By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship.

    5. ELIMINATE ALL DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION
    By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.

    6. UNIVERSAL LITERACY AND NUMERACY
    By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy.

    7. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
    By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

    8. BUILD AND UPGRADE INCLUSIVE AND SAFE SCHOOLS
    Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all.

    9. EXPAND HIGHER EDUCATION SCHOLARSHIPS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

    GENDER EQUALITY
    Gender bias is undermining our social fabric and devalues all of us. It is not just a human rights issue; it is a tremendous waste of the world’s human potential. By denying women equal rights, we deny half the population a chance to live life at its fullest. Political, economic and social equality for women will benefit all the world’s citizens. Together we can eradicate prejudice and work for equal rights and respect for all.

    These are targets to create action to end gender equality in all its forms.
    1. END DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS
    End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
    2. END ALL VIOLENCE AGAINST AND EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN AND GIRLS
    Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
    3. ELIMINATE FORCED MARRIAGES AND GENITAL MUTILATION
    Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
    4. VALUE UNPAID CARE AND PROMOTE SHARED DOMESTIC RESPONSIBILITIES
    Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
    5. ENSURE FULL PARTICIPATION IN LEADERSHIP AND DECISION-MAKING
    Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life.
    6. UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS
    Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
    7. EQUAL RIGHTS TO ECONOMIC RESOURCES, PROPERTY OWNERSHIP AND FINANCIAL SERVICES
    Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws.
    CLEAN WATER AND SANITATION
    One in three people live without sanitation. This is causing unnecessary disease and death. Although huge strides have been made with access to clean drinking water, lack of sanitation is undermining these advances. If we provide affordable equipment and education in hygiene practices, we can stop this senseless suffering and loss of life.
    These are targets to create action to clean water and sanitation in all its forms.
    1. SAFE AND AFFORDABLE DRINKING WATER
    By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.
    2. END OPEN DEFECATION AND PROVIDE ACCESS TO SANITATION AND HYGIENE
    By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
    3. IMPROVE WATER QUALITY, WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SAFE REUSE
    By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
    4. INCREASE WATER-USE EFFICIENCY AND ENSURE FRESHWATER SUPPLIES
    By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.
    5. IMPLEMENT INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
    By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate.

    AFFORDABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY
    Renewable energy solutions are becoming cheaper, more reliable and more efficient every day.Our current reliance on fossil fuels is unsustainable and harmful to the planet, which is why we have to change the way we produce and consume energy. Implementing these new energy solutions as fast as possible is essential to counter climate change, one of the biggest threats to our own survival.
    These are targets to create action to ensure sustainable energy in all its forms.
    1. UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO MODERN ENERGY
    By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services.
    2. INCREASE GLOBAL PERCENTAGE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
    By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
    3. DOUBLE THE IMPROVEMENT IN ENERGY EFFICIENCY
    By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.
    4. PROMOTE ACCESS TO RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY AND INVESTMENTS IN CLEAN ENERGY
    By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology.
    5. EXPAND AND UPGRADE ENERGY SERVICES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support.

    DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
    Economic growth should be a positive force for the whole planet.This is why we must make sure that financial progress creates decent and fulfilling jobs while not harming the environment. We must protect labour rights and once and for all put a stop to modern slavery and child labour. If we promote job creation with expanded access to banking and financial services, we can make sure that everybody gets the benefits of entrepreneurship and innovation.
    These are targets to create action to decent work and economic growth in all its forms.
    1. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH
    Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries.
    2. DIVERSIFY, INNOVATE AND UPGRADE FOR ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY
    Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors.
    3. PROMOTE POLICIES TO SUPPORT JOB CREATION AND GROWING ENTERPRISES
    Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services.
    4. IMPROVE RESOURCE EFFICIENCY IN CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
    Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10 Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead.
    5. FULL EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK WITH EQUAL PAY
    By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
    6. PROMOTE YOUTH EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION AND TRAINING
    By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training.

    INDUSTRY, INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    A functioning and resilient infrastructure is the foundation of every successful community. To meet future challenges, our industries and infrastructure must be upgraded. For this, we need to promote innovative sustainable technologies and ensure equal and universal access to information and financial markets. This will bring prosperity, create jobs and make sure that we build stable and prosperous societies across the globe.
    These are targets to create action to innovation, industry and infrastructure in all its forms.
    1. DEVELOP SUSTAINABLE, RESILIENT AND INCLUSIVE INFRASTRUCTURES
    Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all.
    2. PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION
    Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries.
    3. INCREASE ACCESS TO FINANCIAL SERVICES AND MARKETS
    Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets.
    4. UPGRADE ALL INDUSTRIES AND INFRASTRUCTURES FOR SUSTAINABILITY
    By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
    5. ENHANCE RESEARCH AND UPGRADE INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES
    Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending.
    6. FACILITATE SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.

    REDUCED INEQUALITY
    Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020.
    Too much of the world’s wealth is held by a very small group of people.This often leads to financial and social discrimination. In order for nations to flourish, equality and prosperity must be available to everyone – regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs or economic status. When every individual is self sufficient, the entire world prospers.
    These are targets to create action to end inequality in all its forms.
    1. REDUCE INCOME INEQUALITIES
    By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
    2. PROMOTE UNIVERSAL SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INCLUSION
    By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
    3. ENSURE EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND END DISCRIMINATION
    Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard.
    4. ADOPT FISCAL AND SOCIAL POLICIES THAT PROMOTE EQUALITY
    Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality.
    5. IMPROVED REGULATION OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS
    Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
    6. ENHANCED REPRESENTATION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
    Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.
    7. RESPONSIBLE AND WELL-MANAGED MIGRATION POLICIES
    Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.
    8. SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements.
    ANSWER NO 2.
    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MDGs AND SDGs
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015.
    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.
    • The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
    • MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    • MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.
    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
    • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    • These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.
    • SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    • It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    • It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015
    • SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    • It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

  46. Ugwuoke Solomon chukwuemeka says:

    Ugwuoke Solomon
    2018/ 250872
    Economic major

    1.
    10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2.The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3.Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6.Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8.The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2.
    how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG)was introduced to eliminate extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation TheSustainable Development Goals (SDGs) build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goal. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor country. The difference between MDG and SDG are:

    1. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Transformative for the Planet

    Similar to the MDGs, eradicating extreme poverty lies at the heart of the SDGs. While each of the 17 proposed goals has its own agenda, they collectively address the many facets that complicated global poverty—a distinction that has become increasingly important as political and environmental landscapes continue to change.

    2. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Comprehensive in Scope

    At their core, the SDGs and MDGs share the same target (eliminating poverty), however, the new SDGs seek to incorporate a more expansive platform than their 2000 counterpart. Most notably, the goals use the concept of sustainability to weave a comprehensive agenda that extends well beyond the social sector. The 17 proposed SDGs incorporate issues of environmental quality (climate change, biodiversity loss, and deforestation) and sustained economic resilience (improving access to sustainable energy sources, building sustainable cities, and promotion of sustained economic growth).

    3. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Seek a More Integrative Approach to Development

    Many of the objectives of the MDGs were addressed in isolation of one another (maternal health, hunger, gender equality). The SDGs seek to open communication and efforts between the 17 goals in order to present a united and integrated agenda.

    4. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Operate on a Universal Scale

    The MDGs focused primarily on how the developed world could finance improvements in developing nations. The SDGs, however, speak to poverty in all nations (developed and developing). If the eradicating poverty is truly at the heart of the goals, then there must be a universal and comprehensive push to find an agenda that speaks to all countries and all levels of economic development, to ensure that no one is left behind.

  47. Ugwuoke Godwin Izuchukwu says:

    NAME: Ugwuoke Godwin Izuchukwu
    REG NO: 2018/249529
    DEPARTMENT: Economics

    1. The new global goals called the sustainable development goals has lots of features and goals that make it outstanding and spectacular. These include
    A. The goals aims to Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
    B. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. The goal actually provided it’s own medium for acquisition of funds and mobilization of resources for the attainment of the objectives, hence the sdg funds. It also centers on the importance of partnership as a vital and crucial condition for the attainment of the desired objectives.
    C. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all. The sdgs were developed with the aim, not only to achieve economic growth but also sustain it at all cost. Economic growth without sustainability is no growth and it captured this in it’s goals and objectives.
    D. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation. In other words, it focus to increase productivity at all levels. Increased productivity will lead to economic growth as it has as one of it’s objectives.
    E.Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. To see to it that women are not treated badly or rather given poor services,jobs and not given the opportunity to explore and live their desired lives, this sdg captured the state of women to achieve this.
    F. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The health of the citizens are very important in the development of a Nation. A healthy natioon is a wealthy nation. The sdgs captured this vital aspect of human and society’s life to see that people go about in their daily activities healthy and with a sound mind especially as it may be environment and sanitation related.
    G. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact. Climate change can lead to loss of lives and properties, unproductivity of crops and poor agricultural products. This makes it a necessity being having this as a goal of the sdg to tackle the problems that may erupt as a result of climate changes.

    2. Differences between MDGs and SDGs
    A. MDGs are predecessor of SDGs.
    SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    B. MDGs consists of 8 goals
    SDGs consists of 17 goals
    C.MDG had 21 targets
    SDG has 169 targets
    D. MDGs were produced by a small group of technical experts
    SDGs were produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    – 193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world
    E. MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets
    F. MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    G. MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government
    SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.
    H. MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health
    SDGs focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.
    I. MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty.
    SDG focuses holistically on development.
    J. MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges
    SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges
    K. MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize
    SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    L. MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability.
    SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.
    M. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.
    SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

  48. Owoh+Anayo+Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    ANSWERS:
    1). 10 facts about the Sustainable Development Goals
    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    – The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    – The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    – Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    – The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    – From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    – Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    – This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    – The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    – While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    – So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2). How are the Sustainable Development Goals different from MDGs?
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    MDGs and SDGs
    Number of Goals : 8 , 17
    Number of Targets : 21 ,169
    Number of Indicators: 60, 232
    General scope/ focus :
    – for MDGs ;Social
    – for SDGs ;Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    Target:
    – for MDGs ; Developing countries, particularly the poorest
    – for SDGs; Entire world (rich and poor)
    Formulation:
    – for MDGs; Produced by a group of experts
    – for SDGS; Result of consultation process among:

    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders
    Some other differences are:
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Transformative for the Planet

    Similar to the MDGs, eradicating extreme poverty lies at the heart of the SDGs. While each of the 17 proposed goals has its own agenda, they collectively address the many facets that complicated global poverty—a distinction that has become increasingly important as political and environmental landscapes continue to change.

    2. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Comprehensive in Scope

    At their core, the SDGs and MDGs share the same target (eliminating poverty), however, the new SDGs seek to incorporate a more expansive platform than their 2000 counterpart. Most notably, the goals use the concept of sustainability to weave a comprehensive agenda that extends well beyond the social sector. The 17 proposed SDGs incorporate issues of environmental quality (climate change, biodiversity loss, and deforestation) and sustained economic resilience (improving access to sustainable energy sources, building sustainable cities, and promotion of sustained economic growth).

    3. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Seek a More Integrative Approach to Development

    Many of the objectives of the MDGs were addressed in isolation of one another (maternal health, hunger, gender equality). The SDGs seek to open communication and efforts between the 17 goals in order to present a united and integrated agenda.

    4. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Operate on a Universal Scale

    The MDGs focused primarily on how the developed world could finance improvements in developing nations. The SDGs, however, speak to poverty in all nations (developed and developing). If the eradicating poverty is truly at the heart of the goals, then there must be a universal and comprehensive push to find an agenda that speaks to all countries and all levels of economic development, to ensure that no one is left behind.

  49. Igboneme Adaeze patience says:

    Name: Igboneme Adaeze patience
    Dept. : Economics
    Reg no: 2018/250527
    Course code: Eco 362
    Number 1.
    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:
    • The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    • The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    • Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    • From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    • Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    • This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    • The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    • While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    • So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Number 2:
    From the perspective of THP, here is what I see as the Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development goals.

  50. Ezeaku Anderson esomchukwu says:

    Name: Ezeaku Anderson Esomchukwu
    Reg no: 2018/242413
    Dept: Economics
    Course code: Eco 362
    1. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the millennium development goals set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day has halved. Setting goals works in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2. The new goals are the result of three year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people,making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4. The 35 page United Nations text outlining the post 2015 developments agenda, This agenda is a plan of action for the people, planet and prosperity
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The international council for science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees. The lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation state failure”.
    7. It ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties- which is a big deal.
    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date.
    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries, the new goals are designed to be universal.This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a world view where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of earths life support system.
    10. Which country is most likely to complete the goals first ?
    1. The MDGs has 8 number of goals while the SDGs has 17 number of goals.
    2. The MDGs has 21 number of targets while the SDGs has 169 number of targets.
    3. The MDGs has 60 number of indicators while the SDGs has 232 number of indicators.
    4. The MDGs general scope/focus is the social aspect while the SDGs general scope/focus is the Economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection
    5. The MDGs targets developing countries particularly the poorest while the SDGs targets the entire world (rich and poor)
    6. The MDGs was formulated by a group of experts while the SDGs was formulated as a result of consultation of process among 193 UN member states, civil society, stakeholders.

  51. Obiyo,+Uchechukwu+Ngozi says:

    Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi
    2018/241841

    1.)
    I. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    II. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    III. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    IV. This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity.
    V. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    VI. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    VII. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    VIII. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum.
    IX. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    X. The goals are long term.

    2.)
    The following are differences between SDGs and MDGs:
    I. SDGs are broader in scope and will go further than the MDGs.
    II. MDGs are more people-based while the SDGs have a look at the planet as well.
    III. The new goals are universal and apply to all countries whereas the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only.
    IV. Building on the success and momentum of the MDGs, the Sustainable goals will be able to cover more grounds.
    V. The sustainable goals are 17 while the millennium goals are 8.
    VI. The sustainable goals are set to not have an end, in essence, they are sustainable while the millennium goals were set for a period of time.

  52. Chime Doris chinenye says:

    Chime Doris Chinenye
    2018/250191
    Economics major

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    Unlike the MDGs, which only target the developing countries. The SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally owned and country led wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving SDGs

    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.

    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  53. ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    COURSE: ECO 362
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR

    QUESTION NO. 1

    Facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

    2015 was the year that rewrote the future.
    Along with the historic Paris climate agreement, the global community committed to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – an unprecedented international commitment to:

    A. End poverty and hunger.
    B. Stop climate change and prevent its most devastating effects,protect and restore the planet’s environment and natural resources.
    C. Advance equality, education, peace and healthy living for all people.

    The idea came from the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development — or Rio+20 Summit in 2012. It resulted in a focused political outcome document “The Future We Want” which contains clear and practical measures for implementing sustainable development.
    In Rio, Member States decided to launch a process to develop a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals, which will build upon the Millennium Development Goals and converge with the post 2015 development agenda. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the world’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.

    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3. Concluding a negotiating process that has spanned more than two years and featured the unprecedented participation of civil society, on 2 August 2015, governments united behind an ambitious agenda that features 17 new sustainable development goals (SDGs) and 169 targets.

    4. The goals are not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. Part one of the bringing-them-to-people plan was the work of the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of ‪#‎goalkeepers.
    You can see the results of his team work on the pictures below.

    7. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    8. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to the research of German non-profit foundation Bertelsmann Stiftung. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    9. A bold new global agenda to end poverty by 2030 and pursue a sustainable future was unanimously adopted on 25 September 2015 by the 193 Member States of the United Nations.

    10. There are less than three months to go before new Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 goes live.

    There are 17 SDGs with 169 targets in contrast to the eight Millennium Development Goals with 21 targets. The complex challenges that exist in the world today demand that a wide range of issues is covered. It is, also, critical to address the root causes of the problems and not only of the symptoms.

    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    The SDGs are formed of 17 goals and 169 targets.
    Between them they should shape the policies of the 193 countries that committed to them over the next 15 years. These goals have the power to transform our world, and deliver a future in which people and nature thrive.

    The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

    Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who’re furthest behind.
    The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls.

    QUESTION NO. 2
    Lucid and equivocal difference between the sustainable development goals(SDGs) and the millennium development goals (MDGs).

    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike.
    The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites.
    Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond 2015.

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  54. Eze Nnenna Anthoniatta says:

    Name: EZE NNENNA ANTHONIATTA
    Rey.No: 2018/248095
    Department: Economics
    course code: Eco 362
    Email: ezennenna08@gmail.com
    Assignment:
    QUESTION 1
    There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    ANSWER: The 10 key facts of the SDGs are:
    1. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    2. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4.The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    8.The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9.While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    QUESTION 2

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    What are Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.
    The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
    MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.

    ANSWER:What are Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.
    SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015
    SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    From the perspective of THP, here is what I see as the Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2.Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3.More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    6. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  55. Nwosu Sochima Anne says:

    NAME:Nwosu Sochima Anne
    REG NO:2018/242291
    DEP: Economics
    ANSWERS
    Question 1;
    Firstly, we should know that “THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE A SET OF 17 COMMITMENTS MADE BY 193 WORLD LEADERS, TO END EXTREME POVERTY, INEQUALITY, AND CLIMATE CHANGE BY 2030.”
    Now what makes these goals spectacular?
    – [ ] It was made to end poverty in all its forms everywhere through mobilization of resources and the establishment of poverty eradication policy frameworks at all levels.
    – [ ] It was made to end hunger and improve access to food; ending all forms of malnutrition; agricultural productivity; sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices; and genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals; investments, research and technology. The three “means of achieving” targets include: addressing trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets and food commodity market and their derivatives.
    – [ ] It was made for ensuring healthy living and promote wellbeing for all at all ages and can be achieved through the reduction of maternal mortality; Reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected by disasters and decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters”
    – [ ] It paved way for an educational platform which promotes the use of the Goals in learning. There are thought-provoking lesson plans and activities and resources for teachers/children to use, all designed to motivate and inspire young people to become informed and active citizens, and build the world they want to grow up in and also scholarships and basic primary education.
    – [ ] It paved way for the achievement of gender equality. It has empowered all women and girls and given them opportunities to live free without discrimination including workplace discrimination or any violence.
    – [ ] It was made to expand water and sanitation support to developing countries, and to support local engagement in water and sanitation management.
    – [ ] These are: sustainable economic growth; diversify, innovate and upgrade for economic productivity; promote policies to support job creation and growing enterprises; improve resource efficiency in consumption and production; full employment and decent work with equal pay; promote youth employment, education and training; end modern slavery, trafficking, and child labour; protect labour rights and promote safe working environments; promote beneficial and sustainable tourism; universal access to banking, insurance and financial services.
    – [ ] It also reduced inequality amongst countries, promote universal social, economic and political inclusion; ensure equal opportunities, adopt fiscal and social policies that promotes equality; improved regulation of global financial markets and institutions; enhanced representation for developing countries in financial institutions; responsible and well-managed migration policies.
    – [ ] Reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management”
    – [ ] Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning.
    Question 2;
    lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals are different from the MDGs.
    – [ ] The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

  56. Okoye Adaezechukwu precious says:

    NAME: OKOYE ADAEZECHUKWU PRECIOUS
    REG NO: 2018/241831
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    ASSIGNMENT.
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    a. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    b. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    3. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MDGS AND SDGS.

    a. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    b. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue,
    c. national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    d. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    e. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    f. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    g. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    h. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    i. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    j. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  57. CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM says:

    Name- CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    Reg no – 2018/250055
    Department : EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email- chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    QUESTION NUMBER (1)
    Answers;

    (1) THE GLOBAL GOAL NEEDS YOU: the global goals can not be achieved without the effort is you and I, we need to work hand in hand with the government to ensure that all the goals are met before 2030.our actions can either delay or foster the achievement of these goals ,so we need to take steps that will lead to the implementation of the goals.

    (2) THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL CHANGE THE WAY THE WIRLD DOES BUSINESS:the global goal takes into consideration the climatic and environmental conditions of business ,there by providing and enabling environment for workers .it also aim at making sure the right of the workers are not violated.the goal wants to transform the economy into a global economy.

    (3) THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE NOT FOR ALL AND ALL FOR ONE: none of the goals should be considered as being more important than the other,we should work toward the achievement of all the goals and not just a part of it because the goals complement each other and should all be implemented adequately to ensure a sustainable development.

    (4) THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE: the global goals are climate sensitive,it recognizes that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development . climate change is one of the major factors that affect the world population positively and negatively, some of the negative ampact of climate change includes depletion of the eco system,over flooding etc, the global goals aim at tackling these negative impact of climate change in order to achieve a sustainable development.

    (5) THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY: though the MDGs have made a great impact in eradicating extreme poverty up to half yet the global goals aim towards eradicating poverty completely in all it’s form.

    (6) THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL LEAVE NO ONE BEHIND: the global goals are for everyone both the rich and poor,young and old, developed and underdeveloped countries, unlike the predecessor which targeted mainly the underdeveloped countries,the global goal is for all,it leaves no one behind.

    (7)THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE HAND- ON: the goals has a well concrete plan on how the world will be transformed to a more better place and making sure that everyone is on board and being considered in every step of the way till a sustainable development is achieved.

    (8) THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE GLOBAL: the new goals are universal, involving all countries across the globe both the underdeveloped and the developed countries.

    (9)THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE THE PEOPLE’S GOAL: the goals were developed by 193 UN states,NGOs and ordinary individuals ideas,that makes it people’s goal,set by the people and to be implemented by the people for the good and the people.

    (10) THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE THE WORD’S ULTIMATE TO-DO LIST FOR THE NEXT 15YEARS: the global goals are the people’s target on how the world should be by 2030,the goals aim at making the world a more better and comfortable place for all by 2030. Therefore every action taken should be geared towards the achievement of these goals on or before 2030.

    QUESTION NUMBER (2)

    ANSWER:

    (1) MDGs had a focus on developing countries with funding came from rich countries. All countries, developed or developing, are expected to work towards achieving SDGs;

    (2) MDGs had no concrete role for the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), whereas SDGs have paid attention to this right from the framing stage itself with significant engagement of civil society actors.

    (3) MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the ‘basement of UN headquarters’ whereas SDGs have evolved after a long and extensive consultative process including 70 Open Working Groups, Civil Society Organizations, thematic consultations, country consultations, participation of general public through face-to-face meetings and online mechanisms and door to door survey;

    (4) While MDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targets and 63 indicators, SDGs include 17 goals with 169 targets. An expert analyses by noble laureates at Copenhagen consensus, suggest that if the UN concentrates on 19 top targets, it can get $20 to $40 in social benefits per dollar spent, while allocating it evenly across all 169 targets would reduce the figure to less than $10. Being smart about spending could be better than doubling or quadrupling the aid budget;

    (5) MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the ‘basement of UN headquarters’ whereas SDGs have evolved after a long and extensive consultative process including 70 Open Working Groups, Civil Society Organizations, thematic consultations, country consultations, participation of general public through face-to-face meetings and online mechanisms and door to door survey;

    (6) The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

    (7) The MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDGs– as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    (8) The new goals recognizes that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development,it aims at combating the negative impact of climate change .

    (9) Base on the momentum of MDGs ,the SDGs cover a greater ground with the aim of addressing economic growth, inequality,decent jobs, sustainable consumption etc.

  58. BENJAMIN GIFT IHUNANYA 2018/241855 says:

    1. A lot of factors make the new global goals stupendously spectacular ;
    * The new goals are the outcome of a three-year procedure encompassing 83 national inquiries engaging over 7 million people, earning it the vastest consultation in UN record.
    * The new goals are universally designed: While the Millennium Development Goals were directed at poorer countries, the new goals are developed to be universal.
    * The new goals consist of 17 sustainable development goals.
    * The goal has 169 targets to be met before 2030
    * The new goal is based on five dimensions: planet, people, peace, partnership and prosperity.
    * The new goal pay attention to multiple cross-cutting issues, like gender equity, education, and culture cut across all of the SDGs.
    * The new goals have 232 indicators: The targets are either “outcome” targets (circumstances to be attained) or “means of implementation” targets.[
    * The new goals are climate oriented: the goals not only considered people but also considered their interaction with the environment
    *The new goal is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    2. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations’ global development goals to end poverty in all its dimensions and create an equal, just and secure world. It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015. It is a predecessor of the SDGs.
    Although the MDGs and SDGs target increasing living standards, there are numerous differences between the goals. Some of the differences include:
    I) SDGs have 232 indicators while the MDGs had 60 indicators.
    ii) SDGs have 169 targets while the MDGs have 21 targets.
    iii) MDGs only target developing countries while SDGs applies to all countries.
    iv) MDG could not focus holistically on development while the SDGs focuses on development in all sectors.
    v) MDGs focused on quantity of education rather than quality while SDGs focus on the quality of education rather than quantity.
    vi) SDGs have more comprehensive goals compared to the MDGs.

  59. ISAAC BRIGHT CHISOM 2018/246602 says:

    1. The new global goals are stupendously spectacular due to the following reasons;
    * The new goals are people-centred development agenda.
    * The new goals targets all countries both developing and developed countries.
    * The new goals consist of 17 sustainable development goals.
    * The new goals are designed to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    * The goal has 169 targets to be met before 2030
    * The new goal is based on five dimensions: planet, people, peace, partnership and prosperity.
    * The new goal pay attention to multiple cross-cutting issues, like gender equity, education, and culture cut across all of the SDGs.
    * The new goals not only considered people but also considered their interaction with the environment
    *The new goal is built on “The Future We Want”.
    * The new goals have 232 indicators: The targets are either “outcome” targets or “means of implementation” targets.

    2.* Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations’ global development goals to end poverty in all its dimensions and create a secure world. It is a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) while Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015. It is a predecessor of the SDGs.
    *SDGs have 232 indicators while the MDGs had 60 indicators.
    * SDGs have 169 targets while the MDGs have 21 targets.
    * SDGs target all countries both developed and developing countries while MDGs target poor countries.
    * SDGs have more comprehensive goals compared to the MDGs.
    * SDGs have 17 development goals while MDGs have 8 development goals.

  60. Okpuzor Emmanuel Chidera. Reg no: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    Name: OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA.
    reg. No: 2018/242433
    Department: ECONOMICS.
    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 362

    a.) . There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.

    10 KEY FACTS ABOUT THE SDGs OR GLOBAL GOALS

    1.) The global goals need you: It’s not only is to governments, but it’s up to all of us to take action. Even little things can make a big impact.
    2.) The global Goals will change the way the world does business: They went to transform the world economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.
    3.) The global goals are one for all and all for one: No goals is more important than the other and they all complement for each other.
    4.) The global goals will address climate change: Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.
    5.) The global goals with eradicate extreme poverty: The precedecessors of the global goals, the MDGs, have helped cut extreme poverty by half from the achievement in 2000 until today. That is a great achievement but it is not enough! The global goals aim to end poverty and all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6.) The global goals will leave no one behind: They are for young and old people, for the small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities. They will leave no one behind.
    7.) The global goals are hands-on: They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is an board.
    8.)The global goals are “global”: They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9.) The global goals are the people’s goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member states, NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    10.) The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years: The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.

    b.) How are the sustainable development goals different from the millennium goals?

    1.) The 17 sustainable Development goals with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MDG by addressing the root causes of povery and all the universal need from development that works for all people.
    2.) Building on the success and momentum of the MDGs, the new global goals will cover more ground with ambition to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialization, energy, climate change, sustainable consumption and product, peace and Justice.
    3.) The new goals are universal and apply to all countries whereas the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only.
    4.) A core feature of the SDGs has been the means of implementation, the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
    5.) The new goals recognize that tackling climate change is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. SDG aims to promote urgent action to combat climate change and it’s impacts

  61. OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    Name: Obetta Chisom Grace
    Reg no:2018/242216.
    Dept: Education Economics. .Question 1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details .
    Answer
    The 17 global SDGs are:

    1.No poverty;
    2.Zero hunger;
    3.Good health and well-being;
    4.Quality education;
    5.Gender equality;
    6.Clean water and sanitation;
    7.Affordable and clean energy;
    8.Decent work and economic growth;
    9.Industry, innovation, and infrastructure;
    10..Reduced inequalities;
    11.Sustainable cities and communities;
    12..Responsible consumption and production;
    13..Climate action;
    14.Life below water;
    15..Life on land;
    16..Peace, justice, and strong institutions; and
    17.Partnerships for the goals.

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

    The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

    to prioritize progress for those who are furthest behind. The SDGs are . designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls.

    The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.
    SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    Thus one peculiarity of the SDGs is that it is much more progressive and aspiring in form and character than the MDGs. Furthermore, in the Sustainable Development Goals, poverty and hunger are treated as separate goals or development objectives unlike in the Millennium Development Goals where both objectives are glued together. Though there exists a direct relationship between poverty and hunger, the strategies of resolving both are not necessarily the same and there exists no guarantee that resolving poverty in Africa will resolve hunger and nutrition-related challenges. Thus by targeting both development challenges separately gives more room for sustainable solutions.

    Question 2
    In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    Answer
    Difference between MDG’S and SDG’s
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)through the year 2015.-Set by the United Nations in 2000,-for its 193 member countriesThe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forthe world’s future, through 2030-Spearheaded by the United Nations-Agreed to by nearly all the world’snations, on 25 Sept 2015MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the‘basement of UN headquarters’SDGs have developed gradually after a long andextensive consultative process including 70 OpenWorking Groups, Civil Society Organizations,thematic consultations, country consultations,participation of general public.The MDGs were created through a top-downprocess.The SDGs are being createdwith face-to-faceconsultations in more than 100 countries andmillions of citizen inputs on websites throughonline mechanisms and door to door survey. MDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targetsand 63 indicatorsSDGs include 17 goals with 169 targetsMDGs had a focus on developing countries withfunding came from rich countries.All countries, developed or developing, areexpected to work towards achieving SDGs. Inother words. The SDGs apply to all countries, richand poor alike.The SDG framework has brought all three aspects of sustainable development – the economic, socialand environmental – in a much more integrated way than the MDGs ever did.The pillars of human development, human rights and equity are deeply rooted in SDGs and severaltargets -seven explicitly refer to people with disabilities, six to people in vulnerable situations, and two tonon-discrimination. These were not even mentioned in the MDGs. MDGs had 3 direct health goals, 4targets and 15 indicators with emphasis on child, maternal mortality and communicable diseases. SDGshave one comprehensive goal emphasizing well-being and healthy living including NCDs

    Basically, the MDGs and SDGs have almost the same goals and similarities. In essence the

    SDGs continue the noble ideals of MGDs who want to concentrate on tackling hunger

    and poverty in the world. However, the document agreed by world leaders in 2000 was

    used up in 2015. World leaders felt the Millennium Development Goals agenda needed

    to be continued, so a proposal document called sustainable development goals emerged.

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are designed as a continuation of

    Milineum Development Goals (MDGs) that have not achieved their goals until the end

    of 2015. The SDGs are a plan of action for humanity, the planet and prosperity. Also the

    aim of strengthening universal peace in broad freedom other than that to overcome

    extreme poverty is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable prerequisite for

    sustainable development (WHO, 2015).

    The concept of SDGs is needed as a new development framework that

    accommodates all changes that occur after the 2015 MDGs. Especially relating to changes

    in the world situation since 2000 on the issue of deflation of natural resources,

    environmental damage, climate change is increasingly crucial, social protection, food

    and energy security, and development that is more pro-poor. Unlike the case with MDGs

    aimed only at developing countries, SDGs have more universal targets. SDGs are

    presented to replace the MDGs with goals that better meet the challenges of the world’s

    future. The SDGs have 17 goals and 169 targets. These goals and targets will stimulate

    action in the next fifteen years in areas that are important to humanity and the planet

    namely humans, planets, prosperity, peace and partnerships.
    The major different between SDGs and MDGs is that; unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    Though there exist similarities between the Millennium Development Goals launched in 2000 and the Sustainable Development Goals launched in 2015, most notably in the quest to completely roll back poverty and hunger, though they both enjoy a further similarity in that they are clear, concise, time-bound and measurable, there however, exist a number of differences between the two development agendas particularly with respect to the way they both approach development in developing parts of the world like Africa. It is no secret today that the greater portion of the global poor are found in sub-Saharan Africa where 42.3% of the population continues to live on 1.90 dollars or less a day. According to 2017 FAO report ‘Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security’ Africa continued to rank first on the global statistics on
    hunger(27.4%) that’s about 333.2 million people living in hunger.
    Further more, the diffence between SDGs and MDGs are:
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)through the year 2015.-Set by the United Nations in 2000,-for its 193 member countries, The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forthe world’s future, through 2030-Spearheaded by the United Nations-Agreed to by nearly all the world’snations, on 25 Sept 2015MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the‘basement of UN headquarters’SDGs have developed gradually after a long andextensive consultative process including 70 OpenWorking Groups,Civil Society Organizations,thematic consultations, country consultations,participation of general publicThe MDGs were created through a top-downprocess.The SDGs are being createdwith face-to-faceconsultations in more than 100 countries andmillions of citizen inputs on websites throughonline mechanisms and door to door surveyMDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targetsand 63 indicatorsSDGs include 17 goals with 169 targetsMDGs had a focus on developing countries withfunding came from rich countries.All countries, developed or developing, areexpected to work towards achieving SDGs. Inother words. The SDGs apply to all countries, richand poor alike.The SDG framework has brought all three aspects of sustainable development – the economic, socialand environmental – in a much more integrated way than the MDGs ever did.The pillars of human development, human rights and equity are deeply rooted in SDGs and severaltargets -seven explicitly refer to people with disabilities, six to people in vulnerable situations, and two tonon-discrimination. These were not even mentioned in the MDGs. MDGs had 3 direct health goals, 4targets and 15 indicators with emphasis on child, maternal mortality and communicable diseases. SDGshave one comprehensive goal emphasizing well-being and healthy living including NCDs.

  62. Imo onyinyechi mirabel says:

    NAME:imo onyinyechi Mirabel
    REG NO:2018/246751
    DEPT:EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    COURSE:ECO 362
    EMAIL:mirabelimo@gmail.com

    (1)10 KEY FACTS ABOUT THE NEW GLOBAL GOAL

    1- The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to re- direct humanity towards a sustainable pathway.

    2- The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability- environmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21 (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).

    3- The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    4- Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015. The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad legitimacy among all parties.

    5-While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on Sustainable Development.

    6- The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.

    7- The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and ethical trade.

    8- A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda. The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer and director Richard Curtis.

    9- As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments. These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of these commitments.

    10- Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in fifth place.

    (2)THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MDGs AND SDGs

    What are Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
    *
    * Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.
    * The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
    * MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    * MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.
    There were altogether 8 goals with 21 targets and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.

    What are Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?
    * Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    * These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.
    * SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    * It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    * It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015
    * SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    * It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    Difference between MDGs and SDGs
    Differences based on Millennium Development Goals Sustainable Development Goals
    Successor or predecessor MDGs are predecessor of SDGs. SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    Number of Goals MDGs consists of 8 goals SDGs consists of 17 goals
    Number of targets MDG had 21 targets SDG has 169 targets
    Number of indicators MDG had 60 indicators SDG has 232 indicators
    Formulation of the goals It was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:

    – 193 UN member states
    – Civil society organizations
    – Academicians
    – Scientists
    – Private sectors and
    – Other stakeholders all around the world
    Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.

    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.

    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.

    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.

    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    Focused areas It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    Development agendas MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. SDG focuses holistically on development.
    Scope of work MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security
    Cost MDGs were less costly compared to SDG SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    Peace Building MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  63. Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    2018/245427
    Economics Education

    THERE ARE AT LEAST 10 FACTS THAT MAKE THE NEW GLOBAL GOALS STUPENDOUSLY SPECTACULAR. CLEARLY DISCUSS And ANALYSE THEM IN DETAILS
    1. The global goals need you: it’s not only up to government but it’s up to all of us to take action. Even little things can make a big impact.
    2. The global goals will change the way the world do business: They want to transform the world’s economy so it will work without violating workers right and harming the environment.
    3. The global goals are one for all and all for one: No goal is mort important than that of the other and they all complement each other.
    4. The global goals will address climate change: Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.
    5. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: The predecessors of the global goals, the MDGs, have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 until today. That is a great achievement but it is not enough. The global goals aim to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6. The global goals will leave no one behind: They are for young & old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities. They will leave no one behind.
    7. The global goals are hands-on: They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it & how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    8. The global goals are global: They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9. The global goals are the people’s goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member states, NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    10. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years: The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting, inequality & fixing climate change.
    IN VIEW OF THE FORGOING DISCOURSE, CLEARLY ANAYSE, LUCIDLY DISCUSS AND UNEQUIVOCALLY EXPLAIN HOW THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS DIFFERENT FROM THE MDGS.
    1. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education of learning and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity.
    2. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    3. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    4.  General scope/ focus: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    5. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    6. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    7. Number of Goals: The MDGs are eight (8) in number. The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are 17 in numbers. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen.
     

  64. Ezema Samuel Nnamdi says:

    Ezema Samuel Nnamdi
    2018/249458
    No.1 Answer
    10 Key Facts about the SDGs
    ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad
    resources.Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it
    sets the environmental limits and critica natural thresholds for the use of natural
    history.
    actors from the internationa community making it the biggest consultation in UN
    legitimacy among all parties.
    5-While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the
    each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on
    rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and
    Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set
    of Sustainable Development Goalsthe SDGS, as a new globa framework to re
    States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of
    promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it
    1-The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20
    direct humanity towards a sustainable pathway.
    3The new goalsare the result of a threeyear process involving UN Member
    new goals are designed tobe universal. The goas are non legaly-binding, with
    environmental, socia and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned
    2-The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability
    from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21
    4Nations finally adoptedthe list of 17 goas and 169 targets in September 2015.
    The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a
    (1992) and the Johannesburg Pan of Implementation (2002).
    Sustainable Development.
    6The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for
    Sustainable Developmentstates in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of
    to the poitical support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of
    Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and
    10-Which country is most likey to complete the goas first?According to a recent
    and director Richard Curtis.
    countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian
    9-As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or ack of it will be due
    integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the
    Globa Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official
    aid reationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond
    purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.
    adopted in July,which sets out the different means necessary to impement the
    stakeholders will be to continualy remind governments of their commitments.
    ethical trade.
    study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the
    8-Akey challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda.
    ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and
    action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkagesand
    The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer
    countries and the succeeding governments must be educated andreminded of
    these commitments.
    nations:Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in
    individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient
    fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile,
    These governments wil change a number of times in the next 15 years in many
    7-The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda
    Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.

    No. 2 Answer
    MDGs were drawn up by a group of experts in the ‘basement of UN headquarters’ whereas SDGs have evolved after a long and extensive consultative process including 70 Open Working Groups, Civil Society Organizations, thematic consultations, country consultations, participation of general public through face-to-face meetings and online mechanisms and door to door survey;

    While MDGs were focused with only 8 goals, 21 targets and 63 indicators, SDGs include 17 goals with 169 targets. An expert analyses by noble laureates at Copenhagen consensus, suggest that if the UN concentrates on 19 top targets, it can get $20 to $40 in social benefits per dollar spent, while allocating it evenly across all 169 targets would reduce the figure to less than $10. Being smart about spending could be better than doubling or quadrupling the aid budget;(7)

    MDGs had a focus on developing countries with funding came from rich countries. All countries, developed or developing, are expected to work towards achieving SDGs;

    The pillars of human development, human rights and equity are deeply rooted in SDGs and several targets seven explicitly refer to people with disabilities, six to people in vulnerable situations, and two to non-discrimination. These were not even mentioned in the MDGs; (iv) MDGs had 3 direct health goals, 4 targets and 15 indicators with emphasis on child, maternal mortality and communicable diseases. SDGs have one comprehensive goal emphasizing well-being and healthy living including NCDs;

    MDGs had a time span of 25 years though adopted in 2002 baseline data for the year 1990 was used and some of the baselines were revised subsequently which shifted ‘the goal post’. For the SDGs, the baseline is from 2015 estimates. It may be revised as more recent data becomes available;

    SDGs include a vision of building vibrant and systematic partnerships with private sector to achieve sustainable development. It builds on, UN Compact which was launched in year 2000 and IMPACT 2030;

    MDGs had no concrete role for the Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), whereas SDGs have paid attention to this right from the framing stage itself with significant engagement of civil society actors.

  65. Ezenwa chibuzo franklin says:

    Name : Ezenwa chibuzo franklin
    Reg no : 2018/242324
    Dept : education/economics
    Email : chibuzofranklin1000@gmail.com
    Course code : eco 362
    Assignment
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government.
    SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e.
    SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health. The SDGs, focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. SDG focuses holistically on development.
    MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.

    Cost MDGs were less costly compared to SDG. SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding. MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    Peace Building MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals. SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  66. Omeke Chinenye Joy says:

    Name: Omeke Chinenye Joy
    Reg. No: 2018/244290
    Department: Education Economics
    Eco 362 4th discussion quiz
    No.1 Answer
    The spectacular facts about the global goals:
    The global goals are Global: they help tackle the challenges faced by all countries across the world.
    The global goals aims to eradicate extreme poverty: the MDGs which is the predecessors of the global goals helped to cut extreme poverty by half since it’s establishment in 2000 till today but the global goals aim to end poverty in all it’s forms and everywhere by 2030.
    The global goals will leave no one behind: this means that the global goals are for everyone both young and old, rich and poor, Small and big countries. It intends to carry everyone along in it’s goals and targets.
    The global goals will ensure quality education: Quality education here pertains to ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    The global goals will address climate change: climate change is one of the issue we face now and it affects every country in all continent in one way or the other. This global goals aims to check this issue by taking urgent action to combat and provide solutions to such changes.
    The global goals needs you: this means that the goal is not only for the government but it is up to all of us to take action by doing little things like avoiding doing things that can cause environmental degradation, management of some resources like water, sanitation (keeping the environment clean); all this can make a big impact.
    The global goals will change the way the world do business: they want to transform the world’s economy such that it works without violating workers right and harming the environment and this is ensured through sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    The global goals compliments each other: this means that the goal is one for all and all for one. Example by ending hunger and achieving food security and improved nutrition in goal 2, the 3rd goal have also been met as this will ensure that people lives a healthy life.
    The global goals are the people’s goals: the global goals are developed by all the 193 UN Member States and is geared towards meeting the needs of the people all over the world. It’s goals and target is towards ensuring that problems and challenges faced by all the people all over the world are addressed and combatted.
    The 17 goals and 169 targets are the world’s shared “to-do” list with a 2030 due date: ending preventable diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria and maternal deaths; improving access to education, food, and sanitation; and promoting gender equality. To achieve the ultimate goal of ending extreme poverty, the private sector, local cities, national governments, and non-profits are working together to strengthen institutions, like rule of law, support access to better work, and combat climate change.
    No.2 Answer
    The SDG(sustainable development goals) differs from the Millennium development goals thus:
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development. It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who’re furthest behind. The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.
    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals. These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world. It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015. SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.
    SDG has 169 targets and 232 indicators. Formulation of goals is produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among: – 193 UN member states, – Civil society organizations, – Academicians, – Scientists, – Private sectors and – Other stakeholders all around the world.
    The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.” SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.” while
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels.
    MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration. MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards. There were altogether 8 goals with 21 targets and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.
    MDGs are predecessor of SDGs and Formulation of the goals was produced by a small group of technical experts. MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. MDGs is targeted at developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. They also did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality education. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.
    Reference
    https://betterworldcampaign.org/un-101/global-goals
    https://advocacy.thp.org/2014/08/mdgs-to-sdgs/
    https://www.globalgoals.org/
    Sustainable development goals fact sheet: http://www.google.com
    ://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.un.org/youthenvoy/2015/09/10-things-didnt-know-global-goals-sustainable-development/&ved=2ahUKEwjTltKP8MT2AhVLKBoKHXRVAzUQFnoECDEQAQ&usg=AOvVaw1F7m6nIPa1yPLxtuCz4rdm

  67. Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi/2018/242426 says:

    Name: Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi
    Reg Number: 2018/242426
    Department: Economics
    Level: 300
    Date 14-03-22
    THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALs(MDGs) AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALs(SDGs).
    1.Successor or predecessor: MDGs are predecessor of SDGs while SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    2.Number of Goals: MDGs consists of 8 goals while SDGs consists of 17 goals.
    3.Number of targets: MDGs had 21 targets while SDGs has 169 targets.
    4.Number of indicators: MDGs had 60 indicators while SDGs has 232 indicators.
    5.Formulation of the goals: MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts, It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries while SDGs drafting process also included intense consultation process among: (193 UN member states, Civil society organizations,Academicians,Scientists,Private sectors and Other stakeholders all around the world).
    6.Zero goals: MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.It had narrow focus on poverty reduction while The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    7.Applicability: MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” while SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.
    8.Pillars for sustainable end of hunger: MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    9.Focused areas: It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health. It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.
    10.Development agendas: MDGs could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty while SDGs focuses holistically on development.
    11.Scope of work: MDGs only emphasized on the prevalent challenges while SDGs emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.
    12. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDGs while SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.
    13. Cost: MDGs were less costly compared to SDG. SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.
    14. Source of funding: MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize while SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.
    15.Peace Building: MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals while SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    16. Data Revolution: MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability while SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    17. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies while SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  68. Aroh oluchukwu perpetua says:

    Name:Aroh oluchukwu perpetua .
    Reg no:2018/243120.
    Dept:Economics.
    Course:Eco 362 quiz.
     Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    -The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    -The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    -Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    -The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    -From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    -Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    -This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    -The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    -While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    -So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    1)First of all, let us pay attention to the fact that the MDGs mainly concentrated on development in its broad sense, while the SDGs only focused on Sustainable Development. And this is quite significant: now the SDGs are going to the full extent implement the strategy of sustainable development, but not only because there is a greater number of just the Goals. No less important is the fact that the change of the term ‘development’ to the concept of ‘sustainable development’ means that the action and efforts on the continuation of unsustainable development will no longer be promoted. Although in fact the MDGs actually ‘worked’ mostly for the SD, however, formally it was not their main goal to focus on this type of development and this made the poor informed population believe that everything is as usual, that society only needs to operate a little better and fairer.
    2)The MDGs focused on quantitative indicators with regard to access to education (and then only to the primary one), not noticing the fall of the level of education in certain countries and entire regions. SDGs are the first attempt of the international community to put into focus the quality of education, learning process and the role of education in achieving a more humane and sustainable world.
    3)The MDGs until 2015 have been developed and adopted for the development of the world community on the way to solve global problems such as hunger, extreme poverty, gender and social inequality, and so on (MDG 4 ‘To reduce child mortality’, MDG 5 ‘To combat HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases’), while the SDGs seek to completely solve them (SDG 5 ‘To achieve gender equality …’, SDG1 ‘To end poverty… everywhere…’ etc.). The final solution to the problems requires full concentration on the task of empowerment of the poorest and most inaccessible countries.
    4)The SDGs are more universal. The MDGs related only to developing countries, while the SDGs are applicable to all countries in the world, regardless of their level of socio-economic development. Therefore, all states face both common and individual challenges in the implementation of many aspects of sustainable development strategies.
    5)A number of SDGs continue MDGs dividing the already established goals into targets, highlighting the ones of the utmost priority. However, the SDGs are more extensive than the MDGs. In contrast to the eight MDGs, 17 SDGs go beyond the issues of poverty, health and environment. Agenda-2030 focuses on democratic governance, access to justice and the integrity of the person (SDG 16), as well as on the revitalization of global partnership for sustainable development (SDG 17). Thus, the Legal Research Center also affects issues related to human rights, including political, cultural, economic, social and civil rights and the right of development.
    6)SDGs take into consideration all the three pillars of the fight against hunger recognized by the ‘Hunger Project’, which were largely ignored by the MDGs – empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these crucial components much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government ‘at all levels’.

  69. Ilonz chimeremma perpetua says:

    Name Ilonze chimeremma perpetua
    Reg no:2018/242311
    Department:Economics

    Question 1;

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details:

    The 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to transform our world:

    GOAL 1: No Poverty

    GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

    GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

    GOAL 4: Quality Education

    GOAL 5: Gender Equality

    GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

    GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

    GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

    GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

    GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

    GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

    GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    GOAL 13: Climate Action

    GOAL 14: Life Below Water

    GOAL 15: Life on Land

    GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

    GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
    In September 2015, the General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Building on the principle of “leaving no one behind”, the new Agenda emphasizes a holistic approach to achieving sustainable development for all.

    Visual identity of the SDGs that shows each individual goal in colour boxes
    The SDGs also explicitly include disability and persons with disabilities 11 times. Disability is referenced in multiple parts of the SDGs, specifically in the parts related to education, growth and employment, inequality, accessibility of human settlements, as well as data collection and the monitoring of the SDGs.

    Although, the word “disability” is not cited directly in all goals, the goals are indeed relevant to ensure the inclusion and development of persons with disabilities.

    Inforgraphic that shows where disability is explicitly included in the 17 SDGs
    The newly implemented 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development holds a deep promise for persons with disabilities everywhere.

    The year 2016 marks the first year of the implementation of the SDGs. At this critical point, #Envision2030 will work to promote the mainstreaming of disability and the implementation of the SDGs throughout its 15-year lifespan with objectives to:

    Raise awareness of the 2030 Agenda and the achievement of the SDGs for persons with disabilities;
    Promote an active dialogue among stakeholders on the SDGs with a view to create a better world for persons with disabilities; and
    Establish an ongoing live web resource on each SDG and disability.
    Question 2:
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDG
    Answer
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. – It appeals all countries to take action.

  70. Uche Constance Chidera says:

    Name :- Uche Constance Chidera
    Reg. No. :- 2018/250687
    E-mail :- derance1234@gmail.com
    Course Code :- Eco 362

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.

    i. Peace Building : The SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger unlike it’s predecessor (MDGs).

    ii. Quality Education : In this term, the SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

    iii. Data Revolution: The SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

    iv. sustainable development goals (SDGs) are more globally collaborative than the millennium development goals (MDGs) : The MDGs were largely determined by OECD countries and international donor agencies. The SDGs have been produced by detailed international negotiations that have involved middle-income and low-income countries. The SDGs are universal meaning they apply to all countries and actors. The SDGs are holistic that is, they cover poverty reduction and inequality, sustainability and economic growth with job creation.

    v. The private sector now has a greater role to play : The private sector are far more engaged in the SDGs than they ever were in the MDGs, through initiatives such as UN Global Compact and Impact2030. The propensity of the commercial world to supplement global development efforts is vast and, in my opinion, still undervalued and under-explored within the development community.

    vi. The MDGs were not rooted in human rights standards : The SDGs are a step forward. But if development is to be inclusive and just, and leave no one behind, it must be rooted strongly in human rights principles and standards. The MDGs and much mainstream development policy has failed to give adequate priority to challenging systemic patterns of discrimination and disadvantage – violations of rights – that keep many people in poverty. The goals and targets of the SDGs must be explicitly linked to their corresponding human rights standards.

    vii. The SDGs are inclusive : Seven SDG targets explicitly refer to persons with disabilities; an additional six targets refer to people in vulnerable situations, while seven targets are universal and two refer to non-discrimination. Inequality for me is not just measured in terms of growth but in terms of making sure the most excluded can exercise their human rights.

    viii. The indicators present opportunities for civil society engagement : There are the potential of leveraging the indicators framework to expand opportunities for local action and local partnership. In essence, there are examples of civil society already working to create new opportunities for engagement with government at a local level to make progress on justice, legal identity and other themes.

    ix. The UN can inspire the world with the SDGs : Looking at the UN’s main role in promoting progressive ideas and/or changing international social norms (as Tom Weiss and Richard Jolly do), then the SDGs will be another evolutionary step in getting people around the world to think a little bit more as global citizens and think about poverty, inequality, sustainability, consumption and discrimination, and do something.

    x. COP21 in Paris is another opportunity for progress : 2015 is a big year for international development. With the upcoming climate change conference in Paris, and the WTO Ministerial in Nairobi, there is a real opportunity to tackle some of the most intractable challenges we face globally. But we need policymakers and negotiators to join up the dots, so that whatever is decided on trade and climate change doesn’t undermine the deliver of the SDGs.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    Answers :

    Differences between the MDGs and SDGs

    a. Number of Goals
    MDGs has 8 goals while SDGs have 17 goals

    b. Number of Targets
    The MDGs have set up 21 targets to achieve while the SDGs have 169 targets. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries.

    c. Formulation : The MDGs itself and it’s goals were established by a group of experts. the SDGs on the hand was the result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

    d. Zero goals : MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, and it had narrow focus on poverty reduction. The SDGs on the other hand, are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. The SDGs has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    e. Pillars for sustainable end of hunger : MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.

    f. Focused areas : It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health while the SDGs focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination

    g. Scope of work : MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges while SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges

    h. Cost : MDGs were less costly compared to SDG while SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.

  71. Name:Obodoagu Somtochukwu Lilian
    Reg no: 2018/242452
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment on Eco 362
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    1. The global goals need you: It’s not only up to governments but it is up to all of us to take action.Even a little thing can make a great impact.
    2. The Global goals will change the way the world does business: They want to transform the world economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.
    3. The Global Goals will address climate change : Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affect every country on every continent.
    4: The Global Goals are one for all and all for one : No goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.
    5. The Global Goals will Eradicate extreme poverty: The predecessors of the Global Goals, the MDGs , have helped out extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 until today , that is a great achievement but it is not enough, the Global Goals aims to end poverty in all it’s forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6. The Global Goals will leave no one behind: They are for young and old people, for small and by countries, for people living in rural area and people in busy cities.they will have no one behind.
    7. The Global Goals are hand on: They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    8. The Global Goals are “Global”: They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9. The Global Goals are the people’s Goals: The goal have been developed by all the 193 UN member states, NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    10. The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years: The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty. Fighting inequality and finding climate change.
    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. – It appeals all countries to take action.
    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MDGs by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people. The goals will cover the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection.

  72. Ikechukwu Mmesoma Mary-ann says:

    2018/241875
    362 Assignment

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyze them in details.
    ANSWERS
    1.The global goals will leave no one behind
    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system.
    2. The global goal will eradicate extreme poverty
    Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half from 1.9 billion in 1990. However, 836 million people still live in extreme poverty. About one in five persons in developing regions lives on less than $1.25 per day. Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are home to the overwhelming majority of people living in extreme poverty. High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries. The SDG’s plan to reduce if not eliminate this problem.
    3. The global goals need you
    4. The global goals will change the way the world does business
    The goal centers on the interconnectedness of the private and public sectors, and encourages companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.
    5. The global goals are all for one and one for all
    All the goals are not discriminatory. Everyone is entitled to each of them.
    6. The global goals are hands on
    7. The global goals are peoples goals
    The goals are made up of the needs of the people. Hunger, education, health etc. are all needs of the people and the global goals seek to work on them.
    8. The global goal will address climate changes
    Climate policies can be more effective when consistently embedded within broader strategies designed to make national and regional development paths more sustainable. This occurs because the impact of climate variability and change, climate policy responses, and associated socio-economic development will affect the ability of countries to achieve sustainable development goals. Conversely, the pursuit of those goals will in turn affect the opportunities for, and success of, climate policies.
    9. The global goals are GLOBAL
    The SDGs were meant to balance all dimensions of sustainability, environmental, social and economic. It is global.
    10. The global goals are the worlds ultimate to do list for the next 15 years
    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realized”.

    2. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly analyze, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    ANSWERS
    1. The 17 SDG’S with 169 targets are broader in scope and will go further than the MDG’s by addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people.
    2. The new goal recognizes the tackling changes is essential for sustainable development and poverty eradication. SDG aims to promote urgent actions to combat climate changes and its impacts.
    3. A core feature of SDG has been the implementation, the mobilization of financial resources as well as capacity building and the transfer of environmentally sound technology.
    4. The new goals are universal and apply to all countries, while SDG was to Africa intended for their development.
    5. Building on the success and momentum of the MDG’s , the new global goals will cover more ground with ambition to address inequality, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlements, industrialization, energy, climate changes, sustainability consumption and production, peace and justice.

  73. Name: Obeta magret uzochukwu
    Reg:2018/243669
    Dept: social science education (economics education)
    Below are the ten facts that make up global goals
    1.Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2.Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3.More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4.Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5.Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015.
    6.Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7.Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8.Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9.Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10.Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”
    Number 2: sustainable development goals is different from MDGs because the SDG are out to finish the propose targets of the MDGs and to get to the statistical zero of hunger, poverty, deaths of individual and other targets below
    Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
    Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
    Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
    Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
    Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
    Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
    Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
    Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
    Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

  74. Nnamani Dorathy nchido 2018/245743 Economics major says:

    Nnamani Dorathy nchido
    2018/245743
    Economic major
    Question 1
    10 Key Facts about the SDG
    1- The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to redirect humanity towards a sustainable pathway.
    2- The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability- environmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21 (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).
    3- The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    4- Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015. The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad legitimacy among all parties.
    5-While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on Sustainable Development.
    6-The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.
    7- The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and ethical trade.
    8- A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda. The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer and director Richard Curtis.
    9- As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments. These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of these commitments.
    10- Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile, Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.
    Question 2.
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation.
    The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions.
    Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    MDGS SDGS
    Number of Goals 8 17
    Number of Targets 21 169
    Number of Indicators 60 232
    Target Developing countries, particularly the poorest Entire world (rich and poor)

    1-Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2-Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3-More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4-Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5-Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen.
    6-Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7-Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

  75. Onyekwelu Collins Obinna says:

    Name: Onyekwelu Collins Obinna
    Reg No: 2018/251026
    Dept: Economics

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    The Global Goals(also known as the Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs) are ambitious, but with great ambiition we can achieve great things. In 2015, world leaders agreed to 17 global goals. Seven years on, we have made progress, but there is still work to be done, and the Goals are more important than ever. Here are 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular:
    -The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    -The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    -Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    -It has a 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    -From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    -Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    -The issue that not everyone agrees may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    -The major concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    -While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    -Sweden is the country that is most likely to complete the goals first according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2. Differences between the Sustainable Development Goals and the MDGs.

    -Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of the then US President Obama.

    -More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    -Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    -Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    -Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 .

    -Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    -Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    -Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    -Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

    -Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

  76. Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma says:

    Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma
    2018/244292
    Education/Economics
    Eco 362
    An assignment:
    1. There are at least 10 facts that the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    1.The global goals needs you: This means that to achieve this goals, it is commitment both on the side of the government and the citizens. Bother the government and governed should take action and work together to achieve and make greater impact. The goals needs the input and cooperation of the citizens.
    2.The global goals will change the way the world does business: The aim of the goals is to transform business globally in the sense that the environment is sustained and workers are not defraud of their rights. Building of infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. All this will lead to the transformation of the world economy.
    3. The global goals are one for all and all for one: This means that no goal is more important than the other, they are not independent from each other, each complement the other. Each of the goals can’t be achieved without recognizing the other goals. The are also interrelated, every of the goals are as important as the other.
    4.The global goals will address climate change:The greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are driving climate change and continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have increased by almost 50% since 1990.The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times, primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions. The ocean has absorbed about 30% of the emitted anthropogenic carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983-2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1,400 years. From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C. Without action, the world’s average surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century and is likely to surpass 3 degrees Celsius this century – with some areas of the world, including in the tropics and subtropics, expected to warm even more. The poorest and most vulnerable people are being affected the most. The global goal is out to address and also curp the effect of climate change on the environment and generally in every country.
    5. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: while the millennium development Goals was to curp extreme poverty, the global goals aims at eradicating poverty totally in all forms of it. A situation where nobody will be poor or in poverty because it will put everything in place to achieve this goals. To eradicate extreme poverty entails full employment, carrying every one along political, economically and socially so that no country will be left behind.
    6.The global goals will leave no one behind: The MDGs was focused on the developing countries but the global goals was for both the developed and underdeveloped countries. The goals is also for the young and old, it is not exceptional to any set of people. The goals will carry everyone along.
    7.The global goals are hands on: The goals are not just written for documentation or just for writing but there are plans made to achieve them, step by steps plan on how to make sure everything is set up appropriately.
    8.The global goals are global: The goals are not limited to a certain country but for all countries. The goals is to solve global goals that is to say that the goals are universal, applying to all countries while recognizing differences in realities and capabilities of various countries.
    9.The global goals are people’s goal:The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.all of these actors work together to achieve the goals.
    10.The global goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years:The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.

    2.The SDGs build on the successes of the millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystem, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally_owned and country_led, where in each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the foregoing discourse, clearly analyze, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the SDGs goals different from the MDGs.
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen –with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond 2015.
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  77. Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram says:

    Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram
    2018/241843
    Economics
    300l
    There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyze them in details
    • The SDGs explicitly call on all businesses to apply their creativity and innovation to solve sustainable development challenges.
    • They know and pin point the importance of human rights. Be black, white, be a woman or a man, everyone should be treated equally and this us part of the SDG
    • Everyone is and can be part of the change, they call for collective work to change the word for better
    • They address climate change. They see the new climate changes as problems and are looking for ways to stop it
    • The SDGs are global. All countries not only developing ones will be part of the change
    • They plan to completely remove extreme poverty. One of the goals is to remove poverty worldwide
    • They respect the ecosystem. They call for diverse ways to improve the environment and stand against its damage.
    • Human security is part of their priorities. One of the goals is to make cities and settlements safe, resilient and sustainable.
    • They look forward to establish good relationships among countries. Maintenance of good relations will help lead to world development.
    • They are the worlds to do list for the next 8 years. They plan on making the world a better place by 2030.
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    • The SDGs are more encompassing. They focus on a lot of things ranging from climate to sustainable environment, they put everything in the picture
    • They are more futuristic. They take account of the generations to come and establish goals that will not affect them adversely
    • They not only focus on developing countries, they take account of all countries in order to achieve global development.
    • They have a bigger scope than the MDGs. The global goals have 17 goals and 169 targets, while the MDGs have 8 goals and 18 targets.
    • MDGs focus on prevalent challenges, SDGs focus on present and upcoming challenges.

  78. Umeayo Ekwomchukwu says:

    NAME: UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH
    REG NO: 2018/247368
    UNIT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: umeayoekwomchukwuelijah@gmail.com

    Question 1: Ten facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    1:The novel idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2: The new goals which resulted from the three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history, it takes every economy and welfare into consideration across the globe.

    3: While the Millennium poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    4: Income inequality is on the rise—the richest 10 percent have up to 40 percent of global income whereas the poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 to 7 percent. If we take into account population growth inequality in developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    5: There is no country that is not experiencing drastic effect of cliimate change. Greenhouse gas emissions are more than 50 percent higher than in 1990. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6: Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7: This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    ,
    8: The SDGs can only be realized with strong global partnerships and cooperation. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date.

    9: Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    10: Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihoods. Plant life provides 80 percent of the human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resources. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    Questin 2: Discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients. While SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.

    MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health. while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation. It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.

    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. While SDG focuses holistically on development. This is because it covers all basic necessities to achieve development.

    MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges. The MDGs was narrowed down to the common issue present in the society. While SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges SDG was broad to covers all challenges which countries may encounter in the present, upcoming and future challenges.

    MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize. While SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.

    MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. This explain that the MDGs was not evaluated weather it’s objectives were achieved. While SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. While SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  79. Ugwu chidiebere Loveth says:

    NAME: Ugwu chidiebere Loveth
    REG NO: 2018/242902
    DEPARTMENT: education and economics

    No1
    The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    The concern now is how to make people careabout the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    No2

    1.Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the newWorld Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2.Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3.More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4.Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5.Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    6.Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7.Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8.Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9.Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10.Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

  80. NAME: Onyeabo Michael Chukwuebuka
    REG NO. 2018/248280
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    EMAIL: Michyking1@gmail.com
    DISCUSSION 4
    QUESTION 1: There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    1) The Global goals need you – It is not only up to the government to act, but it is also up to everyone of us to do so. Even tiny things can have a significant influence.
    2) The Global goals will change the way the world does business – They seek to change the global economy so that it can function without infringing on workers’ rights or destroying the environment.
    3) The Global goals are one for all and all for one – no goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.
    4) The Global goals will address climate change – climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and affects every country and continents.
    5) The Global goals will eradicate extreme – The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which preceded the Global Goals, have contributed to reduce severe poverty by half since their inception in 2000. That is an outstanding feat, but it is insufficient. By 2030, the global goals aim to eradicate poverty in all of its forms and everywhere.
    6) The Global goals will leave no one behind They are for young and old people, small and large countries, those who live in rural areas as well as people who live in crowded cities. They will not abandon anyone.
    7) The Global goals are hands-on – they contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everyone is on board.
    8) The Global goals are “Global” – they tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9) The Global goals are the people’s goal – the goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member states, NGOs and people like you, all working together.
    10) The Global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do-list for the next 15 years – Ending extreme poverty, combating inequality, and addressing climate change are among the 17 goals aimed at making the world a better place by 2030.

    QUESTION 2 : Explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    1) The Millennium Development Goals were created by a small group of technical experts, whereas the Sustainable Development Goals were created by the UN Open Working Group (OWG), which consists of 30 members from 70 nations. During the SDG formulation process, 193 UN member states, civil society organizations, academicians, scientists, the private sector, and other stakeholders from all over the world were consulted extensively.
    2) The 2015 Millennium Development Goals were intended to get us “halfway” to the objective of eradicating hunger and poverty. It was narrowly focused on reducing poverty. while The SDGs are intended to complete the task of achieving a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child mortality, and other goals. It focuses heavily on poverty alleviation and aims to integrate environmental, economic, and social factors.
    3) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were primarily aimed at developing/least developed or poor countries. It was created with “wealthy donors assisting impoverished recipients” in mind. SDGs, on the other hand, aim and apply uniformly to all countries, affluent, middle-income, and poor. It encourages all countries to act.
    4) The three critical pillars for a sustainable end to hunger, namely empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government, were ignored by the MDGs, whereas the SDGs addressed these three pillars more forcefully, ensuring stronger gender roles, people’s participation, and government participation.
    5) The MDGs were primarily concerned with social dimensions and improved health, but the SDGs are concerned with social inclusion, economic growth, improved health, and environmental protection. In addition, the SDGs promote equity, human rights, and non-discrimination.
    6) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) could not focus on development in its entirety. It also failed to address poverty’s core causes. SDGs, on the other hand, focus on development as a whole.
    7) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused solely on current difficulties, but the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focus on both current and future challenges.
    8) The MDGs combine hunger and poverty, but the SDGs handle poverty apart from hunger and food and nutrition security.
    9) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) did not include peacebuilding in their fundamental agenda or goals, whereas the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include peacebuilding as a prerequisite for ending poverty and hunger.
    10) Monitoring, assessment, and accountability were not prioritized in the MDGs. While the SDGs aim to “substantially expand the availability of high-quality, timely, and accurate data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migrant status, disability, geographic location, and other factors relevant in national settings” by 2020.
    11) The MDGs prioritized number over quality (e.g., high enrolment rates). Many societies’ educational quality may have suffered as a result of this. While the SDGs focus on education’s quality and role in creating a more humane world, they also include “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and nonviolence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  81. ODO RUTH SOMTOCHI. 2018/242445 says:

    Q1:There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    The 10 facts are
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal.This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Q2:
    MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    The Difference are
    Number of Goals: MDGs are 8 goals while SDGs are 17 goals
    Number of Targets: MDGs has 21 targets while SDGs has 169 targets
    Number of Indicators: MDGs have 60 indicators while have 232 indicators
    General scope/ focus: MDGs focus on Social while SDGs focus Economic growth, social inclusion & environmental protection
    Target: MDGs target the Developing countries, particularly the poorest while SDGs target the entire world (rich and poor)
    Formulation: MDGs are Produced by a group of experts while SDGs are as a result of consultation process among:
    -193 UN Member States
    -Civil society
    -Other stakeholders

  82. JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU says:

    JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU
    2018/245132
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    ECO 362 DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    ONLINE DISCUSSION QUIZ 4: COMPARING MDGs AND SDGs
    1. Clearly discuss and analyze the facts that make the new global goals spectacular.
    The Goals are universal: This means that the global goals are not targeted towards a particular group of people or race, but cuts across all kinds of people of the world irrespective of their social, cultural, religious, spiritual and economic background.
    The Goals will address the issue of climate change: This means that the global goals aim to address the root causes of climate change especially in relation to depletion of the ozone layer. To tackle this problem there have been programs enacted that is focused on the use of green energy. If the use of green energy can be successfully implemented, it will reduce extreme temperatures experienced in some parts of the earth and also slow the melting of the ice caps in the North Pole and South Pole hence reducing the rise of the sea level across the globe. These issues regarding the earth`s changing climate constitute one of the most pressing issue in this period; SDGs aim to combat climate change as it affects every country in every continent of the world.
    The Goals need everyone pulling their own weight: Now it is not only up to the United Nations, the governments or the NGOs, everyone is expected to contribute their own quota in order to ensure the attainment of the global goals; even a simple gesture can make a great impact.
    The Goals will eradicate extreme poverty: Although the MDGs have succeeded in reducing by half the proportion of those living in extreme poverty, it is not adequate. Poverty constitute a scourge on every society and should not be managed or reduced but be eliminated completely. The global goals aim to achieve these–ending poverty in all its guises and across all countries—by the year 2030.
    The Goals will leave no one behind: The SDGs are for the youths and adults, for wealthy and poor individuals, for the haves and have-nots, for small nations and mighty nations, for developed countries and developing countries, for persons living in the slums, rural centers or urban centers. The global goals will ensure that everybody will be carried along.
    The Goals are interdependent: Like the components of a system working together, the global goals all complement each other. You cannot say that one goal is more crucial than the other for instance; one cannot say that ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for people of all ages is more important than ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    The Goals will transform the way business is done globally: The global goals will change the way business is done in every country of the world especially in respect to the provision of full and productive employment and decent jobs for all people in addition to ensuring sustainable production, consumption and distribution channels.
    The Goals are the people`s goals: The global goals were drafted out of a consultation involving all 193 member countries of the United Nations, Non Governmental Organizations and experts in different fields. These people and organizations involved in developing the SDGs are people like you and me, all putting hands on deck in their efforts for the creation of a better world.
    The Goals are action-based: This means that the global goals contain tangible plans on how to make the world a better place as well as how these plans can be backed financially and how to make people understand the importance of these goals by creating awareness in order to bring everybody aboard in these plans for global sustainable development.
    The Goals are basically the world`s to-do list for the next decade and half: The seventeen goals and one hundred and sixty-nine targets outlined in the global goals are geared towards making the world a better place within a 15-year span. The goals are meant to continue and go beyond the MDGs to incorporate inclusiveness (in respect to jobs, infrastructure, industrialization, and distribution) and sustainability & urbanization (in respect to sustainable cities, climate change, peace & justice, life in the oceans etc.).
    2. Clearly analyze, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals are different from the MDGs.
    The SDGs have a greater scope than the MDGs: The SDGs with 17 goals and 169 targets are greater in scope than the MDGs with 8 goals and 18 targets. This means that the SDGs goes beyond the MDGs to tackle the root causes of poverty and impoverishment and also address the need for global or universal development that is based on inclusiveness & sustainability.
    The SDGs covers more ground than the MDGs: The SDGs covers more ground than the MDGs because it has ambitions that encompasses that of the MDGs to include ensuring sustainable economic growth, combating climate change and its impacts, addressing inequality, ensuring sustainable production and consumption, ensuring sustainable use of ocean resources and its conservation, promoting peaceful and prosperous existence for all people and so on.
    The SDGs are universal, while the MDGs were targeted towards the LDCs: While the MDGs were targeted towards improving the conditions in developing countries, the SDGs are targeted towards a global sustainable development need that works for all people.
    The SDGs were more hands-on than the MDGs: The SDGs were more action based than the MDGs in respect to funding and implementation. The global goals have concrete plan of actions to ensure mobilization of resources (financial and otherwise), capacity building and actions to get everyone on board.
    The SDGs are geared to trigger actions for the next fifteen years in five crucial areas: People, Planet, Prosperity, Peace and Partnership, while the MDGs do not incorporate these five crucial areas in its implementation.
    The SDGs recognize the negative impact of climate change to sustainable development and sought for means to tackle climate change and curtail its impacts, while the MDGs have no such dispensation.

  83. Peter Emmanuel says:

    Name: Peter Emmanuel
    Reg no: 2018/246577
    Department: education economics
    Assignment

    1 There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    i. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    ii. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    iii. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    iv. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    V. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    vi. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    vii. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties which is a big deal.
    viii. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    ix. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    X. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    2. Clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction while The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”while SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.
    MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.
    MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health while SDG focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.
    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty while SDG focuses holistically on development.
    The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.while SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  84. Odo Onochie Godsmark says:

    Odo Onochie Godsmark
    2017/249540
    Economics Department

    THESE ARE THE TEN FACTS THAT MAKES THE NEW GLOBAL BOALS STUPENDOUSLY SPECTACULAR
    1,The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2, The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3, Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4, The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5, From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6, Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7, This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8, The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9, While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10, So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    QUESTION TWO
    Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.

    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  85. Ifiegbu Ononuju Julie star says:

    NAME: IFIEGBU ONONUJU JULIE.
    REG NO: 2017/245848.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION.

    QUESTION.
    1) There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    2)lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    ANSWERS.

    1… The GLOBAL GOAL NEEDS YOU : it’s not only up to government, but it’s up to all of us to take action. Even little things can make a big impact.

    2….The GLOBAL GOALS WILL CHANGE THE WAY THE WORLD DOES BUSINESS: They want to transform the world economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.

    3…. THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE ONE FOR ALL AND ALL FOR ONE: No goal is more important than the other and they all complement each other.

    4…THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE: climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.

    5…THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY : The predecessors of the global goals, the MDG’s have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in 2000 until today. That is a great achievement but it is not enough .The global goals aim to end poverty in all it’s form and everywhere by 2030.

    6…. THE GLOBAL GOALS WILL LEAVE NO ONE BEHIND: They are for young and old people , for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cities, No one will be left behind.

    7… THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE HANDS- ON : They contain concrete plan on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.

    8…THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE “Global”: They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.

    9…THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE THE PEOPLE’s GOALS : The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN members states, NGO’s and people like you , all working together.

    10… THE GLOBAL GOALS ARE THE WORLD’s ULTIMATE TO DO LIST FOR THE NEXT 15 years : The 17 goals are for making this planet a better place by 2030 which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.

    2) DIFFERENCES.

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015.
    • The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 191 United Nations member states at that time, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
    • MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration.
    • MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards.

    There were altogether 8 goals with 21 targets and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.

    WHILE

    • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals.
    • These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world.
    • SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    • It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals)
    • It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015
    • SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.”
    • It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.

    REFERENCES

    https://www.publichealthnotes.com/mdgs-vs-sdgs-17-differences/

  86. Michael-Atu Ifunanya says:

    Michael-Atu Ifunanya
    2018/243767
    Economics Education
    No.1 There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    1 – “Adequate, safe, and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums”
    2 – “Safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable transport systems”
    3 – “Enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries”
    4 – “Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage”
    5 – “Reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected by disasters and decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters”
    6 – “Reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management”
    7 – “Provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces”
    8 – “Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning”
    9 – “Increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk managements at all levels”
    10 – “Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials”

    No.2 The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    Answer: _MDGs are predecessor of SDGs while SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    _MDGs consists of 8 goals while SDGs consists of 17 goals
    _ MDG had 21 targets while SDG has 169 targets
    _ MDG had 60 indicators while SDG has 232 indicators
    _MDG was produced by a small group of technical experts while SDG was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among: 193 UN member states, Civil society organizations, Academicians, Scientists, Private sectors and Other stakeholders all around the world.
    – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction while The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    Applicability– MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”
    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    MDGs mainly focused on social dimensions and better health while It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty but focuses holistically on development.
    Scope of work_ MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges while SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.
    .Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG while SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.
    MDGs were less costly compared to SDG. SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding_ MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize while SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.
    Peace Building_ MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals while SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution_ MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. But SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education_ The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. While SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  87. Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi says:

    Name: Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi
    Reg no: 2018/248278
    Email: nwajuagudivine22@gmail.com

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2.
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    * The MDGs had only 8 goals while the SDGs had 27 goals.
    *The MDG had 21 targets while SDG has 169 targets.
    *The MDG had 60 indicators while SDG has 232 indicators.
    *The MGDs were produced by a small group of technical experts while the SDGs were produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:

    – 193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world.

    *MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty while the SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.

    * The MDGs had narrow focus on poverty reduction while the SDGs have wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    *MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries while SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.

    * The MDG was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients while the SDG appeals all countries to take action.

    *MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability while the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

  88. Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo says:

    Reg no: 2018/241848
    Department: Economics

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    The new global goals was set up to better the MDGs. Adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. It is expected that it surpases the MDGS due to its peculiarities.
    The following facts makes the goal spectacular:

    (1) The fact that the idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    (2) The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    (3) Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    (4) The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    (5) From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    (6) Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    (7) This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    (8) The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    (9) While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    (10) Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind in completing the goal.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The SDGs was setup to better the MDGs increasing the development goals from 8 to 17 by including goals that makes it differs from the MDGs in so many ways.

    Below are some ways SDGS differs from the MDGs:

    (a) One obvious reason is the increase in the number of goals from 8 MDGS to 17 SDGS showing how the SDGs is set up to solve more problems which the MDGs could not.

    (b) Another difference that should be considered is in terms of formulation of the goals; the MDGs was produced by a small group of technical experts while the SDGs was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among: 193 UN member states, civil society organizations, Academicians, Scientists, Private sectors and Other stakeholders all around the world.

    (c) MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” unlike the SDGs which targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.

    (d) SDGs focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination unlike MDGSs that mainly focused on social dimensions and better health
    (e) In terms of cost, SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs. MDGs were less costly compared to SDG

    (f) MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize while SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy.
    The seven points above shows how the MDGs differs from the SDGs and how the SDGs is meant to be more productive and successful compared to the MDGs.

  89. Onuoha Ikenna Michael says:

    ONUOHA IKENNA MICHAEL
    2018/241860

    A. 10 FACTS THAT MAKE THE NEW GLOBALGOALS STUPENDOUSLY SPECTACULAR:

    1. They are universal goals. The SDGs are goals that are set out to be achieved by every country.
    2. The goals are more comprehensive. The new global goals outline certain complexities that were not previously captured by the MDGs, such as human, ecological and environmental sustainability.
    3. Inclusiveness. Unlike the MDGs, the SDGs were created in a much more participatory process which involved the consultation of over more than a 100 countries.
    4. Distinction between hunger and poverty. Through research and study, the SDGs treats the issues of poverty and hunger separately which was not done in MDGs which treated them as two sides of a coin.
    5. Strategic Funding. The strategic sustainability of the SDGs was frameworked in such a way that includes economic development at its core and to address the ability of countries to address their social challenges by their own improved revenue generation.
    6. Peace Building. Given the fact that peace building is a necessary step in ending hunger and poverty.
    7. Data aggregation and revolution. The SDGs targets a significant increase in the availability of high quality and timely, aggregated data that captures various demographics of a population.
    8. Better education. Compared to SDGs the MDGs only sorted a larger number of enrolled individuals in schools without necessarily focusing on the quality of the education.
    9. Active involvement of the private sector. The level at which the commercial world can supplement global development efforts is still very vast and underexplored.
    10. Deep-rootedness in human right and standards. If there must be development, justice, inclusiveness and equality, then th SDGs has to be deeply rooted in human rights and standards.

    B. DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE MDGs AND THE SDGs

    The MDGs are 8 specified goals which were targeted at improving lives of the world’s poorest countries. Under these goals consists of 21 targets, which are more of subgoals to ensure the achievement of the specified goals. These goals were signed in September 2000 by world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and gender inequality. However these goals were succeeded by the SDGs in 2015, which shared a blueprint for peace, prosperity for people and the planet, both for now and the future looking forward. It has 17 sustainable goals and 169 targets, which are more comprehensive to that of its predecessor.

    The SDGs are more inclusive from its formulation to its shared participation given the fact that it was produced by the UN Open Working Group which involved the consultation of 193 UN members, academics, scientists, civil society organizations, private sector and stakeholders around the world. Given this level of effort in formulation, it is non comparable to the MDGs. The SDGs embodied a design to get the job done to a “Zero” hunger, poverty and preventable child death. It applies uniformly to all countries of any kind which is in direct contrast to the MDGs which was targeted to developing or poor countries.

    The MDGs in itself ignored three critical and crucial pillars for a sustainable end to hunger which are women empowerment, mobilization of the masses and collaboration of government even at the grass root level. All these were all addressed in the SDGs by ensuring more of the people’s participation in government. The focus of the MDGs were not holistically pinpointed on development as the SDGs were, neither did it consider peace building and quality education greater priorities as the SDGs did in order to ensure global peace and a humane world society.

  90. ILEME OBINNA PATRICK says:

    REG NO: 2018/242297
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 362(DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II)

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    a. It didn’t take just a day, week, month or year to come up with these goals. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of
    actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    b. Unlike the Millennium Development Goals which were focused on the global south(regions of Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania), the new goals are designed to be universal. That is, it is also aimed at the more developed countries and the developing ones too.

    c. The SDGs also aim to eradicate extreme poverty.
    Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured then by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved.
    The majority of people living on less than $1.90(the new international poverty line) a day live in sub-Saharan Africa.
    The goal is to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty by 2030.

    d. The global goals are one for all and all for one.
    The global goals are totally fair and unbiased . Everyone is entitled to each of them.

    e. The global goals aim to promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and generate full and productive employment and decent work for all and promoting micro, small and medium-size enterprises.

    f. Another spectacular thing about these goals is that it put into serious consideration, the female gender. It seeks to eliminate all forms of inequality and discrimination against women and girls. It would empower women and girls, so as to achieve equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security.

    g. The goals also seeks to address climate change.
    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Its adverse impacts weaken the ability of all countries to achieve sustainable development. Increases in global temperature, sea level rise among others are seriously affecting coastal areas and low-lying coastal countries, including many least developed countries and Small Island Developing States.
    The aim is to protect the planet from degradation and take urgent action on climate change.

    h. The global goals are indeed global.
    The SDGs are meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability which are￾environmental, social and economic and build upon achievement and lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals.

    i. The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the
    Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and ethical trade.

    j. The global goals are the peoples’ goals.
    Good health, quality education, proper feeding and many others are the needs of the people. The SDGs seek to work on them.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The MDGs were created to address issues in the less developed/poorer countries. It didn’t really put into consideration the developed/wealthy countries. Whereas, SDGs apply to the rich, middle and poor countries.
    While the MDGs were formulated by a group of experts, the SDGs were formulated as a result of consultation process among 193 UN Member States, civil society and other stakeholders.
    The focus of the MDGs were on social needs, while that of SDGs are economic growth, environmental protection and social inclusion.
    Since the MDGs main focus was on the less developed/poorer nations, its goals were just 8 in number. On the other hand, the SDGs which focuses on all nations, has 17 different goals.
    The MDGs focused mainly on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. Whereas, SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world. Education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

  91. Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara says:

    Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara
    2018/243088
    Economics department
    ECO 362 Assignment
    ANSWER
    1. 10 FACTS THAT MAKES THE NEW GLOBAL GOALS STUPENDOUSLY SPECTACULAR ARE:

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5.From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9.While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

    2.HOW IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENT FROM THE MDGs

    From the perspective of THP, here is what I see as the Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.

    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will ive in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  92. Eze Ugochukwu Ethel says:

    Name: Eze Ugochukwu Ethel
    Reg. No: 2018/245419
    Department: Education Economics
    Eco 362
    No.1 Answer
    The spectacular facts about the global goals:
    The global goals are Global: they help tackle the challenges faced by all countries across the world.
    The global goals aims to eradicate extreme poverty: the MDGs which is the predecessors of the global goals helped to cut extreme poverty by half since it’s establishment in 2000 till today but the global goals aim to end poverty in all it’s forms and everywhere by 2030.
    The global goals will leave no one behind: this means that the global goals are for everyone both young and old, rich and poor, Small and big countries. It intends to carry everyone along in it’s goals and targets.
    The global goals will ensure quality education: Quality education here pertains to ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    The global goals will address climate change: climate change is one of the issue we face now and it affects every country in all continent in one way or the other. This global goals aims to check this issue by taking urgent action to combat and provide solutions to such changes.
    The global goals needs you: this means that the goal is not only for the government but it is up to all of us to take action by doing little things like avoiding doing things that can cause environmental degradation, management of some resources like water, sanitation (keeping the environment clean); all this can make a big impact.
    The global goals will change the way the world do business: they want to transform the world’s economy such that it works without violating workers right and harming the environment and this is ensured through sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
    The global goals compliments each other: this means that the goal is one for all and all for one. Example by ending hunger and achieving food security and improved nutrition in goal 2, the 3rd goal have also been met as this will ensure that people lives a healthy life.
    The global goals are the people’s goals: the global goals are developed by all the 193 UN Member States and is geared towards meeting the needs of the people all over the world. It’s goals and target is towards ensuring that problems and challenges faced by all the people all over the world are addressed and combatted.
    The 17 goals and 169 targets are the world’s shared “to-do” list with a 2030 due date: ending preventable diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria and maternal deaths; improving access to education, food, and sanitation; and promoting gender equality. To achieve the ultimate goal of ending extreme poverty, the private sector, local cities, national governments, and non-profits are working together to strengthen institutions, like rule of law, support access to better work, and combat climate change.
    No.2 Answer
    The SDG(sustainable development goals) differs from the Millennium development goals thus:
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development. It is also known as a successor of MDGs (Millennium Development Goals). The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability. Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who’re furthest behind. The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls. The creativity, knowhow, technology and financial resources from all of society is necessary to achieve the SDGs in every context.
    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the United Nations global development goals. These are bold universal agreements to end poverty in all its dimensions and craft an equal, just and secure world. It was adopted by 193 countries of United Nations General Assembly on 25th September 2015. SDG is officially known as “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” It is built on the principle agreed upon under resolution, “The Future We Want”.
    SDG has 169 targets and 232 indicators. Formulation of goals is produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among: – 193 UN member states, – Civil society organizations, – Academicians, – Scientists, – Private sectors and – Other stakeholders all around the world.
    The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.” SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.” while
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels.
    MDGs set concrete targets and indicators for poverty reduction in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration. MDGs emphasized three areas: human capital, infrastructure and human rights (social, economic and political), with the intent of increasing living standards. There were altogether 8 goals with 21 targets and a series of measurable health indicators and economic indicators for each target.
    MDGs are predecessor of SDGs and Formulation of the goals was produced by a small group of technical experts. MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty. It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. MDGs is targeted at developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. They also did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality education. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.

  93. Kalu Divine Oluchi says:

    NAME: Kalu Divine Oluchi
    REG NO: 2018/249490
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    DEPARTMENT: ECO MAJOR

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    ANSWER
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    ANSWER
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    Differences based on Millennium Development Goals Sustainable Development Goals
    Successor or predecessor MDGs are predecessor of SDGs. SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    Number of Goals MDGs consists of 8 goals SDGs consists of 17 goals
    Number of targets MDG had 21 targets SDG has 169 targets
    Number of indicators MDG had 60 indicators SDG has 232 indicators
    Formulation of the goals It was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:

    – 193 UN member states
    – Civil society organizations
    – Academicians
    – Scientists
    – Private sectors and
    – Other stakeholders all around the world
    Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.

    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.

    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.

    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.

    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    Focused areas It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    Development agendas MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. SDG focuses holistically on development.
    Scope of work MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty. Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security
    Cost MDGs were less costly compared to SDG SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    Peace Building MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable develop

  94. Onyezor Jessica says:

    NAME : ONYEZOR JESSICA NGOZICHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/249716
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Ten (10) facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular;
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2.The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3.Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6.Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8.The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    The Sustainable Development Goals is different from the MDGs.
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Transformative for the Planet.
    Similar to the MDGs, eradicating extreme poverty lies at the heart of the SDGs. While each of the 17 proposed goals has its own agenda, they collectively address the many facets that complicated global poverty—a distinction that has become increasingly important as political and environmental landscapes continue to change.

    2. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Comprehensive in Scope.
    At their core, the SDGs and MDGs share the same target (eliminating poverty), however, the new SDGs seek to incorporate a more expansive platform than their 2000 counterpart. Most notably, the goals use the concept of sustainability to weave a comprehensive agenda that extends well beyond the social sector. The 17 proposed SDGs incorporate issues of environmental quality (climate change, biodiversity loss, and deforestation) and sustained economic resilience (improving access to sustainable energy sources, building sustainable cities, and promotion of sustained economic growth).

    3. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Seek a More Integrative Approach to Development.
    Many of the objectives of the MDGs were addressed in isolation of one another (maternal health, hunger, gender equality). The SDGs seek to open communication and efforts between the 17 goals in order to present a united and integrated agenda.

    4. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Operate on a Universal Scale.
    The MDGs focused primarily on how the developed world could finance improvements in developing nations. The SDGs, however, speak to poverty in all nations (developed and developing). If the eradicating poverty is truly at the heart of the goals, then there must be a universal and comprehensive push to find an agenda that speaks to all countries and all levels of economic development, to ensure that no one is left behind.

  95. Unadike Fabian says:

    NAME : UNADIKE FABIAN CHINEMEZU
    REG NO: 2018/249698
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    Ten (10) facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular;
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2.The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3.Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6.Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8.The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    The Sustainable Development Goals is different from the MDGs.
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Transformative for the Planet.
    Similar to the MDGs, eradicating extreme poverty lies at the heart of the SDGs. While each of the 17 proposed goals has its own agenda, they collectively address the many facets that complicated global poverty—a distinction that has become increasingly important as political and environmental landscapes continue to change.

    2. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Be More Comprehensive in Scope.
    At their core, the SDGs and MDGs share the same target (eliminating poverty), however, the new SDGs seek to incorporate a more expansive platform than their 2000 counterpart. Most notably, the goals use the concept of sustainability to weave a comprehensive agenda that extends well beyond the social sector. The 17 proposed SDGs incorporate issues of environmental quality (climate change, biodiversity loss, and deforestation) and sustained economic resilience (improving access to sustainable energy sources, building sustainable cities, and promotion of sustained economic growth).

    3. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Seek a More Integrative Approach to Development.
    Many of the objectives of the MDGs were addressed in isolation of one another (maternal health, hunger, gender equality). The SDGs seek to open communication and efforts between the 17 goals in order to present a united and integrated agenda.

    4. The Sustainable Development Goals Will Operate on a Universal Scale.
    The MDGs focused primarily on how the developed world could finance improvements in developing nations. The SDGs, however, speak to poverty in all nations (developed and developing). If the eradicating poverty is truly at the heart of the goals, then there must be a universal and comprehensive push to find an agenda that speaks to all countries and all levels of economic development, to ensure that no one is left behind.

  96. ONWE, IRENE EBERE says:

    NAME: ONWE, IRENE EBERE
    REG NO: 2018/242201
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: irene.onwe.242201@unn.edu.ng

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    ANSWER NO 1:
    The facts that makes the new global goals stupendously spectacular are;
    1. The Global goals will address climate change: Sustainable Development Goal 13 aims to “take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact”. More specifically, the associated targets of SDG 13 focus on the integration of climate change measures into national policies, the improvement of education, awareness-raising and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warnings.
    2. The global goals promises to change the way the world engages in business: The sustainable development goals plan to transform the world’s economy and it’s operation to work without violating worker’s rights and harmony and the environment.
    3. The global goals will eradicate poverty: Eradicating poverty in all its forms remains one of the greatest challenges facing humanity. While the number of people living in extreme poverty has dropped by more than half – from 1.9 billion in 1990, to 836 million in 2015 – too many people are still struggling to meet the most basic human needs. But the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a bold commitment to finish what what the MDGs started, and end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. In order to achieve the SDGs, we must target those living in vulnerable situations, increasing access to basic resources and services, and support communities affected by conflict and climate-related disasters.
    4. The global goals need every citizen’s full participation(YOU): individuals have the highest responsibility to achieve the SDGs. Moreover, the participation of citizens in the Global Agenda facilitates their awareness and active engagement towards the achievement of the SDGs. You, as a citizen, can act in all aspects of sustainable development and not only relying on the government.
    5. The new global goals are “Global” : The new global goals are global in the sense that it carries everyone along, the less developed countries, the developed countries, everyone and works towards the achievement of these goals in all part of the world.
    6. The global goals are the people’s goals: The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN members, NGOs who are just a representative of the people to convey the people’s thought, what will be beneficial to everyone anywhere in the world. They all work together to develop these goals, to talk about our lapses and give recommendations.
    7. The global goals are hands-on: These means that the global goals contain solid plans on how the world can be changed either through policies or government strategies to change the world and how to make sure that everyone is on board.
    8. The global goals will leave no one left out: This means that the new global goals entails packages for everyone, the young, old, rich, poor, rural dwellers, urban dwellers, everyone. No one is left behind.
    9. The global goals are one for all and all for one: This means that the global goals are all important, no one is less important or more important than the others. They all complement each other and the achievement of one can lead to the accomplishment of another.
    10. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years: The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs, also known as the Global Goals) are 17 goals with 169 targets that all UN Member States have agreed to work towards achieving by the year 2030. They set out a vision for a world free from poverty, hunger and disease.

    ANSWER NO 2:
    1. Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. While
    – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach.

    2. Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”
    While,
    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3. Pillars for sustainable end of hunger:
    MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. While, SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDGs have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    4. Focused areas:
    It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. Meanwhile, SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination
    5. Development agendas :
    MDGs could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. While, SDGs focuses holistically on development.
    6. Scope of work:
    MDGs only emphasized on the prevalent challenges. While, SDGs emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges
    7. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty:
    Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDGs. While, SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security
    8. Cost:
    MDGs were less costly compared to SDG. SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    9. Source of funding:
    MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize while, SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities
    10. Peace Building:
    MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals. Meanwhile, the SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger. Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    11.Data Revolution:
    MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. While SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. While the SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  97. Ocheme Christiana Ene says:

    1) There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.
    1- The proposal by Colombia and Guatemala originated during the Rio+20
    Summit in 2012 when Member States decided to launch a process to define a set
    of Sustainable Development Goals – the SDGS, as a new global framework to re￾direct humanity towards a sustainable pathway.
    2- The SDGs were meant to balance the three dimensions of sustainability￾environmental, social and economic; build upon achievement and lessons learned
    from the Millennium Development Goals; include and transcend the Agenda 21
    (1992) and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002).
    3- The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving UN Member
    States, 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, and thousands of
    actors from the international community making it the biggest consultation in UN
    history.
    4- Nations finally adopted the list of 17 goals and 169 targets in September 2015.
    The breadth and depth of the proposed SDGs is unprecedented. Adopting a
    rights-based approach, the new agenda aims to leave no-one behind and
    promote social inclusion for the most vulnerable groups. At the same time, it
    sets the environmental limits and critical natural thresholds for the use of natural
    resources. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. This may be true, but it
    ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, having a broad
    legitimacy among all parties.

    5-While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at the Global South the
    new goals are designed to be universal. The goals are non legally-binding, with
    each country setting its own priorities and reporting to the High Level Forum on
    Sustainable Development.
    6- The final document Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for
    Sustainable Development states in its Preamble: “This Agenda is a plan of
    action for people, planet and prosperity”, and affirms “the interlinkages and
    integrated nature of the SDGs are of crucial importance in ensuring that the
    purpose of the new Agenda is realised”.
    7- The 2030 Agenda also includes the United Nations Addis Ababa Action Agenda

    adopted in July, which sets out the different means necessary to implement the
    Global Goals, including domestic resources, private finance and Official
    Development Assistance (ODA). While MDGs relied on voluntary aid and
    individual promises from countries, perpetuating a dependence on donor-recipient
    aid relationships, SDGs aims to promote a paradigm shift of financing beyond
    ‘development aid’, with multi-stakeholder partnerships, social investment and
    ethical trade.
    8- A key challenge is how to engage the public in support of a complex agenda.
    The UN is currently rolling out a major advertising campaign led by film writer
    and director Richard Curtis.
    9- As with all intergovernmental agreements the success or lack of it will be due
    to the political support governments give to implementation. Here a key role of
    stakeholders will be to continually remind governments of their commitments.
    These governments will change a number of times in the next 15 years in many
    countries and the succeeding governments must be educated and reminded of
    these commitments.
    10- Which country is most likely to complete the goals first? According to a recent
    study of all 34 OECD states conducted by Germany’s Bertelsmann Foundation the
    countries best positioned to achieve the new UN goals are the four Scandinavian
    nations: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with Switzerland following in
    fifth place. The nations with the lowest ranking are the USA, Greece, Chile,
    Hungary, Turkey, and Mexico.

    2) 2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to the society.

  98. Mbah+Chisom+Mary says:

    NAME: Mbah Chisom Mary
    DEPARTMENT: Education/ Economics
    REG NO: 2018/244295
    EMAIL: chisommary6959@gmail.com

    ANSWERS
    1)
    a) The Global Goals need you : The task of implementing the Global Goals should not be left for the government alone, all hand should be on the desk to make it a success. Many atimes all love to shift blames to the government but in essence it shouldn’t be so.
    b) The Global Goals will change the way the world does business : The world today is in big trouble because of the rate of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each day . Today in history global warming is the aftermath of this effect . The environment is highly polluted and in effect is highly unsafe for habitation. The global goals want to change the way the world do business. They want to transform the world’s economic venture into a harmless one and strongly geared activities to protecting works rights
    c) The Global Goals are one for all and all for one : Here the global goals are all relevant and significant. No goal is more important than the other. They are all necessary and inseparable from each other.
    d) The Global Goals will address climate change : Climate change is one of the biggest problems of the world today, no country or nation or race is exempted. The global goals is vehemently seeking for a remedy.
    e) The Global Goals will eradicate extreme poverty : Poverty is one the things like a deadly diseases ravaging our world today. The aim of the global goals is eliminate poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    F) The Global Goals will leave no one behind : The Global Goals are in for everyone; country,race, personality etc no one is to be exempted,non is neglected. In a nutshell mankind; all human race is incorporated and are to be taken cognizant of.
    g) The Global Goals are hands – on: The plan aims at making the whole world better for humanity . It’s plan is to get everyone involved. All is included in this struggle of betterment.
    h) The Global Goals are “Global” : The interest of the global goals centre around the whole universe. It not one sided, it majors in totality the sorting the challenges of the whole globe.
    I) The Global Goals are the people’s goal: The Global Goals is a consensus of all. The coming to light of these goals is the agreement and decision of all countries, organizations,male and female etc. The 193 counties of the UN were all actively involved in it’s enactment .
    j) The Global Goals are the world’s ultimate to do list for the next 15 years: These goals serves as the world watchword that should be achieved before 2030. These goals are to make the world a better and harmless place for living. Hence all Nations are involved in this struggle.
    2

    1) Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2) Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3) More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4) Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5) Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created as one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen input on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 .
    6) Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7) Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8) Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9) Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10) Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  99. CHIGOZIE+ONYEDIKACHUKWU+GODSWILL+2018/241849 says:

    1. The 10 facts that makes the Global goals spectacular are:
    a. The global Goal need you: Not just the government is entitled to achieving these goals but every one of us, the citizen. As little things or effects achieve great Impacts.
    b. The global goal changes the way the world does businesses: it’s aimed at working in such a way that the rights of people are not being violated at any point in time.
    c. The global goals are one for all and all for one: No goal is more important than another. They should all be treated equally.
    d. The goals addresses climate change: Climate change stands to be one of the greatest challenges going on in our current world which these goals seeks to amend.
    e. The global goals seeks to reduce extreme hunger: which is one of the greatest problem of some African nations. This proves for the uniqueness of the Global goals.
    f. The goals leaves no one behind: As a matter of emphasis, these goals has no one in mind, meaing it’s meant for the benefits of everyone and hence trys to carry everyone along
    g. They are Hands On: this means that it contains concrete plans on how to change the world to being a better place. All strategies of doing so, has been planed.
    h.As the name says “global” so it is. It’s takes not just the problem of a particular states but of the entire globe
    I. It’s the people’s goals: The goals have the intrests of the 193 countries and it’s entries population at heart.
    j.The global goals constitute the world’s to do list for the next 15years

  100. Nelson Favour Ogechukwu says:

    Name: Nelson Favour Ogechukwu
    Reg No: 2018/245389
    Dept: Education Economics
    Email: nelsonfavour38@gmail.com
    Eco. 362(5-3-2022—Online Discussion/Quiz 4—Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs)
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    First of all, we have to agree that SDGs or otherwise the NEW GLOBAL GOAL is a paradym from the old goals referred to as MDGs and because it is a shift, there are facts that makes it stupendously spectacular. Ten of these facts are stated and discussed as follows.

    The goal is an idea that came from the largest in UN history; The Rio+20 summit in 2012 and it was proposed Guatemala and Columbia to follow on the already existing goal established in 2000 which aimed at halving global poverty. Poverty index was then rated by living standard that falls below $1.25. and because poverty seemed to been halved, the suggestion came as a way of improving on the goal to cut across not just poverty but other burning issues around the globe. In my own views, that was a very wise and laudable suggestion and for UN to have adopted means they are forthright in observation and taking significant decisions over global burning issues. It is critical to mention that without such decision, various problems like HIV/AIDS, global warming, lack of enough food and drinking, then most one Covid 19 which came as a shock would not have taken care of the way we see them today.

    The new is very unique on its own owing the widespread consultation it received before being brought to acceptance. The consultation has been adjudged the widest ever in UN history. This is because the unprecedented survey that brought it involved over 83 nations engaging over 7 million people. It is very pertinent to state without equivocation that such goals with that widespread of consultations couldn’t have been set in error and as we all could see the results emanating it, I can conclude that they were researched.

    There are 17 of those goals agreed upon by nations despite some critics arguing they are too many, yet another unique characteristic is that they are not legally binding, aimed at stopping endless legal obstructions. With this characteristic, the goals have had and still having smooth sail wherever necessary and this quite interesting. What happened recently in the case o0f patency over covid 19 vaccines where poorer nations have been granted right to produce those essential vaccines within their country is great evidence to thus effect, where this would not have been possible without such unique characteristic of the New Goal.
    The new goal as earlier stated unlike the MGDs is purely a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. This unique characteristic makes the New Goal quite outstanding in that while the former emphasized solely on poverty halving, this could be described as all encompassing for the fact it cuts across every other global burning issues. With the new goals and its unique characteristics, we could be rest assured that the world wouldn’t be taken unawares by unforeseen situations.

    The new goal received widespread acceptance among, experts, professionals and professional bodies, institutions and related bodies and this is because of the aforementioned reason bordering on general matters of global concerns unlike the former 0that only dwelt on poverty. The cautious thumbs up given to the new goal by The International Council for Science’s independent Assessment is evidence to this. With such assessments from a highly revered and renowned body, we are more than convinced that UN took the right step in the right direction with the new goals.

    Of course, in every 12 there must be judas, there are those definitely didn’t with new goals, for instance, Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of intergovernmental paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nations state failure. This in simple terms means that nations with lacking in resources, nations with improper governance and failure in strategic policies cannot meet with the goals despite the fact they agree the goals are vey nice when looked at. Meanwhile, we can argue against this for the fact that with aids and other policies from well to do nations around the globe towards nations as described, we could b0e sure that these are not left behind in the struggle to meet the new goal. This has been demonstrated in covid 19 fight, COP20, COP21 and many others.

    The goal is highly legitimized. Though the argument by lancet could be considered valid at some point, but considering that the goals have been heavily negotiated, expectation of perfection could only dwell in fringes of one’s imagine. Nevertheless, since they are about values, they have broad legitimacy among all parties and that alone is a big plus. With such legitimacy we are sure that UN took the best decision by adopting the new goals.

    The new goals seek gains for all nations: The New goals unlike the former (MGDs) that only focused on poorer nations has put all nations in proper consideration due its all-encompassing nature. This is the most beautiful part of the new goal and I am sure it helped to earn for the wide acceptance and legitimacy it is enjoying. There is nothing as beautiful as seeing that your nation will benefit from global solutions to global problems. Only an insane nation would want to dissociate herself from it or cast doubts on such a beautiful venture.

    Lack of widespread publicity: Well, for the fact these goals are shift from the former, it has suffered some lack in awareness amongst individuals in various nations of the world. This could be considered normal, but should not be allowed to fester if the gains have to be capitalized and harnessed widely. I am sure it is because of this, COP and other global forums of various years past and years to come have been instituted, the bodies that oversee awareness creation and treatment of HIV/AIDS has also been doing wonderfully well to this effect. There have been several other programs organized to alleviate poverty and to create wealth among individuals in various nations an have helped and still helping to popularize these laudable global efforts as seen in the new goals. All hands must be on deck to get it to the permanent site to ensure everyone becomes aware and contribute their little quota because that is the only way to make goals reach their purpose.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    MDGs are predecessor of SDGs while SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    MDGs consists of 8 goals while SDGs consists of 17 goals.
    MDG had 21 targets while SDG has 169 targets.
    MDG had 60 indicators while SDG has 232 indicators.
    MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction. While the SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” While SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government. While SDGs have addreation and government participation.
    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty. While SDG focuses holistically on development.
    MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges. While SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.
    Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG while SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security.
    MDGs were less costly compared to SDG while SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs.
    MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals while SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. While SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies. While SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

    Reference
    https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/09/10-things-to-know-about-the-sustainable-development-goals/
    https://www.publichealthnotes.com/mdgs-vs-sdgs-17-differences/

  101. Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu says:

    Name: Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu
    Dept. : Economics
    Reg no: 2018/245470
    Course code: Eco 362
    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:
    • The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    • The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    • Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    • From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    • Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    • This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    • The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    • While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    Top 10 Differences between the MDGs and the SDGs.
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development goals.

  102. Urama Isaac Anenechukwu says:

    Name: Urama Isaac Anenechukwu
    Reg. no: 2018/243823
    Course Code: Eco 362
    Department: Economics
    Lecturer: Dr. Anthony Orji, (Rt. Hon. Mr President)
    4th Online Assignment on Development Economics 2.
    QUESTION NUMBER 1:
    There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.
    1. The new global goals will bring a lot of changes that will affect the way the world does business. They want to transform the world economy so that it works without violating workers right and harming the environment.
    2.The new global goals are one for all and all for one. Meaning that no gaol is more important than the other
    3. The global gaols will address climate change: climate change is one of the mist
    4. The goals need you. It’s not only up to governments, but it’s up to all of us to take actions. Even little positive actions taken by you and I can make big impact
    5. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty. The procedures of global goals of the MDGs have helped cut extreme poverty by half from their establishment in the year 2000 until today. That’s actually a great achievement even though it’s not enough. The global goals aims to end poverty in all its forms and every where in 2030
    6. The global goals will leave no one behind. They are for young and old people, for small and for big countries, for people living in rural areas and people in busy cuties, they will leave no one behind.
    7. The global goals are hands-on. They contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to at for it and how make sure that every body is on board.
    8. The global goals are “Global”. They tackle challenges for all countries across the globe.
    9. The global goals are the people’s goals. The goals have been developed by all the 193 UN member States, NGOs and people like you and I all working together
    10. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years. The 17 gaols are for making the planet a better place by 2030 which includes, ending poverty, fighting inequality and fixing climate change.

    LET ME QUICKLY ITEMIZE THE 17 NEW DEVELOPMENT GAOLS
    Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
    Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
    Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
    Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
    Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
    Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
    Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
    Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
    Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
    Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and

    QUESTION NUMBER 2:
    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MDGS AND THE SDGs.
    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    2 Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”
    build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
    Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

  103. NGADI GOD'SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME: NGADI GOD’SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO: 2018/242405
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    1- Here are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular:

    * The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    * The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    * Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    SDGsSource: Jakob Trollbäck

    * The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    * From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    * Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    * This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    * The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.

    * While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    * So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2
    MDGs SDGs
    Number of Goals: 8 17
    Number of Targets: 21 169
    Number of Indicators: 60 232
    General scope/ focus: Social Economic growth,
    social inclusion &
    environmental
    protection
    Target: Developing countries, Entire world (rich
    particularly the poorest. and poor)

    Formulation: Produced by a Result of
    group of experts. consultation
    process among:
    -193 UN Member
    States
    -Civil society
    -Other
    stakeholders

  104. Umeh Chinaza Lucy says:

    Name: umeh Chinaza Lucy
    Reg number: 2018/246901
    Dept: Education Economics
    Course code: Eco 362
    Assignment

    Question 1
    Least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    Answer
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7.This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties which is a big deal.
    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.
    10.Zero hunger
    End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture More than 750 million people suffer from hunger worldwide, the vast majority in developing countries. This number is expected to go up by over 100 million in 2020 alone due to COVID-19. Hunger and malnutrition are barriers to sustainable development because hungry people are less productive, more prone to disease, and less able to improve their livelihoods.To nourish today’s 750 million hungry people and the additional 2 billion people expected by 2050, a profound change of the global food and agriculture system is needed.To end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by 2030 and ensure that all people especially children have access to sufficient and nutritious food all year round requires promoting sustainable agricultural practices such as supporting small scale farmers and allowing equal access to land, technology and markets.International cooperation is also necessary to provide investment in infrastructure and technology that improves agricultural productivity.

    Question Number 2
    In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    Answer
    1.Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.
    2.MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries. It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients. SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor. It appeals all countries to take action.7 Jun 2019
    3.Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    4.Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    5.More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    6.Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    7.Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    8.Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    9.Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    10.Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    11.Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    12.Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education of learning and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  105. GWOM PAUL JACOB says:

    Gwom Paul Jacob
    Economies
    Eco 362 Assignment: Comparing the MDGs and the SDGs)

    Successor or predecessor
    MDGs are predecessor of SDGs.
    SDGs are successor to the MDGs.

    Number of Goals
    MDGs consists of 8 goals
    SDGs consists of 17 goals

    Number of targets
    MDG had 21 targets
    SDG has 169 targets

    Number of indicators
    MDG had 60 indicator
    SDG has 232 indicators
    Formulation of the goals
    It was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries.
    SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    – 193 UN member states

    – Civil society organizations

    – Academicians

    – Scientists

    – Private sectors and

    – Other stakeholders all around the world

    Zero goals – MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction.

    – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”

    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.

    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation
    Focused areas It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination

    Development agendas
    MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty.
    SDG focuses holistically on development.

    Scope of work
    MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges

    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty.
    Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG
    SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security

    Cost
    MDGs were less costly compared to SDG
    SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs

    Source of funding
    MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize
    SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy

    Peace Building
    MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals
    SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.

    Data Revolution
    MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability.
    SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    Quality Education
    The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.
    SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.

  106. Stephen Faith Kuranen says:

    NAME: STEPHEN FAITH KURANEN
    REG.NO:2018/242333
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS (362)
    ANSWER.
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere, Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.
    2. End hunger, achieve food security and nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
    3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
    4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
    5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls, strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.
    6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
    7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all.
    8. Building infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and fostering innovation.
    9. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable, ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns.
    10. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

    How are the SDGs different from the MDGs?

    The MDGs were intentionally kept at a small number, and with a few relatively realistic sub-goals. Goal number one was to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty. This was an ambitious target, but it was still met within 10 years. In contrast, there are 17 SDGs, and more than 100 sub-goals. The goals are many, and to some extent conflicting. The number one poverty target is to eradicate all poverty. While the next target is to “reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions”. This is a large set of very specific goals as it is defined along many (all) dimensions, but at the same time it is not uniform across countries, and also less ambitious than the first goal to eradicate all poverty. The World Bank has a more realistic specification of the target, that is, to reduce poverty to 3% of the world population by 2030.

    Reference.
    https://www.cmi.no/news/1592-five-things-you-need-to-know-about-the-sdgs

  107. Oyem Lawrence Ifechukwude 2018/241846 Economics says:

    1a. The global goal are hands-on: they contain detailed plans on how to transform the world and ensuring everyone is on the plan.
    1b. They are global goals: they address problems that confront all countries of the world.
    1c. They are world’s ultimate to-do list: by 2030 these goals aims at making the planet a better place. the 17 goals with its 169 targets will end extreme poverty, fix climate change and fight inequality.
    1d. The global goals are the people’s goal: they are developed by the 193 UN members, NGOs and individuals.
    1e. The global goals need you: it requires all individuals to take action and not restricted to governments.
    1f. It will transform the way the world does business: they want to ensure that the workings of the economy on human right and the environment are in harmony.
    1g. The aim is to eradicate poverty: the MDGs reduction of extreme poverty by half was necessary but not sufficient. The SDGs intends total eradication of poverty.
    1i. The global goals will address climate change: the goal intends to address climate issues which confronts the world.
    1j. The SDGs are all for one and one for all: the goals complement each other and are of equal value.

    2a. The global goals applies to all countries across the globe, while SDGs is limited to developing countries.
    2b. The global goals are to address the root cause of poverty and eliminate it, whereas the SDGs are only centered on reducing poverty.
    2c. The SDGs will build on MDGs success and address cities and human settlement, inequalities, energy, sustainable consumption and production, climate change, peace and justice, decent jobs.
    2d. The global goals is centered on people, planet, peace, prosperity and partnership, whereas the SDGs failed to take climate change into consideration.

  108. Oyibe Ebere Izuinya says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA
    REG. NO: 2018/245131
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 362 (4)

    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    1. The global goals are one for all and all for one which implies that no goal is more important than the other, they all complement each other.
    2. The global goals will change the way the world does business by transforming the world economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.
    3. The global goals will eradicate poverty, the global goals aims at ending poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030
    4. The global goals will leave no one behind. The goals are for both young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural and people living in busy cities. Thus everyone is to be carried along
    5. The global goals are “global”. The goals will tackle challenges for all countries across the globe without leaving any country behind.
    6. The global goals are the people’s goals. The goals have been developed by all the 193UN member states, NGOs as well as people like us working together.
    7. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years. The 17 goals are aimed at making this planet a better place by 2030, which includes ending extreme poverty, fighting inequalities and fixing climate change.
    8. The global goals will address climate change: this is because climate change is one of the most pressing issues of our time and it affects every country on every continent.
    9. The global goals are hands-on as they contain concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is onboard.
    10. The global goals needs everyone t participate because even little things can make impact. This implies that unlike the millennium development goals where the government plays a major role, it is not only up to government but to all of us to take action in order to achieve this global goals.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms
    of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.
    The differences between the sustainable development goals and millennium development goals are as follows:
    1. Sustainable development goals are universal and apply to all countries, while the millennium development goals were intended for action in developing countries only: This means that the SDGs captures the needs of all countries around the the globe both rich and poor, young and old, meanwhile the attention of the the goals of the MDGs was mostly on the welfare of developing countries.
    2. Sustainable development goals are more futuristic in nature while the millennium development goals were not
    3. The sustainable development goals has 17 goals with 169 targets which are global in nature, while the millennium development goals has 8 goals with 18 targets which focus on the poorest.
    4. The general scope and focus of the SDGs is on economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection while the general focus of the MDGs is directed towards social development
    5. The SDGs builds on the successes and momentum of the MDGs with the ambitions to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, energy, climate change, sustainable production and consumption as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions . While the MDG is a product of the Millennium Summit that took place in September 2000 and a distillation of development goals identified at various international conferences and Summits held in the 1990s.
    6. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. While the MDGs were not so.
    7. SDGs emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges while MDGs only emphasized on the prevalent challenges
    8. SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger, while MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals.
    9. The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality of education. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.whereas, SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”
    10. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”while MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability.
    11. MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government while SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e. SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.

  109. Onuh Onyinye says:

    Name :Onuh Onyinye
    Reg number :2018 /241872
    Department :Economics department
    Email :onuhonyinye7@gmail.com

    Answer to question 1 :

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

    The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

    Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who’re furthest behind. The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, AIDS, and discrimination against women and girls, etc.

    Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012, the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.

    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.

    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.

    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.

    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.

    6. Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.

    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.

    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of goalkeepers.

    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.

    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Answer to question 2:

    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

    There are certain key similarities. The UN Secretary-General has mandated that the SDGs not lose the key successful elements of the MDGs – that they were clear, concise, time-bound and measurable.

    1. Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.

    2. Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.

    3. More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.

    4. Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”

    5. Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).

    6. Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.

    7. Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.

    8. Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.

    9. Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”

    10. Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  110. Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Name: Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept : Economics
    Reg no:2018/249531
    Course:Eco 362

    Assignment
    1. There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details
    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    (Ans)

    (I)The global goals is not a onesided goals that is limited to the government,but it requires even the masses to

    take action in order to have effective impacts.

    (ii)it will have a great impact to the world economy without violating workers right and harm to the environment,the SDGS goals promote people right ,it ensure equality for all no matter the gender, race e.t.c.evaluating the SDGS goals you see that these goals is geared towards promoting the social welfare of people, These have a great impact on the global economy.

    (iii) All the 17goals are important,none of each of them should be seen as important than the others,they all have a way of affecting people live positively, they should rather been seen as complement to each other.

    (iv)It address environmental issues like climate change, which is a global issues in the world,there are countries faced with climatic issues, SDGS tends to address these because it have a way of affecting the lives of people.

    (V)it aims to eradicate extreme poverty in every form by looking for ways, policies to ensure food security,improved nutrition, promote sustainable agriculture and so on.

    (Vi)The goals is for everybody both young and old , developed or developing countries, people living in residential areas or rural area,the goal is not limited to a particular set of people,it is for the benefits for the global world.

    (Vii)They contain series of plans on how to make a world a better place and how to make sure that everybody is on board.

    (Viii)it tackles challenges for all countries across the globe,it is a universal goals.

    (ix)The goals have been developed by all the 193 un members state,NGo All working together to achieve these global goals.

    (X)They are the world to-do list for the next 15years:The 17 goals emphasize on making the global world a better place by 2030 which includes poverty reduction,gender inequality, climatic issues e.t.c

    (2) Successor or predecessor MDGs are predecessor of SDGs. SDGs are successor to the MDGs.
    Number of Goals:-MDGs consists of 8 goals SDGs consists of 17 goals.
    Number of targets :-MDG had 21 targets SDG has 169 targets
    Number of indicators:-MDG had 60 indicators SDG has 232 indicators
    Formulation of the goals:-It was produced by a small group of technical experts It was produced by UN Open Working Group (OWG) made up of 30 members representing 70 countries. SDG drafting process also included intense consultation process among:
    – 193 UN member states
    – Civil society organizations
    – Academicians
    – Scientists
    – Private sectors and
    – Other stakeholders all around the world
    Zero goals:– MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty.
    – It had narrow focus on poverty reduction.
    – The SDGs are designed to finish the job to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets.
    – It has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.

    Applicability – MDGs mainly targeted developing/least developed or poor countries.
    – It was designed in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.”

    – SDGs targets and applies uniformly to all the countries; rich, middle income and poor.
    – It appeals all countries to take action.
    Pillars for sustainable end of hunger:- MDGs ignored the three crucial pillars for sustainable end of hunger i.e. empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and collaborating with local government.SDGs have addressed these three pillars more strongly i.e.
    SDG have ensured stronger gender roles, people’s participation and government participation.
    Focused areas:-It mainly focused on social dimensions and better health It focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health and environmental protection. SDGs also strengthen equity, human rights and non-discrimination.
    Development agendas:-MDG could not focus holistically on development. It also missed to address root causes of poverty.SDG focuses holistically on development.
    Scope of work:-MDG only emphasized on the prevalent challenges SDG emphasizes on present and upcoming challenges.
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty:-Hunger and poverty are combined together in MDG, SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from hunger and, food and nutrition security
    Cost:-MDGs were less costly compared to SDG SDGs are much more costly compared to MDGs
    Source of funding.MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows, which did not materialize .SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy
    Peace Building:-MDGs did not include peace building in their core agenda and goals.SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    Data Revolution MDGs did not prioritize monitoring, evaluation and accountability. SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education :-The MDGs focused on quantity (e.g.: high enrollment rates) rather than quality. This might have declined quality of education in many societies.SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  111. Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya (2018/242412) Economics major says:

    Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya
    2028/242412
    Economics

    Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere
    SDGs Bar

    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Ending poverty and hunger for all persons with disabilities (Goals 1 and 2) | Infographic
    Events
    October 17: International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
    Targets
    By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day.
    By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions.
    Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable.
    By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of 13 property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including micro-finance.
    By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters.
    Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions.
    Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.

    Goal 3:
    Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
    SDGs Bar
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all persons with disabilities (Goal 3) | Infographic
    Accessing sexual and reproductive health services and reproductive rights for all persons with disabilities (Targets 3.7 and 5.6) | Infographic
    Targets:
    By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
    By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
    By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
    By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
    Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
    By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents 3.7
    By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
    Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
    By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.

    Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
    SDGs Bar
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education for all persons with disabilities (Goal 4) Infographic
    Targets:
    By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes
    By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education
    By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
    By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
    By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
    By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
    By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
    Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
    By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.

    Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Accessing sexual and reproductive health services and reproductive rights for all persons with disabilities (Targets 3.7 and 5.6) | Infographic
    Achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls with disabilities (SDG 5) | Infographic
    Targets:
    End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
    Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
    Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
    Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
    Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic and public life.
    Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
    Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
    Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
    Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.

    Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Ensuring the availability of water and sanitation for persons with disabilities
      Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Ensuring the availability of water and sanitation for persons with disabilities (Goal 6) | Infographic
    Targets
    By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
    By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
    By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
    By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
    By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
    By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
    By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies.

    Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
    Targets:
    By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
    By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
    By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
    By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
    By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support.

    Goal 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Promoting full and productive employment and decent work for persons with disabilities (Goal 8) | Infographic

    Targets:
    Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
    Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
    Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
    Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
    By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
    By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
    Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
    Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

    Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
    Targets:
    Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
    Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
    Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
    By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
    Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

    Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries
    SDGs Bar
    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Reducing inequalities for persons with mental impairments or psychosocial disabilities (SDG 10) Infographic
    Targets:
    By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.
    By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
    Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
    Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
    Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
    Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions.

    Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

    Policy Briefs and Infographics
    Making cities and communities inclusive and sustainable for persons with disabilities.
    Targets:
    By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
    By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
    By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
    Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural he

    2.
    The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs.

  112. Agbo+Peace+Uchechukwu,+Reg.+No;2018/242343 says:

    Name; Agbo Peace Uchechukwu
    Reg No; 2018/242343
    Dept; Economics

    Question 1; There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.

    Answer;
    These are the 10 key facts about the SDGs:
    1. The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    2. The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    3. Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    4. The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda says “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,”.
    5. From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    6. Not everyone agrees to the Sustainable Development Goals. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    7. This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    8. The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    9. While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the Sustainable Development Goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    10. So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    Question 2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    Answer:
    The differences between the SDGs and the MDGs;
    1. The Sustainable Development Goals are 17 while the Millennium Development Goals are 8.
    2. The General scope of the MDGs is Social while that of the SDGs are growth, social inclusion and environmental protection.
    3. The SDGs targets on the Entire world (rich, poor and middle) while the MDGs targets on developing countries, particularly the poorest.
    4. The SDGs has 232 number of Indicators while the MDGs has 60 number of Indicators.

  113. Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem 2018/241844 says:

    Name : Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem
    Reg no : 2018/241844
    Dept : Economics

    1a) The no poverty goal has been amazing because more effort has been put towards poverty alleviation all over the world.
    b) The Zero hunger goal has really helped in reducing hunger in the world. Through provision of food and other materials/services through most non govt organizations.
    c) Good health and well being goal has had alot of people in the world are in great health and well being.
    d) Quality education. This is a very important because the more educated people we have in a country the more skilled labour would be available. And the more development is expected.
    e) Gender equality. This program was aim is to eliminate all types of violence against all women and girls in the public and private sectors, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
    f) Clean water and sanitation. By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, stop dumping and reduce release of hazardous chemicals and materials, reducing the amount of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
    g) Peace Justice and strong institutions. This program was aim was to strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.
    h) Life on land. The target of this program is by 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world and also Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.
    i) Life below water. This program aims to effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.
    j) Responsible consumption and production. This program aims to rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.

    2) The MDGs have been superseded by the sustainable development goals. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.
    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.
    In September 2015, the General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Building on the principle of “leaving no one behind”, the new Agenda emphasizes a holistic approach to achieving sustainable development for all. The SDGs also explicitly include disability and persons with disabilities 11 times. Disability is referenced in multiple parts of the SDGs, specifically in the parts related to education, growth and employment, inequality, accessibility of human settlements, as well as data collection and the monitoring of the SDGs.

  114. Neboh chiziterem Margeretrose says:

    Neboh chiziterem Margeretrose
    2018/242341
    Economics
    chiziteremmargret@gmail.com

    1) Here are 10 key facts about the SDGs:

    The idea came from the Rio+20 Summit in 2012 – the largest summit in UN history. Columbia and Guatemala proposed goals to follow on from the Millennium Development Goals, set up in 2000 to halve poverty by 2015. Poverty, as measured by living on less than $1.25 a day, has halved. Setting goals works – in a complex world, organizations and countries can align their agendas and prioritize funding.
    The new goals are the result of a three-year process involving 83 national surveys engaging over 7 million people, making it the biggest consultation in UN history.
    Nations finally agreed on a list of 17 goals. Some critics argue that 17 are too many. The goals will not be legally binding, part of a new trend in international policy to prevent endless legal obstructions.
    SDGsSource: Jakob Trollbäck

    The 35-page United Nations text outlining the post-2015 development agenda is available here. “This agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity,” it says.
    From governance experts to climate researchers, the academic community largely supports the goals. The International Council for Science’s independent assessment of the goals gave them a cautious thumbs up.
    Not everyone agrees. The Lancet described the goals as “fairy tales, dressed in the bureaucratese of intergovernmental narcissism, adorned with the robes of multilateral paralysis, and poisoned by the acid of nation-state failure”.
    This may be true, but it ignores the fact that the goals have been heavily negotiated, so will never be perfect. Instead, they are about values. However, they have broad legitimacy among all parties – which is a big deal.
    The concern now is how to make people care about the SDGs. If no one notices them, they won’t attract the attention they need to build momentum. This is a very real issue because the media has largely ignored them to date. British film-maker Richard Curtis aims to bring the goals to 7 billion people. Part one of the plan has been to work with the Swedish designer Jakob Trollbäck to rebrand them as the Global Goals and create an army of #goalkeepers.
    While the Millennium Development Goals were aimed at poorer countries (more or less), the new goals are designed to be universal. This is a monumental shift in thinking about sustainable development from a worldview where rich nations support poorer nations to develop, towards a view where the actions of all, particularly those in wealthy nations, risk destabilizing important parts of Earth’s life-support system – most obviously the climate, the oceans, biodiversity and the forests.
    So which country is most likely to complete the goals first? Sweden, according to one report. Norway, Denmark, Finland and Switzerland are close behind.

    2)
    Zero Goals: The MDG targets for 2015 were set to get us “half way” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, with similar proportional goals in other fields. The SDGs are designed to finish the job – to get to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets. This approach will call for very different strategies: getting “halfway there” encouraged countries to “do the easiest parts first.” Getting to zero requires a real focus on the empowering the poorest and hardest to reach. Much of the impetus and evidence for the success of zero-based goals comes from Brookings Institute, the new World Bank “Zero Poverty” goals, and the second inaugural address of US President Obama.
    Universal Goals: The MDGs were in the context of “rich donors aiding poor recipients.” Since then the world has changed dramatically. Official development assistance (ODA) is now tiny compared to other resources flows, and the majority of the poorest people live in the middle-income countries. Inequality is the issue, not national-level poverty – and this applies to rich and poor countries alike. The SDGs will then be a set of goals applicable to every country.
    More Comprehensive Goals: There were 8 MDGs. The High Level Panel recommended 12 Goals, and the Open Working Group final report recommends 17 “Focus Areas” that go beyond the symptoms of poverty, to issues of peace, stability, human rights and good governance. This will undoubtedly make mobilization around these goals more difficult, but everyone would agree that the complexity of sustainable global development was not fully represented by the MDGs.
    Addressing THP Pillars: While THP celebrated and firmly committed to the MDGs, they largely ignored the three pillars of what we see as crucial for the sustainable end of hunger: empowering women, mobilizing everyone, and partnering with local government. The SDGs address these critical elements (to date) much more effectively, with far stronger gender goals, people’s participation and government “at all levels.”
    Inclusive Goal Setting: The MDGs were created through a top-down process. The SDGs are being created in one of the most inclusive participatory processes the world has ever seen (click here for the diagram) – with face-to-face consultations in more than 100 countries, and millions of citizen inputs on websites. Civil society has been well-organized throughout – coordinated globally through Beyond2015 (click here).
    Distinguishing Hunger and Poverty: In the MDGs, Hunger and Poverty were lumped together in MDG1 – as if solving one would solve the other. So much has been learned about nutrition since that time, and the SDGs treat the issue of poverty separately from Food and Nutrition Security.
    Funding: The MDGs were largely envisioned to be funded by aid flows – which did not materialize. The SDGs put sustainable, inclusive economic development at the core of the strategy, and address the ability of countries to address social challenges largely through improving their own revenue generating capabilities.
    Peace Building: Over the past 15 years, we’ve seen that peaceful, reasonably well governed countries prosper. After 2015, experts predict that the majority of those in extreme poverty will live in conflict-affected states. The inclusion of peace-building is thus critical to the success of ending hunger and poverty — yet was totally ignored in the MDGs. It is controversial in the SDGs, but so far it has remained there.
    Data Revolution: The MDGs said nothing about monitoring, evaluation and accountability – the SDGs target by 2020 to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.”
    Quality Education: The MDGs focused on quantity (eg, high enrollment rates) only to see the quality of education decline in many societies. The SDGs represent the first attempt by the world community to focus on the quality of education – of learning – and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: “education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development.”

  115. Ekpe Esther says:

    Name: Ekpe Esther Chidinma
    Reg. Number: 2018/250324
    Course name: Development Economics
    Course code: Eco 326

    1) There are at least 10 facts that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular. Clearly discuss and analyse them in details.

    i) The global goals need you: it’s not only up to government but it’s up to all of us to take action.
    ii) The global goals will change the way the world does business – by transforming the world economy so it works without violating workers rights and harming the environment.
    iii) The global goals are one for all and all for one. No goal is more important than the other, they all compliment each other.
    iv) The global goals will address climate change:- climate change is one of the most pressing issues if our time and it affects countries on every continent.
    v) The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty: the predecessors i.e the MDS have helped cut extreme poverty by half from establishment but it is not enough.
    vi) The global goals will leave no one behind:- they are for young and old people, for small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and busy cities.
    vii) The global goals are hands-on:- They have contain concrete plans on how to change the world, and how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    viii) The global goals are “Global”: they tackle challenges for all countries across the global.
    ix) The global goals are the people’s goals – the goals have been developed by the 193 UN members states, NGOs and people like you working together.
    x) The global goals are the world ultimate to-do- list for the next 15 years.

    2. The SDGs build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which embodies specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The SDGs expanded its scope to 17 goals from the eight (8) goals in the MDGs, which covers universal goals on fighting inequalities, increasing economic growth, providing decent jobs, sustainable cities and human settlements, industrialization, tackling ecosystems, oceans, climate change, sustainable consumption and production as well as building peace and strengthening justice and institutions. Unlike the MDGs, which only targets the developing countries, the SDGs apply to all countries whether rich, middle or poor countries. The SDGs are also nationally-owned and country-led, wherein each country is given the freedom to establish a national framework in achieving the SDGs. In view of the forgoing discourse, clearly anayse, lucidly discuss and unequivocally explain how the Sustainable Development Goals different from the MDGs.

    The 17 sustainable development goals with 169 target are broader scope and will go further than the MDGs by addressing the root cause of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people.
    Building on the success and momentum of the global goals cover ground with ambitious to address inequalities, economic growth, decent jobs, cities and human settlement, industrialization energy, climate change, sustainable consumption and produce peace and justice.
    The new goals are universal and apply to countries, where as the MDGs were intended for action in developing countries only.
    A core feature of SDGs has been the means of implantation – the mobilization if financial resources as well as capacity, building and the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
    The new goals recognize that talking climate change is essential for sustainable developed and poverty eradication. SDGs aims to promote urgent action to combat change and it’s impacts.