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Eco.362 (1-2-2022–Online Discussion/Quiz 3—Evaluating the Performance of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Good Governance)

 In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.

In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

 

2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

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  4. Avatar AJULUCHUKWU JOY IFEOMA says:

    NAME: AJULUCHUKWU JOY IFOMA
    REG NO. 2018/241840
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS II
    EMAIL: ajuuifeoma1@gmail.com
    DISCUSSION 4
    QUESTION 1.There are at least 10 factors that make the new global goals stupendously spectacular.

    The factors that make the new global goals spectacular are;

    1. The global goal needs everybody not only the government but the action of every individual no matter how little.
    2. The global goal will change the way the world does business -The global goal intend to transform the world economy so as to make the environment less harmful for workers without violating their rights.
    3. The Global goals are one for all and all for one- no goal is significant than the other, and they all complement each other.
    4. The Global Goals will address climate change- climate change is an issue that affects every continent.
    5. The global goals will eradicate extreme poverty- the Liverpool end to end poverty in all its forms and everywhere by 2030.
    6. The global goal will leave no one behind it is for the young and for the old people for the small and big countries, for people living in rural areas and people living in urban cities
    7. The global goals hands on — the global goal contains concrete plans on how to change the world, how to pay for it and how to make sure that everybody is on board.
    8. The global goals tackles challenges for all countries across the globe in other words it’s “global”
    9. The global goals are the people goals– The global goals have been developed by all the 193 un member states NGOs and people like you or working together.
    10. The global goals are the world’s ultimate to-do list for the next 15 years, the 17 goals of the SDGs aimed at making the planet a better place by 2030 which include ending extreme poverty fighting and inequality and fixing climate change.

    QUESTION 2: THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SDGS AND MDGS

    1. The SDGs are people centered and planet sensitive, it is universal and it includes all continents of the world why MDGs is centered on developing countries.
    2. The SDGs areas of critical importance are people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership while that of the MDGs focus on the people and partnership.
    3. There is no inclusion of peace building in MDGs core agenda and goals while SDGs include peace building to the success of ending poverty and hunger.
    4. MDGs have 8 goals and 18 targets and 40 indicators, SDGs SDG has 17 goals and 169 targets and it covers multiple aspects of growth and development.
    5. The MDGs focused on quantity, that is the number people enrolled in school rather than quality of education. While SDGs focus on the quality of education and the role of education in achieving a more humane world: Education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and contribution of culture to sustainable development
    6. MDGs had narrow focus on poverty reduction as its targets for 2015 were set to get us “halfway” to the goal of ending hunger and poverty, While The SDGs on the other hand are designed to finish the job to get us to a statistical “zero” on hunger, poverty, preventable child deaths and other targets, it has wide focus on poverty reduction and tries to embed environmental, economic and social aspects together.
    7. MDGs mainly focused on social features and better health while SDGs focuses on social inclusion, economic growth, better health, environmental protection, strengthening equity, human rights and non-discrimination.

  5. Avatar Oyibe Ebere Izuinya says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA
    REG NO: 2018/245131
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 362.
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    The MDGs were developed in consultation with the developing countries, to ensure that they addressed their most pressing problems. In addition, key international agencies, including the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), all helped develop the Millennium Declaration and so have a collective policy commitment to attacking poverty directly. The MDGs assign specific responsibilities to rich countries, including increased aid, removal of trade and investment barriers, and eliminating unsustainable debts of the poorest nations.
    In my opinion, I would say yes that the millennium development goals were to a very large extent achieved as millions of lives were touched.
    Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme poverty and hunger:
    Extreme poverty has declined significantly over the last two decades. In 1990, nearly half of the population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day; that proportion dropped to 14 per cent in 2015.
    • Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. Most progress has occurred since 2000.
    • The number of people in the working middle class—living on more than $4 a day—has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015. This group now makes up half the workforce in the developing regions, up from just 18 per cent in 1991.
    • The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990, from 23.3 per cent in 1990–1992 to 12.9 per cent in 2014–2016.
    Goal 2: achieve universal primary education:
    The primary school net enrolment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 per cent in 2015, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    • The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen by almost half, to an estimated 57 million in 2015, down from 100 million in 2000.
    • Sub-Saharan Africa has had the best record of improvement in primary education of any region since the MDGs were established. The region achieved a 20 percentage point increase in the net enrolment rate from 2000 to 2015, compared to a gain of 8 percentage points between 1990 and 2000.
    • The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 has increased globally from 83 per cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015. The gap between women and men has narrowed.
    Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women
    Many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago. The developing regions as a whole have achieved the target to eliminate gender disparity in primary, secondary and tertiary education.
    • In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.
    • Women now make up 41 per cent of paid workers outside the agricultural sector, an increase from 35 per cent in 1990.
    • Between 1991 and 2015, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment as a share of total female employment has declined 13 percentage points. In contrast, vulnerable employment among men fell by 9 percentage points.
    • Women have gained ground in parliamentary representation in nearly 90 per cent of the 174 countries with data over the past 20 years. The average proportion of women in parliament has nearly doubled in the same period.
    Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    • The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half, dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2015.
    • Despite population growth in the developing regions, the number of deaths of children under five has declined from 12.7 million in 1990 to almost 6 million in 2015 globally. • Since the early 1990s, the rate of reduction of under-five mortality has more than tripled globally. • In sub-Saharan Africa, the annual rate of reduction of under-five mortality was over five times faster during 2005–2013 than it was during 1990–1995.
    • Measles vaccination helped prevent nearly 15.6 million deaths between 2000 and 2013. The number of globally reported measles cases declined by 67 per cent for the same period.
    • About 84 per cent of children worldwide received at least one dose of measlescontaining vaccine in 2013, up from 73 per cent in 2000.
    Goal 5: Improve maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000.
    • In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between 1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent.
    • More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.
    • In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014.
    • Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union, increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 percent in 2015.

    • Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000.
    • In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between 1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent. • More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.
    • In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014.
    • Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union, increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 per cent in 2015.
    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
    New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent between 2000 and 2013, from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million.
    • By June 2014, 13.6 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally, an immense increase from just 800,000 in 2003. ART averted 7.6 million deaths from AIDS between 1995 and 2013.
    • Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent.
    • More than 900 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets were delivered to malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2004 and 2014.
    • Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives. The tuberculosis mortality rate fell by 45 per cent and the prevalence rate by 41 per cent between 1990 and 2013.
    Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    Ozone-depleting substances have been virtually eliminated since 1990, and the ozone layer is expected to recover by the middle of this century. • Terrestrial and marine protected areas in many regions have increased substantially since 1990. In Latin America and the Caribbean, coverage of terrestrial protected areas rose from 8.8 per cent to 23.4 per cent between 1990 and 2014. • In 2015, 91 per cent of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76 per cent in 1990. • Of the 2.6 billion people who have gained access to improved drinking water since 1990, 1.9 billion gained access to piped drinking water on premises. Over half of the global population (58 per cent) now enjoys this higher level of service. • Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both. • Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. The proportion of people practicing open defecation has fallen almost by half since 1990. • The proportion of urban population living in slums in the developing regions fell from approximately 39.4 per cent in 2000 to 29.7 per cent in 2014.
    Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
    Official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.
    • In 2014, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom continued to exceed the United Nations official development assistance target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income.
    • In 2014, 79 per cent of imports from developing to developed countries were admitted duty free, up from 65 per cent in 2000.
    • The proportion of external debt service to export revenue in developing countries fell from 12 per cent in 2000 to 3 per cent in 2013.
    • As of 2015, 95 per cent of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular signal. • The number of mobile
    -cellular subscriptions has grown almost tenfold in the last 15 years, from 738 million in 2000 to over 7 billion in 2015. • Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 per cent of the world’s population in 2000 to 43 per cent in 2015. As a result, 3.2 billion people are linked to a global network of content and applications.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good govrnance. Discuss!
    The concept ‘governance’ refers to the task of running a government, or any other appropriate entity. The Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1986) defined governance as “the act or process of governing, via authoritative direction and control”. By implication, the focus is on the effectiveness of the executive branch of government. The British Council cited in Mariano (n.d) sees “governance” as involving the interaction between the formal institutions and those in civil society. Implying that governance is a process whereby elements in society wield power, authority and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life and social upliftment (Governance Barometer, n.d). Fourie & Jordan (2017) was very succinct when they averred that governance is the exercise of authority, direction and control of an organization to ensure that its goals are achieved. It refers to who is in charge of what; who sets the direction and the parameters within which the direction is to be pursued; who makes decisions; who sets performance indicators, monitoring of progress and evaluates results; and, who is accountable to whom and for what. To United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific- UNESCAP (2009), governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). In this regard, governance, not only encompasses but transcends the collective meaning of related concepts like the state, government, regime and good government, hence an integral part of the meaning of “governance are the elements and principles underlying “good governance.
    There are five pressing democracy and human rights issues the AU needs to confront as well as recommendations on how to get started:

    1. Dismal State of Press Freedom
    Over the past decade, press freedom has seen the largest decline of any other fundamental freedom in Africa, according to Freedom in the World 2015. Authoritarian governments continue to use legal pressure, imprisonment, and other forms of harassment to suppress independent reporting. According to the Committee to Project Journalists, 48 journalists were in prison across sub- Saharan Africa at the end of 2014 and 152 journalists were forced into exile between 2009 and 2014 – more than any other region in the world. Even the region’s democracies are taking steps to censor the media. Last year, for example, Botswana used a sedition law to charge an editor and journalist for publishing an article critical of the president. As a result of these negative trends, only three percent of Africans live in countries with a free media.

    Recommendation: The African Union should amend Article 12 of the AU Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance, which calls on State Parties to promote principles and practices necessary for a democratic culture, to specifically include media freedom. The AU should also include a free press as one of the key conditions necessary for free and fair elections as outlined in the Charter’s Chapter 7.

    2. Proliferation of Restrictive Laws
    Authoritarian regimes in Africa are increasingly exploiting their country’s legal framework to eliminate opposition rather than relying solely on violence and political suppression. Laws ostensibly designed to regulate civic activity or protect public order are manipulated to restrict the fundamental rights of citizens. Africa has consequently seen an explosion of NGO, public order, and counterterrorism laws that are used to harass and persecute democracy groups and human rights defenders. Ethiopia, for example, used its Anti-Terrorism Proclamation in April 2014 to charge 10 bloggers and journalists with threatening public safety for simply writing about human rights. In Kenya, several human rights organizations recently had their licenses canceled for alleged ties to terrorism – a decision that was eventually overturned by the High Court.

    Recommendation: The AU should work with civil society to develop standards for drafting public safety and NGO legislation that adequately protects citizens without infringing on their constitutionally-guaranteed rights. This legislation should include judicial oversight of surveillance, strict regulations on how long suspects can be detained without charges, and protections for media outlets to publish stories about terrorism.

    3. Entrenched Leaders and the Abuse of Term Limits
    In April 2015, Burundian President Pierre Nkurunziza became the latest African leader to attempt to extend his tenure beyond the constitutionally-mandated limit, setting off violent protests across the country. With a number of countries preparing for elections in the coming year, there are fears that other countries will face similar unrest as entrenched leaders seek to circumvent or disregard term limits. Rwandan President Paul Kagame and Congolese President Joseph Kabila have already shown signs they are considering ways to extend their terms. Recently, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) considered a declaration that would limit presidential terms to two, but the declaration was tabled due to pressure from Togo and The Gambia.

    Recommendation: The AU should consider passing a declaration similar to the one debated by ECOWAS that would set clear expectations for respecting term limits. AU leaders should also publically condemn any attempts to change, circumvent or violate established term limits, just as they do when military coups take place in the region.
    4. Weak Regional Human Rights Mechanisms
    The African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights is tasked with enforcing the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, which guarantees citizens throughout Africa a broad array of fundamental freedoms. Unfortunately, the Court has significant shortcomings. Under the current Charter, individuals and human rights groups cannot bring cases before the Court unless their country has signed a special declaration allowing such complaints. To date, only seven countries have signed this provision. Also, last year African leaders further weakened the Court’s human rights mandate when they voted to give sitting heads of state and certain senior government officials immunity from prosecution. The amendment, which has yet to go into effect, caused an outcry among African human rights groups, who see it as another incentivize for authoritarian leaders to hold onto power at any cost.

    Recommendation: Africa’s democracies should push to remove the immunity clause. Moreover, countries that have signed the special provision granting NGOs and individuals standing to bring human rights cases before the Court should encourage their counterparts to do the same.

    5. Economic Competitiveness
    While Africa is routinely touted as having 7 of the world’s 10 fastest growing economies, it is also home to 15 out of the 20 least competitive. This is according to the World Economic Forum, which found that Africa remains the least economically competitive region in the world. Moreover, Africa’s overall competitiveness has stagnated over the past decade due to structural factors, such as poor infrastructure and high transportation costs, and to socio-economic and political factors. High levels of corruption and government inefficiency, combined with low levels of education, make Africa an expensive and risky place to do business. The region’s democratic countries, however, are faring much better than their authoritarian counterparts. The key components of a functional democracy – efficient institutions, responsible government policies, and a strong rule of law – are the same factors that contribute to a competitive economy.

    Recommendation: The African Union, along with the regional economic communities, should include efforts to strengthen democracy and governance in their economic development and integration strategies.

  6. Avatar Mbaso Raluchi says:

    Mbaso Raluchi
    2018/242437

    1. Millenium development goal plans, were they achieved or not?. The millenium development plan goals includes
    •MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.
    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.
    •MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    •MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.
    •MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.
    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.
    •MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.
    •MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.
    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent
    •MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainablility
    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.
    •MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    From this, MDG Target was not exactly met, but there is an observable impact in the world. The degree to which they were missed varies between several near misses and a few very clear and alarming failures. The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“. While there were certainly some important successes – very positive trends in the decline of substances which deplete the ozone layer for example –, the global evidence shows that most environmental indicators regressed; global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased approximately 50%; global forest area continued its decline; overexploitation of fish stocks increased; and the Red List Index concluded that “a substantial proportion of species in all taxonomic groups examined to date are declining overall in population and distribution”.
    Generally, substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required. The United Nations has hailed the Millennium Development Goals – or MDGs – as “the most successful anti-poverty movement in history.” It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.
    Sustainable development includes healthy, nourished and well-educated children free from all forms of violence. MDG was able to make noticeable positive impacts as regards these aspects.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Regardless of the ample number of human and financial resources invested to foster good governance in developing countries, statistics show that the majority of these countries have not yet achieved significant improvements in living standards. Developing countries like Nigeria face a lot of problems in their desires to bad governance. The problem includes;
    1. Absence of Accountability: The relationship between the government and the people governed rests on accountability on the part of those who were elected by the people to serve the nation in any capacity. When the leaders no longer care about the opinions of the people in respect of decision making, there is a breakdown of that cordial relationship. This results into making of arbitrary decisions, taking questionable actions which are more often than not contrary to the interests of the people.

    2. Corruption: This has undoubtedly been the biggest problem facing African countries. There are many variations of corruption. As far as governance is concerned, corruption is when a leader uses his position to place himself and chosen individuals at a higher advantage than others without merit. It is when a political head misuses his office to ascribe benefits to himself. When there is corruption in a system no matter how insignificant, it will gradually destroy the integrity of the government. Corruption is easily noticed when law enforcement agencies are paid off by a person just to avoid prosecution. Also when a sitting judge with evident facts to sanction a government official, takes the opposite side of Justice. Corruption could be seen when a government leader illicitly flows government revenue into a private account. It is rather surprising that developing countries like Nigeria are filled with corrupt leaders. Thus, there is no proper governance where the government is corrupt with lust for power, wealth or fame.

    3. Disregard of the Rule of Law: This refers to the degrading system of democracy and another layer of bad governance. The regard for the rule of law, human rights, the Constitution and the Judiciary are threatened by the same people who are to uphold and defend them. Rule of law represents the supremacy of the law. This was to ensure checks and balances even at government. When a person in authority begins to act outside the scope of his powers, there is the certainty that what follows next will be the trend of horrendous administration. African governments especially in some countries have little or no regards for the law, court decisions and fundamental human rights. The issue of corruption can be attributed to the election of non credible leaders into different offices. This brings us to the next points.

    4. A Failed Democracy: Africa has suffered the brunt of Western colonization in the past. So when the era of self Independence was ushered in, most States were faced with the challenge of building a government where the people and the elected governors are accountable to one another. Unfortunately, the situation we encounter in Nigeria is nothing more than a failing democracy. There is hardly free and fair elections or the government reforms electoral laws to suppress competition during elections. At the end, elections and appointments are smeared with tribalism and nepotism. Government is no longer of the people, by the people or for the people. Now leaders who bear important responsibilities only think more of how any action benefits themselves.

    5. Incompetence in Leadership: One of the factors behind bad governance in African States is the unappealing sight of the political sector filled with nonchalant leaders. Politics here should be addressed in a wider and more general view.

  7. Avatar OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO ...2018/241820 says:

    OKOYE ARTHUR KANAYO
    2018/241820

    A) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals with measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world’s poorest people. To meet these goals and eradicate poverty, leaders of 189 countries signed the historic millennium declaration at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000. At that time, eight goals that range from providing universal primary education to avoiding child and maternal mortality were set with a target achievement date of 2015.

    The eight goals are as follows:-
    1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. Achieve universal primary education
    3. Promote gender equality and empower women
    4. Reduce child mortality
    5.Improve maternal health
    6. Combating HIV/AIDs, malaria, and other diseases
    7. Ensure environmental sustainability
    8. Develop a global partnership for development

    While the country made some progress in the health sector as shown by its health indicators, Pakistan was still lagging far behind other countries that had similar levels of income or had started with similar set targets. In order to further improve its service delivery in key areas of healthcare, the government implemented special programmes like the Lady Health Worker Programme (LHW), the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI), the National Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Programme (MNCH), Programme for HIV/AIDS Control and Programme for Malaria Control. However, the country has failed to meet its health-related MDGs.

    The health sector and reforms in Pakistan have suffered many snags due to changing administrative mechanisms and financial arrangements made during the devolution period. The process of reforms had started from the city district government plan of 2001 but once the devolution process started in 2010, the arena of health was partially handed over to the provincial government in 2011.

    In the initial post-devolution phase, the provinces did not have any interprovincial coordination offices which posed a real challenge for the implementation of the reforms. Since the funding was kept within the ambit of the federal government till 2014, there were financial constraints for vertical programmes like MNCH, LHW.

    Moreover, no institution claimed ownership of these programmes. Each federating unit had to devise its own policies in the absence of any benchmark of standards and there was no system of operation after the implementation of the policies. The entire situation resulted in lack of clarity over job responsibilities at different levels and eventually failed to achieve the set targets of the MDGs. The shifting role of the organisations in managing the strategies and plans appeared to be a vital factor towards the poor progress of the MDGs.

    Pakistan’s spending on the health sector – far less than the WHO’s recommended figure of $34 per capita for low and middle income countries – was another factor that caused the failure of the MDGs. This amount is insufficient not only according to the standards of developing countries, but also when compared to the standards of poor South Asian countries. Pakistan’s health-related spending (the total expenditure on health as a percentage of the GDP is 2.8 percent) is the lowest among all South Asian countries, including Nepal and Bhutan.

    According to the World Bank, the annual population growth rate in Pakistan is 2.1 percent. This rapid rise in population has undermined most of the health development initiatives because the plans and resources set forth are on the basis of an estimated number of people and do not take into account the resource-to-population growth ratio. Moreover, limited resources, coupled with the fast and haphazard pace of urbanisation and the subsequent environmental degradation has created difficulties in the development of planning and healthcare service delivery.

    The health workforce is a critical factor in the long-term planning, implementation and maintenance of healthcare services. Human resource policies therefore need to lay out a medium- to long-term path to provide the sector with skilled, motivated and accountable health workers. It has been seen that there is no effective mechanism for HR planning and development in the health department. Unfavourable contractual recruitment policy and uncertainty of career progression have made the government service unattractive, resulting in compromised quality of service delivery by the HR staff.

    Women’s empowerment and their socio-economic status – prerequisites for social development – also affect the progress of the MDGs. Women in Pakistan lack sufficient knowledge about healthcare. The lack of policymakers’ oversight, the dearth of education and awareness among citizens, particularly among women, and limited research and development have aggravated the situation.

    Weak governance and mismanagement remain key concerns at all levels. The lack of a transparent performance-assessment system, limited efforts to harness the potential of the private sector and the weak regulation of healthcare delivery also contributed to the slow progress of the MDGs.

    The year 2015 marked the completion of the monitoring period for the MDGs which are now replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In February 2015, the government of Pakistan adopted the SDGs through a unanimous parliamentary resolution. This strategic shift put considerable responsibility on the government and its development partners to address the unmet agenda of the MDGs while initiating the SDGs through development cooperation for strengthening public institutions, social policies and planning development programmes.

    It is evident that improving the health of the population – which in turn enhances physical work capacity and cognitive development – contributes to productivity, economic development and poverty reduction. Since the population of Pakistan is unhealthy, there is a dire need to take a holistic approach to address the issue. Following the process of prioritisation, limited capacities and resources when well-directed can produce the required results.

    The country needs to pay close attention to setting clear targets and following through with them when chalking out the health policy and working on its implementation.

    But then they believed that 21 million extra lives were saved due to accelerated progress ( according to Guardian for 200 years)

    B) According to UNESCAP, 2009, Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and
      Furthermore, Bad governance is a relationship between those who govern and those who are governed as a consequence of decision-making. This unfavourable relationship is created as a consequence of external factors or decisions such as violation of central or acceptable norms, such as those of liberal democracy, and bad economic policy. Bad governance collectively encompasses governance in government and corporate settings. It is the opposite of good governance. Bad governance addresses governance in a government setting but bad governance and bad government are different concepts. Bad governance encompasses a variety of situations from corruption, deceit and to passing of unfair policy. From this, it can be noted that different manifestations of bad governance can vary in severity and the potential impact in their respective setting.The World Bank has identified key indicators of governance which are used as a method to measure bad governance.

    Some causes of bad governance includes
    ● Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability

    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance.

    ● Political Instability

    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or political instability. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

    ● Corruption

    Bad Governance, is often considered to come hand in hand with corruption. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments. Corruption can occur in many different ways and forms. The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.

  8. Avatar Ngwoke Chidera Lilian/2019245394 says:

    Is Monetarist Theory?
    The monetarist theory is an economic concept that contends that changes in money supply are the most significant determinants of the rate of economic growth and the behavior of the business cycle. When monetarist theory works in practice, central banks, which control the levers of monetary policy, can exert much power over economic growth rates.
    The monetarist theory (also referred to as “monetarism”) is a fundamental macroeconomic theory that focuses on the importance of the money supply as a key economic force. Subscribers to the theory believe that money supply is a primary determinant of price levels and inflation.
    Increasing money supply, according to the theory, inevitably leads to higher prices and inflation, while decreasing the money supply leads to deflation and risks, causing a recession.

    Changes in the money supply also affect employment and production levels, but the monetarist theory asserts that those effects are only temporary, while the effect on inflation is more long-lasting and significant.
    History of the Monetarist Theory
    While economist Clark Warburton initially posited much of the monetarist theory immediately following World War II, Milton Friedman is recognized as the primary advocate of modern-day monetarism. The monetarist theory was expounded by Friedman in a book he co-wrote with Anna Schwartz, “A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960,” and in a 1967 speech at the American Economic Association.

    Interestingly, while the monetarist theory is essentially a guide for central bank policies, Friedman was opposed to the whole idea of central banks, such as the Federal Reserve Bank in the United States.

    In fact, Friedman blamed much of the Great Depression of the 1930s on the Federal Reserve, arguing that the Fed tightened the money supply at the very moment that it should have been expanding it to stimulate economic growth.

    Given that central banks do exist, Friedman argued that monetary policy – the expansion or contraction of the money supply – is a much more effective tool for influencing the economy than fiscal policy – the government’s taxation and spending activities.
    How Money Supply Affects the Economy
    The central bank of a country can expand or contract the money supply through the manipulation of interest rates.

    For example, in the United States, the Federal Reserve can change the Fed Funds Rate – the interest rate at which banks can lend money overnight to other banks. The Fed funds rate affects all other interest rates in the economy.

    When the Fed funds rate is higher, interest rates increase overall. It decreases the amount of money lent to businesses and consumers, thus reducing spending and economic growth. Conversely, lowering interest rates increases borrowing by consumers and businesses, thus boosting spending and stimulating economic growth.

    The Underlying Equation
    There is an underlying equation that forms the foundation of the monetarist theory. It is known as the “equation of exchange” (also referred to as the “quantity theory of money”). Although the equation’s become quite complex due to its expansion and refinement by recent economists, the basic equation is expressed as follows:
    M is the money supply
    V is the velocity of money (the rate of turnover at which a single unit of currency – e.g., one dollar – is spent in one year)
    P is the average price level for transactions in the economy (the purchase of goods and services)
    Q is the total quantity of goods and services produced – i.e., economic output or production

    According to the monetarist theory, V (the velocity of money) remains relatively stable. Therefore, it changes M (the money supply) that primarily affects prices and economic production.

    Monetarism – Main Points
    There are several main points that the monetarist theory derives from the equation of exchange:

    An increase in the money supply will lead to overall price increases in the economy.
    Increased money supply will result in only short-term effects on economic output (i.e., Gross Domestic Product – GDP) and employment levels.
    The best monetary policy for a central bank to follow is to peg the money supply’s growth rate to match the rate of growth of real GDP – it is the best policy to support continuing economic growth and keep the rate of inflation relatively low.
    The last point is the key to the monetarist theory. Monetarist economists believe that the central bank’s manipulation of the money supply should be restricted. They believe that a central bank that more actively attempts to change the money supply is more likely to harm the economy than to benefit it.

    However, this contention may be heavily tied to the monetarists’ basic distrust of central banks as an institution. The idea runs counter to the Keynesian Economic Theory, which favors active, unrestricted intervention by the central bank.
    Monetarist Theory vs. Keynesian Economics
    Monetarism, as espoused by Friedman, stands in contrast to the Keynesian Economic Theory, which rose to popularity in the 1930s. While monetarism focuses on monetary policy, Keynesian theory concentrates on fiscal policy.

    Friedman argued that the errant monetary policy of the Federal Reserve was a primary cause of the Great Depression. Keynes believed that the fiscal policy of the government – increasing government spending – is the key factor in stimulating an economy that is in a recession.

    Overall, Keynesian economists believe in active central bank and government intervention in the economy, while monetarists – such as Friedman – believe that free markets self-adjust in terms of prices and employment to proRvide the maximum benefit to the economy.

    Monetarists are opposed to government intervention in the economy except on a very limited basis (believing that it typically does more harm than good), while Keynesian economists see the government and the central bank as primary drivers of economic well-being.
    Reference
    Investopedia
    Wikipedia
    Encyclopedia Britannica

  9. Avatar Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya (2018/242412) says:

    Online quiz
    1.
    No, the achievements have been uneven. The MDGs are set to expire in 2015 and the discussion of a post-2015 agenda continues. The focus is now on building a sustainable world where environmental sustainability, social inclusion, and economic development are equally valued.
    The MDG Fund contributed directly and indirectly to the achievement of the MDGs. It adopted an inclusive and comprehensive approach to the MDGs. The approach was guided by the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on development as a right, with targeted attention directed towards traditionally marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities, indigenous groups, and women.

    2.
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.
    Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society.

  10. Avatar Abalihi Chukwuebuka Ernest says:

    Abalihi Chukwuebuka Ernest

    2018/245128

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    Answer:
    The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.
    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been uneven.”
    It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.
    So which goals were met and which fell short? Below, we’ll broadly examine what has been achieved for the main targets within the eight goals using information from The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.

    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.
    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.

    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.

    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.

    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.

    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.

    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.
    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent

    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably
    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.

    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    The concept of “governance” is not new. However, it means different things to different people, therefore we have to get our focus right. The actual meaning of the concept depends on the level of governance we are talking about, the goals to be achieved and the approach being followed.

    The concept has been around in both political and academic discourse for a long time, referring in a generic sense to the task of running a government, or any other appropriate entity for that matter. In this regard the general definition provided by Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1986:982) is of some assistance, indicating only that governance is a synonym for government, or “the act or process of governing, specifically authoritative direction and control”. This interpretation specifically focuses on the effectiveness of the executive branch of government.
    The working definition used by the British Council, however, emphasises that “governance” is a broader notion than government (and for that matter also related concepts like the state, good government and regime), and goes on to state: “Governance involves interaction between the formal institutions and those in civil society. Governance refers to a process whereby elements in society wield power, authority and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life and social upliftment.”
    “Governance”, therefore, not only encompasses but transcends the collective meaning of related concepts like the state, government, regime and good government. Many of the elements and principles underlying “good government” have become an integral part of the meaning of “governance”. John Healey and Mark Robinson1 define “good government” as follows: “It implies a high level of organisational effectiveness in relation to policy-formulation and the policies actually pursued, especially in the conduct of economic policy and its contribution to growth, stability and popular welfare. Good government also implies accountability, transparency, participation, openness and the rule of law. It does not necessarily presuppose a value judgement, for example, a healthy respect for civil and political liberties, although good government tends to be a prerequisite for political legitimacy”.
    We can apply our minds to the definition of governance provided by the World Bank in Governance: The World Banks Experience, as it has special relevance for the developing world:
    “Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with a professional ethos acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. Poor governance (on the other hand) is characterized by arbitrary policy making, unaccountable bureaucracies, unenforced or unjust legal systems, the abuse of executive power, a civil society unengaged in public life, and widespread corruption.”
    The World Bank’s focus on governance reflects the worldwide thrust toward political and economic liberalisation. Such a governance approach highlights issues of greater state responsiveness and accountability, and the impact of these factors on political stability and economic development. In its 1989 report, From Crisis to Sustainable Growth, the World Bank expressed this notion as follows:

    “Efforts to create an enabling environment and to build capacities will be wasted if the political context is not favourable. Ultimately, better governance requires political renewal. This means a concerted attack on corruption from the highest to lowest level. This can be done by setting a good example, by strengthening accountability, by encouraging public debate, and by nurturing a free press. It also means … fostering grassroots and non-governmental organisations such as farmers’ associations, co-operatives, and women’s groups”.
    Apart from the World Bank’s emphasis on governance, it is also necessary to refer to academic literature on governance, which mostly originates from scholars working with international development and donor agencies. The majority of these scholars has concentrated almost exclusively on the issue of political legitimacy, which is the dependent variable produced by effective governance. Governance, as defined here, is “the conscious management of regime structures, with a view to enhancing the public realm”.
    The contribution of Goran Hyden to bring greater clarity to the concept of governance needs special attention. He elevates governance to an “umbrella concept to define an approach to comparative politics”, an approach that fills analytical gaps left by others. Using a governance approach, he emphasises “the creative potential of politics, especially with the ability of leaders to rise above the existing structure of the ordinary, to change the rules of the game and to inspire others to partake in efforts to move society forward in new and productive directions”.
    His views boil down to the following:
    Governance is a conceptual approach that, when fully elaborated, can frame a comparative analysis of macro-politics. Governance concerns “big” questions of a “constitutional” nature that establish the rules of political conduct.
    involves creative intervention by political actors to change structures that inhibit the expression of human potential.
    Governance is a rational concept, emphasising the nature of interactions between state and social actors, and among social actors themselves.
    Governance refers to particular types of relationships among political actors: that is, those which are socially sanctioned rather than arbitrary.
    To conclude, it is clear that the concept of governance has over the years gained momentum and a wider meaning. Apart from being an instrument of public affairs management, or a gauge of political development, governance has become a useful mechanism to enhance the legitimacy of the public realm. It has also become an analytical framework or approach to comparative politics

  11. Avatar Nnamani Dorathy nchido 2018/245743 Economics major says:

    NNAMANI DORATHY NCHIDO
    2018/245743
    Economic Major
    ASSIGNMENT on 362
    Question 1
    No the MDG was not achieved that is why SDG was developed to curb the lapses of MDG.
    MDG focuses on developing nation, due to greed and corruption it was not achieved.
    MDG 1 is ‘unfair to poor countries’, and in particular for Africa because of the way they are constructed. The author explains that MDGs are more difficult to reach for the worst-off countries and are, therefore, drawing a darker picture of the progress made in those regions. He argues that measuring changes in proportions make it harder for countries with worse baselines to show progress. Halving poverty rates from 10 to 5% in Latin America represents more progress (50% poverty reduction) than ‘cutting poverty from 50 to 35%’ in Africa (only 30% reduction).
    MDG 2 (‘Achieve universal primary education’) is the limited focus on primary education only, while ignoring the importance of secondary and post-secondary education (Mekonen, 2010; Tarabini, 2010). Lewin (2005) points out that pushing for primary education results in more graduates that then do not have the opportunity for further education in developing economies. MDG 2 particularly fails to ensure quality issues such as availability of teachers, school infrastructure and maintenance as well as completion rates (Barrett, 2011)
    Health plays an important role within the MDGs framework, where three of the eight goals directly (MDG 4–6), and several other goals more indirectly, relate to health. James (2006) believes, however, that the MDGs focus on only three aspects of health (maternal mortality, child mortality and specific infectious diseases) is too limited and an overarching goal of ‘freedom from illness’ is missing. Others emphasise the need to integrate trained health care providers and the importance of building effective health systems into the list of MDG targets (Haines & Cassels, 2004; Keyzer & Van Wesenbeeck, 2006). Several health issues are found to be underrecognised, such as non-communicable diseases (Magrath, 2009), mental health (Miranda & Patel, 2007) and issues faced by people living with disabilities (Wolbring, 2011). Several authors highlight the fact that targets for reproductive health were absent before 2007 and are still insufficient in MDG 5 (Basu, 2005; Bernstein, 2005; Dixon-Mueller & Germain, 2007). Omissions in MDG 5 are the issues of abortion (Basu, 2005), a ‘fertility regulation indicator’ (Dixon-Mueller & Germain, 2007) and the ‘availability and use of obstetric services’ (Langford, 2010).
    MDG 7 prompted authors to argue that the goal places too ‘little emphasis on environmental issues’, in particular, climate change (McMichael & Butler, 2004). Some suggest that Target 7.C – access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation – overlooks local challenges, including infrastructure, distance, security, costs, contamination as well as a basic understanding of hygiene and sanitation (Dar & Khan, 2011; James, 2006). Others call Target 7.D – improving lives of at least 100 million slum residents – too moderate, addressing only 7–9% of expected slum residents by 2020 (Di Muzio, 2008; Langford, 2010).
    Goal 8, the only one focusing on commitments by developed countries, is criticised by several authors as having the ‘least explicit targets’, lacking ‘quantitative’ and ‘time bound’ benchmarks (Davis, 2011; Fukuda-Parr, 2006; Gore, 2010). Fukuda-Parr (2006) believes that the emphasis on ‘resource transfer through Official Development Assistance’ (ODA) inhibits the ‘empowerment of developing countries’. making essential drugs and technology available (Target 8.E/F) is not enough, according to James (2006), because it fails to grasp the importance of information and knowledge about correct usage.

    Question 2
    1. Dismal State of Press Freedom
    Over the past decade, press freedom has seen the largest decline of any other fundamental freedom in Africa, according to Freedom in the World 2015. Authoritarian governments continue to use legal pressure, imprisonment, and other forms of harassment to suppress independent reporting. According to the Committee to Project Journalists, 48 journalists were in prison across sub- Saharan Africa at the end of 2014 and 152 journalists were forced into exile between 2009 and 2014 – more than any other region in the world. Even the region’s democracies are taking steps to censor the media. Last year, for example, Botswana used a sedition law to charge an editor and journalist for publishing an article critical of the president. As a result of these negative trends, only three percent of Africans live in countries with a free media.
    Recommendation: The African Union should amend Article 12 of the AU Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance, which calls on State Parties to promote principles and practices necessary for a democratic culture, to specifically include media freedom. The AU should also include a free press as one of the key conditions necessary for free and fair elections as outlined in the Charter’s Chapter 7.
    2. Proliferation of Restrictive Laws
    Authoritarian regimes in Africa are increasingly exploiting their country’s legal framework to eliminate opposition rather than relying solely on violence and political suppression. Laws ostensibly designed to regulate civic activity or protect public order are manipulated to restrict the fundamental rights of citizens. Africa has consequently seen an explosion of NGO, public order, and counterterrorism laws that are used to harass and persecute democracy groups and human rights defenders. Ethiopia, for example, used its Anti-Terrorism Proclamation in April 2014 to charge 10 bloggers and journalists with threatening public safety for simply writing about human rights. In Kenya, several human rights organizations recently had their licenses canceled for alleged ties to terrorism – a decision that was eventually overturned by the High Court.
    Recommendation: The AU should work with civil society to develop standards for drafting public safety and NGO legislation that adequately protects citizens without infringing on their constitutionally-guaranteed rights. This legislation should include judicial oversight of surveillance, strict regulations on how long suspects can be detained without charges, and protections for media outlets to publish stories about terrorism.
    3. Entrenched Leaders and the Abuse of Term Limits
    In April 2015, Burundian President Pierre Nkurunziza became the latest African leader to attempt to extend his tenure beyond the constitutionally-mandated limit, setting off violent protests across the country. With a number of countries preparing for elections in the coming year, there are fears that other countries will face similar unrest as entrenched leaders seek to circumvent or disregard term limits. Rwandan President Paul Kagame and Congolese President Joseph Kabila have already shown signs they are considering ways to extend their terms. Recently, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) considered a declaration that would limit presidential terms to two, but the declaration was tabled due to pressure from Togo and The Gambia.
    Recommendation: The AU should consider passing a declaration similar to the one debated by ECOWAS that would set clear expectations for respecting term limits. AU leaders should also publically condemn any attempts to change, circumvent or violate established term limits, just as they do when military coups take place in the region.
    4. Weak Regional Human Rights Mechanisms
    The African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights is tasked with enforcing the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, which guarantees citizens throughout Africa a broad array of fundamental freedoms. Unfortunately, the Court has significant shortcomings. Under the current Charter, individuals and human rights groups cannot bring cases before the Court unless their country has signed a special declaration allowing such complaints. To date, only seven countries have signed this provision. Also, last year African leaders further weakened the Court’s human rights mandate when they voted to give sitting heads of state and certain senior government officials immunity from prosecution. The amendment, which has yet to go into effect, caused an outcry among African human rights groups, who see it as another incentivize for authoritarian leaders to hold onto power at any cost.
    Recommendation: Africa’s democracies should push to remove the immunity clause. Moreover, countries that have signed the special provision granting NGOs and individuals standing to bring human rights cases before the Court should encourage their counterparts to do the same.
    5. Economic Competitiveness
    While Africa is routinely touted as having 7 of the world’s 10 fastest growing economies, it is also home to 15 out of the 20 least competitive. This is according to the World Economic Forum, which found that Africa remains the least economically competitive region in the world. Moreover, Africa’s overall competitiveness has stagnated over the past decade due to structural factors, such as poor infrastructure and high transportation costs, and to socio-economic and political factors. High levels of corruption and government inefficiency, combined with low levels of education, make Africa an expensive and risky place to do business. The region’s democratic countries, however, are faring much better than their authoritarian counterparts. The key components of a functional democracy – efficient institutions, responsible government policies, and a strong rule of law – are the same factors that contribute to a competitive economy.
    Recommendation: The African Union, along with the regional economic communities, should include efforts to strengthen democracy and governance in their economic development and integration strategies.

  12. Avatar OCHONWU LOTACHI VIVIAN says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian
    2018/248806
    Economics
    Assignment on Eco 362
    1.Evaluating the Performance of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Good GovernaIn your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!nce).

    Answers

    The reality is that the Millennium Development Goals are not being met. Fortunately, howevertheprospects are not completely bleak.
    The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.

    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been unevenly met.
    There are the achieved for the main targets within the eight goals using information from The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.

    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.

    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.

    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.

    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.

    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.

    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health

    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.

    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases

    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.

    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent

    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably

    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.

    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    (2). In Nigeria, the role of public service has come under severe criticisms within the context of the gap that exists between its anticipated role and its actual output in guiding the society along the course leading to the desired goal as a result of corruption. I observes that the fact that Nigeria is still grappling with the problems of bad governance goes to show the level of non-accountability and ever present manifestation of crude corruption that is open, naked, undisguised and yet legally untameable because of the system. The article also reveals that many of the anti-corruption efforts are part of the liberal reforms that are based on the assumption that corruption is an individual act or personal misuse of public office for private gain. It points out that as laudable as the intentions of government in putting in place institutions and laws meant to curb corruption, the enforcement of these laws has left much to be desired. In fact, the various reform efforts of the Nigerian government are of limited value because they fail to take into account much of the dynamics that support corruption in the country. Thus, people now regard the law as paper tigers, meant only to the enforced when breached by low-level public officers.

  13. Avatar Onyibor chinedu says:

    Name: onyibor chinedu
    Dept: Economics
    Reg no:2018/248795
    Course:Eco 362

    (1) In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    (2)2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss
    (Ans)
    Yes , The goals was a kind of successful which would be evaluated statistically starting from goal one till the end
    (1)MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.
    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.
    (ii)MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    (III)MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women.
    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.
    (iv)MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.
    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.
    (v)MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.
    (Vi)MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.
    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent
    (Vii)MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably
    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.
    (Viii)MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion

    (2)In contemporary Nigeria, a discourse on good governance is convivial, given her current economic, political, and social dimensions especially with regard to issues of state and governance. Development scholars have pointed out that good governance is a prerequisite for successful development which every country crave for. However, the meaning of the concept has been changing overtime. This is why a discourse on “Good Governance” has to be in cognizance of the paradigm shift in good governance discourse.

    In the 1980s for instance, the concept of good governance was taken up from a more normative perspective, with emphasis on development criteria which sought to guide the repair of the failures of the decreasingly legitimate top down governance structures, by focusing on alternative modes of actor constellations helping to resolve common issues from different perspectives (Pierre, 2000; Hill, 2013). By the 1990s it was used from a more analytical perspective in the social sciences as a mean of assessing public policy arrangements (Kooiman, 2003). This perspective drives this discourse hence in the exact words of Anton (n.d), good governance as a concept has been in existence since the end of the cold war and its meaning has been changing in response to issues of dire importance. Hence before 1990, the International Monetary Fund (1997) used the concept to describe the economic standing of creditor countries. But in 1998, a study on Africa found out that even national economy that conformed to reasonable rules of economic management did not necessarily develop positively whenever negative governmental and administrative influences were present. In keeping with the paradigm shift consequent upon the evolving nature of the concept of good governance, the World Bank responded to that finding and formulated a more positive and proactive strategy for good governance that addressed four areas: the management of the public administration, responsibility and accountability in the public sector, legal framework conditions, and the transparency of public activities. Within this period, good governance was extendedly conceptualized to be applied to the political system, the exercise of governmental authority, and the ability of a government to formulate and implement political designs. But in 2002, the World Bank Institute developed governance indicators that included corruption control as its rider. The concept was expatiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nation, and the European Union (Anton, n.d).

    The OECD (2009) asserted that governance had acquired a key status as late as 1997. The European Union, on its part, mentions the term ‘good governance’ in three documents – the Cotonou Agreement of 2000, the EU Commission’s communication on ‘Governance in Developing Countries’ of 2003, and the European Consensus on Development Policy of December 2005 (EU, 2014), and the concept of good governance was used to describe the political conduct of governments. It is worthy of note that, good governance has been a key item of the UN Development Programme since 1999 (UNDP, 2014). Consequent upon the changes in the meaning of the concept of good governance, it becomes necessary, not just to examine the definitions of good governance as are awash in the literature but to be more critical in evaluating their contexts. Hence, Mashupye & Shadrack (2009) observed that ‘good governance’ is a value-laden concept that is characteristically nebulous; enabling it to connote different things to different people, depending on the context in which it is used bearing in mind that while concepts are ‘tools of thinking’ contexts are ‘the environments or frameworks in which the concepts operate’. It connotes that the conviviality of the concept of good governance, not withstanding, its meaning is lucid and lucidity in the meanings of a concept is fundamentally important for shaping debate and enriching discourses (Pauw, 1999). This is because the concept of good governance has become popular in recent decades, in response to the notion that ‘more effective governance regimes or systems need to be created to overcome government failure, market failure and system failure or a combination of the three (Rogers & Hall 2003). More importantly, major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on policies that ensure “good governance (UNESCAP, 2009).

  14. Avatar Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu says:

    NAME: UGWU CYNTHIA UGOCHUKWU
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/245470
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    ANSWERS:
    (1) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most widely supported and comprehensive development goals the world has ever established. These eight goals and 18 targets provide a concrete framework for tackling poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership for development
    These targets are both global and local, adapted to each country to meet specific needs. They provide a framework for the whole international community to work together towards a common goal. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment
    Furthermore, the MDGs are inter-dependent and largely influence each other. For example, promoting gender equality and empowering women enables not only better conditions for women but also improved household management leading to better health and education for children and to higher income for the family.
    The MDGs find their origins in development ideas and campaigns of the 1980s and 1990s; they were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, as an output of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 189 United Nations member states agreed to achieve these goals on a voluntary basis by the year 2015. New global health initiatives (such as the Global Fund, the World Bank, the GAVI Alliance, etc.) and increased financial resources have advanced the opportunity to deliver MDG-related health programmes worldwide.
    They are also essential in encouraging funding and allocating aid effectively. Furthermore, there have been numerous consultations on the MDGs by various organizations. Some of the consultations and surveys have had an official character and others should be considered ‘private’ initiatives, by organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private foundations. More than a few official reports have tracked the global assessment of progress. Although considerable progress has been made, reliable data and statistics analyses remain poor, especially in many developing countries
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5 and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1, 2, 3 and 7, which are more difficult to influence. Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries .. Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policy makers, academia and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political and social limitations.
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas, the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade.
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions.
    The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment.
    Question(2)
    Good Governance is the process of making decisions that bring maximum satisfaction to the people and ensuring participation of all. There are several characteristics of good Governance. Rule of Law is prerequisite for good governance. It implies the absence of arbitrary power and formulation and implementation of well-established laws. Transparency ensures trustworthy working. People must have the right to information regarding government processes and policies while making each and every organ of Government response to the public for their acts making them responsible.

    THE MAJOR HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING NATION’S ARE –
    1. BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    2. POOR ECONOMY – unemployment and reservation
    3. UNEDUCATED PEOPLE – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    4. INEQUALITY – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major

  15. Avatar Oguegbu chiamaka maureen says:

    NAME: OGUEGBU CHIAMAKA MAUREEN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/242309
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    (1) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most widely supported and comprehensive development goals the world has ever established. These eight goals and 18 targets provide a concrete framework for tackling poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership for development
    These targets are both global and local, adapted to each country to meet specific needs. They provide a framework for the whole international community to work together towards a common goal. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment
    (2). Furthermore, the MDGs are inter-dependent and largely influence each other. For example, promoting gender equality and empowering women enables not only better conditions for women but also improved household management leading to better health and education for children and to higher income for the family.
    The MDGs find their origins in development ideas and campaigns of the 1980s and 1990s; they were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, as an output of the United Nations Millennium Declaration
    (3). All 189 United Nations member states agreed to achieve these goals on a voluntary basis by the year 2015. New global health initiatives (such as the Global Fund, the World Bank, the GAVI Alliance, etc.) and increased financial resources have advanced the opportunity to . (4).
    From 2000 on, important high-level meetings and summits have been organized to follow up with the progress in the MDGs and to define action plans for their achievement. In 2008, governments, foundations, businesses groups and civil society announced new commitments to meet the MDGs, during the high-level event at the UN Headquarters
    (5). Two years after, the 2010 MDG Summit concluded with the adoption of a global action plan – Keeping the Promise: United to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals – and announced a number of initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease, with a special focus on women’s and children’s health
    (6).
    In 2013, participants in the Global MDG Conference underlined the importance of maintaining the momentum for accelerating progress to 2015, while taking lessons learned from the MDGs to be used in the development of the agenda of the next round of goals beyond 2015
    (7).
    MDGs achievements and failures
    To assure an appropriate monitoring and evaluation within and among countries and to conceive suitable policies and interventions, reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG indicators are of primary importance. They are also essential in encouraging funding and allocating aid effectively
    (8). Several methodologies and indicators (Table 2) have been developed to measure progress towards the MDGs, such as the MDG indicators website, the UN Data – and the UNICEF Portal
    (9–(11)). Moreover, progress towards MDG achievement can be tracked through the MDG Monitor, both globally and at the country level
    Furthermore, there have been numerous consultations on the MDGs by various organizations. Some of the consultations and surveys have had an official character and others should be considered ‘private’ initiatives, by organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private foundations
    (13–(18)). More than a few official reports have tracked the global assessment of progress, based on those data (14, 19–21)). Although considerable progress has been made, reliable data and statistics analyses remain poor, especially in many developing countries (8).
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments (22). They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level (8). Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5 and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1, 2, 3 and 7, which are more difficult to influence (14). Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries (14, 23). Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policy makers, academia and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political and social limitations (18).
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas (21): the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade (20, 21) (24, 25).
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased (8). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs.

    QUESTION 2:
    (2) Good Governance is the process of making decisions that bring maximum satisfaction to the people and ensuring participation of all. There are several characteristics of good Governance. Rule of Law is prerequisite for good governance. It implies the absence of arbitrary power and formulation and implementation of well-established laws. Transparency ensures trustworthy working. People must have the right to information regarding government processes and policies while making each and every organ of Government response to the public for their acts making them responsible.
    THE MAJOR HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING NATION’S ARE –
    – BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    – POOR ECONOMY – unemployment and reservation
    – UNEDUCATED PEOPLE – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    – INEQUALITY – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major

  16. Avatar chimezie chiamaka Victoria says:

    Name: chimezie chiamaka Victoria
    Reg no: 2018/242202
    Department: education economics
    1 What is clear however, is that most of the UN’s development goals were missed.The degree to which they were missed varies between several near misses and a few very clear and alarming failures. The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“.On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.

    2 The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

    At the end of the Cold War, African civil society movements striving for more democratic governance began to challenge authoritarian regimes on the continent. Declining living conditions within African countries and the failure of authoritarian African leaders to deliver the promises of economic prosperity they made to encourage the acceptance of development aid fueled the push for change. International donors’ insistence on democratic reform as a precondition for aid gave impetus for Nigerian civil society to push for domestic accountability. Thus, domestic pressure for political pluralism and external pressure for representative governance have both played a role in the calls for democratic reform in Nigeria.

    But despite some successes, corruption and socioeconomic disparities within Nigerian democracy continue to run rampant. Since 1999, the democratic space has been dominated by political elites who consistently violate fundamental principles associated with a liberal democratic system, such as competitive elections, the rule of law, political freedom, and respect for human rights. The outcome of the 2019 presidential election further eroded public trust in the ability of the independent electoral commission to organize competitive elections unfettered by the authoritarian influences of the ruling class. This challenge is an indicator of the systemic failure in Nigeria’s governance system. A continuation of the current system will only accelerate the erosion of public trust and democratic institutions. In contrast with the current system in which votes are attained through empty promises, bribery, voter intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs a governance system that will enhance the education of its voters and the capability of its leaders.

    Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed. While President Muhammadu Buhari won the 2015 election on his promise to fight insecurity and corruption, his promises went unfulfilled; Boko Haram continues to unleash unspeakable violence on civilians while the fight against corruption is counterproductive.

    At the core of Nigeria’s systemic failure is the crisis of governance, which manifests in the declining capacity of the state to cope with a range of internal political and social upheavals. There is an expectation for political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, and police brutality and put in place the necessary infrastructure to gather relevant data for problem solving. But the insufficiency of political savvy required to navigate the challenges that Nigeria faces has unleashed unrest across the nation and exacerbated existing tensions. The #ENDSARS Protests against police brutality in 2020 is one of the manifestations of bad governance.

    The spiral of violence in northern Nigeria in which armed bandits engage in deadly planned attacks on communities, leading to widespread population displacement, has become another grave security challenge that has sharpened regional polarization. Because some public servants are usually unaware of the insecurities faced by ordinary Nigerians, they lack the frame of reference to make laws that address the priorities of citizens. The crisis of governance is accentuated by a democratic culture that accords less importance to the knowledge and competence that political leaders can bring to public office. These systemic challenges have bred an atmosphere of cynicism and mistrust between citizens and political leaders at all levels of government.

    Political elites in Nigeria also exploit poverty and illiteracy to mobilize voters with food items such as rice, seasoning, and money. The rice is usually packaged strategically with the image of political candidates and the parties they represent. The assumption is that people are more likely to vote for a politician who influences them with food than one who only brings messages of hope. The practice of using food to mobilize voters is commonly described as “stomach infrastructure” politics. The term “stomach infrastructure” arose from the 2015 election in Ekiti state when gubernatorial candidate Ayodele Fayosi mobilized voters with food items and defeated his opponent Kayode Fayemi. It is undeniable that Nigerian political culture rewards incompetent leaders over reform-minded leaders who demonstrate the intellectualism and problem-solving capabilities needed to adequately address systemic issues of poverty and inequality.

    Jason Brennan describes the practice of incentivizing people to be irrational and ignorant with their votes as the unintended consequence of democracy. Brennan believes specific expertise is required to tackle socio-economic issues, so political power should be apportioned based on expert knowledge. As Brennan suggests, Nigeria lacks a system of governance in which leadership is based on capability. Rather, the political system in Nigeria is dominated by individuals who gain power through nepotism rather than competence, influence voters with food rather than vision, and consolidate power through intimidation or by incentivizing constituents with material gifts which they frame as “empowerment” to keep them subservient and loyal political followers. By implication, the failure of governance in Nigeria is arguably the result of incompetent leadership.

    Nigeria needs a new model of governance in which political leadership is based on the knowledge and competence of both political leaders and the electorate. One solution is to establish what Brennan refers to as epistocracy, which is a system of governance in which the votes of politically informed citizens should count more than the less informed. For Justin Klocksiem, epistocracy represents a political system in which political power rests exclusively on highly educated citizens. This idea drew its philosophical influence from John Stuart Mill, who believed that the eligibility to vote should be accorded to individuals who satisfy certain educational criteria. The notion that educational attainment should be the prerequisite for the electorate to choose their leaders as proposed by Brennan, Klocksiem, and Mill is an important proposition that should be taken seriously.

    However, one cannot ignore that such thinking originates from societies where civic education is high and the electorate can make informed choices about leadership. In Nigeria, the majority of citizens are uneducated on political issues. Simultaneously, those who are highly educated are increasingly becoming indifferent to political participation; they have lost faith in the power of their votes and the integrity of the political system. For an epistocratic system to work in Nigeria, there must be significant improvements in literacy levels so that citizens are educated about the issues and can use their knowledge to make informed decisions about Nigeria’s political future.

    It is important to mention that Nigeria’s political elites have exploited illiteracy to reinforce ethnic, religious, and political divisions between groups that impede democratic ideals. Since the resultant effect of epistocracy is to instill knowledge, raise consciousness and self-awareness within a polity anchored on the failed system of democracy, decisions that promote the education of uninformed voters are the rationale for an epistocratic system of governance. The Constitution must ensure that only citizens who can formulate policies and make informed decisions in the public’s best interest can run for public office. When the Constitution dictates the standard of epistocratic governance, informed citizens will be better equipped to champion political leadership or determine the qualifications of their leaders. Epistocratic governance will be the alternative to Nigeria’s current dysfunctional democratic system while retaining the aspects of liberal democracy that maintain checks and balances.

    We are not, however, oblivious that implementing such an epistocratic system of governance in Nigeria potentially contributes to more inequality given its highly undemocratic and exclusive nature. Our argument takes into consideration the contextual realities of poverty and illiteracy and the realization that poor and illiterate constituents have less power to evaluate the credibility of public servants or hold them accountable. The benefits of electing epistocratic leaders are that many citizens would desire to be educated in preparation for leadership. The more educated the population the more likely it is that political leaders will be held accountable. However, the kind of education that is needed to significantly transform the governance landscape in Nigeria is civic education.

    We propose three policies to promote epistocratic governance in Nigeria. First, aspiring leaders must demonstrate the intellectual pedigree to translate knowledge into effective, transparent, and accountable governance that leads to national prosperity. As Rotimi Fawole notes, the bar should be higher for those aspiring to executive or legislative office “to improve the ideas that are put forward and the intellectual rigor applied to the discussions that underpin our statehood.”

    Second, the government must increase access to education through government-sponsored initiatives that integrate civic education into school curriculums. Currently, little opportunity exists for young Nigerians, particularly those in underfunded public education systems, to learn about their civic roles at the local, state, national, and international levels, including how to emerge as participating citizens through the academic curriculum.

    Third, the government should engage the support of local NGOs to promote civic education across Nigeria in culturally appropriate ways. The NGOs should be empowered to define the legal concept of citizenship and summarize specific civil rights enshrined in the Constitution into a Charter of Rights and Responsibilities modeled after the Canadian Charter. The Charter should include value positions essential to an effective democracy, such as the rights of citizens, social justice, accountable governance, and rule of law. It can then be commissioned as a resource for civics education in Nigeria.

    This article recognizes that Nigeria is grappling with governance challenges orchestrated by two decades of a failed democratic project. Governing these challenges requires knowledgeable leaders and an equally informed electorate. Like any new experiment, there are concerns about the viability of epistocracy as a political system, particularly in a Nigerian context fraught with ethnoreligious and political challenges. But Nigeria will only have effective governance when the right people are saddled with the responsibility to govern. However, change cannot be spontaneous. The implementation of an epistocratic system of governance within the Nigerian context must be incremental, bearing in mind that Nigeria’s democracy is still evolving.

  17. Avatar Ekpe Esther Chidinma says:

    me: Ekpe Esther
    Reg. Number:2018/250324
    Department: Economic
    Course code:Eco362
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    In my own opinion I will say majority of the goals were not achieved.
    Due to nsome reasons below:
    All Millennium Development Goal. has been limited and uneven across countries. An estimated 15.5% of the world population still suffers from hunger, and many countries, particularly on the African continent, are unlikely to meet the targeted two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015. The reduction in maternal mortality (Target 5.A) has been slow and mortality remains alarmingly high (UN, 2012). In sub-Saharan regions and Southern Asia, where 80% of people in extreme poverty live, progress in reaching MDGs has generally been very limited (UN, 2012).
    In September 2001, based upon the Millennium Declaration, the United Nations (UN) presented the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a list of common goals for the world community to achieve by 2015. Since then, remarkable progress has been made towards achieving the MDGs. According to the UN MDG Report 2012, the proportion of people living on less than $1.25 has decreased from 47% in 1990 to 24% in 2008 (from 2 to 1.4 billion). This indicates that Target 1 – Halve the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day – will be reached by 2015 (UN, 2012). Child mortality (Target 4.A) has been steadily decreasing globally, and immunisation rates are over 90% in almost two-thirds of all countries (Overseas Development Institute [ODI], 2010). Enrolment rates of primary schools increased from 58 to 76% in sub-Saharan Africa between 1999 and 2010, professional assistance during childbirth has improved from 55% in 1990 to 65% in 2010 (Indicator 5.2) and the aimed reduction of slum dwellers by 100 million (Target 7.D) is already achieved (UN, 2012).
    Progress towards Goal 8 (‘Develop a global partnership for development’) – the only MDG directed specifically at high-income countries – has been disappointing. As a possible result of the global financial crisis, development aid has fallen for the first time in more than a decade (UN, 2012). In instances where MDGs have been achieved, some of these successes are considered a ‘by-product of the rapid economic growth of China and India’ rather than achievements of MDG-oriented activitird
    UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon links the lack of progress to ‘unmet commitments, inadequate resources, lack of focus and accountability, and insufficient interest in sustainable development’ (UN, 2010). For others, the MDGs cannot be fully met because of how the goals were designed..

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good Governance:
    Governance is the process through which citizens and state agents continuously engage in good interaction to express their demand, their rights and obligations, in order to reconcile their differences and cooperate to produce public goods and services. The beauty is that it makes society a conducive place by producing collective goods and services that people cannot provide individually for themselves. The collective goods and services include: security, public roads, schools, hospitals and control on epidemic diseases; a functioning and independent of the judiciary. It equals the various obligations of the state through its institutional framework within which socio-economic development is pursued.
    This is the opposite of Nigeria governance.
    It’s now a tradition for the Nigerian police to brutalise Nigerian youth at the slightest provocation. But at the very centre of these protests are frustrated youth whose dreams are on hold and whose future is uncertain. They are youth who are genuinely interested in good governance but are disappointed at the lack of it.
    Although Nigeria has habitually been plagued by bad governance and corporate ineptitude, it has never been this bad. Nigerians have never been divided along ethnic and religious lines as they are today.

    The tension in the land is palpable with another civil war seemingly imminent. There’s anger, there’s anxiety, and there’s age-long resentment. While innocent and unarmed protesters are arrested, tortured, and brutally murdered, terrorists and bandits are forgiven and even rewarded. Is now a tradition for the Nigerian police to brutalise Nigerian youth at the slightest provocation. But at the very centre of these protests are frustrated youth whose dreams are on hold and whose future is uncertain. They are youth who are genuinely interested in good governance but are disappointed at the lack of it. Herdsmen, who have been wreaking havoc across Nigeria, are treated as sacred cows while Nigerian youths, who are rightfully protesting against bad governance, are the scapegoats.
    He also promised to run an inclusive government in which the youths would have a voice, even as cabinet members. Currently, the youngest minister in Buhari’s cabinet is 47-year old Sadiya Umar Farouk, the Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development. The average age of the cabinet members is 61. The youths are completely out of the picture.
    Rather than being empowered, Nigerian youth have been reduced to a bunch of frustrated citizens with many of them becoming political tugs and agents of destruction in the hands of the politicians. The main reason why there is no good governance is due to selfishness of the people ruling and corruption has taken deeper root in it’s highest root

    me: Ekpe Esther
    Reg. Number:2018/250324
    Department: Economic
    Course code:Eco362
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    In my own opinion I will say majority of the goals were not achieved.
    Due to nsome reasons below:
    All Millennium Development Goal. has been limited and uneven across countries. An estimated 15.5% of the world population still suffers from hunger, and many countries, particularly on the African continent, are unlikely to meet the targeted two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015. The reduction in maternal mortality (Target 5.A) has been slow and mortality remains alarmingly high (UN, 2012). In sub-Saharan regions and Southern Asia, where 80% of people in extreme poverty live, progress in reaching MDGs has generally been very limited (UN, 2012).
    In September 2001, based upon the Millennium Declaration, the United Nations (UN) presented the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a list of common goals for the world community to achieve by 2015. Since then, remarkable progress has been made towards achieving the MDGs. According to the UN MDG Report 2012, the proportion of people living on less than $1.25 has decreased from 47% in 1990 to 24% in 2008 (from 2 to 1.4 billion). This indicates that Target 1 – Halve the proportion of people living on less than one dollar a day – will be reached by 2015 (UN, 2012). Child mortality (Target 4.A) has been steadily decreasing globally, and immunisation rates are over 90% in almost two-thirds of all countries (Overseas Development Institute [ODI], 2010). Enrolment rates of primary schools increased from 58 to 76% in sub-Saharan Africa between 1999 and 2010, professional assistance during childbirth has improved from 55% in 1990 to 65% in 2010 (Indicator 5.2) and the aimed reduction of slum dwellers by 100 million (Target 7.D) is already achieved (UN, 2012).
    Progress towards Goal 8 (‘Develop a global partnership for development’) – the only MDG directed specifically at high-income countries – has been disappointing. As a possible result of the global financial crisis, development aid has fallen for the first time in more than a decade (UN, 2012). In instances where MDGs have been achieved, some of these successes are considered a ‘by-product of the rapid economic growth of China and India’ rather than achievements of MDG-oriented activitird
    UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon links the lack of progress to ‘unmet commitments, inadequate resources, lack of focus and accountability, and insufficient interest in sustainable development’ (UN, 2010). For others, the MDGs cannot be fully met because of how the goals were designed..

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good Governance:
    Governance is the process through which citizens and state agents continuously engage in good interaction to express their demand, their rights and obligations, in order to reconcile their differences and cooperate to produce public goods and services. The beauty is that it makes society a conducive place by producing collective goods and services that people cannot provide individually for themselves. The collective goods and services include: security, public roads, schools, hospitals and control on epidemic diseases; a functioning and independent of the judiciary. It equals the various obligations of the state through its institutional framework within which socio-economic development is pursued.
    This is the opposite of Nigeria governance.
    It’s now a tradition for the Nigerian police to brutalise Nigerian youth at the slightest provocation. But at the very centre of these protests are frustrated youth whose dreams are on hold and whose future is uncertain. They are youth who are genuinely interested in good governance but are disappointed at the lack of it.
    Although Nigeria has habitually been plagued by bad governance and corporate ineptitude, it has never been this bad. Nigerians have never been divided along ethnic and religious lines as they are today.

    The tension in the land is palpable with another civil war seemingly imminent. There’s anger, there’s anxiety, and there’s age-long resentment. While innocent and unarmed protesters are arrested, tortured, and brutally murdered, terrorists and bandits are forgiven and even rewarded. Is now a tradition for the Nigerian police to brutalise Nigerian youth at the slightest provocation. But at the very centre of these protests are frustrated youth whose dreams are on hold and whose future is uncertain. They are youth who are genuinely interested in good governance but are disappointed at the lack of it. Herdsmen, who have been wreaking havoc across Nigeria, are treated as sacred cows while Nigerian youths, who are rightfully protesting against bad governance, are the scapegoats.
    He also promised to run an inclusive government in which the youths would have a voice, even as cabinet members. Currently, the youngest minister in Buhari’s cabinet is 47-year old Sadiya Umar Farouk, the Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development. The average age of the cabinet members is 61. The youths are completely out of the picture.
    Rather than being empowered, Nigerian youth have been reduced to a bunch of frustrated citizens with many of them becoming political tugs and agents of destruction in the hands of the politicians. The main reason why there is no good governance is due to selfishness of the people ruling and corruption has taken deeper root in it’s highest root

  18. Avatar Obiyo,+Uchechukwu+Ngozi says:

    Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi
    2018/241841

    1. One can’t fully agree or disagree to the fact that the MDGs were achieved but because of the nature of the question asked, in my opinion, Yes, these goals were achieved.
    Starting from the first goal which was to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, I can say that this was to an extent achieved. In many countries, people now live on more than a dollar per day. Though poverty hasn’t been widely eradicated but a number of people that suffered from poverty has reduced, though not by half but by quite a number.
    The second goal which was focused on achieving Universal Primary Education was achieved. Many children, boys and girls inclusive, were enrolled to primary education. Some presently developed countries now have laws that enforce parents/guardians to send their wards to school if not they can go to prison.
    Promotion of gender equality and women empowerment was also achieved as the girl child now has the right to attend both primary and secondary education. Women have now been empowered to be engaged in economic activities.
    Child mortality has also been reduced especially through the introduction of some vaccines like polio vaccine which has caused the life span of children to increase.
    Some of the other MDGs like improved maternal health, combating of diseases, etc have been achieved but not up to their targets.
    These goals were achieved only to some extent and there is always room for more.

    2. The process by which decisions are made and implemented is known as governance. So, when this process is done rightly, it becomes good governance and for any nation to develop, she must be seen in the light of good governance.
    The reason Nigeria and other developing nations seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance is that there are certain ingredients a governance must possess before it can be good, and these developing nations do not have these ingredients. Some of these ingredients are rule of law, equity and inclusiveness, accountability, consensus oriented, active participation, and so on. Nigeria and many developing countries face a lot of challenges that hinder the manifestation of these ingredients/qualities which make it seem like they are far behind in the quest for good governance. Some of these challenges are:
    Delay in Justice; In most developing nations, a common man does not get justice.
    Growing incidence of violence; When there is no peace in a nation, good governance cannot stand.
    Corruption; This is a major obstacle in improving quality of governance. It strives in developing nations because of the greed of the leaders. This results to non-accountability of the leaders.

  19. Avatar Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. 2018/242306 says:

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    To my understanding, I would say the MDG has failed to achieve some of it’s goals and one of the major MDG failures is the fact that the success of the goals was not experienced equally across the globe. This in itself is a major defeat.

    Nevertheless, there are other failures of the MDGs, which includes

    The MDGs failed to take into consideration a human rights framework in the accomplishment of their outcomes human rights principles must be central to the achievement of MDGs, SDGs and the post-2015 agenda. Acceptable human rights standards should be used in achieving outcomes. For instance, mandatory testing of women for HIV violates their right to bodily integrity and autonomy.

     In 2000, the MDGs were implemented in Pakistan to address the issue of extreme poverty and to provide the basic human rights of health, education and security.

    While the country made some progress in the health sector as shown by its health indicators, Pakistan was still lagging far behind other countries that had similar levels of income or had started with similar set targets. In order to further improve its service delivery in key areas of healthcare, the government implemented special programmes like the Lady Health Worker Programme (LHW), the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI), the National Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Programme (MNCH), Programme for HIV/AIDS Control and Programme for Malaria Control. However, the country has failed to meet its health-related MDGs.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    answer:

    It’s not News that there exist bad governance in our country Nigeria, things has fallen apart in the center and cannot hold anymore.

    In fact, there’s no institutional conscience. The result is a society groping in the dark, a nation at a crossroad, a people thrown into unprecedented hardships, and a confused youth force whose future is at stake.

    All these as a result of bad governance, the government has done very little to combat such social vices, instead they keep enriching their pockets.

    There’s no conscience at Aso Rock. There’s no conscience at the National Assembly. There’s no conscience at the States’ Houses of Assembly and Government Houses. And there’s no conscience in the judiciary.

    Nigeria has been divided along ethnic and religious lines.

    Rather than being empowered, Nigerian youth have been reduced to a bunch of frustrated citizens with many of them becoming political tugs and agents of destruction in the hands of the politicians.

    Nevertheless the only hope of these developing countries are good governance without which they continue to remain in poverty

  20. Avatar ONYEUKWU OBIOMA EMMANUEL 2018/251514 says:

    Achievements of Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria so far
    1.3.1 Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    Poverty – extreme poverty as the case may be is a major challenge confronting developing countries of the world. Across the globe, there is high rate of poverty, the proportion of people living on less than US$1.25 a day 42 per cent and 25 per cent in 1990 and 2005 consecutively (UNDP MDGs Report 2011: 19). In Africa there is higher rate of population living in poverty. The proportion of people living below poverty line in Africa (excluding North Africa) was 52.5 percent in 2008 (IFAD Report 2010: 34). Nigeria has also been confronted with the problem of increasing rate of poverty. The incidence of poverty increased during the period 1985-2006; the proportion of people living in poverty in 1985 was 28.1%, it rose to 46.3% in the year but decreased to 42.7% in 1999 before escalating to 65.6% in 2006. This translated to 17.7, 34.7, 39.2 and 67.1 million poor people in 1985, 1995, 1999 and 2006 respectively (Bello 2007:46). Based on the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistic’s figure 2011 however, the proportion of people living in poverty has declined to 54.4% in 2011 which amounts to about 68.7 million poor people (NBS Report 2011). Nigeria, like other countries at the UN Millennium Summit, in making committing herself to the achievement of the goals, launched her version of the MDGs poverty reduction or eradication programme. The National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS), 7-Point Agenda, Vision 20:2020 and other programmes were targeted at achieving MDGs. The level of poverty in Nigeria has taken a declining trend over the last one decade. The economic growth, particularly in agriculture, has reasonably reduced the proportion of underweight children, from 5.7 per cent in 1990 to 23.1 per cent in 2008 (UNDP Report, 2010). In the achievement of Goal 1; the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day, the percentage of the population living in relative poverty was 60 per cent in 2000 and was supposed to fall to 21.35 in 2015 (Ibid). The percentage of people living in extreme poverty was about 28.78% in 2007, using the data for the year 2000 and 2004 and we make a projection of actual poverty incidence. If the trend continues, by the year 2015, the poverty incidence would have fallen to 48.7 per cent, some 27.3 percentage points more than the target of 21.3 per cent (MDGs Report 2010). The proportion of underweight children under five years of age was 35.7 per cent in 1990, reducing to 28.7 per cent between 2001 and 2003 and to 23.1 per cent in 2008. The Report stated that if the rate of progress is sustained, it places Nigeria on track to halve the proportion of underweight children under five years of age by 2015. Also the proportion of population living below minimum level of dietary energy consumption was 19.3% in 1991 and increased to 8.5% in 2011 (Ibid).

    Achievements in the Area of Universal Basic Education
    The development of any nation depends largely on inputs made by her citizens. The quality of input however, depends largely on the percentage of the population with a level of education adequate enough for rapid economic and social development. The Nigerian government introduced the Universal Primary Education (UPE) as an educational programme aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty, and thereby simulate and accelerate national development. The programme was introduced in 1999 in conformity with the Education for all (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as an integral part of poverty reduction strategy. Nigeria has made gradual move towards the 100% target by 2015. This reflected in the net enrolment rate in primary education that stood at 87.6% in 2006 and 89.6% in 2007 (UNDP Report 2007). According to the MDG Country Progress Report, in year 2000, the net enrolment in primary education in Nigeria was 68 per cent (Ibid: 25). It manifested a slow but steady increase for a couple of years, and in 2008 the gross enrolment ratio rose to 88.8 per cent. There was a huge progress between 2004 and 2007; the progress nevertheless, needs to be accelerated if the target is to be met by 2015. The number of pupils starting Primary 1 who reach Primary 5, known as the “survival rate” in 2000 was 97 per cent but dropped to 72.3 per cent in 2009 (Ibid). Lagos State had the highest proportion of students that starts Primary 1 and reach Primary 5 (98.7 per cent), while Akwa Ibom State had the lowest (27.1 per cent), at regional level, south west had the highest with 91.7 per cent and north central had the lowest with 67.7 per cent in 2009 (NBS Report 2009). The literacy rate of youth’s between the age of 15-24, defined as the percentage of the population that can read and write in any language with understanding was 64.1 per cent 2000, declined to 60.4 per cent in 2003 and later rose to 76.2% and 81.4% in 2005 and 2007 consecutively (Ibid). However, the literacy rate dropped to 80 per cent in 2008 with a significantly higher rate in the urban than in rural areas. The MDG Report 2010 clearly stated that if the progress rate over the years is sustained, the youth literacy rate should be around 87 percent by 2015.
    1.3.3 Promotion of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment
    One in every four women in sub-Sahara Africa is a Nigerian. Because of its sheer size, the country significantly influences the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The situation of women and girls in Nigeria has a key role to play in determining the progress of the whole region. Nigeria ranks 118 of 134 countries in the Gender Equality Index (UKaid Gender Report 2012). According to the UKaid Report, women make up only 21% of the non-agricultural paid labour force. Data also showed that each day 144 Nigerian women die in childbirth, which is equivalent to one death every 10 minutes(Ibid). Women are politically under represented. Their upper and lower house representation fell from 7% in 2007 to 6% in the 2011 election (the African average is 19%). Only 7 of 109 Senators and 25 of 360 Representatives are women (Ibid). The extent of gender inequality which manifested in the level of education, poverty, employment, political representation and human right, portends grave hindrance to the achievement of MDG 3 in Nigeria. Although the situation is improving, the proportion of girls enrolled is still lower than that of boysacross all levels of education. At the tertiary institution however, the ratio is showing signs of decline (MDGs 2010 Report, op. cit.: 26). The ratio of girls to boys in primary education shows long-term progress despite occasional deviations. In 2008, the number of girls per 100 boys was 85.4 and there was a gradual but steady increase from 2000 to 2008. It is however assumed that if the trend continues, the level expected to be reached by 2015 will fall short of the target. The situation was worse in secondary education; the ratio of girls to boys in secondary school was 81, which later dropped to 79.9 in 2008 (Ibid). As regards to the proportion of seats held by women in the National Assembly, gradual gains have been made, statistics show some improvement between 2000 (3.1%) and 2008 (7.5%) (Ibid). After the May 10th 2007 elections, data from the National Centre for
    Women Development (NCWD Report 2009) show that there were nine female senators, compared to four in 2003. Also, there were 26 female members in the House of Representatives, compared to 23 in 2003. Appointments to the Federal Cabinet and in MDAs have witnessed a flow of female nominees and successful candidates since 1999 to positions previously reserved for men(Ibid). Between 2006 and 2009, two women were appointed to the Supreme Court bench. Women constitute 11.8 per cent of the 17 members of the court (Ibid). Across the 36 states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory judiciaries, women constitute 30 per cent of the total number of High Court Judges. Statistics from the states point to a gradual increase in the number of female Deputy Governors from two in 2003 to six in 2007(Ibid).
    1.3.4 Achievements in Reducing Child Mortality
    The progress of any country depends on how healthy the children are. Such children should have access to basic health care, nutritious food and a hazard free environment. When these are not available, the country’s mortality rates would increase and economic potentials diminish. In developing countries, under-five years mortality ranges between 25 deaths per 1000 live births in Turkey to 274 per 1000 in Niger (WHO Report 2008). In less developed countries, infant and child mortality are caused by dehydration and chronic diarrhoea, acuterespiratory infections, infectious diseases and malnutrition. The major child-killer conditions in Nigeria include malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition. The current policy framework for MDG4 in Nigeria is the National Strategic Health Development Plan by the Federal Ministry of Health. The plan aims to improve child health, among other health-related MDGs (FMH 2010 Report). MDG 4 aims to reduce the mortality of children under five years of age which was 191 per 1,000 in 1990 to approximately 64 per 1,000 live births; infant mortality from 91 to approximately 31 per 1,000 live births; and increase the percentage of one-year-olds fully immunised against measles from 46 per cent in 1990 to 100 per cent by 2015 (Ibid). Data obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey Reports in 1990, 1999, 2003 and 2008 shows that the under-five mortality rose from 191 per 1000 in 1990 to 201 per 1000 live births in 2003 but declined to 157 in 2008 (Ibid). The data shows an even steeper decline in 2007 to 138 per 1000 live births, which represented a major drop, before rising to 157 in 2008, implying a reversal of the progress achieved in 2007. In terms of regional disparity, in 2008 the North East still had a disproportionately high rate of under-five mortality (222 per 1000) while the South West had recorded rates very much below the national average (89 per 1000) (Ibid). The proportion of one-year-old child fully immunised against measles increased from 46 per cent in 1990 to 61.8 per cent in 2002 and then declined to 60 per cent in 2005 and remained at that level in 2006 and 2007. In 2008 the rate reduced to as low as 41 per cent and there is indication that in 2009 the figure increased to 74.3 per cent (NBS Report 2009).
    1.3.5 Achievements in Maternal Health
    Nigeria has made progress in reducing maternal deaths, but the number of women who die in pregnancy or from complications associated with child-birth remains appallingly high. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and, despite being one of the wealthiest in Africa, continues to experience high rates of maternal deaths. Nigeria has the 10th highest maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the world, according to UN estimates, with 630 women dying per 100,000 births, a higher proportion than in Afghanistan or Haiti, and only slightly lower than in Liberia or Sudan (WHO et al 1990-2010). An estimated 40,000 Nigerian women die in pregnancy or childbirth each year, and another 1 million to 1.6 million suffer from serious disabilities from pregnancy and birth related causes annually (USAID Report 2012). Over her lifetime, a Nigerian woman’s risk of dying from pregnancy or childbirth is 1 in 29, compared to the sub-Saharan average of 1 in 39 and that global average of 1 in 180. While in developed regions of the world, a woman’s risk of maternal death is 1 in 3,800 (WHO 2012).
    The Millennium Development Goal on improving maternal health calls first for a 75 per cent reduction by 2015 in the maternal mortality rate from 1990 level for Nigeria (using estimates from the Nigeria’s 2008 Demographic and Health Survey by the National Population Commission which is slightly lower than UN estimates), a reduction to 250 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births; and second, for 100 per cent of deliveries to be assisted by a skilled birth attendant (NPC Report 2009). According to the Nigeria National Planning Commission, the country can reach the maternal mortality target by 2015, but require dramatic and sustained progress in the remaining years (NPC Report 2010: 31).
    1.3.6 Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases
    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a dramatic and complex health problem worldwide; it is estimated that 4.3 million people around the globe were infected during the year 2006 alone (USAID 2006). AIDS impacts negatively on all the other MDGs. It affects poverty outcomes (MDG 1) and impairs universal access to education (MDG 2), especially in countries with high prevalence rates. It also has forceful consequences on maternal and child health, since the HIV infection increases the frequency of obstetrical and neonatal problems (Ibid). HIV prevalence among pregnant young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria has continuously declined in years. In 2000, the prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15-24 years was about 5.4%, rose to 5.8% in 2001 and2002 but declined to 5.0% in 2003 and further to 4.3% in 2005and 4.2%in 2008(NPC Report 2009:32). Nationally the MDGs target has been met, the spread of HIV has been halted and has begun to be reversed. However, acute challenges remain in some states where prevalence rates continue to remain high. For instance, HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years in South-South was the highest with 7% prevalencerate while the South West has the lowest prevalence rate in the country with 2%. The state level analysis reveals that Benue State has the highest prevalence rate of 10.6% while Ekiti state recorded the lowest per cent(Ibid). According to Federal Ministry of Health, access to HIV/AIDS treatment for all those who need it was 16.7 per cent in 2007, but rose to 34.4 per cent in 2008 (FMH Report 2010). The proportion is quite low and far from being achieved, because the target is to have 100 per cent by 2015. For Malaria prevalence rate increased to 2, 203 per 100, 000 in 2002 form 2, 024 and 1, 859 per 100, 000 in 2000 and 2001. It fell to 1,727 in 2003 and further to 1,157 in 2004, representing a 42.8 per cent decline from the 2000 figure (Ibid). Also from the National Strategic Health Development Plan 2010-2015, the death rate as a result of Malaria fell from 0.23 to 0.16 about 30 per cent decline, within the same period. The tuberculosis prevalence rate was about 21.75 per 100, 000 in 2003(Ibid). The rate was about 15.74 per 100, 000 in the year 2000, falling to 12.57 per 100, 000 in 2002. It fell continuously to as low as 7.07 per 100, 000 in 2004 representing a 43 per cent and 67.7 per cent decline from the year 2000 and 2003 figures, respectively. The rate remained constant through to 2007. The death rate as a result of Tuberculosis also fell from 1.57 in the year 2000 to 1.50 in 2004 through 2007, representing a 4 per cent decline(Ibid). In the area of near eradication of polio, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF Report 2003) observed that 75,000 children in 32 African countries were paralysed by polio. In 2003, Africa had driven polio back to only two countries, Nigeria and Niger, reporting about 204 cases across both countries. In 2003, Nigeria accounted for 45 per cent of all global cases of polio and by 2004 the figure had risen to 75 per cent (Ibid). In 2008, the African Union (AU Report 2008) pointed out that 57 per cent (946) of all polio cases worldwide were in AU member states, with Nigeria accounting for 49 per cent (806). Finally in 2009, African Union data showed that 87 per cent (147) of all polio cases reported globally were in AU member states, with Nigeria accounting for 53 per cent (90) (AU Report 2009). Till date Nigeria remain one of the countries in the world that has not been able to totally eradicate polio, especially the northern part of the country due to the misconception by the people that the vaccine is a plot to harm African children.
    1.3.7 Fostering Environmental Sustainability
    Nigeria’s natural resources, some of its most valuable national assets, are still seriously threatened. For example, between 2000 and 2010 the area of forest shrank by a third, from 14.4 per cent to 9.9 per cent of the land area (UNDP Progress Report 2013). Similarly, access to safe water and sanitation is a serious challenge for Nigeria. Little progress was made up to 2005 but improvements since then have brought the proportion of the population accessing safe water to 58.9 per cent and the proportion accessing improved sanitation to 51.6 per cent. Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 is an integrated development plan with one of its three pillars dedicated to ensuring sustainability. The forests perform a number of functions that are vital for humans, including the provision of goods (timber and non-timber products) and services such as protection against flooding, habitat for biodiversity, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and soil conservation. The proportion of Nigeria’s land area covered by forest was 12.2 per cent in 2005 as against the 14.4 per cent in 2000 (FAO Report 2010). The Report further stated that forest provide employment for over 2 million people, particularly in the harvesting of fuel wood and poles, but more than 80,000 people work in logprocessing industries, especially in the forest zones of the south. Access to improved water sources (defined as piped water, public taps, boreholes or pumps, protected wells, protected springs or rainwater) could help reduce deaths from diarrhoea and other such diseases. According the National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria’s progress towards this target has been erratic. Currently, 58.9 percent of the population has access to an improved water source an improvement on the 55.8 per cent recorded in the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey(NDHS) (NBS Report 2010).
    1.3.8 Achievements in the area of Developing Global Partnership for Development
    Debt-relief gains have helped immensely in Nigeria’s modest progress towards achieving the MDGs. The government has used debt relief to adopt many promising interventions and initiatives, such as the OPENMonitoring and Evaluation Framework (OPEN-M&E), the Midwives Service Scheme and the Federal Teachers Scheme. The government has also used debt relief for social safety net policy initiatives, such as Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs), the Micro-Credit Scheme, and the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) Vocational Training Scheme. Other initiatives are the MDGs Costing and Needs Assessment, Universal Basic Education Counterpart Fund Scheme, HIV&AIDS (distribution of antiretroviral drugs), the Community Health Insurance Scheme, the Rollback Malaria Partnership with the Global Fund (providing insecticide-treated mosquito nets to every Nigerian family) and the development of a National Gender Data Bank.
    According to the Central Bank of Nigeria, the flow of Official Development Assistance (ODA) including debt relief gains from developed countries to Nigeria increased dramatically in 2004, rising from US$4.49 per person in 2004 to US$81.67 per person in 2006 and 2007 (CBN Report 2007). However, the figures include the large volume of debt relief negotiated by Nigeria, which was received in trenches spanning both 2005 and 2006. Provisional data for 2008 from the OECD shows per capita ODA of US$8.53, which is an increase on previous years but is still far short of the volume of funds required to make appreciable progress on the MDGS. Nigeria’s economy was over-burdened by the country’s huge external debt for many years(Ibid). In 1990, for instance, servicing the country’s external debt consumed 22.3 per cent of the value of the country’s exports of goods and services (Ibid:56). Nigeria obtained debt relief in 2005, when the Paris Club wrote off US$18 billion of its debt on condition that the country pays off the balance of approximately US$12.4 billion owing to the Paris Club creditors. Nigeria paid off its debt to Paris club in 2006 (CBN Annual Report 2010). It subsequently paid off its debt to the London Club of creditors through par bonds worth US$1, 486 billion and promissory notes worth US$476 million. In addition, in 2007 Nigeria repurchased about 21 per cent of outstanding oil warrants issued under a debt- restructuring deal in 1991. In 1990 there were only 0.3 telephone lines per 100 people in Nigeria. It increased to 0.54 in 2002 and to 0.86 in 2008.
    Looking at the analysis of the achievements so far we could conclude that the goals were partially achieved in the fact that there was significant improvement in some areas like agriculture ,telecommunications etc. But the goals were not really achieved as predicted.

    2.
    It was established that good governance is all about transparency and accountability in allocating authoritative resources. And as such internalizing the culture of good governance is the recipe for quality leadership aim at building-nation in every levels of government in the country. When good governance is be entrenched, the recurrent pathological problems of corruption, primordial sentiment, patron-client politics, the unholy marriage of Nigeria and ethno-religious loyalty that many scholars and analyst have identified as the challenges of nation-building in the country would be resolved. For the reason that the principles of transparence and accountability are all about using instrumentalities of government to formulate policies and programmes that would be people-oriented. For the way forward, Nigerians are what they are today only because their leaders are not what they should be. It is therefore, obvious that positive leadership represents Nigeria’s oasis of hope for greatness in a desert of mediocrities, purposeless, corrupt and visionless men and women masquerading as leaders at all levels of governance in the country. Given this reality, the paper recommends that the various underlying causes of leadership failure in Nigeria, which have remained obstacles to the country’s quest for true good governance; and nation-building, must be addressed with the seriousness and urgency they deserve. This will allow for the emergence of a positive leadership that would not compromise the national quest for improved welfare for the citizens; social infrastructures, human development; and technological breakthrough, which are the dividends of democracy through the internalization of the culture of good governance. Introduction How to trench the culture of good governance towards nation-building has been the major preoccupation of public discourse among Nigerians since independence in 1960. This clarion call has become imperative as the leadership spectrum under the present democratic dispensation has not satisfactory demonstrated the desire political will capable of enhancing sustainable nation-building. The failure of successive regimes to internalize the culture of good governance has thus, been left in a poor state of nation-building characterized by endemic corruption at all levels of government and society; excruciating pains of poverty and hopelessness; insecurity of lives and property; high rate of unemployment and youth restiveness; kidnapping and armed robbery; religious extremism; infrastructural deficits; inflation and among others. Despite the growing of these ills those in positions of authority have remained indifferent to the plight of the Nigerian mass instead, they are obsessed with siphoning the fortunes of the country. The desired path to nation-building of the country is still a mirage in spite of the abundance of human and material resources, which should have ordinarily translated into a buoyant life for the citizenry. The greatest threat to nation-building in Nigeria has thus been poor leadership, which is an indication of bad governance. Since the return of democratic governance in 1999, Nigeria has been experiencing deepening political crises as a result of the defects of the democratization process and the apparent ineptitude of the political leadership. The problem of leadership has continued to abort efforts at genuine democratization through exclusion of some segments of the political elite from effective participation in the politics of the country. According to Fayemi, ‘the long years of political misrule and bad governance exemplified by civilian administrations and military dictatorships since the country’s political independence has left the nation politically demobilized , humanly underdeveloped and economically sterile with an ample population ravaged by poverty” 1. Thus, with the return to democratic rule in the country in 1999, Nigerians had expected that the new wave of political leadership and democratic governance would accelerate the tide of nation-building. While previous research have principally identified corruption, primordial sentiment, patron-client politics, the unholy marriage of Nigeria and ethno-religious loyalty as the challenges of nation-building, this paper has differently indentify the inability of the Nigerian state to internalize the culture of good governance as the major challenge of nation-building in Nigerian. Because the good governance is capable of resolving the above problems that have dominated public discourse over the years. The process of internalizing the culture of good governance is deeply rooted in the quality of leadership and as such the unwillingness of the political elite in the country to provide quality leadership has been the major reason for the slow pace of nation-building of the Nigerian state. Thus, it against the aforementioned problematic that this paper seek to demonstrate how the inherent attributes of good governance could serve as a recipe for the actualization of the quest for nation-building of the Nigerian state. And the failure of the political elites to internalize the overriding culture of good governance has equally resulted to other silent issues revolving around poor leadership that have frustrated the pursuit of nation-building since 1999.

  21. Avatar Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Name: Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    Dept: Education/Economics
    Reg no: 2018/244287
    Course: Development Economics (Eco 362)

    1. Were the Millennium Development Goals a success? Yes! Sort of

    “The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.  

    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been uneven.”

    It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.

    So which goals were met and which fell short? Below, we’ll broadly examine what has been achieved for the main targets within the eight goals using information from.
    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.

    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.

    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000. 

    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.

    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.

    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health

    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.

    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases

    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.

    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent

    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably

    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.

    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Among the seven key aspirations listed in Agenda 2063: The Africa We Want—the African Union’s (AU) shared 50-year development and transformation program for realizing the full potential of the continent—one stands out in its interconnectedness: “[a]n Africa of good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law”[emphasis added]. The key to Africa’s political and economic transformation in the next decade is found in this aspiration. Indeed, as former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development.”

    Progress on good governance has been encouraging, but challenges remain

    African countries continue to build on the governance gains that they have achieved since the early 1990s. According to the African Development Bank, good governance should be built on a foundation of (I) effective states, (ii) mobilized civil societies, and (iii) an efficient private sector. The key elements of good governance, then, are accountability, transparency, combating corruption, citizen participation, and an enabling legal/judicial framework.

    Since then, many African countries have undertaken institutional reforms that have significantly changed their governance architectures and put in place a new set of leaders. Since the early 1990s, for example, Ghana has diligently undertaken governance reforms, including the design and adoption of new democratic constitution, which places emphasis on the separation of powers with checks and balances to transform its political system. Ghana subsequently became a role model in the institutionalization of democratic rule, as illustrated by the quick acceptance of defeat by incumbent President John D. Mahama during the 2016 elections.

    More broadly, over the past decade, Kenya, Morocco, and Côte d’Ivoire have led the way. The Ibrahim Index of African Governance indicates that between 2008 and 2017, these countries experienced significant improvements, particularly in overall governance. Specifically, Côte d’Ivoire registered the greatest improvement in overall governance during the period 2008–2017.
    But Africa has a long way to go: Too many countries have not yet achieved the type of reforms that can prevent dictatorship, corruption, and economic decline. Due to continued sectarian violence, weak and ineffective leadership, and lack of political will, countries like the Central African Republic, Eritrea, Somalia, and South Sudan remain saddled by poor-functioning governance structures.
    The absence of good governance in many African countries has been extremely damaging to the government’s corrective intervention role, particularly in the maintenance of peace and security, as well as the promotion of economic growth and the creation of the wealth needed to confront poverty and improve human development.

    Without good and inclusive governance, Africa will not achieve its social and economic targets

    It is imperative that countries entrench mechanisms that promote constitutionalism, accountability, democracy, and good governance if Africa is to achieve its development goals. For example, although there has been a substantial decline in the share or proportion of Africans living in extreme poverty—from 54 percent in 1990 to 41 percent in 2015—the number of Africans living in poverty has actually increased from 278 million in 1990 to 413 million in 2015. Unless effective anti-poverty and pro-poor policies are implemented in African countries; global poverty will become increasingly African. Indeed, the least developed countries in the world (as determined by the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Index) are also countries with relatively weak, dysfunctional, or ineffective governance structures (as determined by the Ibrahim Index of African Governance). These include the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan.

    Fighting poverty and improving human development in Africa must begin with the creation of wealth, a process that requires the existence of a robust entrepreneurial class. In order to achieve these goals, there must be peace and security—especially the peaceful coexistence of the various ethnocultural groups that inhabit each African country. Unfortunately, weak and dysfunctional governance structures continue to prevent many African countries from creating and sustaining the necessary enabling environment for peaceful coexistence, entrepreneurship, and wealth creation. In fact, in countries such as Cameroon, the DRC, and South Sudan, the absence of governance structures undergirded by the rule of law has failed to halt ethnic-induced violence. That violence stunts entrepreneurship and economic growth in these countries. Peace and security, which are a sine qua non for entrepreneurial activities and the creation of wealth, are unlikely to return to these countries without the provision of participatory and inclusive governance structures.

    Weak governance manifests itself in other ways as well: Too often dysfunctional governance processes persist, creating environments where civil servants and political elites act with impunity, embezzling scarce public resources that could be used for education, healthcare, infrastructure, water treatment plants, electricity, farm-to-market roads, or technology. Elites are usually not incentivized to implement pro-poor economic programs that enhance the ability of the poor to participate productively and gainfully in economic growth, such as public investments in primary and secondary education, clean water, basic health care, and child nutrition.

    Bolstering good and inclusive governance through 2030 and beyond

    The type of governance structure that each African country should strive for over the next decade is one that should address peaceful coexistence and economic development, inequality, the effects of climate change, health pandemics, and enhanced regional cooperation, as well as ensure the full and effective participation in both the economic and political systems of groups that have historically been marginalized (e.g., women, youth, and ethnic and religious minorities). Each country must reflect upon its own governance challenges and engage in robust national dialogue on institutional reforms to enable an effective and inclusive governance system.

  22. Avatar Ihekwoaba Alex Ezihe says:

    IHEKWOABA ALEX EZIHE
    2018/243746
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    1) The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.

    Progress report on the health-related MDGs

    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality

    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.
    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health

    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.

    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.

    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

    Malaria

    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.

    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.

    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.
    Tuberculosis

    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).

    Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.

    Other diseases

    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.

    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability

    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.

    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries

    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

    2). Over the decades, there has been a recurrent and sustained argument that the Nigerian state, like its counterparts in Africa and other countries of the developing world, underperforms due to lack of state capacity1 to deal with the contemporary complexities of governance. The nature of the state, the public institutions through which legitimate power is exercised and enforced, is germane to the study of politics in any state (Smith, 2003, p. 108). Therefore, the issue of state capacity is central to understanding the African socioeconomic malaise. Clapham (2002) draws particular attention to the inherent challenges of state maintenance in weak societies and offers probable explanations to states’ incapacity, especially during the era of globalization. Of greater concern is his identification of structural and contextual variables that enhance the vulnerability of most African states like Nigeria. Bayart (2009) examines the African sociopolitical and economic realities and attributes state’s failures to Africa’s historical heritage: history of weak political leadership, corruption, conflicts, and wars. There is no controversy about the series of symptoms of state failure and state collapse in Africa; the point of debate remains the extent of state’s incapacity displayed by the Nigerian state.

    The “petroleum-rich” Nigerian state, confronted by sociopolitical instability, high degree of corruption, mass hostility to the “public,” and poor macroeconomic management, continue to display the attributes of a state in crisis (Akinola, 2008). Successive governments in Nigeria, like in many African states, lack the political will to initiate or sustain policy or structural transformation, or to embark on sound economic reform to reposition the state for greatness (World Bank, 1997). No matter the upsurge of globalization and the prospects of the borderless state, the expectation is for states to take a decisive role in economic transformation, growth, and development and jettison every act that is inimical to improved livelihood as well as socioeconomic and political development of the country. With the weakness of the Nigerian state and its ineffectiveness, it has become challenging to eradicate impoverishment, engage in infrastructural development, and stem the tides of insurgency and terrorism, which have the potency to derail the country’s moderate political development.

    The article supports the assertion that the critical and central issue of governance, from the utilitarian perspective of British lawyer and political thinker Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) to the African idea of communalism among such others, should be people centered. Deploying, as a launch pad, the well-known African philosophical and sociopolitical thoughts enshrined in Omoluabi, Ujamaa, and Ubuntu, the article addresses how Africa, particularly Nigeria, has missed the “state capacity train” and also how self-interest, as against public interest, has become the dominant ethos in the governance of most African countries. The article further queried, What are the indicators of governance crisis in Nigeria? What are the factors responsible for governance crisis in Nigeria?
    Without doubt, the Nigerian state stood in between exhibiting attributes of state collapse and state failure. According to Mimiko (2010), the Nigerian state has degenerated to the point where it is unable to provide minimal social security for its vulnerable population. This explains why the mass of the people continues to regard a low pumping price of oil as a social security and birthright. The article takes a holistic approach to understanding the role of successive political leadership in Nigeria and assesses their responses to the pressures and demands for sustainable democracy. The rest of the article is structured into three main sections. These are, namely, conceptual discourse and the state of literature, selected governance issues in Nigeria, and conclusion

  23. Avatar Joseph Ruth Tochukwu says:

    JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU
    2018/245132
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    QUIZ 3
    1. A final stock take of the MDGs implementation reveals that although many challenges remain, Nigeria has made significant progress in reducing under-five mortality rate, getting more children immunized and is on the path to eradicating polio. It has also improved the proportion of births attended to by skilled health personnel and antenatal coverage.
    The net enrolment rates in primary and secondary schools which had registered commendable progress in the past have however, been halted by the menace of insurgency in the Northeast geopolitical zone. Per capita Official Development Assistance (ODA) to Nigeria has trended upwards over the years with sectoral allocation to key sectors, such as health, exhibiting an upward trend.
    In the area of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), evidence reveals that Nigeria has recorded tremendous success with cellular phone subscribers and internet users rising astronomically over the past decade.
    The country is however, still faced with critical challenges in tackling poverty, hunger and malnutrition; achieving gender parity in education, wage employment and political leadership; reducing maternal deaths; and improving access to sanitation and ensuring environmental sustainability. In nutshell, Nigeria has a mixed bag of performance records.

    2. The concept of good governance has becomes a popular catch phrase which politicians and administrator in Nigeria easily deploy to draw upon support base from the generality of the people. The concept is suggested to be a means to development through good representation and governance which has been evasive in much of post-independence history of Nigeria and in particular the forty republic. While governance have been effectively deployed elsewhere as it were in Tanzania currently under president John Magufuliowning to the type of leadership he represent in terms of prudent resources management accountability and responsiveness, the same cannot be said of Nigeria. Leadership problems, weak institutions pervasive corruption, ethnic and regional base loyalty and interest, and a general amoral public sphere have all colluded to prevent efficient governance and by extension rapid development upon which OdioneAkharine(2007-10) defined Nigerian political state as a bizarre. While Kescelma(1996:616) described the state as an unfinished project characterized by instability and uncertainties. Nigerian state is like a diabetics patient whose excess sugar in its blood stream serves no purpose (Ameh, 2007).
    Successive regime and Nigeria leaders merely pay lip service to the twin concepts of good governance and development. They only month ideas to gain access to political power and public offices after which they invariably become either too lethargic to walk the talk or are swallowed or arrested by what has now become known as the “system”. The system is a euphemism for dysfunctional state of affairs of Nigeria’s public institutions and the public domain which have been perverted by plebendalism. The consequence of this poor attitude to governance are fairly well-known. It includes mass poverty, economic stagnation, political instability, corruption, unemployment, insurgency and terrorism, social unrest and conflict, abuse of power and the principle of the rule of law, all of which reinforces one another. Mass poverty and wide gap between the few rich and the large poor has been the result of a state with massive potentials but which has ironically experienced a steady decline since oil windfall peaked more than three decades ago.

  24. Avatar Stephen Faith Kuranen says:

    Name: Stephen Faith Kuranen
    Reg.no: 2018/242333
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Developmental Economics(Eco 362)
    Assignment.
    • In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    ~ In general terms, the report indicates that Nigeria has made appreciable progress in the attainment of MDGs in the last 14 years, particuarly, in the area of universal primary education enrolment; achieving gender parity in educaton; reducing the spread of HV and AIDS; reducing maternal deaths, as well as, halving the percentage of people living in absolute hunger for which it receved a recognition from the Food and Agricutural Organisation (FAO). In spite of the appreciable progress, some of the targets could not be met due to challenges in the areas of poverty, insecurity, social inequality, absence of inclusive growth and youth unempoyment.
    Which includes both local issues as well those predicated on the global environment; hence: oil price volatilties, the Niger Delta Crisis, the Boko Haram phenomenon; flooding as well as farmersherdsmen clashes. Whereas most of the vunerabilities and risks have endured, a few have diminished in importance with time, but collectively, they have all contributed to slowing down Nigeria’s progress with the MDGs.
    • Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    ~Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability.
    ~Political Instability.
    ~Corruption.
    ~Poor Economic Growth.
    ~Corruption.
    ~Transparency.
    ~Dealing with Corruption.
    This are some of the things that hinders good governance. And to be Frank Nigeria is not practicing proper Federalism and Democracy. But things we need are
    ~Participation.
    ~Consensus oriented.
    ~Accountability.
    ~Transparency.
    ~Responsive.
    ~Effective and efficient.
    ~Equitable and inclusive.
    ~Following the rule of law.

    References.
    Nigeria 2015 Millennium Development Goals: End-Point Report. http://www.mdgs.gov.ng

  25. 2018/243825
    Eco 362

    1, Yes I believe these goals were achieved. This is because of the large progress they made within the specified time. They have succeeded in empowering women, eradicating poverty in various parts of several countries, ensuring free/affordable education in several countries along side many others. In as much as they haven’t fully fulfilled any of these goals, we can’t deny the tremendous progress they have made.

    2, Developing nations like Nigeria are still far in the quest for good governance. Factors like large scale corruption both on the part of the citizens and even the government. We can’t say that developed nations are devoid of corruption but it’s not half as much as that of developing nations like Nigeria. Let me use an instance where we as citizens help the wrong party to win an election through vote selling, vandalism and cajoling our friends to vote them because we were tipped off. The wrong party ends up in power and they start behaving anyway they like.
    I’ve also noticed that in Nigeria, the government is above the rule of law. If you are offended by a senator or house of rep member and you go to the court to seek justice, they can easily get away with it by adjourning the case until it is buried under the case like in the case of Zaki zaki in Kaduna.

  26. Avatar Ogbaji+Chukwudubem,+2018/250210,+Economics+Department says:

    ASSIGNMENT 1

    Yes, The SDG’s have been achieved from 1990 to 2015.
    Theses are thier achievements to show proofs.
    • Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    • Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality

    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    • Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health

    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    • Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.

    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

    Malaria

    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.
    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.
    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.

    Tuberculosis

    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).

    Other diseases

    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.

    • Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.
    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    • Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries

    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    ASSIGNMENT 2

    Here are the reason why development is far from these countries:
    1. High rates of poverty.
    2. Increase in Conflict; mostly tribal and ethnic.
    3. Corruption rate in the economy and continuance in government rule.

  27. Avatar OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    NAME: OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA.
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242433
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.
    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 362
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015. In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    The MDGs (The millennium development goals) is a product of the millennium summit that took place in September 2000. It is a distillation of development goals identified at various international conference and submit held in the 1990’s. It include 8 goals, 18 targets and 40 indicators.
    I think these goals were achieved. The clearest victories during the MDG era were in matters of life and death. At least 21 million extra lives were saved due to the accelerated progress. Look at malaria, which is predominantly a subset of child mortality. These indicators show evidence of major accelerations in rates of progress during the 2000s, with the exception of maternal mortality, which experienced more modest acceleration.
    The upshot is that somewhere between 21-29 million more people are alive today than would have been the case if countries had continued their pre-MDG rates of progress. (The range depends mainly on whether we use child mortality trends from 1990-2000 or 1996-2001 as the pre-MDG reference period.)
    Some successes of the MDG were more impressive than others. One of the core tensions in assessing outcomes over the MDG period is to distinguish between the amount of progress achieved and changes in the rate of progress.
    For example, the UN celebrated improved access to drinking water as an early MDG success. But were countries already on course to achieve this as of 2000? Tests conducted for differences in mean rates of progress found that trends varied considerably across issues and geographies. Positive changes were concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and low-income countries (as classified by the World Bank in 2000). One positive result here is that as many as 471 million extra people have been lifted out of extreme poverty as of 2013 (the most recent year with available data), compared to 1990s trends. As many as 111 million more people also completed primary school. Meanwhile, for water and undernourishment, accelerations in the majority of developing countries were outweighed by slowdowns in the rate of progress in many populous countries, which generated negative overall numbers for our estimate of incremental lives improved.
    The performance of Ethiopia in achieving the health-related millennium development goals (MDGs) with the aim of acquiring lessons for the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Ethiopia achieved most of the health MDGs: a 67% reduction in under-five mortality, a 71% decline in maternal mortality ratio, a 90% decline in new HIV infections, a decrease in malaria-related deaths by 73% and a more than 50% decline in mortality due to tuberculosis. these achievements are due to implementation of a mix of comprehensive strategies within the health system and across other sectors of the government. Scaling up of interventions by disease control programmes (including the health extension programme) and strengthening of the health system have played important roles towards the achievements. These health gains could not have been realised without progress in the other MDGs: poverty reduction, education, access to safe drinking-water and peace and stability of the country. However, the gains were not equitable, with differences between urban and rural areas, among regions and socioeconomic strata. Ethiopia’s remarkable success in meeting most of the targets of the health-related MDGs could be explained by its comprehensive and multisectoral approach for health development. The inequity gap remains a challenge that achieving the health-related SDGs requires the country to implement strategies, which specifically target more marginal populations and geographic areas. This also needs peace and stability, without which it is almost impossible to improve health. The millennium development goals (MDGs) provided a context for the establishment of significant commitments and initiatives and were associated with increased resources from development partners.
    Again,The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet. The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.
    2.) Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good governance at all levels is fundamental to economic growth, political stability, and security a key factor for stability and security. Good governance leads to improved economic benefits in a globalized world and it accelerates economic transitions.
    Bad governance on the other hand is a relationship between those who govern and those who are governed as a consequence of decision-making. This unfavourable relationship is created as a consequence of external factors or decisions such as violation of central or acceptable norms, such as those of liberal democracy, and bad economic policy. Bad governance collectively encompasses governance in government and corporate settings. It is the opposite of good governance. Bad governance addresses governance in a government setting but bad governance and bad government are different concepts. Bad governance encompasses a variety of situations from corruption, deceit and to passing of unfair policy.
    There has not been good governance in Nigeria in the past 50 years. The worst has been from 1999 when the country changed from the military dictatorship to the democratic rule. However, there is that belief that good governance thrives in a democratic government. According to Odo (2015), good governance thrives in a democratic setting. The author averred where there is no democratic government there can be no good International Journal of Development and Sustainability.
    The primordial cause of lack of good governance in Nigeria is the absence of visionary leader to lead the country. Most of the leaders Nigeria ever had since the return of democracy in 1999 has been in power to pursue personal, ethnic and religious ambitions. These leaders had no vision for the good of the nation. Most of the developmental challenges Nigerian had today is attributed to these leaders who lacked good vision for the nation (Odo, 2015). This author explained further that these leaders lacked commitment for true nationhood and allowed personal ambitions and ethnic, regional as well as religious persuasions to override national considerations. Good governance requires responsible and responsive political leaders at all level (Belfut et al., 2012). These leaders as political and public office holders see their positions as a means for illegal wealth accumulation to the detriment of the common Nigerian (Otoghile et al., 2014). The leaders give privileges and undue advantage to their family members, friends, and associates, in the distribution of public resources (Adeosun, 2012). Nigeria state is corrupt, managed by corrupt leaders who have made the state an instrument of capital accumulation, rather than using it to project the interest of the citizenry. These leaders make democracy a curse for the nation because of the abuse of it. When democracy is abused, good governance becomes an illusion (Arowolo and Aluko, 2012). The authors argue further that governance is good when it is not discriminatory, and every member of the society are treated according to the established laws. The leadership position is essential in every establishment that is why there is a truism in the axiom “A leader sin is a leading sin”. Consequent upon the act of impunity seen in our political leaders, the heads of the executive, legislature, and the judiciary every other leader in public and private institutions are lawless. The Nigeria legislators are reckless and not effective in discharging their duty. For Ogundiya (2010) the Nigeria legislators that would have provided adequate checks on abuses of power by the executive and recklessness of the opportunistic politicians are also inefficient and ineffective. Adeosun (2012) posits that the Nigeria legislators have failed to utilize its enormous power to ease the economic and social hardship confronting the people of the nation. According to Odisu (2016), Nigerians are increasingly losing hope and confidence in the nation’s judiciary due to the unethical conduct of some judicial rascals. The author further confirmed clear cases of judicial misconduct in the Nigerian Judiciary which has been militating against the rule of law. Therefore, as a result of the lapses in all the three arms of the Nigeria government corruption is inevitable.

  28. Avatar Ibukun Bamiduro says:

    Name:Bamiduro ibukun obianuju
    Reg No:2018/243749
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 362

    Question

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also, specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes, how? If not, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Answer
    1
    To an extent, I would say yes worldwide. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality, as well as communicable diseases, diminished and education improved.
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments. They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at the national and international levels. Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5, and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1,2, 3 7, which are more difficult to influence. Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 are in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries. Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policymakers, academia, and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political, and social limitations. The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas: the hunger-reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equaled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade. However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region. Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs (8).

    As reported above, a major part of the MDGs has been at least partially accomplished and many countries are on the way to achieving the MDGs and trying to adopt a sustainable path. However, despite the general positive outputs, global targets will not be met in some regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Indeed, MDGs have encountered a range of common challenges.

    Some of these MDGs were not effectively carried out in some countries because:

    First, they were not the product of a comprehensive analysis and prioritization of development needs and consequently were sometimes too narrowly focused. The inconsistent progress partly indicates a trend over time to focus on a subset of specific targets that were easier to achieve, implement and monitor. The untied nature of many goals has often affected the creation of the synergies that could arise across these targets and in particular between education, health, poverty, and gender. Even if acne is likely to improve progress in others, these synergies are not always evident, and often vary across countries.

    Second, this framework has not afforded enough consideration to the potential impacts on environmental, social, and economic dimensions. Environmental aspects are addressed under goal 7 but only some topics are covered, neglecting key issues for sustainable development. Most goals focus on the social dimension of development, e.g. MDGs 1, 6, addressing social problems such as hunger, education, equality, M, CH, and communicable diseases. However, these goals are also interconnected with environmental and economic factors. While some links are recognized (e.g. the importance of clean drinking water to health), others such as the maintenance of environmental resources or the quality of air are not. MDG8 addresses the implementation of sustainable development but does not consider new forms of financing, technology, and capacity building.

    Third, the issue of equity has represented one of the main challenges to face. A gender focus is clear only in MDGs 3 and 5, while it is missing throughout the other goals. MDG3 measures gender equality in education, employment, and the proportion of women in national legislatures. MDG5 focuses on maternal mortality and access to reproductive health. This limited explicit inclusion in two MDGs is too narrow and indicates that the gender issue and its dynamics have not yet been fully understood nor integrated into policy dialogues. Improving equalities will require health system strengthening, associated with a political and social engagement to address all forms of discrimination.

    Fourth, a lack of clear ownership and leadership internationally and nationally might have partially affected the achievement of the MDGs. Even if different countries scale up health services and make progress towards the MDGs at very different rates, we have mainly observed a trend to a global uniform approach. Rather than spreading specific technical interventions tested in one country on a large scale, a more specific approach as well as the adoption of alternative models such as ‘learning by doing’ engaging key stakeholders and taking advantage of once data from heart art projects, might be adopted Furthermore, not only stakeholder also public health professionals should be considered as key actors in the process. Indeed, it has been shown that understanding of MDGs among public health professionals was limited. This general lack of information and awareness represents an important challenge. There is an absolute need for more elaborate publicity and awareness about the MDGs among key players if attaining the MDGs is to be a reality.

    Fifth, the achievement of the MDGs depends much on the fulfillment of MDG8 on global partnership. In his preface to the report, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said, ‘At the just-concluded Rio+20 Conference, commitments were made on an ambitious sustainable development agenda. But to keep those pledges credible, we must deliver on previous commitments. As a world community, we must make rhetoric a reality and keep our promises to achieve the MDGs’ (8, 34). As reported above, almost 200 countries engaged themselves and provided substantial contributions to the cause. However, these commitments have not always been fully fulfilled. Engagement by governments (and donors in general) has been deeply affected by the global economic and financial crisis that has seriously undermined progress towards poverty reduction and MDGs achievement in general, from 2007 on. Furthermore, not only governments but also the private sector plays an essential role in the development of global partnerships Up now, more than half of the services used for MDGs have been provided by private so that the private sector is intended to be boosted in the next period. Thus, it is of primary importance that governments and the private sector work together to mobilize more resources to achieve the MDGs and counter the negative effect that the global financial crisis may have on the targets attained and future achievements. Those investments should be sustainable over a long period and predictable, and innovative financing mechanisms might be taken into account.

    Accountability must be an essential part of the framework. A few studies have underlined the problem of corruption about the use of MDGs resources by governments and other organizations. A health care system in a corrupt environment is weak and unstable, and it will be important for the post-2015 period to find solutions to address both the health and the governance aspects of the development agenda at the same time. Emerging governance models can allow larger citizen participation, ownership, and influence, as well as intersectoral action. The participation of civil society and its accountability is essential for strong new policy development and implementation process.

    Last but not least, goal measurement is often too narrow, or might not identify a clear means of delivery. A lack of scientifically valid data on some MDGs, such as MDGs 5 and 6, did not allow the improvement achieved to be measured adequately or to be compared with a baseline. Government reports have sometimes been criticized as false and government-driven, leading to a lack of confidence in the official reporting systems. More and better data are needed, especially relating to the poorest and most vulnerable people. However, even the limited data systems available in some developing countries have allowed the making of assessable investments in education, health, essential infrastructure, and the environment.

    2
    The term good governance would be more meaningful if an idea of governance itself is explained. Governance can be seen as the exercise of the economic, political, and administrative
    systems of policy implementation (UNDP, 1997). The goal of governance initiatives should be to develop
    Political governance is the process of decision-making to formulate policy. Administrative governance is the
    capabilities that are needed to realize development that gives priority to the poor, advances women, sustains the
    through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and
    governing authority should be how to positively impact the lives of the citizenry, and, the extent to which it has
    relationships with other economies. It has major implications for equity, poverty, and quality of life.
    scholars have put forward various definitions as to what governance stands for. For instance, Oyovbaire
    Governance is how power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social
    look at the legitimacy of the government. That is, the degree of democratization, accountability of political and official
    Economic governance includes decision-making processes that affect a country’s economic activities and
    mediate their differences (UNDP, 1997). Governance has three legs: economic, political, and administrative.
    environment and creates needed opportunities for employment and another livelihood one NDP, 1997). Governance
    implementation capacity, development of personnel, information flow, and the nature and style of leadership
    resources for development (Agwu, 2011). What is good governance? It is important to note that a governing authority does not determine if it is good or bad as the case may be. It is the governed that does
    governance as a commitment and the capability to effectively address the allocation and management of
    economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most
    its role in development (Nnamdi, 2009).
    or detracts from good governance (Oyovbaire, 2007).
    anything else,” the problem is based on leadership (Achebe, 1983; cited in Dike, 1999). Therefore according to
    the government. As Chinua Achebe, in his book The Trouble with Nigeria rightly pointed out that “the trouble
    Human development is indivisible. And UNDP believes that developing the capacity for good governance can
    watchdog to the ruling party, that points out the mistakes and unpopular decisions of the government is equally
    wrong with the Nigerian character, there is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land or climate or water or air or
    its agitation for good governance and sustenance (Iyekekpolo et.al, 2011). The civil society possesses the
    with Nigeria is simply and squarely a failure of leadership.” It was his opinion that “there is nothing basically
    capability to corporate with, engage, antagonize, contend and influence the state on behalf of the citizenry. That
    The role of l society in engendering good governance in Nigeria is also plausible. The civil society is a Nigerian people and even development in geopolitical terms, there must be good governance (Dickson,
    arms, institutions cataracts and the government have their roles to play. For instance, the legislature provides
    when the government starts to engage in them and enjoin policies that are in the interest of the citizens when the
    vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resources (UNDP, 1997). Good
    delivering the dividends of democracy. For the health, power, manufacturing sectors, education, and largely the
    Nation to work, we need good governance to maximize our potential, improve the general welfare of governance is, among other things, about being participatory, transparent, ananaccounaaccountable oversights over the performance by the executive and, indeed, also by the judiciary. This is reflected in the high rate of poverty, unemployment, lack of
    reinforcing mechanism for effective governance in the overall interest of the majority of the people. As
    (UNDP) has been at the forefront of the growing international consensus that good governance and sustainable
    resources respond to collective problems (UNDP, 1996). The United Nations Development Programme
    views good governance as one that embodies and promotes an effective state, mobilizes civil society to – and primarily to eliminate poverty.
    Dike (1999), “The lack of selfless, noncorrupt and committed leaders have contributed immensely to the
    and to ensure that security of life and property and defense against external aggression is provided I like
    the people thereby engendering good governance in the process. Many Nigerians talk about good governance as
    the parameters of the constitution, the executive is expected to lead the people in the path of good governance,
    governance revolves around the structure and functioning of the state, its relationship with the civil society, and
    very important actions of the opposition make the government ansible and accountable to
    effective and equitable. And it promotes the rule of law. For governance to be good, the welfare of the Nigerian people must be the primordial objective
    socio-political and economic predicaments facing Nigeria today.” In ensuring good governance, the different
    development, and high level of responsiveness to the needs and the interest of the general populace. Good
    Given the present social, economic, and political condition of the Nigerian state, good governance has become a
    2011).

    Why do Nigeria and some developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance?

    1 Corruption has been broadly defined as a perversion or change from good to bad. Specifically,
    has entrusted a disproportionate amount of the nation’s wealth in the hands of a few individuals. The income
    stated that “fighting corruption is a precondition for good governance and the rule of law, which in turn positions. They are only motivated by the financial benefits accruing to the positions.
    Corruption fosters unaccountable governance as leadership strives to prevent the masses from getting to know
    thrives where the temptation to fraudulent activities coexist with permissiveness. Where institutional checks on
    appointment or election into public office as a ‘do or die affair because it appears to be the only way of getting
    greatly stunted the growth of the economy.

    2 Political and public office holders see their positions as avenues for
    how much funds are acquired and how they are put to use. According to Transparency International, corruption
    1999 cited in Igbafe, 2011). According to Maria Costa (2013), a Brazilian scholar cited in Agwu (2011) she
    foundation stones of sustainable development”. The high rate of corruption at various levels of government has
    political offices has made persons without any burning sense of vision or will for the state to vie for political
    great inequalities in the distribution of wealth condemn people to live in poverty (Igwe, 2012). Most politicians’
    power is missing, where decision-making remains obscure; where civil society is thin on the ground; where
    the gap between the rich and the poor is very wide and it keeps increasing by the day. The over the attractiveness of
    corruption or corrupt behavior involves the violation of established rules for personal gains and profit (Sen,
    access to the national cake (Agwu, 2011). The political and economic arrangement being practiced in Nigeria
    illegal wealth accumulation to the detriment of the common Nigerian. That is why people see political
    now engage in what is known as rent-seeking. That is a closely organized
    governance in Nigeria. The formula has not adequately addressed the problems of the different and unequal
    in the world that makes provision for the existence of the party system and political parties in a democratic

    3 The third factor in the pool of hindrances is the federal character principle otherwise known as a quota system. The
    incompetent civil servant into government (Iyekekpolo et. al., 2011). This is because appointments into very
    federal character principle were enshrined in the 1979 Constitution and reaffirmed in subsequent constitutions of
    sensitive public offices are sometimes not based on merit but on the geo-political zone a person is from to which
    treasury into the hands of a few politically powerful individuals course has led to the loss of
    representation in every cadre of the public service. This is aimed at fostering unity and national integration in
    power supply, good public health care, and infrastructural facilities still dominate campaigns. An ideology is
    (Chigwe, 2012). Sadly, the lack of ideology in the various political parties existing in the country is brought to
    reflections a party in which party members project their individualistic and parochial
    because they are politically connected. The implication of this is that decision-making sometimes is parochial,
    bears in governance. Most political parties do not have a clear-cut agenda of what they intend to pursue if voted
    The second factor in the pool of hindrances to the attainment of good governance is the lack of party ideology. In
    (2006) further posit, “rent-seeking may be a particularly serious problem in poor societies, where politics is often
    regime. In Europe and North America, parties grow and develop as autonomous political institutions for the
    meant to serve as a driving force as well as a guideline for a party when it finally forms the government. When a
    politicized. Politicians rather than technocrats and bureaucrats are being made to head key ministries and
    corruption to thrive in governance. Corruption is a symptom of the fundamental failure of governance and so the
    person or group of persons is in power and has the authority to effectively and efficiently control the resources or
    subscribe to them (Oyovbaire, 2007). And because of the over-reliance on support from the government…these
    cited in Iyekekpolo et al., (2011) are to ensure social harmony among all Nigerians and to promote stability
    articulation and aggregation of common interest, ideas, values, and challenges of governance to those who
    ethnic groups. Unfortunately, this principle has been used to accelerate the promotion of mediocre and
    system of beliefs, values, and ideas forming the basis of a social-economic, or political philosophy or program.
    In terms of governance, ideology can be seen as a group of ideas that intenant’sment’s policies and actions
    higher the corruption, the more sustainable development becomes elusive (Agwu, 2011). Corruption increases
    that office has been zoned. This has enthroned mediocrity and jettisoned meritocracy thereby handing good
    government officials from abusing their power.” The culture of impunity and social injustice has allowed
    unsustainable development (Agwu, 2011). Section 308 of the Nigerian Constitution (the immunity clause) which
    poverty proportionately affects those in the low-income group because it pulls resources from the national
    for example, tax revenue or profits created because the government has restricted competition. As Almond et al.
    the office has in a way helped to propagate corruption in government. Good governance is only spoken of when a
    campaign promises rather they concentrate on looting public funds. The Nigerian constitution is one of few of the Republic of Nigeria. The essence of the federal character principle according to Agbodike (1998),
    political parties are largely known for their bareness in ideas and ideological disposition are owned by a handful
    of the state. If they cannot be held accountable for misappropriation of resources or the abuse of power while in
    office, then good governance may be a mirage.
    In In In most democratic states, political parties form the government; that is after a general election has taken place
    tendencies. This is why when politicians finally take the oath of office, they do not fulfill their electioneering
    the surest or most effective way to get rich, and the courts and mass media may be too weak to constrain
    government revenue, poor governance, failure of state institutions, brain drain and electoral malpractices,
    into power. Rather they make promises made by politicians of old. The promise of good access roads, steady
    reason of the part of the country they hail from. Appointment into departments and agencies of government states that political office holders are immune from any criminal and civil offense for the period that they are in
    of persons with which to trade and bargain for material benefits (Oyovbaire, 2007).
    Nigeria is a country with ethnic pluralism and cultural diversity. But this has come at a very high cost to
    government parastatals. To this end, people find themselves in positions they do not necessarily qualify for but
    a political party without ideologies forms the government, automatically, that government would most likely lack
    absence of law and order, civil unrest, poor investment channels, business failure, unemployment, poverty and
    national integration of the nation. This policy provides that the six geo-political zones in the country must be
    an ideology. The crises in the ruling party in Nigeria that resulted in the factionalizing of the party are unilateral and self-serving. The federal character principle has been manipulated by and channeled to serve the overall interest of the petty-bourgeois ruling class. It is the members of their class who formulate and operate the
    principle (Iyekekpolo et. al, 2011).

  29. Avatar Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam says:

    Name: Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam
    Reg no.: 2018/243754
    department: Economics

    1. Most of these goals have been tackled and to some extent achieved but the not all have been properly worked on especially in the first goal which was to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
    in many parts of the world especially the developing countries like in some parts of Africa, South America and Asia, there is high rate of poverty and hunger in these regions currently.

    But for the rest, it’s clearly shown that those were achieved as worldwide there’s recognition of women due to more participation of women in Economic and political matters worldwide. there’s been a reduction on child mortality rate due to vaccines and immunizations and there is also significant increase in the materiality health.

    2. Good governance in developing countries can be difficult to achieve because of one key Reason; GREED. Those in charge of governance are never content and corruption has eaten deep in the system . even the future aspirants for the offices of government are never thinking of good governance but instead on how to enrich themselves
    so good governance in developing countries especially Nigeria will be difficult to attain

  30. Avatar OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    Questions 1;our opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    The Millennium developments goals (MDGs) is established to with different goals and Target to improve mainly the economic welfare of developing Nations . despite it’s efforts over the years some of it’s goals have been achieved while some has not, coming to the first MDGS which focus on;
    1.Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger , it’s very obvious that it hasn’t been achieved so far, most countries in the world especially the developing ones still have a good number of people who suffer from hunger as a result of poverty, many African nation are not living up to half of the level of advanced Nations when it comes to standard of living, Nigeria for example
    Again the universal primary education which ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary School , have been achieved in almost all parts of the world, in African countries like Nigeria , free education is given by the government in the basic level , like primary School and sometimes in junior secondary schools, and this is to ensure that everyone acquires basic knowledge, so in this context this particular goals has been achieved greatly.
    Through the efforts of MDGS, there has been an adjustment in the gender iniquality , in the early 20s, women are not allowed to engage in so many activities as they are also considered as the weaker sex, this fallacy that .. women’s education lies in the kitchen deprived many women of formal education, in African today it is believed that woman once matured should get married and bear children and she is also expected to give her family 90 percent of her time so going to school will make her deviate from taking good care of her children, but in the present generation women are well recognized , they now take active part in politics and other important positios in the society.
    Further more, child mortality has been drastically reduced, most causes of child mortality comes from infections which most times are believed to be in the air. eg yellow fever, polio.measles and so on, the world health organization made extreme effort to curb child mortality through the production and distribution of free drugs, immunization which is done freely all-round the world,in respect to this the fourth goal ofMDGS has been achieved.
    Moreso maternal health has been improved , woman have Access control to atnertal care, where they taught on how best to protect themselves and their child in the womb, in our hospitals presently , out of 100 percent of women that gives birth each day , only about 10 percent of them die.
    Finally, many deadly diseases like Hiv/Aids, malaria is still on the he increase despite the fact that awareness have been created and given as well as drugs being distributed all-round the earth, this one of the goals which MDGS are yet to achieve, the world aAids index has it that half of the number of deaths in the world is caused by aids and malaria, in some parts of the world , drugs like anti_retroviral syndrome is not at their reach and in some part the drugs are sold costly that an average individual can not afford , this could be the reason for the increasing death from Hiv/Aids despite all efforts.
    In conclusion , most of these goals which have not been achieved is caused by the corruption of the those in power while some are as a result of tribalism and culture, most African countries, there exist some cultural practice which could hinder the achievements of the MDGS goals,so I suggest the MDGs should adopt the system of direct administration if possible especially in African, where most of the leaers are corrupt.
    Question no 2

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss.;

    Corruption in African countries is hindering economic, political and social development. It is a major barrier to economic growth, good governance and basic freedoms, such as freedom of speech or citizens’ right to hold governments to account. research shows that more than half of all citizens think corruption is getting worse in their country and that their government is doing a bad job in tackling corruption.

    The report also found more than one in four people who accessed public services, such as health care and education, paid a bribe in the previous year.

    This is equivalent to approximately 130 million citizens in the 35 countries surveyed.
    research shows that more than half of all citizens think corruption is getting worse in their country and that their government is doing a bad job in tackling corruption.

    The report also found more than one in four people who accessed public services, such as health care and education, paid a bribe in the previous year.

    This is equivalent to approximately 130 million citizens in the 35 countries surveyed.

    More than this, corruption affects the wellbeing of individuals, families and communities.

    The ongoing revelations of the extent of the influence and questionable riches of Isabel dos Santos, daughter of Angola’s longest serving president, has dominated news cycles across the continent over the past week.

    It seemed fitting in a week when the latest Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International was released, as shown by the Luanda Leaks documents, reviewed by Quartz and 36 other publications, the scale of corruption in one of Africa’s oil-wealthy nations is remarkable. But Angola is not an outlier.
    As the rankings show, Sub-Saharan Africa was the lowest-scoring region on the index with an average score of 32 out of 100—below the global average of 43. With several of the continent’s biggest countries and economies recording little or no progress, the latest index, Transparency International says, represent “a bleak picture of inaction against corruption
    Like with business reforms, much of the progress made by African countries on the corruption index has been seen in smaller nations with Seychelles, Botswana and Cabo Verde topping the African rankings on the index. Indeed, of the ten highest ranked country on the index, only South Africa counts among Africa’s top five economies.With a score of 44, South Africa ranks just above the global average. It’s a score that could have been higher but for several high level corruption cases over the two years, including the “State Capture” scandal that resulted in president Jacob Zuma’s resignation. Going forward the implementation of a political campaign finance law could also boost its anti-corruption ratings.

    In light of its increased increased scrutiny of corruption especially with investigations of key members of the dos Santos family, Angola’s anti-corruption score jumped by nearly 50%. Yet, after formally charging Isabel dos Santos with embezzlement and money laundering, Transparency International insists the country must do more to promote transparency in its oil revenue accounting. Despite being Africa’s second largest oil producer, Angola remains home to stark inequality.

    In the case of Nigeria, despite anti-corruption being the cornerstone message of his election campaigns, president Muhammadu Buhari has not significantly improved the country’s standing in that regard. After marginal score increases over the past three years, Nigeria’s anti-corruption score has now slipped back to its 2015 levels when Buhari first took office.

    Political opponents have so far branded Buhari’s anti-corruption fight as targeted only at opposition figures while major incidents of corruption during his presidency have also done little to suggest that his message is sticking in political and government circles. But for its part, Nigeria’s anti-corruption agency as dismissed the latest report as “baseless.”
    Below is the world ranking corruption index;
    Rank Country Ø Yearly income Corruption Index
    1 Denmark 63,010 $ 12
    2 Finland 49,780 $ 12
    3 New Zealand 41,550 $ 12
    4 Norway 78,290 $ 15
    5 Singapore 54,920 $ 15
    6 Sweden 54,050 $ 15
    7 Switzerland 82,620 $ 16
    8 Netherlands 51,060 $ 18
    9 Luxembourg 80,860 $ 19
    10 Germany 47,470 $ 20
    11 United Kingdom 39,700 $ 22
    12 Hong Kong 48,630 $ 24
    13 Austria 48,350 $ 26
    14 Canada 43,530 $ 26
    15 Estonia 23,170 $ 26
    16 Iceland 62,420 $ 26
    17 Ireland 65,620 $ 26
    18 Australia 53,690 $ 27
    19 Belgium 45,750 $ 27
    20 Japan 40,360 $ 27
    21 France 39,480 $ 29
    22 Taiwan n/a 32
    23 United States 64,550 $ 33
    24 Portugal 21,790 $ 38
    25 South Korea 32,960 $ 38
    26 Spain 27,360 $ 39
    27 Israel 42,600 $ 41
    28 Costa Rica 11,530 $ 42
    29 Italy 32,290 $ 44
    30 Poland 15,240 $ 44
    31 Saudi Arabia 21,930 $ 47
    32 Greece 17,930 $ 51
    33 Malaysia 10,570 $ 52
    34 China 10,550 $ 55
    35 Romania 12,580 $ 55
    36 South Africa 6,010 $ 56
    37 Hungary 15,890 $ 57
    38 Bulgaria 9,630 $ 58
    39 India 1,920 $ 60
    40 Colombia 5,790 $ 61
    41 Vietnam 2,650 $ 61
    42 Argentina 9,070 $ 62
    43 Brazil 7,850 $ 62
    44 Indonesia 3,870 $ 62
    45 Serbia 7,420 $ 62
    46 Turkey 9,050 $ 62
    47 Ecuador 5,530 $ 64
    48 Albania 5,210 $ 65
    49 Thailand 7,040 $ 65
    50 El Salvador 3,630 $ 66
    51 Sierra Leone 510 $ 66
    52 Algeria 3,570 $ 67
    53 Egypt 3,000 $ 67
    54 Nepal 1,190 $ 67
    55 Philippines 3,430 $ 67
    56 Zambia 1,160 $ 67
    57 Eswatini 3,410 $ 68
    58 Ukraine 3,540 $ 68
    59 Gabon 7,030 $ 69
    60 Mexico 8,480 $ 69
    61 Niger 550 $ 69
    62 Papua New Guinea 2,720 $ 69
    63 Azerbaijan 4,480 $ 70
    64 Bolivia 3,180 $ 70
    65 Djibouti 3,310 $ 70
    66 Dominican Republic 7,260 $ 70
    67 Kenya 1,840 $ 70
    68 Laos 2,520 $ 70
    69 Paraguay 5,180 $ 70
    70 Togo 920 $ 70
    71 Angola 2,140 $ 71
    72 Liberia 570 $ 71
    73 Mali 830 $ 71
    74 Russia 10,690 $ 71
    75 Burma 1,350 $ 72
    76 Mauritania 1,670 $ 72
    77 Pakistan 1,270 $ 72
    78 Uzbekistan 1,740 $ 72
    79 Cameroon 1,520 $ 73
    80 Kyrgyzstan 1,160 $ 73
    81 Uganda 800 $ 73
    82 Bangladesh 2,030 $ 74
    83 Madagascar 470 $ 74
    84 Mozambique 460 $ 74
    85 Guatemala 4,490 $ 75
    86 Guinea 1,020 $ 75
    87 Iran 2,960 $ 75
    88 Tajikistan 1,060 $ 75
    89 Central Africa 500 $ 76
    90 Lebanon 5,370 $ 76
    91 Nigeria 2,000 $ 76
    92 Cambodia 1,500 $ 77
    93 Honduras 2,180 $ 77
    94 Iraq 4,680 $ 77
    95 Zimbabwe 1,140 $ 77
    96 Eritrea 600 $ 78
    97 Cape Verde 3,060 $ 79
    98 Congo 1,770 $ 79
    99 Chad 630 $ 80
    100 Comoros 1,400 $ 80
    101 Haiti 1,320 $ 80
    102 Nicaragua 1,850 $ 80
    103 Sudan 650 $ 80
    104 Burundi 230 $ 81
    105 Congo (Dem. Republic) 550 $ 81
    106 Turkmenistan 7,220 $ 81
    107 Equatorial Guinea 5,810 $ 83
    108 Libya 4,960 $ 83
    109 Afghanistan 500 $ 84
    110 North Korea n/a 84
    111 Yemen 910 $ 84
    112 Venezuela 13,080 $ 86
    113 Somalia 320 $ 87
    114 Syria 1,170 $ 87
    115 South Sudan 460 $ 89

  31. Avatar Eze chidera Aloysius says:

    Eze chidera Aloysius
    2018/242420
    The United Nations’ target date of leading the fight to free people from extreme poverty and multiple deprivations through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is 2015. As the date approaches, several attempts have been made to evaluate the performance of the set goals, targets and indicators. Whiles the methodology used in measuring performance of member countries has been questioned by many; the fiercest criticism so far has been the apparent lack of data availability to measure progress. The subjectivity of the MDGs further increases the complexity of the evaluation systems but an effective measurability of each MDG is key to the overall success. This paper applies fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in evaluating performance of individual member countries as far as the MDGs are concerned. The result shows how in the absence of data, the FCEM can be used to evaluate performance of member countries involved in the MDG project.

  32. Avatar Okoye Adaezechukwu precious says:

    Name: Okoye Adaezechukwu precious
    Reg No: 2018/241831
    Dept: Economics
    Course code: 362
    Course title: Development Economics II

    Assignment.
    1. The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets; the table below summarizes the track-record of the 14 Targets which can be assessed quantitatively – highlighted in green are those which the world has achieved and in red those where the world fell short.

    There is clearly more red than green, but let’s look at the good news first. Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1.A – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty – is a particularly important one and while most people are not aware of it, the world has actually achieved this goal. The achievement of MDG 3 meant that the gender disparity in education was closed at the global level. And MDG Target 6.C on malaria and tuberculosis was achieved as the world was able to reduce the global rate of new infections. For MDG 7 the world achieved half of this goal – while the goal for sanitation was missed, the world did reach the goal on providing access to safe drinking water.

    What is clear however, is that most of the UN’s development goals were missed. 12 of the targets are shown in red.

    The degree to which they were missed varies between several near misses and a few very clear and alarming failures. The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“. While there were certainly some important successes – very positive trends in the decline of substances which deplete the ozone layer for example –, the global evidence shows that most environmental indicators regressed; global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased approximately 50%; global forest area continued its decline; overexploitation of fish stocks increased; and the Red List Index concluded that “a substantial proportion of species in all taxonomic groups examined to date are declining overall in population and distribution”.

    On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    There are roadblocks to a strong quest for good governance in Nigeria at all levels of government. Conflict—triggered by political competition and communal, ethnic, religious or resource allocation rivalries—poses a major threat to good governance. Corruption pervades the daily lives of Nigerians. With all this roaming …good governance in Nigeria seems like a far fetched option to achieve …because an average Nigerian sees any political office as a means to gather wealth ….. the quest for good governance starts with us the citizens … that norm of seeing politics as a means of getting quick wealth needs to be demoralised from the minds of Nigerians first before any step can be taken to achieve good governance ….as long as corruption still remains the bedrock of this country …good governance would always seem like a far fetched opportunity

  33. Avatar Ilonze Chimeremma Perpetua says:

    NAME: ILONZE CHIMEREMMA PERPETUA
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/242311
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    QUESTION:
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    ANSWERS:
    (1) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most widely supported and comprehensive development goals the world has ever established. These eight goals and 18 targets provide a concrete framework for tackling poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership for development
    These targets are both global and local, adapted to each country to meet specific needs. They provide a framework for the whole international community to work together towards a common goal. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment (2). Furthermore, the MDGs are inter-dependent and largely influence each other. For example, promoting gender equality and empowering women enables not only better conditions for women but also improved household management leading to better health and education for children and to higher income for the family.
    The MDGs find their origins in development ideas and campaigns of the 1980s and 1990s; they were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, as an output of the United Nations Millennium Declaration (3). All 189 United Nations member states agreed to achieve these goals on a voluntary basis by the year 2015. New global health initiatives (such as the Global Fund, the World Bank, the GAVI Alliance, etc.) and increased financial resources have advanced the opportunity to deliver MDG-related health programmes worldwide (4).
    From 2000 on, important high-level meetings and summits have been organized to follow up with the progress in the MDGs and to define action plans for their achievement. In 2008, governments, foundations, businesses groups and civil society announced new commitments to meet the MDGs, during the high-level event at the UN Headquarters (5). Two years after, the 2010 MDG Summit concluded with the adoption of a global action plan – Keeping the Promise: United to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals – and announced a number of initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease, with a special focus on women’s and children’s health (6).
    In 2013, participants in the Global MDG Conference underlined the importance of maintaining the momentum for accelerating progress to 2015, while taking lessons learned from the MDGs to be used in the development of the agenda of the next round of goals beyond 2015 (7).
    MDGs achievements and failures
    To assure an appropriate monitoring and evaluation within and among countries and to conceive suitable policies and interventions, reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG indicators are of primary importance. They are also essential in encouraging funding and allocating aid effectively (8). Several methodologies and indicators (Table 2) have been developed to measure progress towards the MDGs, such as the MDG indicators website, the UN Data – and the UNICEF Portal (9–(11)). Moreover, progress towards MDG achievement can be tracked through the MDG Monitor, both globally and at the country level
    Furthermore, there have been numerous consultations on the MDGs by various organizations. Some of the consultations and surveys have had an official character and others should be considered ‘private’ initiatives, by organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private foundations (13–(18)). More than a few official reports have tracked the global assessment of progress, based on those data (14, 19–21)). Although considerable progress has been made, reliable data and statistics analyses remain poor, especially in many developing countries (8).
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments (22). They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level (8). Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5 and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1, 2, 3 and 7, which are more difficult to influence (14). Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries (14, 23). Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policy makers, academia and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political and social limitations (18).
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas (21): the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade (20, 21) (24, 25).
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased (8). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs.

    (2) Good Governance is the process of making decisions that bring maximum satisfaction to the people and ensuring participation of all. There are several characteristics of good Governance. Rule of Law is prerequisite for good governance. It implies the absence of arbitrary power and formulation and implementation of well-established laws. Transparency ensures trustworthy working. People must have the right to information regarding government processes and policies while making each and every organ of Government response to the public for their acts making them responsible.
    THE MAJOR HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING NATION’S ARE –
    – BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    – INEQUALITY – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major.
    – UNEDUCATED PEOPLE – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    – POOR ECONOMY – unemployment and reservation

  34. Avatar CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    Name: CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA
    Reg No: 2018/243755
    Department: Economics department
    Assignment 3 on Development Economics II (Eco 362)
    Question

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015. In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?.
    Answer
    Before going into the analysis of observing if the millennium goals were achieved it will be very important to know what actually are the goals. The millennium goals were 8 in number and they include;
    *Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    *Achieve universal primary education
    *Promote gender equality and empower women
    *Reduce child maternity
    *Improve maternal health
    *Combat HIV/AIDS, maleria and other disease
    *Ensure environmental sustainability
    *Develop a global partnership for development.
    Yes the truth might be that these goals were achieved but from my analysis and observation as a policy maker. You can say something is fully achieved when you still have partially those that were achieved and those that were not. Is either all is achieved or non is achieved. So I will say the millennium goals were NOT achieved.
    Picking the first goal up as a case of reference. Currently Nigeria is still ranked as the highest country dieing in hunger, poverty and starvation. Instead of eradicating poverty, poverty itself increased due to increased population. Many families find it hard to feed once a day and most times this brings our notice to the prices of foods in the market. The truth remains that despite the programs provided by government like SURE-P, it still didn’t reduce poverty because the number of youths graduating are more than the jobs available. Yes government might be providing fertilizers to Farmers but where is the good road to transport the harvested foods to the market. Even those that are self-employed due to high cost of taxation the business folds up.
    Going further to the achievement of universal primary education. This was partly achieved but not fully achieved. Though government built primary schools and made it free but at the long run many schools started using different means to attach cost to the primary education. To be honest Nigeria has a very high number of school dropouts.
    Again, promotion of gender equality and empower women. Let’s call a spade a spade. Ever since 1990’s & 2000’s have a woman been the president of Nigeria. Gender equality here shouldn’t be one sided. If we say it was achieved that means we could have had records of women ruling. Now the elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education was not fully eliminated. At some point it looked like the table turned round whereby women were now sent to school and men asked to learn trade.
    Further more, Reduction of child mortality wasn’t achieved and part of the reasons where due to hunger, poverty and starvation. Nursing mother’s were not empowered on how to take care of their children and you find out that many children died even before getting to 2years. I witnessed one in 2006. A woman lost the child die to carelessness by nurses at the clinic were she gave birth. There was increased inexperienced mid-wives, nurses and doctors. Before they treat your small child deposit must be made and at the end of the day the child might die.
    The improvement of maternal health wasn’t achieved. Many pregnant mother’s died due to angry nurses and doctors. Many pregnant women died at the course of child birth or during pregnancy due to no cash to get enough fruits to keep up. Some due to husband’s attitude. The question is how many women then went for constant antenatal check up. The doctors were only interested in booking operations and not save the mothers life.
    Comating HIV/AIDS, maleria and other diseases. The truth is that efforts have been made towards constant vaccination against deadly diseases but it’s not enough. Yes one might say that polio vaccination was given but there is increased polio in jigawa and children are dieing. Should I now talk of HIV/AIDS ravaging lives of youths. Many youths due to carelessness engaged in premarital sex and contacted the which killed many youths though currently efforts are been made to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS.
    The kind of dirty environment in some states in Nigeria then was really alarming. Though government are not highly to be blamed but citizens. Take our different classroom as an example. The lecturers don’t litter the environment but students do and in turn all hands points
    to the government. Should I now talk of clean water. Tankers are now wicked and don’t mind source of water and they distribute it to people. Yes the government must have provided pipe-borne waters and boreholes but how often does it rush?.
    There is no open , rule based and practicable state using Nigeria as a case study. Looking at all these points I don’t think these goals though efforts were made to attain some but they were not achieved to the desired satisfaction. But my country Nigeria will be better someday if we the youths decide to change out mindset and level of thinking. Every blame musnt be pushed to government. We have our unique roles as citizens.
    Question 2
    . Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Answer
    Good Governance is an approach to government that is committed to creating a system founded in justice and peace that protects individual’s human rights and civil liberties. According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors of Participation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness, Consensus Oriented, Equity and Inclusiveness, Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Accountability. The preliminary condition for good governance is the establishment of the rule of law, which, ultimately, supplants the rule of whims and caprices of those in power. Good governance demands that government must be not only representative, but responsive, as well, to the needs of governed. Nigeria is ranking 102 out of 104 countries in ranking for good governance.
    According to dependency theory it states that third world nation have the tendency of depending on the nation that colonized them. Now due to this instead of them focusing on producing their own goods and services they now tend to depend on the country that colonized them maybe for finances, aids etc. When these aids and finances comes in corruption comes in because when people at the head of affairs sees these huge sum of money for aid they tend to divert it and embezzle it because they don’t have the people at heart. Now instead of countries advancing through these aids provided they tend to be drawing back. Most times our revenues and budget are channeled to one sector which is oil sector. Just like previously our attention was channeled to coal until coal feasiled out. Now is oil and there is high tendency that time will come when we will no longer see oil. While advanced nation’s have different source of revenue we choose to die in one. Bring it down to our level. Normal school politics, the high rate of corruption is much and because there is no law guiding everyone misbehaves. For instance if there was a law that anyone who embezzle fund is liable to an offence level of theft will reduce. In conclusion I can say the following issues are our problems and set backs to good governance;
    1) Corruption at various levels
    2) Centralization of power and authority
    3) Criminalization of politics
    4) Violations of human rights
    5) Weak legislators with criminal records, poor knowledge about development issues and low level of education
    6) Poor people’s participation in development processes
    7) Less active civil society
    8) Poorly empowered grassroots democratic institutions
    9) Poor coordination among the political, administrative and community level organizations and institutions
    10) Delay in delivery of judicial decisions
    11) Poor participation of disadvantaged in decision making process.
    But the truth remains that Nigeria will be better that’s if our mindset and negative thinking pattern change.

  35. Avatar Unadike Fabian Chinemezu says:

    NAME: UNADIKE FABIAN CHINEMEZU
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/249698
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362

    QUESTION
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    ANSWERS:
    (1) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most widely supported and comprehensive development goals the world has ever established. These eight goals and 18 targets provide a concrete framework for tackling poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership for development
    These targets are both global and local, adapted to each country to meet specific needs. They provide a framework for the whole international community to work together towards a common goal. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment (2). Furthermore, the MDGs are inter-dependent and largely influence each other. For example, promoting gender equality and empowering women enables not only better conditions for women but also improved household management leading to better health and education for children and to higher income for the family.
    The MDGs find their origins in development ideas and campaigns of the 1980s and 1990s; they were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, as an output of the United Nations Millennium Declaration (3). All 189 United Nations member states agreed to achieve these goals on a voluntary basis by the year 2015. New global health initiatives (such as the Global Fund, the World Bank, the GAVI Alliance, etc.) and increased financial resources have advanced the opportunity to deliver MDG-related health programmes worldwide (4).
    From 2000 on, important high-level meetings and summits have been organized to follow up with the progress in the MDGs and to define action plans for their achievement. In 2008, governments, foundations, businesses groups and civil society announced new commitments to meet the MDGs, during the high-level event at the UN Headquarters (5). Two years after, the 2010 MDG Summit concluded with the adoption of a global action plan – Keeping the Promise: United to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals – and announced a number of initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease, with a special focus on women’s and children’s health (6).
    In 2013, participants in the Global MDG Conference underlined the importance of maintaining the momentum for accelerating progress to 2015, while taking lessons learned from the MDGs to be used in the development of the agenda of the next round of goals beyond 2015 (7).
    MDGs achievements and failures
    To assure an appropriate monitoring and evaluation within and among countries and to conceive suitable policies and interventions, reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG indicators are of primary importance. They are also essential in encouraging funding and allocating aid effectively (8). Several methodologies and indicators (Table 2) have been developed to measure progress towards the MDGs, such as the MDG indicators website, the UN Data – and the UNICEF Portal (9–(11)). Moreover, progress towards MDG achievement can be tracked through the MDG Monitor, both globally and at the country level
    Furthermore, there have been numerous consultations on the MDGs by various organizations. Some of the consultations and surveys have had an official character and others should be considered ‘private’ initiatives, by organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private foundations (13–(18)). More than a few official reports have tracked the global assessment of progress, based on those data (14, 19–21)). Although considerable progress has been made, reliable data and statistics analyses remain poor, especially in many developing countries (8).
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments (22). They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level (8). Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5 and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1, 2, 3 and 7, which are more difficult to influence (14). Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries (14, 23). Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policy makers, academia and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political and social limitations (18).
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas (21): the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade (20, 21) (24, 25).
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased (8). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs.

    (2) Good Governance is the process of making decisions that bring maximum satisfaction to the people and ensuring participation of all. There are several characteristics of good Governance. Rule of Law is prerequisite for good governance. It implies the absence of arbitrary power and formulation and implementation of well-established laws. Transparency ensures trustworthy working. People must have the right to information regarding government processes and policies while making each and every organ of Government response to the public for their acts making them responsible.
    THE MAJOR HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING NATION’S ARE –
    – BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    – POOR ECONOMY – unemployment and reservation
    – UNEDUCATED PEOPLE – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    – INEQUALITY – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major

  36. Avatar ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR)
    COURSE: ECO 362

    QUESTION 1

    The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets.
    Yes for the MDGs, several achievements has been made in all health and education areas, the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced.
    Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade.

    However, progress has been highly unequal.
    The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam.
    In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region.
    Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases.
    Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions.
    The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment.
    Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people.
    MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs

    Question 2
    Nigeria’s quest for good governance has continued to hang in the balance over poor process of selecting leaders and lack of accountability and responsibility by those in the saddle.
    Emerging from the experience of colonialism, Nigerians craved for assessable and affordable leadership and governance from the emerging politicians who took over the mantle of leadership. Unfortunately, such hope was dashed as they failed in their promises and responsibilities for entrenching sustainable development in the country.
    Nigerian political system negates the lower class, such that it affects the leadership and governance demonstration in Nigeria, hence, good governance and development has eluded the nation.

    It is saddening that current and past administrations have failed us; hence, the need for restructuring.
    But do we have a veritable alternative?
    Without effectively planning restructuring, the current quest and struggle for good governance would definitely amount to nothing.
    Youth inclusion in politics is quite important, but do we have credible and trustworthy youths?
    It is sad.
    Charity, they say, begins at home.
    You can’t give what you don’t have.

    What happens to a soldier who goes to the battlefield without planning his moves? I guess such should be ready to meet his doom!
    Moreover, it’s often said that he who comes into equity must come with clean hands. I doubt if any of the youth who looted electronic stores all in the name of fighting for good governance would have the opportunity to get to the corridors of power. If they ever get there, you can be sure they would loot the country blind.

    If we must effect any change out there, then the change should begin with us, right from our respective homes.

    Often, I have always countered a claim attributing leadership problem to age. Obviously, it is not about age; it all boils down to our mindset and perception of leadership.

    What gives us the impression that someone below 50 or 40 years will do better or worse if given an opportunity?

    Experience? Or good conscience?

    A 40-year-old man may take over the mantle of leadership today and set this country ablaze within seconds. Why? He lacks the know-how.
    Effective leadership or representation is not determined by age.

    Not only that, youths of this generation are worse in attitude and character than the so-called elders of today. We are masters and experts in the field of corruption, even worse than those who tutored us.

    How many youths ever wrote exams without engaging in malpractice?
    The fact remains that when citizens do well, the country will definitely do well. We cannot continue all these atrocities while we strive for positive change.

    To experience a complete turnaround, all and sundry must intensely purge themselves of evil traits and view leadership from the prism of service to humanity.

  37. Avatar Chukwu+Precious+Ada says:

    NAME : CHUKWU PRECIOUS ADA
    DEPT :SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
    UNIT : ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    REG NO : 2018/244278
    ANSWER:
    NO 1
    In my opinion I would say No ,government were not able to meet up with most of the goals ,.
    The Millennium Development Goals are the international community’s most broadly shared, comprehensive and focused framework for reducing poverty. Drawn from the Millennium Declaration, adopted and agreed to by all Governments in 2000, the MDGs represent the commitments of United Nations Member States to reduce extreme poverty and its many manifestations: hunger, disease, gender inequality, lack of education and access to basic infrastructure, and environmental degradation.
    The MDGs set quantitative objectives to be achieved by 2015. They also drive international development policy by spelling out the responsibilities of rich countries to support poor countries through aid, debt relief and improved market access. The Goals confirmed the importance of the United Nations, with its unique legitimacy and convening power, as the multilateral body best placed to build global coalitions and political action to address global problems. At the Millennium Summit in 2000, the International Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey in 2002, the UN World Summit in 2005 and other international events, world leaders pledged to establish national policies and strategies needed, and to provide the resources necessary to achieve the Goals. The MDG agenda has become a uniting and organizing principle for the work of the entire international system in the area of development — a testament to the universal buy-in into the Goals. The MDGs also provide a rationale for the United Nations family to work together more coherently and effectively, so as to give countries the support they need to achieve the Goals.
    The stakes are high. If the MDGs are implemented in time in all parts of the globe, 500 million fewer people will be living in extreme poverty and some 300 million fewer will go hungry, while 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthday. In addition, about 350 million more people will have access to safe drinking water and a further 650 million more to sanitation. Real economic and social opportunities will open up on an unprecedented scale.
    There is good news, including in sub-Saharan Africa, where the biggest challenges remain. Countries are demonstrating that rapid and large-scale progress is possible when Government leadership, policies and strategies for scaling up public investments are combined with financial and technical support from the international community. Malawi has raised agricultural productivity; primary school enrolment has gone up in Ghana, Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda; Zambia has improved access to basic rural health services; Niger has made strides in large-scale reforestation; Senegal is on track to meet the MDG target on water and sanitation; and malaria incidence has fallen in Niger, Togo and Zambia.

    Yet, at the midpoint between the adoption of the Millennium Declaration and the 2015 deadline for reaching the MDGs, large parts of the world remain off track. Even regions that have made substantial progress, including in Asia, face challenges in areas such as health and environmental sustainability. The number of extreme poor in Asia continues to rise, albeit at a decelerating rate compared to the 1990s. And in sub-Saharan Africa, not a single country is on track to achieve the MDGs by 2015. That is why Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and I have made it a priority to scale up efforts to reach the MDGs around the world, particularly in Africa.

    A central element of this effort is the MDG Africa Steering Group, which the Secretary-General launched in September 2007, together with the leaders of the UN system and other major multilateral and intergovernmental organizations working for development in Africa, namely the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank.
    The Steering Group has resolved to work on three main fronts:

    Reviewing and strengthening international mechanisms to support African countries in five key areas: health, education, agriculture, infrastructure and statistical systems.
    Making aid more predictable, so that African Governments can plan for greater investments in the MDGs.
    Collaborating more closely and effectively at the country level to support African Governments in reaching the MDGs.

    The Steering Group is supported by the MDG Africa Working Group, which I chair, composed of representatives of the United Nations system and other major multilateral organizations. Our task is to reach out to African Governments, prepare action plans for achieving the objectives of the Steering Group, mobilize and coordinate the efforts of the institutions represented, and prepare periodic progress reports.

    Rapid progress is possible, if we use all the tools, resources and commitments available to support countries in reaching the Millennium Development Goals. In the critical years leading up to 2015, the Secretary-General and I will have no higher priority.

    No 2
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies.The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as “most successful” are liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of “good governance” to a set of requirements that conform to the organization’s agenda, making “good governance” imply many different things in many different contexts, The opposite of good governance, as a concept, is bad governance.
    And for most developing countries to attain good governance they should be able to meet some requirement such as :
    Policies should be in line with the will of the people, there should be public involvement in decision making processes among other phenomena that we will interact with in this article as examples of good governance attributes and features of good governance include.
    Characteristics of good governance
    1. Participation
    Every citizen should be afforded a voice in decision-making processes of a nation. This can be done either (in very few cases) directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. These institutions can be inform of wards led by elected Councilors, constituents led by elected legislators and other organizations whose aim are facilitating communication between government and the people using characteristics of good governance.
    Democratic governments get their power from the people and their portion is a representation of the people’s will in passing decisions. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.
    2. Rule of law
    This has been a contested topic in almost all democracies where certain social classes of seem immune to certain pieces of legislation. For there to be good governance worth mentioning legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially. Particular attention is then paid to laws on human rights. These are basic provisions agreed upon by all nations who are signatories to the bill of rights. If a piece of legislation violates any of these rights it needs to be repealed, although some governments have held on to some oppressive laws.
    3. Transparency
    Information and transparency can never be separated, for the latter is built on free flow of the former. The media acts as a communication tool between government, public servants and the general public. This calls for a press that is not heavily regulated and operates freely promoting democracy and good governance. Processes, institutions and information should be made directly accessible to those concerned with them, and characteristics of good governance ensure enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. To achieve transparency, officials should be prepared to answer each and every discrepancy that needs clarity for the public.
    4. Responsiveness
    Institutions and processes under a typical good government respond to the needs and try to serve all stakeholders. Countries are made up of states and usually different ethnic groups and response to public calls by all government institutions should be free of bias along ethnic lines. Response is sensitive to matters to do with fairness and maintenance of peace.
    5. Consensus orientation
    It is a public secret that alternative views exist everywhere, even among people of the same group (for example the same political party). This means for governments it is even more important to stay woke and approach alternative views critically. “Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interests of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.”
    6. Equity
    The most important goal of any government is the wellness of its people. Equal opportunities to improve or maintain well-being should be availed to every individual. This has to be done with no discrimination of any sort. Lately emphasis has been put by governments and lobby groups on gender equity. However, people living with disabilities are usually left out sometimes inadvertently.
    7. Effectiveness and efficiency
    Making the best use of resources while meeting needs of the people is what we call efficiency and effectiveness. Prior to their election, politicians make promises including management of resources because that is where the eyes and hearts of the people are. Good governance simply actions these promises into life after election.
    8. Accountability
    Accountability means decision-makers in government, despite using their discretion on some decisions, are still answerable to those who elected them into power. The private sector and civil society organizations are also accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. Characteristics of good governance include accountability, which differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external to an organization. The idea of accountability serves as a reminder that no politician or public administrator has absolute power to do as they please.
    9. Strategic vision
    Every individual has goals that they wish to accomplish. The same applies with societies. Every country hopes to reach certain heights as far as development is concerned, but for that to happen development oriented strategies should be put in place. In good governance, leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. This should be a shared perspective. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.
    10. Inclusivity
    The biggest mistake any government can make is perceiving oppositions and opposing views as enemies. Good governance emphasizes on inclusivity outside political lines or any other differences for that matter.

  38. Avatar Asogwa Martha Adaugo says:

    NAME :CHUKWU PRECIOUS ADA
    DEPT :SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
    UNIT : ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    REG NO : 2018/244278
    ANSWER:
    NO 1
    In my opinion I would say No ,government were not able to meet up with most of the goals ,.
    The Millennium Development Goals are the international community’s most broadly shared, comprehensive and focused framework for reducing poverty. Drawn from the Millennium Declaration, adopted and agreed to by all Governments in 2000, the MDGs represent the commitments of United Nations Member States to reduce extreme poverty and its many manifestations: hunger, disease, gender inequality, lack of education and access to basic infrastructure, and environmental degradation.
    The MDGs set quantitative objectives to be achieved by 2015. They also drive international development policy by spelling out the responsibilities of rich countries to support poor countries through aid, debt relief and improved market access. The Goals confirmed the importance of the United Nations, with its unique legitimacy and convening power, as the multilateral body best placed to build global coalitions and political action to address global problems. At the Millennium Summit in 2000, the International Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey in 2002, the UN World Summit in 2005 and other international events, world leaders pledged to establish national policies and strategies needed, and to provide the resources necessary to achieve the Goals. The MDG agenda has become a uniting and organizing principle for the work of the entire international system in the area of development — a testament to the universal buy-in into the Goals. The MDGs also provide a rationale for the United Nations family to work together more coherently and effectively, so as to give countries the support they need to achieve the Goals.
    The stakes are high. If the MDGs are implemented in time in all parts of the globe, 500 million fewer people will be living in extreme poverty and some 300 million fewer will go hungry, while 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthday. In addition, about 350 million more people will have access to safe drinking water and a further 650 million more to sanitation. Real economic and social opportunities will open up on an unprecedented scale.
    There is good news, including in sub-Saharan Africa, where the biggest challenges remain. Countries are demonstrating that rapid and large-scale progress is possible when Government leadership, policies and strategies for scaling up public investments are combined with financial and technical support from the international community. Malawi has raised agricultural productivity; primary school enrolment has gone up in Ghana, Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda; Zambia has improved access to basic rural health services; Niger has made strides in large-scale reforestation; Senegal is on track to meet the MDG target on water and sanitation; and malaria incidence has fallen in Niger, Togo and Zambia.

    Yet, at the midpoint between the adoption of the Millennium Declaration and the 2015 deadline for reaching the MDGs, large parts of the world remain off track. Even regions that have made substantial progress, including in Asia, face challenges in areas such as health and environmental sustainability. The number of extreme poor in Asia continues to rise, albeit at a decelerating rate compared to the 1990s. And in sub-Saharan Africa, not a single country is on track to achieve the MDGs by 2015. That is why Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and I have made it a priority to scale up efforts to reach the MDGs around the world, particularly in Africa.

    A central element of this effort is the MDG Africa Steering Group, which the Secretary-General launched in September 2007, together with the leaders of the UN system and other major multilateral and intergovernmental organizations working for development in Africa, namely the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank.
    The Steering Group has resolved to work on three main fronts:

    Reviewing and strengthening international mechanisms to support African countries in five key areas: health, education, agriculture, infrastructure and statistical systems.
    Making aid more predictable, so that African Governments can plan for greater investments in the MDGs.
    Collaborating more closely and effectively at the country level to support African Governments in reaching the MDGs.

    The Steering Group is supported by the MDG Africa Working Group, which I chair, composed of representatives of the United Nations system and other major multilateral organizations. Our task is to reach out to African Governments, prepare action plans for achieving the objectives of the Steering Group, mobilize and coordinate the efforts of the institutions represented, and prepare periodic progress reports.

    Rapid progress is possible, if we use all the tools, resources and commitments available to support countries in reaching the Millennium Development Goals. In the critical years leading up to 2015, the Secretary-General and I will have no higher priority.

    No 2
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies.The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as “most successful” are liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of “good governance” to a set of requirements that conform to the organization’s agenda, making “good governance” imply many different things in many different contexts, The opposite of good governance, as a concept, is bad governance.
    And for most developing countries to attain good governance they should be able to meet some requirement such as :
    Policies should be in line with the will of the people, there should be public involvement in decision making processes among other phenomena that we will interact with in this article as examples of good governance attributes and features of good governance include.
    Characteristics of good governance
    1. Participation
    Every citizen should be afforded a voice in decision-making processes of a nation. This can be done either (in very few cases) directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. These institutions can be inform of wards led by elected Councilors, constituents led by elected legislators and other organizations whose aim are facilitating communication between government and the people using characteristics of good governance.
    Democratic governments get their power from the people and their portion is a representation of the people’s will in passing decisions. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.
    2. Rule of law
    This has been a contested topic in almost all democracies where certain social classes of seem immune to certain pieces of legislation. For there to be good governance worth mentioning legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially. Particular attention is then paid to laws on human rights. These are basic provisions agreed upon by all nations who are signatories to the bill of rights. If a piece of legislation violates any of these rights it needs to be repealed, although some governments have held on to some oppressive laws.
    3. Transparency
    Information and transparency can never be separated, for the latter is built on free flow of the former. The media acts as a communication tool between government, public servants and the general public. This calls for a press that is not heavily regulated and operates freely promoting democracy and good governance. Processes, institutions and information should be made directly accessible to those concerned with them, and characteristics of good governance ensure enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. To achieve transparency, officials should be prepared to answer each and every discrepancy that needs clarity for the public.
    4. Responsiveness
    Institutions and processes under a typical good government respond to the needs and try to serve all stakeholders. Countries are made up of states and usually different ethnic groups and response to public calls by all government institutions should be free of bias along ethnic lines. Response is sensitive to matters to do with fairness and maintenance of peace.
    5. Consensus orientation
    It is a public secret that alternative views exist everywhere, even among people of the same group (for example the same political party). This means for governments it is even more important to stay woke and approach alternative views critically. “Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interests of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.”
    6. Equity
    The most important goal of any government is the wellness of its people. Equal opportunities to improve or maintain well-being should be availed to every individual. This has to be done with no discrimination of any sort. Lately emphasis has been put by governments and lobby groups on gender equity. However, people living with disabilities are usually left out sometimes inadvertently.
    7. Effectiveness and efficiency
    Making the best use of resources while meeting needs of the people is what we call efficiency and effectiveness. Prior to their election, politicians make promises including management of resources because that is where the eyes and hearts of the people are. Good governance simply actions these promises into life after election.
    8. Accountability
    Accountability means decision-makers in government, despite using their discretion on some decisions, are still answerable to those who elected them into power. The private sector and civil society organizations are also accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. Characteristics of good governance include accountability, which differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external to an organization. The idea of accountability serves as a reminder that no politician or public administrator has absolute power to do as they please.
    9. Strategic vision
    Every individual has goals that they wish to accomplish. The same applies with societies. Every country hopes to reach certain heights as far as development is concerned, but for that to happen development oriented strategies should be put in place. In good governance, leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. This should be a shared perspective. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.
    10. Inclusivity
    The biggest mistake any government can make is perceiving oppositions and opposing views as enemies. Good governance emphasizes on inclusivity outside political lines or any other differences for that matter.

  39. Avatar Asogwa Martha Adaugo says:

    NAME :ASOGWA MARTHA ADAUGO
    DEPT :SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
    UNIT : ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    REG NO : 2018/243642
    ANSWER:
    NO 1
    In my opinion I would say No ,government were not able to meet up with most of the goals ,.
    The Millennium Development Goals are the international community’s most broadly shared, comprehensive and focused framework for reducing poverty. Drawn from the Millennium Declaration, adopted and agreed to by all Governments in 2000, the MDGs represent the commitments of United Nations Member States to reduce extreme poverty and its many manifestations: hunger, disease, gender inequality, lack of education and access to basic infrastructure, and environmental degradation.
    The MDGs set quantitative objectives to be achieved by 2015. They also drive international development policy by spelling out the responsibilities of rich countries to support poor countries through aid, debt relief and improved market access. The Goals confirmed the importance of the United Nations, with its unique legitimacy and convening power, as the multilateral body best placed to build global coalitions and political action to address global problems. At the Millennium Summit in 2000, the International Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey in 2002, the UN World Summit in 2005 and other international events, world leaders pledged to establish national policies and strategies needed, and to provide the resources necessary to achieve the Goals. The MDG agenda has become a uniting and organizing principle for the work of the entire international system in the area of development — a testament to the universal buy-in into the Goals. The MDGs also provide a rationale for the United Nations family to work together more coherently and effectively, so as to give countries the support they need to achieve the Goals.
    The stakes are high. If the MDGs are implemented in time in all parts of the globe, 500 million fewer people will be living in extreme poverty and some 300 million fewer will go hungry, while 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthday. In addition, about 350 million more people will have access to safe drinking water and a further 650 million more to sanitation. Real economic and social opportunities will open up on an unprecedented scale.
    There is good news, including in sub-Saharan Africa, where the biggest challenges remain. Countries are demonstrating that rapid and large-scale progress is possible when Government leadership, policies and strategies for scaling up public investments are combined with financial and technical support from the international community. Malawi has raised agricultural productivity; primary school enrolment has gone up in Ghana, Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda; Zambia has improved access to basic rural health services; Niger has made strides in large-scale reforestation; Senegal is on track to meet the MDG target on water and sanitation; and malaria incidence has fallen in Niger, Togo and Zambia.

    Yet, at the midpoint between the adoption of the Millennium Declaration and the 2015 deadline for reaching the MDGs, large parts of the world remain off track. Even regions that have made substantial progress, including in Asia, face challenges in areas such as health and environmental sustainability. The number of extreme poor in Asia continues to rise, albeit at a decelerating rate compared to the 1990s. And in sub-Saharan Africa, not a single country is on track to achieve the MDGs by 2015. That is why Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and I have made it a priority to scale up efforts to reach the MDGs around the world, particularly in Africa.

    A central element of this effort is the MDG Africa Steering Group, which the Secretary-General launched in September 2007, together with the leaders of the UN system and other major multilateral and intergovernmental organizations working for development in Africa, namely the African Development Bank, the African Union Commission, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank.
    The Steering Group has resolved to work on three main fronts:

    Reviewing and strengthening international mechanisms to support African countries in five key areas: health, education, agriculture, infrastructure and statistical systems.
    Making aid more predictable, so that African Governments can plan for greater investments in the MDGs.
    Collaborating more closely and effectively at the country level to support African Governments in reaching the MDGs.

    The Steering Group is supported by the MDG Africa Working Group, which I chair, composed of representatives of the United Nations system and other major multilateral organizations. Our task is to reach out to African Governments, prepare action plans for achieving the objectives of the Steering Group, mobilize and coordinate the efforts of the institutions represented, and prepare periodic progress reports.

    Rapid progress is possible, if we use all the tools, resources and commitments available to support countries in reaching the Millennium Development Goals. In the critical years leading up to 2015, the Secretary-General and I will have no higher priority.

    No 2
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies.The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as “most successful” are liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of “good governance” to a set of requirements that conform to the organization’s agenda, making “good governance” imply many different things in many different contexts, The opposite of good governance, as a concept, is bad governance.
    And for most developing countries to attain good governance they should be able to meet some requirement such as :
    Policies should be in line with the will of the people, there should be public involvement in decision making processes among other phenomena that we will interact with in this article as examples of good governance attributes and features of good governance include.
    Characteristics of good governance
    1. Participation
    Every citizen should be afforded a voice in decision-making processes of a nation. This can be done either (in very few cases) directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. These institutions can be inform of wards led by elected Councilors, constituents led by elected legislators and other organizations whose aim are facilitating communication between government and the people using characteristics of good governance.
    Democratic governments get their power from the people and their portion is a representation of the people’s will in passing decisions. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively.
    2. Rule of law
    This has been a contested topic in almost all democracies where certain social classes of seem immune to certain pieces of legislation. For there to be good governance worth mentioning legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially. Particular attention is then paid to laws on human rights. These are basic provisions agreed upon by all nations who are signatories to the bill of rights. If a piece of legislation violates any of these rights it needs to be repealed, although some governments have held on to some oppressive laws.
    3. Transparency
    Information and transparency can never be separated, for the latter is built on free flow of the former. The media acts as a communication tool between government, public servants and the general public. This calls for a press that is not heavily regulated and operates freely promoting democracy and good governance. Processes, institutions and information should be made directly accessible to those concerned with them, and characteristics of good governance ensure enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. To achieve transparency, officials should be prepared to answer each and every discrepancy that needs clarity for the public.
    4. Responsiveness
    Institutions and processes under a typical good government respond to the needs and try to serve all stakeholders. Countries are made up of states and usually different ethnic groups and response to public calls by all government institutions should be free of bias along ethnic lines. Response is sensitive to matters to do with fairness and maintenance of peace.
    5. Consensus orientation
    It is a public secret that alternative views exist everywhere, even among people of the same group (for example the same political party). This means for governments it is even more important to stay woke and approach alternative views critically. “Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interests of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.”
    6. Equity
    The most important goal of any government is the wellness of its people. Equal opportunities to improve or maintain well-being should be availed to every individual. This has to be done with no discrimination of any sort. Lately emphasis has been put by governments and lobby groups on gender equity. However, people living with disabilities are usually left out sometimes inadvertently.
    7. Effectiveness and efficiency
    Making the best use of resources while meeting needs of the people is what we call efficiency and effectiveness. Prior to their election, politicians make promises including management of resources because that is where the eyes and hearts of the people are. Good governance simply actions these promises into life after election.
    8. Accountability
    Accountability means decision-makers in government, despite using their discretion on some decisions, are still answerable to those who elected them into power. The private sector and civil society organizations are also accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. Characteristics of good governance include accountability, which differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external to an organization. The idea of accountability serves as a reminder that no politician or public administrator has absolute power to do as they please.
    9. Strategic vision
    Every individual has goals that they wish to accomplish. The same applies with societies. Every country hopes to reach certain heights as far as development is concerned, but for that to happen development oriented strategies should be put in place. In good governance, leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. This should be a shared perspective. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded.
    10. Inclusivity
    The biggest mistake any government can make is perceiving oppositions and opposing views as enemies. Good governance emphasizes on inclusivity outside political lines or any other differences for that matter.

  40. Avatar Owoh+Anayo+Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 2
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    ANSWERS:
    (1) The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most widely supported and comprehensive development goals the world has ever established. These eight goals and 18 targets provide a concrete framework for tackling poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership for development
    These targets are both global and local, adapted to each country to meet specific needs. They provide a framework for the whole international community to work together towards a common goal. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be reduced by half, millions of lives will be saved, and billions of people will benefit from the global economy in a more sustainable environment (2). Furthermore, the MDGs are inter-dependent and largely influence each other. For example, promoting gender equality and empowering women enables not only better conditions for women but also improved household management leading to better health and education for children and to higher income for the family.
    The MDGs find their origins in development ideas and campaigns of the 1980s and 1990s; they were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, as an output of the United Nations Millennium Declaration (3). All 189 United Nations member states agreed to achieve these goals on a voluntary basis by the year 2015. New global health initiatives (such as the Global Fund, the World Bank, the GAVI Alliance, etc.) and increased financial resources have advanced the opportunity to deliver MDG-related health programmes worldwide (4).
    From 2000 on, important high-level meetings and summits have been organized to follow up with the progress in the MDGs and to define action plans for their achievement. In 2008, governments, foundations, businesses groups and civil society announced new commitments to meet the MDGs, during the high-level event at the UN Headquarters (5). Two years after, the 2010 MDG Summit concluded with the adoption of a global action plan – Keeping the Promise: United to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals – and announced a number of initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease, with a special focus on women’s and children’s health (6).
    In 2013, participants in the Global MDG Conference underlined the importance of maintaining the momentum for accelerating progress to 2015, while taking lessons learned from the MDGs to be used in the development of the agenda of the next round of goals beyond 2015 (7).
    MDGs achievements and failures
    To assure an appropriate monitoring and evaluation within and among countries and to conceive suitable policies and interventions, reliable, timely and internationally comparable data on the MDG indicators are of primary importance. They are also essential in encouraging funding and allocating aid effectively (8). Several methodologies and indicators (Table 2) have been developed to measure progress towards the MDGs, such as the MDG indicators website, the UN Data – and the UNICEF Portal (9–(11)). Moreover, progress towards MDG achievement can be tracked through the MDG Monitor, both globally and at the country level
    Furthermore, there have been numerous consultations on the MDGs by various organizations. Some of the consultations and surveys have had an official character and others should be considered ‘private’ initiatives, by organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private foundations (13–(18)). More than a few official reports have tracked the global assessment of progress, based on those data (14, 19–21)). Although considerable progress has been made, reliable data and statistics analyses remain poor, especially in many developing countries (8).
    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments (22). They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level (8). Most activities worldwide have targeted MDGs 4, 5 and 6, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH) and communicable diseases, especially in the developing countries, while fewer initiatives have focused on MDGs 1, 2, 3 and 7, which are more difficult to influence (14). Some studies have underlined regional differences in the importance that is attributed to specific MDGs. For example, MDGs 4 and 5 have been considered most important in the African region, while MDGs 7 and 8 in the Western Pacific Region. Low-income countries have attached high relevance to MDG1 when compared to high-income countries (14, 23). Arab countries have not considered MDGs among the top priority for the policy makers, academia and social actors in general mainly due to ethnic, religious, political and social limitations (18).
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas (21): the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade (20, 21) (24, 25).
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased (8). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs.

    (2) Good Governance is the process of making decisions that bring maximum satisfaction to the people and ensuring participation of all. There are several characteristics of good Governance. Rule of Law is prerequisite for good governance. It implies the absence of arbitrary power and formulation and implementation of well-established laws. Transparency ensures trustworthy working. People must have the right to information regarding government processes and policies while making each and every organ of Government response to the public for their acts making them responsible.
    THE MAJOR HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING NATION’S ARE –
    – BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    – POOR ECONOMY – unemployment and reservation
    – UNEDUCATED PEOPLE – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    – INEQUALITY – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major

  41. Avatar ANEKE NELSON MADUAKONAM says:

    NAME: ANEKE NELSON MADUAKONAM
    REG. NO. 2018/242192
    DEPT. EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    EMAIL; nelsonmadu80@gmail.com
    NO 1
    In my opinion the MDGs goals where not achieved as it was planned:
    One of the major MDG failures is the fact that the success of the goals was not experienced equally across the globe; this in itself is a major defeat. Consider a few of these statistics from different countries concerning the same MDGs.
    Extreme Poverty 50 Percent Reduction Rate:
    Southeastern Asia exceeded the goal for extreme poverty reduction by 16 percent
    Southern Asia exceeded the goal by 12.5 percent
    Northern Africa scraped by at about 1.2 percent
    Sub-Saharan Africa was by far the most behind. It did not even meet the goal for extreme poverty reduction and was 12.5 percent away from doing so.

    The extreme poverty reduction goal of at least a 50 percent reduction in those living on $1.25 a day arguably had the best statistics for each country; from there it goes steadily downhill. This trend can be seen throughout the different Millennium Development Goals. Sub-Saharan Africa was far from reaching its goals, and not one country achieved the goal set for maternal mortality rate reduction.
    FENDER INEQUALITY
    Gender inequality was also a focus of the MDGs, but unfortunately, according to the United Nations, “gender inequality persists in spite of more representation of women in parliament and more girls going to school. Women continue to face discrimination in access to work, economic assets and participation in private and public decision-making.”
    ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
    In addition, the numbers for global emissions of carbon dioxide as well as water scarcity are disheartening. There has been a 50 percent increase in carbon dioxide emissions and water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of the world in comparison to 1990 statistics.
    WHY MDGs FAILED
    Weak governance and mismanagement remain key concerns at all levels. The lack of a transparent performance-assessment system, limited efforts to harness the potential of the private sector and the weak regulation of healthcare delivery also to the slow progress of the MDGs.
    It is evident that improving the health of the population – which in turn enhances physical work capacity and cognitive development – contributes to productivity, economic development and poverty reduction. Since the population of developing countries are unhcontributedealthy, there is a dire need to take a holistic approach to address the issue. thus this also contributed to the slow progress of the MDGs.
    Developing countries spending on the health sector – far less than the WHO’s recommended figure of $34 per capita for low and middle income countries – was another factor that caused the failure of the mdg.

    NO 2
    Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented
    Effects of bad Governance: Africa as a case study
    1. Poor Economic Growth:
    Studies have shown and proven that where there is bad management of resources and bad governance of people in general, the economy of any country will sink. The instances are numerous. It is the duty of government to provide for the peace, security and welfare of its people
    2. Breakdown of Civilization:
    Civilization is what Government was established to create in form. The result of untrustworthy leaders who are not capable or accountable to say the least makes the people unwilling to continue with the leadership. people come together to divest their self independent powers to certain individuals who can further progress and protect their interests.

    If those certain individuals are not living up to expectations, the people or citizens have the right to protest against the government. This has been and will continue to be the case even in stable countries. The citizens will no longer find it necessary to bend to the laws of the land if those same laws are not above the leaders.
    3. Weak Political /Governmental Structures:
    In the eyes of the people within and outside the country, there is an apparent fragile political structure due to the incompetence of leaders. It is not a good image of a country that it cannot produce capable individuals who will enhance the will of the Government by promoting social and economic development.

    The fact is that a country is not only known or acknowledged for the resources it has but by the competence to manage the resources.

    Possible solutions to bad Governance in Africa
    1. The Government should be more accountable to the people. Accountability is one aspect of governance that if lost, can cause a breakdown of law and order.
    2. There should be increased transparency among the Government and its institutions. When the administrative heads and Governmental leaders are more transparent in their actions, that will automatically be a proactive step to stop corrupt practices in their dealings.
    3. Institutions for building competent leaders should be established and if already established, should be increasingly financed. As everyone knows, bad leadership equals bad governance.
    4. Parliamentary measures should be enforced to put an end to corruption among governmental leaders. The issue of corruption is arguably the most pressing concern in Africa. This is why all hands should be on deck to fight against it in order to protect the future of democracy.
    5. There should be regard for the fundamental rights of citizens particularly the right against discrimination. All genders, ethnic, religious and tribal personalities should be considered when making decisions.

  42. Avatar Nwosu Sochima Anne says:

    Name: Nwosu Sochima Anne
    Dep: Economics
    Reg no:2018/242291
    Course: Eco 362
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    No these goals were not achieved in our country Nigeria, though Nigeria has made appreciable progress in the attainment of MDGs in the last 14 years, particularly, in the area of universal primary/basic education enrollment, achieving gender equality in education, reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS, reducing maternal deaths, and so on but we got to a point where we failed due to lack of human capacity for implementation, poor access to primary healthcare delivery systems with high cost of healthcare, inadequate and unreliable data systems, inadequate funding and indiscipline with indigenous CORRUPTION(both our leader and the country as a whole) are challenges that were facing MDGs in Nigeria.

    Question 2: Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    The answer to this question is screaming corruption!! I mean what is our faith if our leaders can’t help us grow??
    What is good governance?
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.
    Now what is corruption?
    A dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. Corruption runs through every level of Nigerian government. From massive contract fraud at the top, through petty bribery, money laundering schemes, embezzlement and seizing salaries from fake workers, it is estimated that corruption within the state apparatus costs the country billions of dollars every year. Good governance should start with our leaders in charge maybe our country would be a better place.
    The second factor is the lack of party ideology. In most democratic states, political parties form the government; that is after a general election has taken place which brings politicians into public offices. An ideology is a system of social beliefs. That is, a closely organized system of beliefs, values, and ideas forming the basis of a social economic, or political philosophy or program. In terms of governance, ideology can be seen as a group of ideas that informs government’s policies and actions (Chigwe, 2012). Sadly, the lack of ideology in the various political parties existing in the country is brought to bear in governance. Most political parties do not have a clear cut agenda of what they intend to pursue if voted into power. Rather they make promises made by politicians of old. The promise of good access roads, steady power supply, good public health care, and infrastructural facilities still dominate campaigns and yet then end up failing us

  43. Avatar UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH says:

    NAME: UMEAYO EKWOMCHUKWU ELIJAH
    REG NO: 2018/247368
    UNIT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    COURSE TITTLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: umeayoekwomchukwuelijah@gmail.com

    QUESTION

    1. In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    ANSWER TO THE QUESTIONS

    1: In my own opinion, I believe that the goals of MDGs were achieved in Nigeria with the following success stories:

    Though, there are some challenges which confronted the implementation of MDGs in Nigeria not withstanding, there are some six notable success stories which can also be considered best practice examples to inform the post-2015 development agenda. Some of the significant success stories include the following:

    A: The Nigeria Polio Eradication Effort; which has resulted in the country’s celebration of one year with out polio (July24,2014–July24,2015). Indeed, this is seen as Nigeria’s MDGs implementation exit gift to the world. The strategies used for achieving this feat were replicated in the dogged and successful fight against the outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus in Nigeria;

    B: The Conditional Grant Scheme (CGS); which has helped tremendously to: (a) scale-up investments at the sub-national levels, (b)promote ownership and sustainability of such strengthen partnership between the tiers of government. The Scheme remains a major investments, (c)empower the people, (d)promote improvements in service delivery,
    (d)leverage on public service reforms especially in public expenditurere form, and (e)success story from Nigeria to the rest of the world;

    C: Implementation of the Village Health Workers Scheme (VHWs); which has been
    recognised internationally for its notable success in reducing morbidity and averting mortality where the over all Primary HealthCare (PHC) system is weak;

    D: Adoption of the independent monitoring and evaluation system; which is a result-
    based monitoring strategy anchored on good planning, good budgeting and effective feedback. The system contributed immensely in the success of CGS given the systemic nature of corruption in Nigeria.

    E: Implementation of the Mid-wives Service Scheme (MSS): This scheme resulted in the tremendous progress recorded in crashing the high maternal mortality rate in Nigeria. It is a notable intervention in the health sector that needs to be scaled-up under the SDGs;

    F: NYSC MDGs Corps Volunteers projects: This offered excellent mentoring skills to
    Corps members, many of whom excelled and received awards in later years.

    2. Over the decades, there has been a recurrent and sustained argument that the Nigerian state, like its counterparts in Africa and other countries of the developing world, underperforms due to lack of state capacity1 to deal with the contemporary complexities of governance.

    The nature of the state, the public institutions through which legitimate power is exercised and enforced, is germane to the study of politics in any state (Smith, 2003, p. 108). Therefore, the issue of state capacity is central to understanding the African socioeconomic malaise. Clapham (2002) draws particular attention to the inherent challenges of state maintenance in weak societies and offers probable explanations to states’ incapacity, especially during the era of globalization. Bayart (2009) examines the African sociopolitical and economic realities and attributes state’s failures to Africa’s historical heritage: history of weak political leadership, corruption, conflicts, and wars. There is no controversy about the series of symptoms of state failure and state collapse in Africa; the point of debate remains the extent of state’s incapacity displayed by the Nigerian state.

    The “petroleum-rich” Nigerian state, confronted by sociopolitical instability, high degree of corruption, mass hostility to the “public,” and poor macroeconomic management, continue to display the attributes of a state in crisis (Akinola, 2008). Successive governments in Nigeria, like in many African states, lack the political will to initiate or sustain policy or structural transformation, or to embark on sound economic reform to reposition the state for greatness (World Bank, 1997). No matter the upsurge of globalization and the prospects of the borderless state, the expectation is for states to take a decisive role in economic transformation, growth, and development and jettison every act that is inimical to improved livelihood as well as socioeconomic and political development of the country. With the weakness of the Nigerian state and its ineffectiveness, it has become challenging to eradicate impoverishment, engage in infrastructural development, and stem the tides of insurgency and terrorism, which have the potency to derail the country’s moderate political development.

  44. Avatar Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer says:

    Name: Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer

    Reg no: 2018/245129

    Eco 362 Assignment

    Answers

    1.) The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets; the table below summarizes the track record of the 14 Targets which can be assessed quantitatively – highlighted in green are those which the world has achieved and in red those where the world fell short.

    There is clearly more red than green, but let’s look at the good news first. Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1.A – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty – is a particularly important one and while most people are  of it, the world has actually achieved this goal. The achievement of MDG 3 meant that the gender disparity in education was closed at the global level. And MDG Target 6.C on malaria and tuberculosis was achieved as the world was able to reduce the global rate of new infections. For MDG 7 the world achieved half of this goal – while the goal for sanitation was missed, the world did reach the goal on providing access to safe drinking water.

    2.) In contemporary Nigeria, a discourse on good governance is convivial, given her current economic, political, and social dimensions especially with regard to issues of state and governance. Development scholars have pointed out that good governance is a prerequisite for successful development which every country crave for. However, the meaning of the concept has been changing overtime.
    African countries continue to build on the governance gains that they have achieved since the early 1990s. According to the African Development Bank, good governance should be built on a foundation of (I) effective states, (ii) mobilized civil societies, and (iii) an efficient private sector. The key elements of good governance, then, are accountability, transparency, combating corruption, citizen participation, and an enabling legal/judicial framework.
    But Africa has a long way to go: Too many countries have not yet achieved the type of reforms that can prevent dictatorship, corruption, and economic decline. Due to continued sectarian violence, weak and ineffective leadership, and lack of political will, countries like the Central African Republic, Eritrea, Somalia, and South Sudan remain saddled by poor functioning governance structures. The absence of good governance in many African countries has been extremely damaging to the government’s corrective intervention role, particularly in the maintenance of peace and security, as well as the promotion of economic growth and the creation of the wealth needed to confront poverty and improve human development.

  45. Avatar CHIGOZIE+ONYEDIKACHUKWU+GODSWILL+2018/241849 says:

    1.
    Yes, Nigeria met some of the goals set but not to its full best. For instance, as regards the goal of poverty reduction, the level of poverty from September 2000 till now to me has reduced although not significantly, following the improvement in mechanized farming and active involvement in agricultural practices by mostly those in the rural areas, food stuffs are readily available to them at a reduced cost In fact. Likewise the encouragement of mixed farming has as well gone a long way in helping to curb the poverty level likewise the exportation of the cash crops we have in the country. As regards the quality of life improvement, I’ll say that Nigeria has not really performed well as regards this because of the denial of certain legal rights of its citizens. As regards the aspect of building partnership, Nigeria has really performed quite well as it is a member of diverse international bodies both at the continent level and the world wide level. For instance, Nigeria is a member of OPEC which creates room for globalisation amongst in the sell and purchase of oil which has helped in the reduction of certain barriers to trade which may have serve as a form hindrances in trading in the past years.

    2.
    Nigeria has faced many challenges which has hindered the promotion of Good Governance. These challenges include:
    a. Criminalization of politics
    b. Corruption
    c. Gender Inequality
    d. Delay in justice
    e. Concentration od power
    f. Marginalization of socially and economically backward people
    As regards the above listed hindrances, the first four are the most prevalent and common in Nigeria has made Good Governance difficult to attain in the country.

  46. Avatar IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS - 2018/242340 says:

    Name: Ibezim Chisom Precious
    Reg. No: 2018/242340
    Department: Economics
    Course: Development Economics II

    Goal 1: Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger
    Nigeria made notable progress in this goal and particularly in the fight against hunger, but generally missed meeting the targets of most of the indicators.
    The strong progress under this goal can be seen in the persistent reduction in poverty prevalence in recent years. Although poverty prevalence fluctuated, it declined from 65.6% in 1996 to 45.5% in 2010; short of target (21.4%) by 24.1%. However, the World Bank’s most recent estimates of poverty incidences in Nigeria indicate it at the lower of 33.1% in 2012/2013; a figure much closer to the target. One major challenge to effective poverty reduction in the country is the very limited reduction effect of economic growth. Thus, whereas the country recorded largely impressive growth rates in the 2000s decade and in more recent times, this was not entirely inclusive and neither did it reduce poverty or even generate employment.
    In one particular area of strength, Nigeria was able to reduce hunger by 66% in 2012 (three years in advance) and this earned her international recognition in 2013 from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). However, while Nigeria is very close to meeting the hunger target owing to the transformative interventions in the nation’s agricultural sector, there are still high level disparities across the geo-political zones, states and between the urban and rural areas. Thus, the prevalence of hunger is much higher in the Northern states and more endemic in rural than in urban areas.
    Generally, the policy environment for the goal has been a good one and promises to deliver more in the future given the assurances of priority to agriculture by Nigeria’s new administration. Indeed, increasing agricultural productivity could have positive implications for poverty reduction. As significant is the fact that the proportion of underweight children under-five years of age declined from 35.7% in 1990 to 25.5% in 2014 (short of target which is 17.85% by 7.6%). Thus, although Nigeria did not meet the target of this indicator, strong progress was recorded within the prevailing good policy environment.
    A number of key institutional and policy drivers can be said to have been responsible for the appreciable progress made on Goal 1; notably, the Federal Ministry of Agriculture (FMARD), the office of the Senior Special Assistant to the President on Millennium Development Goals (OSSAP- MDGs), Development Partners, the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP)-among others.
    In summary, strong progress was made but goal not met.

    Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
    The net enrolment in basic education (as domesticated in Nigeria to mean six years of primary schooling and three years of junior secondary education) has had a fluctuating history of an upward trend to the mid-point assessment year. This positive trend was however halted in later years as a result of the disruptions brought about by the Boko Haram insurgency. The insurgency led to the destruction of many schools with the school children constituting a large size of the internally displaced population. Consequently, the net enrolment of 60% in 1995 declined to the end-point net enrolment of 54% in 2013. There is, however, a good policy environment provided by the Federal Ministry of Education and its parastatals which will aid significant growth in net enrolment once the Boko Haram phenomenon is effectively checked.
    With respect to primary six completion rate, the trend and end-point status show strong and significant progress. Nigeria remained largely on track towards achieving this indicator. The completion rate which stood at 73% in 1993 trended upwards in most of the subsequent years culminating in 82% at the end-point year. The policy environment is good and supportive of consolidation of the achievements. There are however variations across states which need to be addressed in efforts to consolidate the achievements.
    The literacy rate trended marginally upwards in most of the years from 64% in 2000 to 66.7% in 2014. The significant rate of 80.0% achieved in 2008 could not be sustained. There were marked variations across states and between the north and the south. With respect to variations across geo-political zones, the North-east recorded the highest rate of illiteracy with the insurgency compounding the problem. However, the policy environment at both the national and sub- national levels is very supportive especially with active and growing collaboration between Nigeria and international development partners. In summary, appreciable progress but goal not met.

    Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower
    women
    The pursuit of gender parity in basic education in Nigeria has witnessed strong progress when seen against the prevailing patriarchal culture and practices in most parts of the country. There has been a steady increase in the ratio of girls to boys in basic education in Nigeria with the end-point status of 94% in 2013 being a significant achievement compared to the 82% achieved in 1991. The statistics from both the World Bank and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) corroborate the high gender parity index recorded by Nigeria. The success at the basic education level has not been replicated at the tertiary level where there is weak progress even though the policy environment has been supportive at every level of the educational pipeline.
    Similarly, Nigeria has not done well in the area of proportion of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector with an end-point status of 7.7% in 2010 (the most recent data). However, in terms of women’s contribution to the total labour force in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, the proportion has considerably increased to a record 37.7% in 2014. The ILO statistics corroborates this with a 48.1% increase in 2011.
    As regards the proportion of seats held by women in the National Parliament, Nigeria has done badly, with an end-point status of 5.11% in 2015 against the expected target of 35%. The prevailing patriarchal culture and practices remain a major factor against women’s access to elective positions. This is however not the case with women in appointive positions as over 30.0% of women got appointed to higher level political decision making positions in recent years.
    In summary, strong progress made in gender parity but weak progress in women empowerment. Goal not met.

    Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
    Nigeria’s efforts aimed at reducing avoidable child deaths have been met with gradual and sustained progress. The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) has improved remarkably from 191 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 89 deaths per 1000 live births in 2014 as the end-point status. Considering the end-point status of U5MR, Nigeria falls short of the 2015 target of 64 deaths per 1000 live births by 28 %.
    In 1990 (as the baseline), the infant mortality rate (IMR) was estimated at 91 deaths per 1000 live births. This, however, decreased to 75 deaths per 1000 live births in 2008 and to 61 deaths per 1000 live births in 2012. Although the end-point figure which stood at 58 deaths per 1000 live births in 2014 reflects progress, it is still short of the 2015 target of 30 deaths per 1000 live births.
    The immunization effort against measles has been relatively effective. It has resulted in significant reductions in case burden as a result of the scale up of the administration of measles vaccination to children 9 months and older through routine immunization services led by the National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA). The proportion of one-year-old children immunised against measles increased from 46% in 1990 to 61.3% in 2012 and subsequently to 63.0% in 2014. Nigeria has also recorded strong progress in the effort to eradicate polio and recently celebrated one year without polio from July 2014 to July 2015.

    Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    The drive to make progress on this goal has seen improvements in maternal health. With a baseline figure of 1000 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990, the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) consistently decreased over the years to 545 in 2008. The downward trend continued to 350 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2012 and subsequently to its end-point status of 243 per 100,000 live births in 2014.
    Many policy drivers made the progress possible; one being the Midwives Service Scheme while the other was the collaborative efforts made between donors and the Federal Ministry of Health and its parastatals. In the meantime, the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel improved appreciably from a baseline figure of 45% in 1990 to the end-point status of 58.6% in 2014 with the conviction that the national figure would have been better had it not been for the wide disparities across states with lower records. The success recorded is attributed to effective implementation of the Midwives Service Scheme (MSS).
    In the case of antenatal coverage, significant progress was also recorded. Antenatal coverage of at least one visit recorded an end-point status of 68.9% in 2014, and for at least four visits, the end-point status was 60.6% in 2014. The successes imply the need for a scale-up of the policy interventions.

    Goal 6: Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    The prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15–24 years has steadily declined from 5.4% in 2000 to 4.1% in 2010 (end-point status). The decline resulted from the implementation of tested high impact interventions implying the need for consistent implementation of such high impact interventions in the sector.
    With respect to the incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people, the efforts have not produced appreciable results. In the past 7 years, the value for this indicator has fluctuated between 343.00 in 2005 and 339.00 in 2012. The end-point status of the incidence of tuberculosis in Nigeria was 338 as of 2013. This latest figure is still unacceptable and calls for renewed efforts, more resources and interventions in order to drastically reduce the prevalence of tuberculosis.

    Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    Nigeria has made appreciable progress in improving households’ access to safe drinking water with an end-point status in 2015 at 67.0% access. The country is also deemed to have done well on this indicator from the statistics of the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) / United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) indicating the recorded end-point status of 69% in 2015. This compares well with the baseline figure of 40% in 1990. However, there are wide disparities in access to safe drinking water across states, with those in the south having higher access than those in the north.
    Nevertheless, in Nigeria as a whole, there is a good policy environment for the provision of safe drinking water with the Conditional Grant Scheme (CGS) being a major policy driver of the intervention in all parts of the country and mostly in the rural areas. Again, the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and its parastatals, as well as the Federal Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, along with many donors have played prominent roles in the provision of safe drinking water to Nigerians. Given the existence of many policy drivers targeting both the urban and rural areas for improved access to safe drinking water, as well as the scaling up of interventions, it is only a matter of time for safe drinking water to be available to a large majority of Nigerians.
    The success recorded in the provision of safe drinking water has, however, not been witnessed with respect to the proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities. The end- point status of only 41% using improved sanitation facilities in 2014 is not encouraging and in fact, suggests weak progress in this indicator. The JMP estimate is even worse here, as it recoded 29% for this indicator in 2015.
    The percentage of the urban population living in slums has been on the decline since 1990. From a baseline figure of 77.3% in 1990, it declined to an end-point status of 50.2% in 2014. Although this implies strong progress, the number of persons living in slums is still very alarming and also considering that the number of slum dwellers has been on the rise owing to increasing housing deficits of 16-18 million units against the reality of growing number of cities with populations of one million and over.

    Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for Development
    Nigeria has performed better on this goal as compared to the others. There has been a rising trend in per capita Official Development Assistance (ODA) with potential impact felt in infrastructure and human development. The appreciable decline in debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services is attributed to the debt relief granted in 2005. The socio-economic benefits associated with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has seen to appreciable growth in the industry. The growth in the number of cellular phone subscribers and the tele-density per 100 people standing at 77.8 and 99.3, respectively, in 2014 signifies wide coverage. Conversely, the growth in the number of internet users per 100 people, standing at 42.68 in 2014 implies that there is need to step up interventions in this sector.

    2. Good governance is at the heart of any successful business. It is essential for a company or organisation to achieve its objectives and drive improvement, as well as maintain legal and ethical standing in the eyes of shareholders, regulators and the wider community.
    In the 1990s, the World Bank became the first international institution to adopt the concept of good governance into lending arrangements for developing countries and introduce the idea to the general public. In its 1992 report entitled “Governance and Development”, the notion of good governance was written as the way in which power is used to regulate the economic and social resources of a country for development. Now, the term good governance has often been used by national and international organisations. Good governance aims to minimise corruption, take into account the opinions of minorities, listen to the voices of the oppressed people in the decision-making process, and respond actively to the needs of the community now and in the future.
    Good governance possesses the following attributes:
    1. Rule of law: the legal framework must be fair and impartial.
    2. Transparency: information must be revealed to citizens, and the government must embrace open-door policies.
    3. Consensus oriented: the government must take the view of every citizen into consideration before decision-making.
    4. Effectiveness and efficiency: processes and institutions must produce results that meet the needs of the people and at the same time maximizing resources.
    5. Accountability: this requires the government and other civil society to be accountable.
    6. Responsiveness: this has to do with the process of doing things to serve all stakeholders in the country.
    7. Participation of people in decision making.
    8. Equity and inclusiveness: members of the society, including those who are handicapped, must be made to believe they are stakeholders.
    The following are reasons why Nigeria and other developing countries are not able to achieve good governance.
    1. Criminalization of politics
    2. Corruption
    3. Gender inequality
    4. Growing incidence of violence
    5. Delaying justice
    6. Concentration of administrative system.

  47. Avatar Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina says:

    Name: Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina
    Reg no: 2018/246451
    Dept: Economics

    Answers
    Question 1.
    No, the goals weren’t achieved, however,
    Substantial progress has been made regarding the MDGs. The world has already realized the first MDG of halving the extreme poverty rate by 2015. However, the achievements have been uneven. The MDGs are set to expire in 2015 and the discussion of a post-2015 agenda continues. The focus is now on building a sustainable world where environmental sustainability, social inclusion, and economic development are equally valued.
    The MDG Fund contributed directly and indirectly to the achievement of the MDGs. It adopted an inclusive and comprehensive approach to the MDGs. The approach was guided by the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on development as a right, with targeted attention directed towards traditionally marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities, indigenous groups, and women.

    Question 2
    Nigeria is heavily affected by the so-called resource curse, rent-seeking and elite capture of the state. Despite an estimated USD 400 billion in oil income since independence in 1960, the country has experienced five military coups, a civil war, very poor economic development and very skewed distribution of wealth. Corruption pervades all levels of government. The population is more impoverished now than it was 50 years ago.

    Some key causes of bad governance in Nigeria are;
    A) Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability
    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body. Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.

    B) Political Instability
    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

    C) Corruption
    Bad Governance, is often considered to come hand in hand with corruption. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments. Corruption can occur in many different ways and forms. The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.

  48. Avatar AGUBUZO+SOMTOCHUKWU+THELMA says:

    NAME: AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA
    REG NO: 2018/242444
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    To an extent,the millennium development goals were achieved. In the sense that new policies were made and people benefittedfrom the project..
    Focusing on MDG 1:Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    : The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014
    For the second MDG which is: Achieve Universal Primary Education:
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    The third MDG, Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women:
    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.
    The fourth MDG states: Reduce Child Mortality
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.
    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.
    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.
    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases:
    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent
    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably
    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.
    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.
    Looking at all of this,we can say that to a reseaonable extent,the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) were achieved

    QUESTION 2:
    . Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. In most developing countries,especially Nigeria,a number of factors negatively affect good governance,some of them are:
    Corruption:
    Corruption inhibits good governance, it delays the growth of a nation. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments.Corruption can occur in many different ways and forms. The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.
    Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability:
    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body.Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.
    Political Instability:
    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

  49. Avatar Isiguzo Purity Ezinne says:

    Name: Isiguzo Purity Ezinne
    2018/242353
    Economics department

    (A continuation of the previous one Sir. I mistakenly skipped question number 2)

    The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

    At the end of the Cold War, African civil society movements striving for more democratic governance began to challenge authoritarian regimes on the continent. Declining living conditions within African countries and the failure of authoritarian African leaders to deliver the promises of economic prosperity they made to encourage the acceptance of development aid fueled the push for change. International donors’ insistence on democratic reform as a precondition for aid gave impetus for Nigerian civil society to push for domestic accountability.

    Thus, domestic pressure for political pluralism and external pressure for representative governance have both played a role in the calls for democratic reform in Nigeria.

    But despite some successes, corruption and socioeconomic disparities within Nigerian democracy continue to run rampant. Since 1999, the democratic space has been dominated by political elites who consistently violate fundamental principles associated with a liberal democratic system, such as competitive elections, the rule of law, political freedom, and respect for human rights. The outcome of the 2019 presidential election further eroded public trust in the ability of the independent electoral commission to organize competitive elections unfettered by the authoritarian influences of the ruling class.

    This challenge is an indicator of the systemic failure in Nigeria’s governance system. A continuation of the current system will only accelerate the erosion of public trust and democratic institutions. In contrast with the current system in which votes are attained through empty promises, bribery, voter intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs a governance system that will enhance the education of its voters and the capability of its leaders.

    Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed.

    While President Muhammadu Buhari won the 2015 election on his promise to fight insecurity and corruption, his promises went unfulfilled; Boko Haram continues to unleash unspeakable violence on civilians while the fight against corruption is counterproductive.

    At the core of Nigeria’s systemic failure is the crisis of governance, which manifests in the declining capacity of the state to cope with a range of internal political and social upheavals. There is an expectation for political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, and police brutality and put in place the necessary infrastructure to gather relevant data for problem solving. But the insufficiency of political savvy required to navigate the challenges that Nigeria faces has unleashed unrest across the nation and exacerbated existing tensions. The #ENDSARS Protests against police brutality in 2020 is one of the manifestations of bad governance.

    The spiral of violence in northern Nigeria in which armed bandits engage in deadly planned attacks on communities, leading to widespread population displacement, has become another grave security challenge that has sharpened regional polarization. Because some public servants are usually unaware of the insecurities faced by ordinary Nigerians, they lack the frame of reference to make laws that address the priorities of citizens. The crisis of governance is accentuated by a democratic culture that accords less importance to the knowledge and competence that political leaders can bring to public office. These systemic challenges have bred an atmosphere of cynicism and mistrust between citizens and political leaders at all levels of government.

    Political elites in Nigeria also exploit poverty and illiteracy to mobilize voters with food items such as rice, seasoning, and money. The rice is usually packaged strategically with the image of political candidates and the parties they represent. The assumption is that people are more likely to vote for a politician who influences them with food than one who only brings messages of hope. The practice of using food to mobilize voters is commonly described as “stomach infrastructure” politics. The term “stomach infrastructure” arose from the 2015 election in Ekiti state when gubernatorial candidate Ayodele Fayosi mobilized voters with food items and defeated his opponent Kayode Fayemi.

    It is undeniable that Nigerian political culture rewards incompetent leaders over reform-minded leaders who demonstrate the intellectualism and problem-solving capabilities needed to adequately address systemic issues of poverty and inequality.

    Jason Brennan describes the practice of incentivizing people to be irrational and ignorant with their votes as the unintended consequence of democracy. Brennan believes specific expertise is required to tackle socio-economic issues, so political power should be apportioned based on expert knowledge. As Brennan suggests, Nigeria lacks a system of governance in which leadership is based on capability. Rather, the political system in Nigeria is dominated by individuals who gain power through nepotism rather than competence, influence voters with food rather than vision.

    Nigeria needs a new model of governance in which political leadership is based on the knowledge and competence of both political leaders and the electorate. One solution is to establish what Brennan refers to as epistocracy, which is a system of governance in which the votes of politically informed citizens should count more than the less informed. For Justin Klocksiem, epistocracy represents a political system in which political power rests exclusively on highly educated citizens. This idea drew its philosophical influence from John Stuart Mill, who believed that the eligibility to vote should be accorded to individuals who satisfy certain educational criteria. The notion that educational attainment should be the prerequisite for the electorate to choose their leaders as proposed by Brennan, Klocksiem, and Mill is an important proposition that should be taken seriously.

    However, one cannot ignore that such thinking originates from societies where civic education is high and the electorate can make informed choices about leadership. In Nigeria, the majority of citizens are uneducated on political issues. Simultaneously, those who are highly educated are increasingly becoming indifferent to political participation; they have lost faith in the power of their votes and the integrity of the political system. For an epistocratic system to work in Nigeria, there must be significant improvements in literacy levels so that citizens are educated about the issues and can use their knowledge to make informed decisions about Nigeria’s political future.

    It is important to mention that Nigeria’s political elites have exploited illiteracy to reinforce ethnic, religious, and political divisions between groups that impede democratic ideals. Since the resultant effect of epistocracy is to instill knowledge, raise consciousness and self-awareness within a polity anchored on the failed system of democracy, decisions that promote the education of uninformed voters are the rationale for an epistocratic system of governance. The Constitution must ensure that only citizens who can formulate policies and make informed decisions in the public’s best interest can run for public office.

    When the Constitution dictates the standard of epistocratic governance, informed citizens will be better equipped to champion political leadership or determine the qualifications of their leaders. Epistocratic governance will be the alternative to Nigeria’s current dysfunctional democratic system while retaining the aspects of liberal democracy that maintain checks and balances.

    The benefits of electing epistocratic leaders are that many citizens would desire to be educated in preparation for leadership. The more educated the population the more likely it is that political leaders will be held accountable. However, the kind of education that is needed to significantly transform the governance landscape in Nigeria is civic education.

    We propose three policies to promote epistocratic governance in Nigeria. First, aspiring leaders must demonstrate the intellectual pedigree to translate knowledge into effective, transparent, and accountable governance that leads to national prosperity. As Rotimi Fawole notes, the bar should be higher for those aspiring to executive or legislative office “to improve the ideas that are put forward and the intellectual rigor applied to the discussions that underpin our statehood.”

    Second, the government must increase access to education through government-sponsored initiatives that integrate civic education into school curriculums.

    Third, the government should engage the support of local NGOs to promote civic education across Nigeria in culturally appropriate ways.

  50. Avatar EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

    NAME:: EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE
    REG NO:: 2018/251024
    DEPARTMENT:: ECONOMICS
    COURSE:: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS ll
    CODE::ECO 362
    Assignment
    1.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals with measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world’s poorest people. To meet these goals and eradicate poverty, leaders of 189 countries signed the historic millennium declaration at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000. At that time, eight goals that range from providing universal primary education to avoiding child and maternal mortality were set with a target achievement date of 2015.

    The MDG-F contributed directly and indirectly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, with the main driver behind its work being the eradication of extreme poverty. The Fund adopted an inclusive and comprehensive approach to the MDGs, embracing the discourse on climate change as it relates to poverty while incorporating other programme areas that are recognized as prerequisites and/or mechanisms for MDG achievement. Our approach was guided by the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on development as a right, with targeted attention directed towards traditionally marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities, indigenous groups and women.

    As the table below illustrates, six out of the eight MDG-F programmatic areas addressed one or more of the MDGs and their respective targets, while the last two played an important contributing role.

    2..Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.[1] Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance[1] as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.

    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies.[2] The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as “most successful” are liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states.[2] Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of “good governance” to a set of requirements that conform to the organization’s agenda, making “good governance” imply many different things in many different contexts.

    Over the decades, there has been a recurrent and sustained argument that the Nigerian state, like its counterparts in Africa and other countries of the developing world, underperforms due to lack of state capacity1 to deal with the contemporary complexities of governance. The nature of the state, the public institutions through which legitimate power is exercised and enforced, is germane to the study of politics in any state (Smith, 2003, p. 108). Therefore, the issue of state capacity is central to understanding the African socioeconomic malaise. Clapham (2002) draws particular attention to the inherent challenges of state maintenance in weak societies and offers probable explanations to states’ incapacity, especially during the era of globalization. Of greater concern is his identification of structural and contextual variables that enhance the vulnerability of most African states like Nigeria. Bayart (2009) examines the African sociopolitical and economic realities and attributes state’s failures to Africa’s historical heritage: history of weak political leadership, corruption, conflicts, and wars. There is no controversy about the series of symptoms of state failure and state collapse in Africa; the point of debate remains the extent of state’s incapacity displayed by the Nigerian state.

    The “petroleum-rich” Nigerian state, confronted by sociopolitical instability, high degree of corruption, mass hostility to the “public,” and poor macroeconomic management, continue to display the attributes of a state in crisis (Akinola, 2008). Successive governments in Nigeria, like in many African states, lack the political will to initiate or sustain policy or structural transformation, or to embark on sound economic reform to reposition the state for greatness (World Bank, 1997). No matter the upsurge of globalization and the prospects of the borderless state, the expectation is for states to take a decisive role in economic transformation, growth, and development and jettison every act that is inimical to improved livelihood as well as socioeconomic and political development of the country. With the weakness of the Nigerian state and its ineffectiveness, it has become challenging to eradicate impoverishment, engage in infrastructural development, and stem the tides of insurgency and terrorism, which have the potency to derail the country’s moderate political development.

    The article supports the assertion that the critical and central issue of governance, from the utilitarian perspective of British lawyer and political thinker Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) to the African idea of communalism among such others, should be people centered. Deploying, as a launch pad, the well-known African philosophical and sociopolitical thoughts enshrined in Omoluabi, Ujamaa, and Ubuntu, the article addresses how Africa, particularly Nigeria, has missed the “state capacity train” and also how self-interest, as against public interest, has become the dominant ethos in the governance of most African countries. The article further queried, What are the indicators of governance crisis in Nigeria? What are the factors responsible for governance crisis in Nigeria? These are the main questions addressed in the article.

    Without doubt, the Nigerian state stood in between exhibiting attributes of state collapse and state failure. According to Mimiko (2010), the Nigerian state has degenerated to the point where it is unable to provide minimal social security for its vulnerable population. This explains why the mass of the people continues to regard a low pumping price of oil as a social security and birthright. The article takes a holistic approach to understanding the role of successive political leadership in Nigeria and assesses their responses to the pressures and demands for sustainable democracy. The rest of the article is structured into three main sections. These are, namely, conceptual discourse and the state of literature, selected governance issues in Nigeria, and conclusion.

  51. Avatar Onyekwelu Collins Obinna says:

    Name: Onyekwelu Collins Obinna
    Reg No: 2018/251026
    Dept: Economics

    1. The Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were not achieved. The (MDGs) are;

    – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
    – Achieve universal primary education.
    – Promote gender equality and empower women.
    – Reduce child mortality.
    – Improve maternal health.
    – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases.
    – Ensure environmental sustainability.
    – Develop a global partnership for development.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target : Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.
    The world has made considerable progress on Goal 2. Between 2000 and 2012, the total number of out-of-school children worldwide declined from 100 million to 58 million, and the global primary completion rate increased from 81% to 92%. However, 58 million children are still out-of-school. Even when children complete school, they often do so without acquiring basic skills necessary for work and life. Yet, of all the goals, educating children, has the greatest impact on eliminating poverty. Education is a powerful driver of development and one of the strongest instruments for improving health, gender equality, peace, and stability.

    Millennium Development Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. Gender Equality Is Key to Achieving the MDGs
    Empowering women and girls is not only the right thing to do: It’s also smart economics and vital to ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity. For example, an extra year of secondary schooling for girls can increase their future wages by 10 to 20%. And evidence shows that resources in the hands of women boost household spending in areas that benefit children. But despite a range of significant advances, too many women still lack basic freedoms and opportunities and face huge inequalities in the world of work. Discriminatory laws and customs constrain their time and choices, as well as their ability to own or inherit property, open bank accounts, or access inputs such as credit or fertilizer that would boost their productivity.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
    Target: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    Target: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.
    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
    Target: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.
    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.
    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.
    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria.

    Other diseases

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.
    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    Target: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
    In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.
    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
    Target: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries.
    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.
    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

    2. Good governance in Nigeria and other developing countries.

    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Good governance manifesting in areas of rule of law, transparency, accountability, citizens participation among others are sine qua non for national peace and development. However, ‘poverty of leadership’ in most of the Nigeria’s 57 years of existence has not only hindered the nation’s development, but continued to threaten its peace and stability. While it is widely believed that bad governance is prevalent in autocratic and oligarchic systems, it is evident now that bad governance does exist much more in democracies.

    Unarguably, a strong correlation exists among governance, peace, stability and development. Thus, the developmental failure being witnessed in Nigeria is a direct consequence of the pattern of governance offered by the successive nation’s managers. The governance method adopted by the Nigeria’s political leaders negates all known prescriptions of good governance. A critical view of system of governance in Nigeria revealed an aberration of global acceptable governance norms. In other words, governance system in Nigeria is a complete departure from governance indicators.
    The gigantic debt in which the nation finds itself is connected with poor governance. Ordinarily the nation should not have had cause to go about borrowing, given the enormous wealth that is naturally endowed with the country, especially the crude oil. What the nation’s managers have done with the nation wealth could be better understood by the assertion that between 1960 and 1999 the sum of $380 billion had vanished into the pockets of the nation managers. Nigeria is heavily affected by the so-called ‘resource curse’: despite an estimated USD 400 billion in oil income since independence in 1960, the country has experienced a very poor economic development, and it has a population more impoverished now than it was 50 years ago. Thus, it could be rightly deduced that the major bane to the nation’s development is the political and public officers who use public offices not for the services delivery for peoples, but for their selfish interest. Corruption and unethical practices have continued to hinder public officers from meeting up with their responsibilities to the people they always professed they are serving. Corruption impedes economic development, the growth of democratic institutions, and the ability of developing countries to attract foreign investment. The laxity in governance has also culminated into the declining industries. For instance, poor governance resulting in creating hostile business environment have been one the reasons that led to relocation or folding up of businesses in the country.
    In spite of the importance of transparency and accountability to good governance and nation’s development, it has not been given a serious attention it deserves in the country by the successive government. This is because most of the political leaders that have emerged and even the present ones are greedy and self-centred, as a result, they have continued to cost the nation’s its development. Although, steps are being taken to curb corruption and foster transparency in governance. One of such steps is asset declaration by the political officeholders. For instance, the late President, Musa Yar’adua publicly declared his assets along with the Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan in 2007. Their successors President Muhammadu Buhari and Vice-President Yemi Osibajo had also followed suit.
    The nation’s education sectors are not excluded from the effect of poor governance. The educational sectors are suffering from underfunding and poor funding. Many primary and secondary schools in Nigeria are not good shape due to neglect by the successive governments. This has led to the proliferation of private schools that are mainly for profits and thus, run schools as business ventures. In the tertiary institutions, the story is not different. The academic and their non-academic counterparts in the higher institutions, from time to time embark on strike action for reasons related to funding of the institutions and salaries and allowances for the staff. The resultant effect is the continuous falling in the standards of higher education in Nigeria. This was why none of the nation’s universities was listed among the first one thousand university in the world. The first Nigeria’s university listed was the University of Ibadan, the oldest university in Nigeria, which was on number 1032nd in the July edition of the Rankings.

    Another resultant effect of the system of governance on Nigerians is the perceptions of government by the people. Government are seen as an unreliable propagandist which cannot be trusted for its words. People have developed a kind of mistrust in government, as government promises are seen as rhetoric or utopian. People ‘in whom political power reside’ could no longer believe whatever government is saying. They are reneging to participate in political activities especially in voting during elections as there has not being anything to show for their political activities. This, perhaps, accounted for low turnout of voters in many of the recent elections in the country. Government’s ineptitude and lack of concern for the people has culminated in a situation where the people are deprived of social infrastructures and amenities. Where there are claims of the provision of amenities by the government, most of these amenities are either substandard or has already collapsed. Poor governance equally reflects in the area of poor placement of priorities by the government; a situation where leaders prefer to spend public scarce resources on uneconomic projects. These-so-called leaders prefer to embark on such projects that will earn them immediate monetary gains, instead of investing on peoples’ dire-need infrastructures such as schools, hospitals, portable water, and accessible roads. Besides, basic infrastructure such as regular electricity supply is lacking, consequently many production industries are running at a loss. This has led to the closure of businesses in Nigeria, while others have relocated to other nations with relative regular supply of electricity. In addition to the above are poor road networks. Roads construction and maintenance are always budgeted for on yearly basis, but the money budgeted always ends up in public officers’ personal pockets, while roads are only built and maintained on papers. Even, few of the roads being constructed across the nation are substandard, that collapse easily after few months of the completion. It is not news that most of the nation’s highways are death traps. Many of the accidents that have occurred on these roads that have led to loss of peoples’ lives and their properties could have been averted if the roads are well constructed and properly maintained.

  52. Avatar Nelson Favour Ogechukwu says:

    Name: Nelson Favour Ogechukwu
    Reg No: 2018/245389
    Dept: Education Economics
    Email: nelsonfavour38@gmail.com
    Eco.362 (1-2-2022–Online Discussion/Quiz 3—Evaluating the Performance of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Good Governance)

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    Answers
    In my own opinion I think the goals was not achieved with the following reasons:
    The millennium development fail due to lack of clarity over job responsibilities at different levels because no institution claimed ownership of the programmes rather each federating unit had to devise it’s own policies in the absence of any benchmark of standard and there was no system of operation after the implementation of the policies.
    Pakistan was still lagging far behind other countries that had similar levels of income or had started with similar set targets.
    Women’s Empowerment and their socio-economic status-prerequisites for social development also affect the progress of the MDGs.
    Women in Pakistan lack sufficient knowledge about healthcare. The lack of policymakers’ oversight, the dearth of education and awareness among citizens, particularly among women, and limited research and development have aggravated the situation.

    Weak governance and mismanagement remain key concerns at all levels. The lack of a transparent performance-assessment system, limited efforts to harness the potential of the private sector and the weak regulation of healthcare delivery also contributed to the slow progress of the MDGs.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Answer
    Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance because they lack the attributes of a good governance. Take for instance in:
    Transparency- They don’t make known to the people what they ought to know and they don’t rule in open door policy.
    Concensus oriented- They sometimes don’t take the view of the people into consideration before making decisions.
    Accountability- They are not accountable to the general public.

  53. Avatar Ibenyenwa Justice Junior says:

    2018/245647
    Economics
    1; My answer is yes, and below is why
    The MDGs were revolutionary in providing a common language to reach global agreement. The 8 goals were realistic and easy to communicate, with a clear measurement/monitoring mechanism.
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.
    Below are how most of the goals of MDG were achieved.
    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.
    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.
    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.
    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.
    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.
    Tuberculosis
    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).
    Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.
    Other diseases
    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.
    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.
    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.
    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development

    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries
    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.
    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.
    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.
    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.
    2; The major cause of bad governance in Nigeria and most developing nations is corruption. The average man in a developing nation is struggling to make ends meet and is always thinking about ways of making money. When he is now given power no matter how little, that same mentality will be stuck with him and he will do all in his power to accumulate much wealth because of the constant fear of going back to poverty. This will now move him to embezzle funds meant for the development of the country and this will lead to making a lot of money which he will not be able to finish in his life time.
    Just like the question says “many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance” is true because, the next person who will be elected to replace the former corrupt leader/government already has the mentality of “I will also eat the national cake” which means that he is also going to loot funds from the national purse.
    In conclusion, I will say that so long as man is still ruling man, there will not be an end to corruption/bad governance, it is only God’s kingdom that can bring about good governance to humanity.

  54. Avatar Aroh oluchukwu perpetua says:

    Name:Aroh oluchukwu perpetua
    Reg no:2018/243120
    Course:Eco 362
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    Yes some were and no some weren’t achieved,
    reason,
    The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets; the table below summarizes the track-record of the 14 Targets which can be assessed quantitatively – some are those which the world has achieved and some where were the world fell short.

    Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1.A – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty – is a particularly important one and while most people are not aware of it, the world has actually achieved this goal. The achievement of MDG 3 meant that the gender disparity in education was closed at the global level. And MDG Target 6.C on malaria and tuberculosis was achieved as the world was able to reduce the global rate of new infections. For MDG 7 the world achieved half of this goal – while the goal for sanitation was missed, the world did reach the goal on providing access to safe drinking water.
    What is clear however, is that most of the UN’s development goals were missed. 12 of the targets are shown

    The degree to which they were missed varies between several near misses and a few very clear and alarming failures. The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“. While there were certainly some important successes – very positive trends in the decline of substances which deplete the ozone layer for example –, the global evidence shows that most environmental indicators regressed; global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased approximately 50%; global forest area continued its decline; overexploitation of fish stocks increased; and the Red List Index concluded that “a substantial proportion of species in all taxonomic groups examined to date are declining overall in population and distribution”.

    On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.
    Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Some of the countries are developed cause of good governance
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”. Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    Then Nigeria and some other developing countries are still underdeveloped or developed cause of bad governance that causes
    Poor Economic Growth
    Bad governance heavily impacts the per capita growth of a country.African countries has experienced this impact the most since World War II. The economic growth of a country is significantly impacted when exposed to indicators of bad governance but difference indicators influence the degree of impact. A lack in regulatory quality, governments ineffectiveness and a lack of control on corruption have been linked to poor economic growth.

    Corruption
    Corruption not only is a cause of but can also occur as a consequence of bad governance. There was a distinct link suggested that that higher levels of governance and a better environment to conduct business are impacted by the presence of corruption within an economy. This link suggests that has levels of governance in an economy due to bad governance, the levels of perceived corruption will rise.

    Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability
    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body.Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.

    Political Instability
    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

  55. Avatar ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA. REG NO: 2018/248582 says:

    Odoh, Victor Chukwuemeka
    2018/248582
    Eco 362

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    Answer
    In my opinion, I will will take NO as my answer.
    This is because in so many society, or nations of the developing states, poverty level is still on the rise and still growing. The standard of live is still very poor, the environment is still not sustainable and coming to globalization, to some developing nations, their state have been used as a dumping ground for the advanced nations.
    Elaborating these above points one after the other;
    When I say that poverty level is still on the rise, I mean that the total population of those who are poor are still out numbering those who are on the average. Taking Nigeria for instance, we can see that in the northern part of the country, there are uncountable number of people who are very poor… Those who live on below $1 per day
    The poor standard of living in developing nation in the sense that the people don’t have access to good infrastructural facilities.
    Coming to our environment, we will see that its a disaster as companies now engage in littering the environment, contaminating the atmosphere with carbon dioxide which make the environment unhealthy for the people to live in. Taking for example, I will be emphasizing on the Niger Delta region, Bayelsa to be precise. The environmental pollution in Bayelsa have become so bad that there exist on drinkable water producing company in the state instead all the the water sold in the state is imported from other state which is bad.
    Lastly, globalization… So many developed nations now use the developing nations as their dumping ground. Good and services that do not meet the standard of other developed nations will be channeled to the developing nations and until these whole negative forces is tackled, globalization goal by the MDGs is not achieve.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Answer
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”. Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as “most successful” are liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of “good governance” to a set of requirements that conform to the organization’s agenda, making “good governance” imply many different things in many different contexts. The opposite of good governance, as a concept, is bad governance.

  56. Avatar Chime Doris chinenye says:

    Chime doris chinenye
    2018/250191
    Economics major

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    Yes some of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were achieved

    At least 21 million extra lives were saved due to accelerated progress
    Our results show that the clearest victories during the MDG era were in matters of life and death. We calculate the number of lives saved beyond “business-as-usual” pre-MDG trends on child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/Aids, and tuberculosis. We also look at malaria, which is predominantly a subset of child mortality. These indicators show evidence of major accelerations in rates of progress during the 2000s, with the exception of maternal mortality, which experienced more modest acceleration. The upshot is that somewhere between 21-29 million more people are alive today than would have been the case if countries had continued their pre-MDG rates of progress. (The range depends mainly on whether we use child mortality trends from 1990-2000 or 1996-2001 as the pre-MDG reference period.)

    two-thirds of the lives saved were in sub-Saharan Africa, around a fifth were in China and India, and the remainder were in the rest of the developing world. Between 8.8 to 17.3 million of the lives were saved due to faster progress on child mortality; 8.7 million due to expanded treatment for HIV/Aids, 3.1 million due to declines in TB deaths, and approximately half a million due to improvements in maternal mortality.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Good governance manifesting in areas of rule of law, transparency, accountability, citizens participation among others are sine qua non for national peace and development. However, ‘poverty of leadership’ in most of the Nigeria’s 57 years of existence has not only hindered the nation’s development, but continued to threaten its peace and stability. While it is widely believed that bad governance is prevalent in autocratic and oligarchic systems, it is evident now that bad governance does exist much more in democracies. Therefore, the study analysed the twin concepts of governance and good governance; assessed the nature of governance offered by the nation’s leaders; and its effects on the national peace and development. Using secondary data, the study revealed that, unethical practices, arbitrary rule and corruption which pervade public offices are products of bad governance. The study further revealed that, bad governance in Nigeria has brought about unemployment, poverty, crimes, internal violence, insurgents activities, diseases, loss of lives and properties, and underdevelopment of the country. The study concluded that until proactive steps are taken for the enthronement of good governance, peace, stability as well as development will continue to elude the nation, beyond this, the corporate existence of the nation remains threatened.

    Transparency and accountability remain requisite for the nation’s development. This is because they provide the basis for ‘good’ policies formulation and implementation; emphasise the strategies for economic growth and development; and enhance efficient management of resources for the nation’s sustenance and general development. Transparency in public offices means openness in governance, where the ruled can trust the rulers and be able to predict the rulers to some extent. Transparent governance could be said to be existing when the ruled have a very clear idea of what their government is doing. Transparent governance allows for transparent decisions and implementation; as well as enhances decisions made to be understood by those whom the decisions are binding on. It also enhances the decisions taken to be enforced in a manner that follows rules and regulations. Transparency brings about openness in governance and administration, and allows free flow of information on the nation’s economic matters, such that the citizens are briefed from time to time about precise information on nation’s state of economy. Put differently, transparent governance provides a forum whereby fiscal (monetary) operations and activities of government are reported to the public with absolute sincerity. Through open operation of activities, government can secure the trust and confidence of the people in whom sovereignty lies. Accountability, on the other hand, means ‘responsibility’ and ‘answerability’, where public officers are expected to perform their constitutional duties for the benefit of all the citizenry freely without discrimination. Accountability is about holding public officers accountable for their actions and inactions either while in the office or after leaving the office. Accountability enforces on public officers to give accounts of their stewardship and being held responsible for mistake(s) committed while performing their duties as public officers. Accountability has to do with maintaining honesty and probity in governmental businesses. Accountability reflects the need for government and its representatives to serve the public effectively and diligently.

  57. Avatar Kalu Ezinne obiwe says:

    NAME: KALU EZINNE OBIWE
    REG NO: 2018/247194
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    COURSE TITLE: ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT 2
    DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (education economics)
    EMAIL: kaluezinne007@gmail.com
    Assignment
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Answer to number one question
    These goals were not achieved as a result of week governance and missmanagement.
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – an idea of the UN – proved to be a historical moment for international development in 2000. Once the proposition received a positive response, 189 countries signed a pact – The Millennium Declaration. In 2000, the MDGs were implemented in Pakistan to address the issue of extreme poverty and to provide the basic human rights of health, education and security. While the country made some progress in the health sector as shown by its health indicators, Pakistan was still lagging far behind other countries that had similar levels of income or had started with similar set targets. In order to further improve its service delivery in key areas of healthcare, the government implemented special programmes like the Lady Health Worker Programme (LHW), the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI), the National Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Programme (MNCH), Programme for HIV/AIDS Control and Programme for Malaria Control. However, the country has failed to meet its health-related MDGs. The health sector and reforms in Pakistan have suffered many snags due to changing administrative mechanisms and financial arrangements made during the devolution period. The process of reforms had started from the city district government plan of 2001 but once the devolution process started in 2010, the arena of health was partially handed over to the provincial government in 2011.
    According to the World Bank, the annual population growth rate in Pakistan is 2.1 percent. This rapid rise in population has undermined most of the health development initiatives because the plans and resources set forth are on the basis of an estimated number of people and do not take into account the resource-to-population growth ratio. Moreover, limited resources, coupled with the fast and haphazard pace of urbanisation and the subsequent environmental degradation has created difficulties in the development of planning and healthcare service delivery.
    Women’s empowerment and their socio-economic status – prerequisites for social development – also affect the progress of the MDGs. Women in Pakistan lack sufficient knowledge about healthcare. The lack of policymakers’ oversight, the dearth of education and awareness among citizens, particularly among women, and limited research and development have aggravated the situation.
    Weak governance and mismanagement remain key concerns at all levels. The lack of a transparent performance-assessment system, limited efforts to harness the potential of the private sector and the weak regulation of healthcare delivery also contributed to the slow progress of the MDGs. The year 2015 marked the completion of the monitoring period for the MDGs which are now replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In February 2015, the Nigerian government and that of Pakistan adopted the SDGs through a unanimous parliamentary resolution. This strategic shift put considerable responsibility on the government and its development partners to address the unmet agenda of the MDGs while initiating the SDGs through development cooperation for strengthening public institutions, social policies and planning development programmes. It is evident that improving the health of the population – which in turn enhances physical work capacity and cognitive development – contributes to productivity, economic development and poverty reduction. Since the population of Pakistan is unhealthy, there is a dire need to take a holistic approach to address the issue. Following the process of prioritisation, limited capacities and resources when well-directed can produce the required results. The country needs to pay close attention to setting clear targets and following through with them when chalking out the health policy and working on its implementation.
    Answer to number 2 Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Some scholars have argued that the enhanced performance of governmental agencies in any nation is a product of good governance, accountability, transparency and trust, which in turn brings about the improvement in the living standard of the people. The implication of this position is that where good governance is absent, accountability of governmental agencies and development in such a society is likely to be affected negatively. With the analysis of secondary data, the paper examines the challenges of good governance, accountability of governmental agencies and development in Nigeria. It observes the manifestation of unethical behaviour amongst public officials as the major challenge hindering development in the country. It therefore recommend among others the need for the government to strengthen the existing anti-corruption agencies to enable them enforce proper ethical standard.
    Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance as a result of the following;
    1. Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability
    Governing bodies refusing to listen to the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body. Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure that the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.
    2. Political Instability
    Bad Governance occurs as a result of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.
    3. Corruption
    Bad Governance, is often considered to come hand in hand with corruption. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments. Corruption can occur in different ways and forms. The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.

  58. Avatar ISAAC BRIGHT CHISOM 2018/246602 says:

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    Millennium Development Goals or goals encompassed development in a broad sense, from increasing economic welfare of the poorest, to health and education, to humanity impact on the environment. The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets.
    Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1.A – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty , MDG 3 gender disparity in education was closed at the global level. And MDG Target 6.C on malaria and tuberculosis was achieved as the world was able to reduce the global rate of new infections. For MDG 7 the world achieved half of this goal – while the goal for sanitation was missed, the world did reach the goal on providing access to safe drinking water.The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“.
    On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Over the decades, there has been a recurrent and sustained argument that the Nigerian state, like its counterparts in Africa and other countries of the developing world, underperforms due to lack of state capacity to deal with the contemporary complexities of governance. Successive governments in Nigeria, like in many African states, lack the political will to initiate or sustain policy or structural transformation, or to embark on sound economic reform to reposition the state for greatness.
    Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed. Governance and political leadership in Nigeria and many developing countries have been driven by self-interest and other primordial considerations, which take priority over that of the public.

  59. Avatar Okonkwo chinaza favour says:

    NAME : OKONKWO CHINAZA FAVOUR
    REG NO: 2018/242315
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ANSWER 1
    The millennium development goals which comprises of 8 goals,18 targets and 40 indicators was initiated in the year 1990 and it seek to reduce hunger and extreme poverty, achieve universal basic education, promote gender equality and empower women,reduce child mortality and improve maternal health, combat HIV/aids and other diseases, ensure environment sustainability and develop a global partnership was able to achieve the following;
    A) Reduction in the proportion of underweight children in developing countries from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. Though the improvements was unevenly distributed between and with different regions.
    B) Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5years. In 2013, 6.3m children under 5 died compared with 12.7m in 1990, a decrease of 49%. Despite these improvements, the MDGs Target of 2/3 reduction was not achieved by 2015.
    C) Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal death from an estimated 52300 to 289000 in 1990 and 2013 respectively. The rate of decline was less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDGs Target of a 3/4 reduction in the maternal death between 1990 and 2015.
    D) Globally, the MDGs Target of halting malaria by 2015 have been achieved according to studies.
    There is also decrease in the number of those infected with HIV/aids along side with the increased availability of antiretroviral therapy.
    E) The MDGs was not able to achieve an even progress across different regions especially developing nation’s in getting access to safe drinking water and with regards to basic sanitation, rates of progress was too slow for this MDGS target to be met globally. There is an increase in the number of people living in the urban areas without access to improved sanitation.
    The level of achievement by some of the MDGs was significant and different across and between regions and countries. But studies have shown that MDGs was not able to achieve all it’s goals and targets.

    ANSWER 2
    Governance according to world bank is the system through which power is exercised in the management of a country’s political,economic and social resources for development.
    Good governance ( UNDP 2002) is about striving for the rule of law , transparency, accountability, equity, effectiveness/ efficiency and strategic vision in the exercise of political, economic, administrative authority. Good governance manifesting in the above mentioned is the sine quo non for national peace and development.
    Nigeria is engraved with high rate of corruption, nepotism, favouritism, tribalism,debt, poor infrastructures. This is due to the pattern of governance offered by successive government which negates all the known prescriptions of good governance. Nigeria has experienced a very poor economic development. The major bane as deduced to nation’s level is the political and public officers who use public offices not for the service delivery for the people but for their selfish interest.
    The laxity in governance has also culminated into the declining industries, creating a hostile business environment causing businesses to relocate or even fold and this has led to the increasing rate of unemployment and underemployment. And this is detrimental to the national peace and stability as crime rate increase rapidly.
    There are decrease in social infrastructures and amenities and the ones provided are substandard.
    This poor governance is also evident in the poor placement of priorities by the government; a situation where leaders prefer to spend public resources on uneconomic projects rather than spending in economic growth and development.

    WAY FORWARD
    The practice of good governance which reflect in the areas of rule of law, transparency, accountability, citizen’s participation will guarantees national peace, stability and development in Nigeria and as such should be enthroned.

  60. Avatar CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM says:

    Name- CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    Reg no – 2018/250055
    DEPARTMENT – EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    Email – chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    ANSWERS
    NO (1)
    Yes, to some extent
    Reasons:
    though Nigeria missed out in some set goals, the country has made some remarkable achievement in the area of gender equality, school enrollment, poverty reduction, maternal and mortality rate reduction among others.
    Nigeria has made appreciable progress in the attainment of MDGs in the last 14 years, particularly, in the area of universal primary education enrolment; achieving gender parity in education; reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS; reducing maternal deaths,
    MDG 1: Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger
    Nigeria made notable progress in this goal and particularly in the fight against hunger, but generally missed meeting the targets of most of the indicators. The strong progress under this goal can be seen in the persistent reduction in poverty prevalence in recent years. Although poverty prevalence fluctuated, it declined from 65.6% in 1996 to 45.5% in 2010; short of target (21.4%) by 24.1%. However, the World Bank’s most recent estimates of poverty incidences in Nigeria indicate it at the lower of 33.1% in 2012/2013; a figure much closer to the target. One
    major challenge to effective poverty reduction in the country is the very limited reduction effect of economic growth. Thus, whereas the country recorded largely impressive growth rates in the 2000s decade and in more recent times, this was not entirely inclusive and neither did it reduce poverty or even generate employment.

    MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education

    The net enrolment in basic education (as domesticated in Nigeria to mean six years of primary schooling and three years of junior secondary education) has had a fluctuating history of an upward trend to the mid-point assessment year .The literacy rate trended marginally upwards in most of the years from 64% in 2000 to 66.7% in 2014.

    MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

    The pursuit of gender parity in basic education in Nigeria has witnessed strong progress when seen against the prevailing patriarchal culture and practices in most parts of the country. There has been a steady increase in the ratio of girls to boys in basic education in Nigeria with the end-point status of 94% in 2013 being a significant achievement compared to the 82% achieved in 1991.

    MDG 4: Reduce child mortality

    Nigeria’s efforts aimed at reducing avoidable child deaths have been met with gradual and sustained progress. The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) has improved remarkably from 191 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 89 deaths per 1000 live births in 2014 as the end-point status. Considering the end-point status of U5MR, Nigeria falls short of the 2015 target of 64 deaths per 1000 live births by 28 %The immunization effort against measles has been relatively effective. It has resulted in significant reductions in case burden as a result of the scale up of the administration of measles vaccination to children 9 months and older through routine immunization services led by the National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA).

    MDG 5 Improve maternal health

    The drive to make progress on this goal has seen improvements in maternal health. With a baseline figure of 1000 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990, the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) consistently decreased over the years to 545 in 2008. The downward trend continued to 350 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2012 and subsequently to its end-point status of 243 per 100,000 live births in 2014. Many policy drivers made the progress possible; one being the Midwives Service Scheme while the other was the collaborative efforts made between donors and the Federal Ministry of Health and its parastatals.

    MDG 6: Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases

    The prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15–24 years has steadily declined from 5.4% in 2000 to 4.1% in 2010 (end-point status). The decline resulted from the implementation of tested high impact interventions implying the need for consistent implementation of such high impact interventions in the sector.With respect to the incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people, the efforts have not produced appreciable results. In the past 7 years, the value for this indicator has fluctuated between 343.00 in 2005 and 339.00 in 2012. The end-point status of the incidence of tuberculosis in Nigeria was 338 as of 2013. This latest figure is still unacceptable and calls for renewed efforts, more resources and interventions in order to drastically reduce the prevalence of tuberculosis

    MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

    Nigeria has made appreciable progress in improving households’ access to safe drinking water with an end-point status in 2015 at 67.0% access. The country is also deemed to have done well on this indicator from the statistics of the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) / United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) indicating the recorded end-point status of 69% in 2015.

    MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for Development

    Nigeria has performed better on this goal as compared to the others. There has been a rising trend in per capita Official Development Assistance (ODA) with potential impact felt in infrastructure and human development. The appreciable decline in debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services is attributed to the debt relief granted in 2005.

    NO (2)

    In this regard, Babawale (2007) sees good governance as the exercise of political power to promote the public good and the welfare of the people. He argues that good governance is the absence of lack of accountability in government, corruption, and political repression, suffocation of civil society and denial of fundamental human rights. He points out the attribute of good governance in any society to include: accountability, transparency in government procedures, high expectation of rational decisions, predictability in government behaviour, openness in government transactions, free flow of information, respect for the rule of law and protection of civil liberties, and press freedom.
    governance includes how governments are selected, held accountable, monitored and replaced with an emphasis on the capacity of government to manage resources and respect the rule of law (World Bank, 2004; Boyte, 2005). Therefore, the word ‘good’ in governance connotes the proper exercise of authority, management of resources and respect for the rule of law in accordance to laid-down principles for the benefit of all in a society.
    Scholars have argued that good governance in any nation is the relative absence of corrupt practices in all its ramifications (Ikotun, 2004; Babawale, 2007; TAFGN, 2011-2015). The implication of this position is that in a nation where corruption has almost become the norm, such a nation cannot claim to experience good governance. One of the reasons attributable to the unethical practice of corruption in a nation is that of weak leadership and lack of accountability of public officials. Commenting on the state of corruption in Nigeria, Ikotun (2004), points out that corruption has been converted into statecraft in Nigeria because there has been a failure of leadership and accountability in government. In this regard, Cohen (2008) argues that:

    To create the conditions for good governance and fight corruption…a whole array of institutions has to be strengthened within each country…that core strategy is the one that requires much more than declarative intent. It requires a major shift that recognizes as necessary stakeholders in the efforts to achieve good governance and to win the fight against institutionally embedded corruption
    SOME OF THE REASONS WHY NIGERIA AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ARE FAR IN THEIR QUEST FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE INClUDES:
    *Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability:
    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body.Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.
    *Political Instability:
    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

    *Corruption:
    Bad Governance, is often considered to come hand in hand with corruption. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments.[citation needed] Corruption can occur in many different ways and forms.The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.

  61. Avatar Ocheme Christiana Ene 2018/249273 says:

    1. No, these goals were not fully achieved
    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.

    Progress report on the health-related MDGs
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.

    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.

    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.

    2.

  62. Avatar CHUKWUDUBEM CHINEMEREM PEACE says:

    NAME: Chukwudubem chinemerem peace
    REG NO:2018/245426
    DEPT: Education/Economics
    EMAIL: chukwudubemchinemerem459@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT
    1. The Millennium Development Goals were achieved to an extent for instance
    In one particular area of strength, Nigeria was able to reduce hunger by 66% in 2012 (three years in advance) and this earned her international recognition in 2013 from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).
    Achieve universal primary education in Nigeria for example free education was provided for children from primary to junior secondary class in order to make sure that this goal was achieved.
    Goal 3 which states that promote gender equality and empower women was achieved.
    Reason for saying so is that nowadays women are given the opportunity to participate in politics.
    The ratio of women who are educated in this present world is far more higher than the ratio of men that are educated.
    Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    The prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15–24 years has steadily declined from 5.4% in 2000 to 4.1% in 2010 (end-point status). The decline resulted from the implementation of tested high impact interventions implying the need for consistent implementation of such high impact interventions in the sector.
    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss.
    There are several qualities of good governance which include
    A. Rule of law this has to do with a fair legal framework that is impartial and guides the actions and inaction of the people i.e supremacy of the law and respect for fundamental human rights
    B. Accountability whereby the government and other civil society must be accountable to the public.
    C. Participation, the people should be able to participate directly or indirectly in the decision making and implementation process through representative or legal means.
    D. Equity and inclusiveness. The people must be made to believe that they are stakeholders.
    There are challenges to good governance
    A. Criminalization of politics: Majority of those in politics are facing one or more criminal charges in different court. When such persons are in office, politics will be seen as a place for criminals.
    B. Corruption: This is a major obstacle in improving the quality of governance because it does not allow the right thing to be done. It arises as a result of greed.
    C. Gender inequality and discrimination: We cannot talk of good governance when women are not included in the decision making process.
    D. Growing incidence of violence: We cannot talk of good governance when: All the resources of such country will be directed to the maintenance of law and order.

  63. Avatar ONWE, IRENE EBERE says:

    NAME: ONWE, IRENE EBERE
    REG NO: 2018/242201
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: onwe.irene.242201@unn.edu.ng
    1. In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    ANSWER:
    Ans no 1. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been met to an extent, some goals have been achieved while some others are still yet to be achieved, in this study we will talk about these goals, how far they’ve been achieved. The MDGs are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today’s political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted.
    The most recent UN report on progress towards the MDGs has highlighted several achievements in all health and education areas: the hunger reduction goal is on track; the target of decreasing extreme poverty by half has been met, as well as the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack steady access to drinking water; conditions for more than 200 million people living in favelas have been improved; significant achievements have been made in the fight against communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis and child and maternal mortality have been reduced. Moreover, primary school admission of girls has equalled that of boys and developing countries experienced a reduced debt burden and an improved climate for trade.
    However, progress has been highly unequal. The reduction in global income poverty is mainly due to the rapid growth of a few countries in Asia, such as China, India, Indonesia and Vietnam. In many other countries, poverty reduction has been quite slow, or poverty has even increased (8). Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most underdeveloped region (8). Projections indicate that in 2015 more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unsafe water sources, almost 1 billion will be living in very poor conditions, mothers will continue to die giving birth, and children will die from preventable diseases. Also, environmental sustainability remains a global challenge due to a fast decline of biodiversity and an increase in gas emissions. The goals of primary education and gender equality also remain unfulfilled, with broad negative consequences, given that achieving the MDGs deeply relies on education and women’s empowerment. Moreover, there are severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between rural and urban areas, or that affect marginalized people (20, 21). MDG8 remains one of the most challenging even if of primary importance for the achievement of all MDGs (8).

    The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.

    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been uneven.”

    It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.

    So which goals were met and which fell short? Below, we’ll broadly examine what has been achieved for the main targets within the eight goals using information from The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.

    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.

    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.

    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.

    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality

    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.

    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.

    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health

    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.

    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases

    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.

    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent

    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably

    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.

    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    Ans no 2.
    The role of governance in the polity of a state cannot be over emphasized. It is instructive to note that the growth and development of a state is contingent upon the manner in which the government of the state sets the platform for effective and proper discharge of authority and control. The issue of good governance is a phenomenon that has stunted the growth of many nations of the world with reference to Africa and Nigeria in particular. Nigeria, since independence in 1960, has battled with the issue of good, credible and accountable government in the country. The search for good governance seems to be Nigeria’s most urgent need at this time in her history. Most Nigerians believe strongly that the factor that had crippled the country’s progress in virtually every field of human endeavour is poor leadership and bad governance (Nnamdi, 2009). Politicians who form the government with no developmental plans; and even the ‘party manifesto’ they sold to the electorates during the electioneering campaign are most often not fulfilled. Sadly, the manifestos of most political parties in the country are not ideologically driven. Rather, political actors see their involvement in politics as a means for primitively accumulating wealth. While some view it as a means of investment through the sponsorship of candidates (godfathers) for elections so that when their candidates win, they would recoup a million fold what they spent to get their godsons into office. This has greatly diverted the attention of political office holders from the primary objectives of improving the general welfare of the state to settling political scores with godfathers. Ironically, the government of the United States of America has called on Nigeria to help strengthen good governance in Africa; a subject of perception she (Nigeria) is yet to achieve.
    Good governance is integral to economic growth, the eradication of poverty and hunger, and sustainable development. The views of all oppressed groups, including women, youth and the poor, must be heard and considered by the governing bodies because they will be the ones most negatively affected if good governance is not achieved. The level of underdevelopment in Nigeria today is largely adduced to bad governance in the country. In the recent past, it was believed that bad governance in Nigeria was associated with the several years of military rule. But since the transition to democratic rule, there has hardly been any significant improvement in terms of good governance in Nigeria. There is no access to basic infrastructural facilities, public health care, potable water etc. There is a high rate of unemployment, inflation is on the rise and poverty is ravaging the system. The United Nations defined poverty as a situation whereby an individual is forced by circumstances to exist on less than one U.S dollar per day (Igbafe, 2007). The United Nations statistics show that over 100 million Nigerians live in abject poverty. This represents over 67% of the entire population. Also, according to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Nigeria occupies the 153rd position out of 186 under the Human Development Index. All of these trends and more are attributed to bad governance in Nigeria.
    The government in its pursuit for the attainment of good governance in Nigeria has a lot to do to gain the trust of the citizens it governs. This is because the people do not feel the impact of the government in their lives, because the policies of the government are geared towards the elites and famous, the politician and those in positions of power. The masses do not benefit from the policies because they are of the opinion that government makes policies for their selfish gain/interest. The government should create proper awareness for the people because majority of them are not aware of the programmes carried out by the government (for instance, most of the respondents are not aware of the immunity clause for political holders in Nigeria). The Nigerian government should get the people more involved in the affairs of the country so they will have a sense of belonging. Furthermore, it is clear from this study that the citizens of Nigerians have lost hope in the government and do not believe in the attainment of good governance in Nigeria except certain conditions are achieved. One of the conditions is the eradication of corruption. Corruption is the greatest enemy of progress. For a society to progress it must be wiped clean from all elements of corruption. Therefore, before Nigeria can dream of attaining good governance the bad eggs in the government must be wiped out.

  64. Avatar Onyewuchi Gift Chinweotito says:

    1.

    No, the goals were not fully achieved. A brief run down would show this.

    Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013.
    In developing countries, the percentage of underweight children under 5 years old dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013.
    Globally, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013.
    Existing cases of tuberculosis are declining, along with deaths among HIV-negative tuberculosis cases.
    In 2010, the world met the United Nations Millennium Development Goals target on access to safe drinking-water, as measured by the proxy indicator of access to improved drinking-water sources, but more needs to be done to achieve the sanitation target.
    The MDGs have been superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.

    Progress report on the health-related MDGs
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.

    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.

    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.

    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.

    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.

    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    Malaria
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa.

    During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively.

    The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.

    Tuberculosis
    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people).

    Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.

    Other diseases
    MDG Target 6.C also includes neglected tropical diseases – a medically diverse group of infectious conditions caused by a variety of pathogens.

    In 2013 only 6314 cases of human African trypanosomiasis were reported, representing the lowest levels of recorded cases in 50 years. This disease is now targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. Dracunculiasis is also on the verge of eradication with an historic low of 126 cases reported in 2014 and an ongoing WHO target of interrupting its transmission by the end of 2015.

    Plans to eliminate leprosy as a public health problem worldwide by 2020 have also been prepared and are being implemented. The elimination of visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent by 2020 is on track with a greater than 75% reduction in incident cases recorded since the launch of the programme in 2005. In the case of lymphatic filariasis, more than 5 billion treatments have been delivered since 2000 to stop its spread and of the 73 known endemic countries 39 are on track to achieve its elimination as a public health problem by 2020.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.

    With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development
    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries
    Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

  65. Avatar Ezema Samuel Nnamdi says:

    Ezema Samuel Nnamdi
    REG.NO. 2018/249458
    No.1 Answer.
    The various levels at which the goals were achieved are as following.
    Making Strides in Eradicating Poverty and Hunger
    A meaningful path out of poverty requires a strong economy that produces jobs and good wages; a government that can provide schools, hospitals, roads, and energy; and healthy, well-nourished children who are the future human capital that will fuel economic growth. Between 2003 and 2013, the Bank Group supported basic nutrition services for more than 211 million pregnant women, nursing mothers, adolescent girls, and children under 5.  The Bank Group’s fund for the poorest countries –the International Development Association (IDA) – committed a record $22.2 billion in fiscal year 2014 to promote economic growth, increase shared prosperity, and fight extreme poverty.

    Some of the MDG 1 Results
    Kenya: Supported 245,000 orphans and vulnerable children living in extreme poverty (as of 2011) through a safety net program covering 83,000 households.
    Lao PDR: Provided better access to roads, primary education, clean water, and health care for 650,000 people from the poorest rural and remote communities through the Poverty Reduction Fund established in 2003.
    Moldova: Empowered 932,000 people (more than one-quarter of the country’s population) through a social investment fund, from 1998 to 2011, to manage their own development needs.
    Nepal: Reduced by 50% the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day from 2003 to 2011.
    Peru: Aided efforts to reduce stunting in children by 8.3%, from 27.8% in 2007/8 to 19.5% in 2011 — among the fastest rates of reduction seen for stunting globally.
    Senegal: Improved food security for 1.3 million children under 5 through a community nutrition program. In addition, almost 300,000 primary school children received weekly micronutrients supplements and deworming medication.
    How’s the World Doing?
    54%
    of developing countries have met or are on track to meet the goal of cutting extreme poverty in half.
    700 million
    fewer people lived in extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990.
    29%
    of countries have halved child malnutrition or are on track.
    1.2
    billion people around the world still live in extreme poverty.

    •2. Making Strides in Education
    The World Bank supports education through an average of $2.8 billion a year in new financing for the poorest countries as well as for middle-income countries. Support for primary education has been a priority over the past decade for the International Development Association (IDA), the Bank’s fund for the poorest countries. IDA integrates education into national economic strategies, and creates education systems that empower children to become productive citizens.
    Some of the MDG 2 Results
    With IDA’s help, countries recruited or trained more than 3.5 million additional teachers from 2002-2012, and built or renovated more than 2 million classrooms for 105 million children, and purchased or distributed about 300 million textbooks from 2000-2010.

    Afghanistan: 2.7 million girls were enrolled in school in 2012, up from 191,000 in 2002; nearly 140,000 teachers have been trained, of which 39,000 are women.
    Bangladesh: Between 2004 and the end of 2012, “second chance” primary education was provided for more than 790,000 out of school children (more than half of them girls) from the 90 poorest sub-districts of the country.
    Chad: Between 2003 and 2012, 2.6 million books were distributed to schools, 400 classrooms were built and equipped, 20,000 people were taught to read and write, and 11,700 community teachers were trained.
    How’s the World Doing?
    91%
    rate of primary school enrollment in developing regions.
    58
    million children of primary school age remained out of school, as of 2012.
    2 million
    decline in the number of out-of-school children, between 2007 and 2012.
    100
    ratio between enrollment rate of girls, and that of boys, for all developing regions, in 2012.

    •3.Two-thirds of the Bank’s partner countries have now reached gender parity in primary education, and girls significantly outnumber boys in secondary education in more than one-third of those countries. IDA investments and collaboration with governments have enabled women to access land and secure tenure rights.

    Some of the MDG 3 Results
    IDA is helping to achieve MDG 3 by investing in girls’ education. Gender parity in primary schools in countries supported by IDA increased from 91 to 96 girls for every 100 boys enrolled between 2000 and 2010.

    Afghanistan: 2.7 million girls were enrolled in schools in 2012, up from 191,000 in 2002.
    Benin: 60% of pregnant women slept under bed nets in 2010, up from 20% in 2006.
    Kyrgyz Republic: Close to 1 million women and girls benefited from community-based micro-enterprises and improved local government between 2007 and 2010.

    •4. Making Strides in Child Survival
    Investment in reducing child mortality by the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s fund for the poorest countries, resulted in nearly 600 million children being immunized from 2003 to 2013.
    Some of the MDG 4 Results
    With IDA’s help, between 2003 and 2013, more than 117  million people gained access to essential health services;  nearly 195 million pregnant women received antenatal care; and nearly 150 million mosquito nets were purchased and/or distributed in the poorest countries.

    Afghanistan: Under-5 mortality dropped from 257 per 1,000 live births in 2002 to 97 per 1,000 in 2012. Full immunization coverage in rural areas tripled from 11% in 2003 to 30% in 2010/11.
    Burkina Faso: 100% of children have had access to free vaccinations since 2002, and all women became eligible for free prenatal care in 2003.
    Ghana: Under-5 mortality rates fell to 80 per 1,000 live births in 2008 from 111 in 2003, due to improved maternal and child health care; immunization coverage improved to 79% in 2008 from 69% in 2003.
    How’s the World Doing?
    14,000
    fewer under-5 children died each day from diseases such as diarrhea, malnutrition, pneumonia, AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in 2011 than in 1990.
    1 in 9
    children die before the age of 5 in sub-Saharan Africa.
    65%
    of all countries are not on track to meet MDG 4 by 2015.
    3 million
    newborn infants die each year, most due to preventable or treatable causes.

    •5. Making Strides in Maternal Health
    As a result of support for the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s fund for the poorest countries, from 2003 to 2013 more than 117 million people gained access to essential health, nutrition, or maternal and child services.

    Some of the MDG 5 Results
    Between 2003 and 2013, more than 117 million people in the poorest countries gained access to essential health services; 195 million pregnant women received antenatal care, and more than 30 million births were attended by skilled health personnel. Countries have also reported impressive results:

    Burundi: 25% more women gave birth at health facilities in 2011 than in 2010; prenatal consultations rose by 20% during the same period.
    Guinea: 95% of pregnant women in 2012 received prenatal care from a health care provider, up from 83% in 2011.
    Lao PDR: 93,000 women received subsidies for prenatal care and hospital delivery, and 536,000 women received free or subsidized health exams between 1997 and 2006.
    How’s the World Doing?
    800
    women die every day due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth.
    45%
    drop in maternal mortality since 1990.
    1/2
    of women in developing regions receive recommended health care during pregnancy.
    15x
    higher maternal mortality ratio in developing regions, as compared to that of developed regions.

    •6. Making Strides in Combating Disease
    With World Bank Group support, from 2003-2013, more than 1.3 million adults and children with HIV received antiretroviral therapy, nearly 152 million malaria nets were purchased and/or distributed, and 601 million condoms were purchased and/or distributed to prevent HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and unwanted pregnancies.

    MDG 6 Results
    IDA is helping to achieve MDG 6 by providing prevention, care, and mitigation services for those affected by infectious disease.

    Benin: 64% of children slept under bed nets in 2010, up from 20% in 2006. The number of pregnant women sleeping under bed nets rose from 20 to 60% during the same period.
    India: More than 15 million people with tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated during 1998–2012, saving an estimated 2.6 million lives.
    Republic of Congo: 77% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care took voluntary HIV tests in 2011, up from just 16% in 2003.
    How’s the World Doing?
    2.1
    million people are newly infected with HIV each year.
    12.9
    million people worldwide living with HIV had access to antiretroviral therapy as of 2013.
    20%
    decline in child mortality in countries with improved access to malaria control interventions.
    20 million
    lives saved due to tuberculosis treatment, between 1995 and 2011.

    •7.Making Strides in Environmental Sustainability
    Sustainable environment and natural resources management is at the heart of the World Bank’s efforts to end poverty and boost shared prosperity. Biodiversity and natural resources constitute the social safety net of the poor, representing a food bank and often their only source of livelihood. For example, wild-capture fisheries constitute 40% of total animal protein intake for countries in West Africa and sustain more than 3 million people. The World Bank has committed $33 billion in funding for the environment and natural resource management over the past decade, with IDA contributing $7.7 billion for environmental sustainability in the poorest countries.

    Addressing climate change is an urgent priority for the World Bank Group. Without bold action now, the warming planet threatens to put prosperity out of reach of millions and roll back decades of development. For that reason, climate risk is now considered in all country assistance and partnership strategies for the poorest countries. About 85% also consider disaster risk. All country strategies increasingly incorporate climate- and disaster-resilient planning and interventions such as “climate smart” agriculture and measures to boost food security and water efficiency.
    Some of the MDG 7 Results
    The World Bank is the largest external source of financing for water projects. In the last three years (FY11-13), the World Bank’s commitment for water projects totaled $17 billion, with 56% for water supply and sanitation. The World Bank is one of the largest international financiers of biodiversity conservation with a portfolio of 245 projects in 74 countries worth over $1 billion from FY2004 to 2013. In the last six years, the Bank Group has provided $19.2 billion in financing for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.

    Bangladesh: A rural electrification program has been installing more than 50,000 solar home systems every month since 2002, and has delivered off-grid solar power to 2.8 million households.
    Brazil: More than 24 million hectares of new protected areas were created in the Amazon rainforest, as well as 45.4 million hectares classified as indigenous lands.
    Egypt: Polluting brick kilns were converted to natural gas between 2006 and 2013, reducing exposure of approximately 717,500 people to health-damaging particulate matter.
    Ethiopia: Tree planting as part of the Productive Safety Net Program helped protect more than 7 million people from famine in times of drought.
    Haiti: 1.3 million people, represented by 76 civil protection communities, strengthened their disaster preparedness and response capacity from 2005 to 2011.
    How’s the World Doing?
    2
    billion people gained access to clean drinking water from 1990 to 2010.
    48%
    of developing countries are on track to hit the drinkable water target.
    2.5
    billion people still lack access to improved sanitation.
    58%
    increase in the number of protected areas since 1990

    •8. Making Strides in Global Partnership
    Over the last 13 years, the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank’s fund for the poorest countries, has been a leader in partnering to reduce the debt burden of developing nations. Under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative, IDA’s share is 20% of the total estimated cost of debt relief. In addition, IDA provides more than 50% of debt relief committed under the MDRI.

    The World Bank Group helped developing countries cope with the effects of the 2008 financial crisis and continues to support developing countries in the face of ongoing economic uncertainty, increasing trade-related lending from $1.9 billion at the end of FY12 to $2.7billion in FY13.

    Over 74% of the over 1,700 projects in the Bank’s active portfolio now have ICT components – expanding from about $500 million in 2006 to approximately $1.7 billion in 2014 . Since 2001, the IFC has invested about $4.5 billion and mobilized an additional $2.7 billion of financing in private ICT sector projects in developing countries. In addition, the Bank’s investments helped catalyze over $454 billion in private sector investments in ICT in low-income countries between 2005-2011, according to the PPIAF Telecom Sector Database.
    Some of the MDG 8 Results
    Under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative, IDA has committed more than $16.4 billion of HIPC debt relief. IDA’s aid for trade financing rose from $2.6 billion a year between 2002 and 2010 to an average of $4.4 billion a year in 2011 and 2013.

    The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm), for which the World Bank serves as treasury manager, has raised more than $4.5 billion on capital markets since 2006 to fund immunizations in the poorest countries.

    Afghanistan: 18 million people had access to a phone in 2012, up from just 57,000 functioning phone lines in 2002.
    Burkina Faso: Child mortality decreased to 104 deaths per 1,000 children in 2009—half the rate of 1999.
    Cameroon: 7.2 million urban dwellers had access to better water sources in 2012.
    How’s the World Doing?
    $76.4
    billion in HIPC debt relief had been committed by June 2010 to 36 countries, of which 30 countries have received an additional $45.8 billion under the MDRI.
    54%
    of revenues were used for poverty-reducing expenditures in HIPCs in 2009, up 10% from 2001.
    12%
    contraction in global trade in 2009.
    6
    billion mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide by the end of 2011.

    No.2 Answer.
    Bad governance is a relationship between those who govern and those who are governed as a consequence of decision-making. This unfavourable relationship is created as a consequence of external factors or decisions such as violation of central or acceptable norms, such as those of liberal democracy, and bad economic policy:. Bad governance collectively encompasses governance in government and corporate settings. It is the opposite of good governance. Bad governance addresses governance in a government setting but bad governance and bad government are different concepts. Bad governance encompasses a variety of situations from corruption, deceit and to passing of unfair policy. From this, it can be noted that different manifestations of bad governance can vary in severity and the potential impact in their respective setting.The World Bank has identified key indicators of governance which are used as a method to measure bad governance.

    Bad governance is centralised around the idea of not only corruption within a system but a lack of transparency and accountability, arbitrary policy making and the cheating of those who are governed.

    Problems of development are inextricably tied to problems of governance. Unless local, regional, and national governments perform their assigned tasks, and do so in a tolerably efficient manner, little respite will be found from poverty, disease, illiteracy, crime, civil war, and other problems plaguing the developing world. There is only so much that international bodies, nongovernmental organizations, and market forces can do.

    This salient fact has been amply acknowledged in recent years. Over the past few decades, scholars and policymakers have turned their attention to problems of governance, including such topics as democratization, corruption control, capacity-building, electoral systems, judicial systems, and so forth. It is now commonplace to observe that development will occur only if a country has “good institutions” in place, and many of these institutions are either intrinsically political or are political by extension. Thus, the establishment of effective property rights depends upon a structure of law and law enforcement; it does not and cannot exist independently of government. Similarly, the development of a strong civil society is virtually impossible without the development of strong formal institutions of government.

    Based on World Bank’s governance indicators, the key causes for Bad governance are:

    •Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability
    Governing bodies refusing to listen the voice of those they govern and refusing to take accountability for their actions leads to bad governance. By ignoring the voice of those being governed, their opinions are no longer heard or taken into consideration by the governing body. Democratic governments focus on accountability as a method to ensure the public understands what´s happening and provides them a way to proceed when things go wrong. Weak accountability in turn causes a distrust between the two parties and can lead to instability. This distrust and uncertainty creates an unfavourable relationship between the parties.

    •Political Instability
    Bad Governance occurs as a consequence of frequent changes in government or ‘political instability’. Instability in political regimes, such as a democracy, has been proven to coincide with poor governance.

    • Corruption
    Bad Governance, is often considered to come hand in hand with corruption. Corruption occurs in many sectors ranging from political to economic environments.Corruption can occur in many different ways and forms.The existence of corruption within a governing body causes bad governance as the officials places their personal gains over others.

    The impacts and consequences of bad governance are widespread and don’t only effect the settings in which they occur:

    •Poor Economic Growth
    Bad governance heavily impacts the per capita growth of a country.African countries has experienced this impact the most since World War II. The economic growth of a country is significantly impacted when exposed to indicators of bad governance but difference indicators influence the degree of impact. A lack in regulatory quality, governments ineffectiveness and a lack of control on corruption have been linked to poor economic growth.

    •Corruption
    Corruption not only is a cause of but can also occur as a consequence of bad governance. There was a distinct link suggested that[12] that higher levels of governance and a better environment to conduct business are impacted by the presence of corruption within an economy. This link suggests that has levels of governance in an economy due to bad governance, the levels of perceived corruption will rise.

    Level of corruption compared to the governance average and Doing Business Rank in an Economy, 2008
    Economy Control of Corruption Governance Average Doing Business
    Australia 96.1 94.2 10th
    Brunei 95.7 93.9 8th
    Canada 95.7 93.9 8th
    Chile 87.0 82.6 36th
    Hong Kong 94.2 87.9 4th
    Indonesia 31.4 35.5 127th
    Japan 85.5 84.3 12th
    South Korea 69.9 71.4 22nd
    Malaysia 62.8 58.9 25th
    Mexico 49.8 46.8 42nd
    New Zealand 98.1 95.6 2nd
    Papua New Guinea 9.7 26.2 89th
    Peru 49.3 42.0 53rd
    Philippines 26.1 37.4 136th
    Russia 15.5 26.2 112th
    Singapore 99.5 87.4 1st
    Chinese Taipei 72.9 74.7 58th
    Thailand 43.0 43.5 19th
    United States 91.8 87.4 3rd
    Vietnam 25.1 34.6 87th

  66. Avatar Onah Munachimso Modester says:

    Onah Munachimso Modester
    2018/242421
    Economics department
    No 1: As 2015 comes to a close and the world takes a look at the progress that has been made, it is clear that while much has been accomplished — with more than a billion people having been lifted out of poverty — many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were not complete successes, and some failed outright. Discussed below are the MDG failures and their implications.

    Shortcomings: Assessing the MDG Failures
    One of the major MDG failures is the fact that the success of the goals was not experienced equally across the globe; this in itself is a major defeat. Consider a few of these statistics from different countries concerning the same MDGs.

    Extreme Poverty 50 Percent Reduction Rate:

    Southeastern Asia exceeded the goal for extreme poverty reduction by 16 percent
    Southern Asia exceeded the goal by 12.5 percent
    Northern Africa scraped by at about 1.2 percent
    Sub-Saharan Africa was by far the most behind. It did not even meet the goal for extreme poverty reduction and was 12.5 percent away from doing so.
    The extreme poverty reduction goal of at least a 50 percent reduction in those living on $1.25 a day arguably had the best statistics for each country; from there it goes steadily downhill. This trend can be seen throughout the different Millennium Development Goals. Sub-Saharan Africa was far from reaching its goals, and not one country achieved the goal set for maternal mortality rate reduction.

    Gender inequality was also a focus of the MDGs, but unfortunately, according to the United Nations, “gender inequality persists in spite of more representation of women in parliament and more girls going to school. Women continue to face discrimination in access to work, economic assets and participation in private and public decision-making.”

    Although there were huge successes achieved through the MDGs, it is important to note that more than 800 million people continue to live in extreme poverty.

    According to the U.N., “children from the poorest 20 percent of households are more than twice as likely to be stunted as those from the wealthiest 20 percent and are also four times as likely to be out of school. In countries affected by conflict, the proportion of out-of-school children increased from 30 percent in 1999 to 36 percent in 2012.”

    In addition, the numbers for global emissions of carbon dioxide as well as water scarcity are disheartening. There has been a 50 percent increase in carbon dioxide emissions and water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of the world in comparison to 1990 statistics.

    Although there have been failures in trying to implement the goals, all hope is not lost. Progress in the form of the Sustainable Development Goals is already being made.

    Global leaders are regrouping, and as the U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says, “The emerging post-2015 development agenda, including the set of Sustainable Development Goals, strives to build on our successes and put all countries, together, firmly on track towards a more prosperous, sustainable and equitable world.”

    No:2 Despite the much talk about democracy, rule of law and good governance, corruption is still very much rampant in Nigeria (Kwache, 2008: 6). It is a biter true that corruption did not start in  Nigeria yesterday. A through prognostication of the historicity of Corruption in Nigeria would, therefore, and trace it to the 60s; if not beyond (Economic Intelligent Team, 2008: 30). Corruptions have caused decay and dereliction within the infrastructure of government and the society in physical, social and human terms. Corruption has been responsible for the instability of successive governments since the first Republic. Even coup since then has been in the mane of stamping out the disease called Corruption. Unfortunately, the cure often turned out to be worse than the disease (Anti- Corruption compendium, 2008: 27). In fact one of the greatest causes of social injustice today in Africa is Corruption. It stands glaringly at the gate of every initiative of government to bring relief from extreme poverty in the citizenry obstructing delivery of socio-economic progress and infrastructural development in Nigeria (Oglafa, 2011: 42). Every successive regime in Nigeria has always applied the relevant provision of the law to deal with corrupt practices and abuse of office. Even the late maximum dictator, General Sani Abacha who stashed away over $5 billion in the vault of Western banks enacted highly draconian law under which some Nigerians were jailed for corruption, economic sabotage and
    advance fee fraud otherwise known as „‟419 (Falana, 2002: 38). But unfortunately, the lesson
    s of those experiences were lost on the Nigerians political class within the next few years they were released from prisons even when prima facial cases of corruption were publicly seen to have established against them. Thus majority of the unrepentant politicians found their ways back into
    government circles to continue to perpetuate the vicious cycle of corruption and mismanagement of the nations resources (Economic Intellectual Team, 2008: 30). As a result of prolonged military rule and consequent historical inability to check the menace of Corruption, it penetrated very deep into all segments in Nigeria society and into the fibre of all government structures (economic intelligent Team, 2008: 30). Thus, the result is high levels of poverty, failed political institutions, economic dependence on natural resources, nepotism, and lack of respect for rule of law and human rights violations (keighley, 2009: 17). The single most significant ideal in democratic thought is belief in the basic integrity of the individual. This system treats all the individuals as end in and of themselves. Consequently, the government exists for the individual and not the other way round. The government must  protect, promote and defend the integrity of the individual. Other major values of democracy include: equality, meaning the right of all individuals to make or influence government decisions as well as to be treated equally under the law (Moten, 2003: 107-108). But most of these assumptions and principles proved unworkable both in Western and non-Western settings. Some liberal practitioners account for this failure by citing the decline of consensus on the democratic creed; other maintain that the uniqueness of democracy in the West has precluded its applicability in non-Western areas (Hallowell, 1954: 136).
    Theoretical Framework
    That corruption is regarded with a permissive attitude or winked at in Nigeria is no secret and this has been demonstrated repeatedly (Ekemenah, a 2008: 6). The basic problem for analysis here is the unedifying glorification of corruption by condemning it with one corner of the mouth and then in our private or even in public life try to justify it with other corner of the mouth by
    appealing to nonsensical ethnic shibboleths of „‟sharing the national cake together‟‟. This despite
    moral and religious condemnation of corruption in all forms (Ekemenah, b: 6). We put the blame on one government or the other. Have we ever sat down and think deeply about the causes of these problems and possible solutions? Some of these problems are also coming from us not only the government.

  67. Avatar Onyewuchi Gift Chinweotito says:

    1.
    No these goals were not fully achieved.
    Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013 this is not up to a half of what the goals aimed at achieving
    In developing countries, the percentage of underweight children under 5 years old dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013.
    Globally, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013.
    Existing cases of tuberculosis are declining, along with deaths among HIV-negative tuberculosis cases.
    In 2010, the world met the United Nations Millennium Development Goals target on access to safe drinking-water, as measured by the proxy indicator of access to improved drinking-water sources, but more needs to be done to achieve these goals.
    A look at the estimates would tell that neither of the figures were upto what theMDGS aimed at achieving

    2.
    Good governance is the process of measuring public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”.[1] Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance[1] as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.

    The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies

  68. Avatar Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi says:

    Name: Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi
    Reg no: 2018/248278
    Email: nwajuagudivine22@gmail.com

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    1. In my opinion I do not believe that the SDGs have been achieved yet. In 2020, five years since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the 2020 Report notes that progress had been made in some areas, such as improving maternal and child health, expanding access to electricity and increasing women’s representation in government. Yet even these advances were offset elsewhere by growing food insecurity, deterioration of the natural environment, and persistent and pervasive inequalities.
    Now, in only a short period of time, the COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed an unprecedented crisis, causing further disruption to SDG progress, with the world’s poorest and most vulnerable affected the most.
    Using the latest data and estimates, this annual stocktaking report on progress across the 17 Goals shows that it is the poorest and most vulnerable – including children, older persons, persons with disabilities, migrants and refugees – who are being hit the hardest by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Women are also bearing the heaviest brunt of the pandemic’s effects.
    An estimated 71 million people are expected to be pushed back into extreme poverty in 2020, the first rise in global poverty since 1998. Lost incomes, limited social protection and rising prices mean even those who were previously secure could find themselves at risk of poverty and hunger.
    Underemployment and unemployment due to the crisis mean some 1.6 billion already vulnerable workers in the informal economy – half the global workforce – may be significantly affected, with their incomes estimated to have fallen by 60 per cent in the first month of the crisis.
    The more than one billion slum dwellers worldwide are acutely at risk from the effects of COVID-19, suffering from a lack of adequate housing, no running water at home, shared toilets, little or no waste management systems, overcrowded public transport and limited access to formal health care facilities.
    Women and children are also among those bearing the heaviest brunt of the pandemic’s effects. Disruption to health and vaccination services and limited access to diet and nutrition services have the potential to cause hundreds of thousands of additional under-5 deaths and tens of thousands of additional maternal deaths in 2020. Many countries have seen a surge in reports of domestic violence against women and children. 
    School closures have kept 90 per cent of students worldwide (1.57 billion) out of school and caused over 370 million children to miss out on school meals they depend on. Lack of access to computers and the internet at home means remote learning is out of reach of many. About 70 countries reported moderate to severe disruptions or a total suspension of childhood vaccination services during March and April of 2020.  
    As more families fall into extreme poverty, children in poor and disadvantaged communities are at much greater risk of child labour, child marriage and child trafficking. In fact, the global gains in reducing child labour are likely to be reversed for the first time in 20 years.
    The report also shows that climate change is still occurring much faster than anticipated. The year 2019 was the second warmest on record and the end of the warmest decade of 2010 to 2019. Meanwhile, ocean acidification is accelerating; land degradation continues; massive numbers of species are at risk of extinction; and unsustainable consumption and production patterns remain pervasive.  

    2. Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. The concept of “good governance” thus emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies.The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. In Nigeria the reverse seems to be the case. The government carries out its activities in ways that are not beneficial to the masses, their activities are full of corruption and it appears like the government is above the rule of law.
    There are things that are used 5o identify good governance. They include:

    participatory;

    consistent with the rule of law;

    transparent;

    responsive;

    consensus-oriented;

    equitable and inclusive;

    effective and efficient; and

    accountable (Rothstein and Teorell, 2008; UN, 2009).

    The Nigerian government cannot be said to have any of these characteristics. This thus makes it easy to make a case that Nigeria has a long way to go in their quest for good governance.

  69. Avatar Kingsley Obetta says:

    Name: Obetta Kingsley
    Reg. Number: 2018/249137
    Department: Economics

    No 1)

    The results show that the clearest victories during the MDG era were in matters of life and death. We calculate the number of lives saved beyond “business-as-usual” pre-MDG trends on child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/Aids, and tuberculosis. We also look at malaria, which is predominantly a subset of child mortality. These indicators show evidence of major accelerations in rates of progress during the 2000s, with the exception of maternal mortality, which experienced more modest acceleration.

    No 2)
    The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

  70. Avatar Okpara Favour Amarachi says:

    Okpara Favour Amarachi
    2018/247953
    favouramy363@gmail.com

    1.No,the Millennium Development Goals were not achieved.

    It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.
    On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.
    “The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.

    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been uneven.”

    2.The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

    Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed. While President Muhammadu Buhari won the 2015 election on his promise to fight insecurity and corruption, his promises went unfulfilled.

    Nigeria needs a new model of governance in which political leadership is based on the knowledge and competence of both political leaders and the electorate. One solution is to establish what Brennan refers to as epistocracy, which is a system of governance in which the votes of politically informed citizens should count more than the less informed. 

    Solutions to curb Bad governance

    1.Clear separation of laws relating to areas of governance e.g. business, politics etc.
    2.Release publicly any company that has been blacklisted due to bribery
    3.Ensure access by the public to all government information
    4.Ensure media has a freedom of speech
    5.Implementation of International Monetary Fund’s (IMF’s) reports on standards and codes framework
    6.Release of government reports on payment from extraction industries along with open meetings between two entities if country’s citizens are involved.

  71. Avatar Nweke+Chidera+Philomina+2018/242345 says:

    In the last 13 years, the MDGs have managed to focus world attention and global political consensus on the needs of the poorest and to achieve a significant change in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments. They have provided a framework allowing countries to plan their social and economic development and donors to provide effective support at national and international level.

    As reported above, a major part of the MDGs has been at least partially accomplished and many countries are on the way to achieving the MDGs and trying to adopt a sustainable path. However, in spite of the general positive outputs, global targets will not be met in some regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Indeed, MDGs have encountered a range of common challenges.

    First, they were not the product of a comprehensive analysis and prioritization of development needs and consequently were sometimes too narrowly focused. The inconsistent progress partly indicates a trend over time to focus on a subset of specific targets that were easier to achieve, implement and monitor . The untied nature of many goals has often affected the creation of the synergies that could arise across these targets and in particular between education, health, poverty and gender. Even if acceleration in one goal is likely to improve progress in others, these synergies are not always evident, and often vary across countries.

    Second, this framework has not afforded enough consideration to the potential impacts on environmental, social and economic dimensions. Environmental aspects are addressed under goal 7 but only some topics are covered, neglecting key issues for sustainable development. Most goals focus on the social dimension of development, e.g. MDGs 1, 2 and 6, addressing social problems such as hunger, education, equality, MCH and communicable diseases. However, these goals are also interconnected with environmental and economic factors. While some links are recognized (e.g. the importance of clean drinking water to health), others such as the maintenance of environmental resources or the quality of air are not. MDG8 addresses the implementation of sustainable development but does not consider new forms of financing, technology and capacity building.
    Third, the issue of equity has represented one of the main challenges to face. A gender focus is clear only in MDGs 3 and 5, while it is missing throughout the other goals. MDG3 measures gender equality in education, employment and the proportion of women in national legislatures. MDG5 focuses on maternal mortality and access to reproductive health. This limited explicit inclusion in two MDGs is too narrow and clearly indicates that the gender issue and its dynamics have not yet been fully understood nor integrated in policy dialogues. Improving equalities will require health system strengthening, associated with a political and social engagement to address all forms of discrimination.
    Fourth, a lack of clear ownership and leadership internationally and nationally might have partially affected the achievement of the MDGs. Even if different countries scale up health services and make progress towards the MDGs at very different rates, we have mainly observed a trend to a global uniform approach. Rather than spreading specific technical interventions tested in one country on large scale, a more specific approach as well as the adoption of alternative models such as ‘learning by doing’ engaging key stakeholders and taking advantages from evidence-based data from pilot projects, might be adopted). Furthermore, not only stakeholders but also public health professionals should be considered as key actors in the process. Indeed, it has been shown that understanding of MDGs among public health professionals was limited. This general lack of information and awareness represents an important challenge. There is an absolute need for more elaborate publicity and awareness about the MDGs among key players if attaining the MDGs is to be a reality.

    Fifth, achievement of the MDGs depends much on the fulfilment of MDG8 on global partnership. In his preface to the report, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said, ‘At the just-concluded Rio+20 Conference, commitments were made on an ambitious sustainable development agenda. But to keep those pledges credible, we must deliver on previous commitments. As a world community, we must make rhetoric a reality and keep our promises to achieve the MDGs’. As reported above, almost 200 countries engaged themselves and provided substantial contributions to the cause. However, these commitments have not been always fully fulfilled. Engagement by governments (and donors in general) has been deeply affected by the global economic and financial crisis that has seriously undermined progress towards poverty reduction and MDGs achievement in general, from 2007 on. Furthermore, not only governments but also the private sector plays an essential role in the development of the global partnership. Up to now, more than half of the services used for MDGs have been provided by private sources and the role of the private sector is intended to be boosted in the next period. Thus, it is of primary importance that governments and the private sector work together to mobilize more resources to achieve the MDGs and counter the negative effect that the global financial crisis may have on the targets attained and future achievements. Those investments should be sustainable over a long period and predictable, and innovative financing mechanisms might be taken in account.

    Accountability must be an essential part of the framework. A few studies have underlined the problem of corruption in relation to the use of MDGs resources by governments and other organizations. A health care system in a corrupt environment is weak and unstable, and it will be important for the post-2015 period to find solutions to address both the health and the governance aspects of the development agenda at the same time. Emerging governance models can allow larger citizen participation, ownership and influence, as well as intersectoral action. The participation of civil society and its accountability is essential for a strong new policy development and implementation process.
    Last but not least, goal measurement is often too narrow, or might not identify a clear means of delivery. A lack of scientifically valid data on some MDGs, such as MDGs 5 and 6, did not allow the improvement achieved to be measured adequately or to be compared with a baseline. Government reports have sometimes been criticized as false and government-driven, leading to a lack of confidence into the official reporting systems. More and better data are definitely needed, especially relating to the poorest and most vulnerable people. However, even the limited data systems available in some developing countries have allowed the making of assessable investments in education, health, essential infrastructure and environment.

  72. Avatar Mbakwe Temple Alex says:

    Name: Mbakwe Temple Alex
    Reg Number: 2018/242400
    Department: Economics

    1- The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today’s political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted.

    2- The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.
    Bad governance and corruption became the main blocks that hindered progress. The primary problem of the industry concerns the production of oil. Niger Delta is the core element of the whole industry. It is a center for terrorists’ attacks and violence. The business includes illegal selling of oil. There are a few people who benefit from it. In 2015, the first transparent presidential election took place. It was the first example in Nigerian history when the opposition candidate won.
    Corruption is the most urgent issues in Nigeria. Corruption is something trivial and ordinary in Nigeria. It devastates the weak democracy of the country. The main causes of the corruption in Nigeria are ineffective financing, fragile government, and the total habit for doing businesses with the help of bribes (What Causes Corruption in Nigeria, n.d.). Obasanjo’s administration made an attempt to dispose of corruption by producing a bill suggesting the establishment of an Independent Corrupt Practice Commission or ICPC. The President sent the bill to the National Assembly after his inauguration in 1999.

  73. Avatar Umeh Chinaza Lucy says:

    Name: Umeh Chinaza Lucy
    Reg no: 2018/246901
    Department: Education Economics
    Course code:Eco 362
    Assignment
    1.In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    2. . Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    1. Yes, the goals was achieved with the help of the millennium declaration which served as one of the most significant in the United States documents in recent times and offerrs a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of as of that time. Which later resulted in eight millennium development goals (MDGs) which focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people.

    2. Good governance is a powerful key that unlocks the doors of development in any nation. It implies accountability, transparency, prevalence of the rule of law and popular participation. After 58years of independence and 20 years of democratic rule, Nigeria is still struggling with the issue of good governance, Nigeria is backward in education, infrastructural facilities, security, health care, electoral system among others. However there is hope for Nigeria to overcome all her challenges and become developed, this can be achieved through sound education and enthronement of visionary leaders who are focused, selfless and ready to work for the good of Nigeria. With the analysis of secondary data, the paper examines the concept of good governance, its challenges and prospect to development; it observes that corruption is the major challenges of good governance in Nigeria. It therefore recommends among others that government should wage war against corruption by empowering anticorruption agencies to curb the menace of corruption.The economic growth of a country is significantly impacted when exposed to indicators of bad governance but difference indicators influence the degree of impact. A lack in regulatory quality, governments ineffectiveness and a lack of control on corruption have been linked to poor economic growth.
    Africa is blessed with 54 independent States, filled with natural and human resources as well as investment worthy attractions. However with all the distinct and admirable qualities of this continent, there is an evident challenge of bad governance.To put into a clear perspective, there is the inability to manage the resources of the people in a country and consequently, the country herself. A Government is the machinery by which law and order is maintained in all affairs of human existence. Thus, the absence of good governance is simply utter mismanagement characterised by arbitrary leadership, lack of regard for the law, institutional failures and so on. In its parts, Africa (represented by countries) has been bedeviled by leaders who are no longer in tune with the purpose of forming a government and good governance.
    Bad governance emanates from various factors and this article will briefly elaborate on the trend of bad governance in Africa by highlighting the causes of bad governance, the effects and recommend possible solutions. With the multiplicity of laws and institutions with local and international influence, African States should have the wherewithal to be the pacesetter for fair and balanced governance. However the contrary is the reality. The following are the possible root causes of bad governance in Africa:
    1. Absence of Accountability: The relationship between the government and the people governed rests on accountability on the part of those who were elected by the people to serve the nation in any capacity. When the leaders no longer care about the opinions of the people in respect of decision making, there is a breakdown of that cordial relationship.This results into making of arbitrary decisions, taking questionable actions which are more often than not contrary to the interests of the populace. This has been the common trend of most African Leaders especially in the political realm.
    2. Corruption: This has undoubtedly been the biggest problem facing African countries. But how can one describe corruption? There are many variations of corruption. As far as governance is concerned, corruption is when a leader uses his position to place himself and chosen individuals at a higher advantage than others without merit.It is when a political head misuses his office to ascribe benefits to himself. When there is corruption in a system no matter how insignificant, it will gradually destroy the integrity of the government. Corruption is easily noticed when law enforcement agencies are paid off by a person just to avoid prosecution. Also when a sitting judge with evident facts to sanction a government official, takes the opposite side of Justice. Corruption is seen when a government leader illicitly flows government revenue into a private account. These are just few examples of what corruption entails. It is rather surprising that developing countries which are more in number in the African continent are filled with corrupt leaders. Thus, there is no proper governance where the government is corrupt with lust for power, wealth or fame.
    3. Disregard of the Rule of Law: On the 6th of December 2019, a prominent Nigerian journalist and activist, Omoyele Sowore was arrested during his trial before a court of law by some security operatives who were identified as DSS.
    Why are Africans corrupt?
    This is an instance of the degrading system of democracy and another layer of bad governance. It will be marked in history as the day that the regard for the rule of law, human rights, the Constitution and the Judiciary were threatened by the same people who were to uphold and defend them. When a person in authority begins to act outside the scope of his powers, there is the certainty that what follows next will be the trend of horrendous administration. African governments especially in some countries have little or no regards for the law, court decisions and fundamental human rights. The issue of corruption can be attributed to the election of non credible leaders into different offices. This brings us to the next points.
    4. A Failed Democracy: Africa has suffered the brunt of Western colonization in the past. So when the era of self Independence was ushered in, most States were faced with the challenge of building a government where the people and the elected governors are accountable to one another. Unfortunately, the situation we encounter in African States is nothing more than a failing Democracy. There is hardly free and fair elections or the government reforms electoral laws to suppress competition during elections. At the end, elections and appointments are smeared with tribalism and nepotism. Government is no longer of the people, by the people or for the people. Now leaders who bear important responsibilities only think more of how any action benefits themselves.
    5. Incompetence in Leadership: One of the factors behind bad governance in African States is the unappealing sight of the political sector filled with nonchalant leaders. Politics here should be addressed in a wider and more general view.A good political structure is one that is built upon the regard for persons qualified to lead to be afforded the right opportunity to justify the qualification. In simpler words, if a person is entitled to appointment or to run for an election, the person should not be restricted because of gender, ethnic or religious background and other insignificant considerations.
    Nowadays, the picture of the government is drawn by the actions of most leaders who do not even have the right capacity or capability to make quality decisions. And this can be easily traced to the fact that key positions in a country are given to those who share the same religion, tribe, gender or other background with the appointer. This ultimately birthes weak political structure and bad governance.
    6. Marginalization: So much has been discussed about discrimination in respect of persons and it is imperative to mention that discrimination can be on a large scale. When a group of persons within a country are segregated in certain privileges that other groups have, the end result will be an ineffective government.
    causes, effects and solutions to bad governance in Africa, Nigeria
    It may be marginalisation of a tier, arm or institution of government or any people with ethnic or religious ties. By this, the government will not be able to act transparently and indiscriminately which will result to poor and unfair management of the resources leading to brutal rebuttals from the group concerned.
    1. Poor Economic Growth: Studies have shown and proven that where there is bad management of resources and bad governance of people in general, the economy of any country will sink. The instances are numerous. It is the duty of government to provide for the peace, security and welfare of its people.
    When those in authority divert the objective to selfish interests, there will be mismanagement of resources which will cause trusted investors to withdraw their investments leading to scarcity of options to make up for the losses. This is why Africa has been relegated to the background. The supposed giant of Africa, Nigeria, is still a good example. Gone are the times when the dollar rate was equivalent to Nigeria’s currency rate in Naira.

    It tells a lot about how far leadership has failed the country. Currently, there are massive unemployment rates, increased poverty and the like which was not the case many years ago. Not even the admired natural resources are worth heavy investment because the bad reputation of the country has defeated the reason why there should be.
    2. Breakdown of Civilization: Civilization is what Government was established to create in form. The result of untrustworthy leaders who are not capable or accountable to say the least makes the people unwilling to continue with the leadership. As earlier mentioned, the Government-Citizens relationship is one built on trust. The people come together to divest their self independent powers to certain individuals who can further progress and protect their interests.If those certain individuals are not living up to expectations, the people or citizens have the right to protest against the government. This has been and will continue to be the case even in stable countries. The citizens will no longer find it necessary to bend to the laws of the land if those same laws are not above the leaders.People express their opinions aggressively by destroying government properties, blocking traffic ways, even as far as releasing people from prisons, resulting to absence of law and order. Where good leadership breaks down, Civilization breaks down as well.
    3. Weak Political /Governmental Structures: In the eyes of the people within and outside the country, there is an apparent fragile political structure due to the incompetence of leaders. It is not a good image of a country that it cannot produce capable individuals who will enhance the will of the Government by promoting social and economic development. The fact is that a country is not only known or acknowledged for the resources it has but by the competence to manage the resources. It is tragic to notice that when there is a conversation of most respected nations in the world, hardly will anyone in these contemporary times bring up any African State. This is once again due to the fact that there is total lack of confidence from the citizens and non stakeholders around the globe that an African State is capable of managing resources let alone earn a place in world recognition.Bad governance has led to internal conflicts where there are usually uprises from within the country clamouring for secession; a testament of what the political structure looks like. Note that this also applies to institutions established by the government in terms of their inability to rightly act because of the weakness of the creating entity.
    Possible solutions to bad Governance in Africa
    Having highlighted the reasons behind bad governance and the consequences, this article will attempt to recommend possible solutions which should also be considered feasible as well.
    1. The Government should be more accountable to the people. Accountability is one aspect of governance that if lost, can cause a breakdown of law and order. The leaders, whether appointed or elected, should represent the interests of the entire nation in all their functions and not only when it benefits their religion, tribe and so on.
    2. There should be increased transparency among the Government and its institutions. When the administrative heads and Governmental leaders are more transparent in their actions, that will automatically be a proactive step to stop corrupt practices in their dealings. On this note, the government should put in stringent measures to proscribe corruption from anyone put in the position of leadership.
    3. Institutions for building competent leaders should be established and if already established, should be increasingly financed. As everyone knows, bad leadership equals bad governance. This is not to say that there have been no or there are no good leaders in Africa. The issue is whether this will be a seasonal experience. Institutions should be created solely for the purpose of training men and women to be useful, industrious and competent leaders in any sector that has their interests. There are some that have been established for that purpose but lack the necessary financial boost. They should be financed and monitored by the Government at regular basis.
    4. Parliamentary measures should be enforced to put an end to corruption among governmental leaders. The issue of corruption is arguably the most pressing concern in Africa. This is why all hands should be on deck to fight against it in order to protect the future of democracy. The Legislature, being the law making arm of government, should enact laws that not only penalises it but ensure that no one will be an exception. There are laws in existence but are silent in certain matters which gives political governors loopholes to escape. That should be addressed sooner than later. Good governance rests on the rule of law over the governed and the Government.
    5. There should be regard for the fundamental rights of citizens particularly the right against discrimination. All genders, ethnic, religious and tribal personalities should be considered when making decisions. They should also be afforded opportunity to work in key positions in government from the local level to the federal level as long as they are qualified.
    6. Lastly, there should be no tolerance for incompetent leadership in any office in Government. This statement stands true: Show me your leader and I will tell you what your country will be. A good leader is a competent leader.Especially when it comes to appointment, there should be no allowance for favoritism on any angle in respect of a person who is not qualified for the position. Not even ethical standards should be the sole basis of appointment. A competent leader should be holistic because governance is not just one sided.
    Lastly the failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.
    At the end of the Cold War, African civil society movements striving for more democratic governance began to challenge authoritarian regimes on the continent. Declining living conditions within African countries and the failure of authoritarian African leaders to deliver the promises of economic prosperity they made to encourage the acceptance of development aid fueled the push for change. International donors’ insistence on democratic reform as a precondition for aid gave impetus for Nigerian civil society to push for domestic accountability. Thus, domestic pressure for political pluralism and external pressure for representative governance have both played a role in the calls for democratic reform in Nigeria.
    But despite some successes, corruption and socioeconomic disparities within Nigerian democracy continue to run rampant. Since 1999, the democratic space has been dominated by political elites who consistently violate fundamental principles associated with a liberal democratic system, such as competitive elections, the rule of law, political freedom, and respect for human rights. The outcome of the 2019 presidential election further eroded public trust in the ability of the independent electoral commission to organize competitive elections unfettered by the authoritarian influences of the ruling class. This challenge is an indicator of the systemic failure in Nigeria’s governance system. A continuation of the current system will only accelerate the erosion of public trust and democratic institutions. In contrast with the current system in which votes are attained through empty promises, bribery, voter intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs a governance system that will enhance the education of its voters and the capability of its leaders.
    Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed. While President Muhammadu Buhari won the 2015 election on his promise to fight insecurity and corruption, his promises went unfulfilled; Boko Haram continues to unleash unspeakable violence on civilians while the fight against corruption is counterproductive.
    At the core of Nigeria’s systemic failure is the crisis of governance, which manifests in the declining capacity of the state to cope with a range of internal political and social upheavals. There is an expectation for political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, and police brutality and put in place the necessary infrastructure to gather relevant data for problem solving. But the insufficiency of political savvy required to navigate the challenges that Nigeria faces has unleashed unrest across the nation and exacerbated existing tensions. The #ENDSARS Protests against police brutality in 2020 is one of the manifestations of bad governance.
    The spiral of violence in northern Nigeria in which armed bandits engage in deadly planned attacks on communities, leading to widespread population displacement, has become another grave security challenge that has sharpened regional polarization. Because some public servants are usually unaware of the insecurities faced by ordinary Nigerians, they lack the frame of reference to make laws that address the priorities of citizens. The crisis of governance is accentuated by a democratic culture that accords less importance to the knowledge and competence that political leaders can bring to public office. These systemic challenges have bred an atmosphere of cynicism and mistrust between citizens and political leaders at all levels of government.
    Political elites in Nigeria also exploit poverty and illiteracy to mobilize voters with food items such as rice, seasoning, and money. The rice is usually packaged strategically with the image of political candidates and the parties they represent. The assumption is that people are more likely to vote for a politician who influences them with food than one who only brings messages of hope. The practice of using food to mobilize voters is commonly described as “stomach infrastructure” politics. The term “stomach infrastructure” arose from the 2015 election in Ekiti state when gubernatorial candidate Ayodele Fayosi mobilized voters with food items and defeated his opponent Kayode Fayemi. It is undeniable that Nigerian political culture rewards incompetent leaders over reform-minded leaders who demonstrate the intellectualism and problem-solving capabilities needed to adequately address systemic issues of poverty and inequality.
    Jason Brennan describes the practice of incentivizing people to be irrational and ignorant with their votes as the unintended consequence of democracy. Brennan believes specific expertise is required to tackle socio-economic issues, so political power should be apportioned based on expert knowledge. As Brennan suggests, Nigeria lacks a system of governance in which leadership is based on capability. Rather, the political system in Nigeria is dominated by individuals who gain power through nepotism rather than competence, influence voters with food rather than vision, and consolidate power through intimidation or by incentivizing constituents with material gifts which they frame as “empowerment” to keep them subservient and loyal political followers. By implication, the failure of governance in Nigeria is arguably the result of incompetent leadership.
    Nigeria needs a new model of governance in which political leadership is based on the knowledge and competence of both political leaders and the electorate. One solution is to establish what Brennan refers to as epistocracy, which is a system of governance in which the votes of politically informed citizens should count more than the less informed. For Justin Klocksiem, epistocracy represents a political system in which political power rests exclusively on highly educated citizens. This idea drew its philosophical influence from John Stuart Mill, who believed that the eligibility to vote should be accorded to individuals who satisfy certain educational criteria. The notion that educational attainment should be the prerequisite for the electorate to choose their leaders as proposed by Brennan, Klocksiem, and Mill is an important proposition that should be taken seriously.
    However, one cannot ignore that such thinking originates from societies where civic education is high and the electorate can make informed choices about leadership. In Nigeria, the majority of citizens are uneducated on political issues. Simultaneously, those who are highly educated are increasingly becoming indifferent to political participation; they have lost faith in the power of their votes and the integrity of the political system. For an epistocratic system to work in Nigeria, there must be significant improvements in literacy levels so that citizens are educated about the issues and can use their knowledge to make informed decisions about Nigeria’s political future.
    It is important to mention that Nigeria’s political elites have exploited illiteracy to reinforce ethnic, religious, and political divisions between groups that impede democratic ideals. Since the resultant effect of epistocracy is to instill knowledge, raise consciousness and self-awareness within a polity anchored on the failed system of democracy, decisions that promote the education of uninformed voters are the rationale for an epistocratic system of governance. The Constitution must ensure that only citizens who can formulate policies and make informed decisions in the public’s best interest can run for public office. When the Constitution dictates the standard of epistocratic governance, informed citizens will be better equipped to champion political leadership or determine the qualifications of their leaders. Epistocratic governance will be the alternative to Nigeria’s current dysfunctional democratic system while retaining the aspects of liberal democracy that maintain checks and balances.
    We are not, however, oblivious that implementing such an epistocratic system of governance in Nigeria potentially contributes to more inequality given its highly undemocratic and exclusive nature. Our argument takes into consideration the contextual realities of poverty and illiteracy and the realization that poor and illiterate constituents have less power to evaluate the credibility of public servants or hold them accountable. The benefits of electing epistocratic leaders are that many citizens would desire to be educated in preparation for leadership. The more educated the population the more likely it is that political leaders will be held accountable. However, the kind of education that is needed to significantly transform the governance landscape in Nigeria is civic education.
    We propose three policies to promote epistocratic governance in Nigeria. First, aspiring leaders must demonstrate the intellectual pedigree to translate knowledge into effective, transparent, and accountable governance that leads to national prosperity. As Rotimi Fawole notes, the bar should be higher for those aspiring to executive or legislative office “to improve the ideas that are put forward and the intellectual rigor applied to the discussions that underpin our statehood.”
    Second, the government must increase access to education through government-sponsored initiatives that integrate civic education into school curriculums. Currently, little opportunity exists for young Nigerians, particularly those in underfunded public education systems, to learn about their civic roles at the local, state, national, and international levels, including how to emerge as participating citizens through the academic curriculum.
    Third, the government should engage the support of local NGOs to promote civic education across Nigeria in culturally appropriate ways. The NGOs should be empowered to define the legal concept of citizenship and summarize specific civil rights enshrined in the Constitution into a Charter of Rights and Responsibilities modeled after the Canadian Charter. The Charter should include value positions essential to an effective democracy, such as the rights of citizens, social justice, accountable governance, and rule of law. It can then be commissioned as a resource for civics education in Nigeria.
    This article recognizes that Nigeria is grappling with governance challenges orchestrated by two decades of a failed democratic project. Governing these challenges requires knowledgeable leaders and an equally informed electorate. Like any new experiment, there are concerns about the viability of epistocracy as a political system, particularly in a Nigerian context fraught with ethnoreligious and political challenges. But Nigeria will only have effective governance when the right people are saddled with the responsibility to govern. However, change cannot be spontaneous. The implementation of an epistocratic system of governance within the Nigerian context must be incremental, bearing in mind that Nigeria’s democracy is still evolving.
    Inconcluson there is no question that good governance furthers social and economic progress within a country. Having examined Africa as a case study, it is bizzare to think that things will go back to normal in a few years. However it is a hopeful wish that the government of the day will understand the reason for its creation and act appropriately. Bad governance ruins the capacity of any people, exposes a country to civil unrest, diminishes the reality of democracy amongst other things. The opposite is true when the leaders are capable enough, competent, transparent and accountable. By taking the right steps to ensure change, Africa can once again be the citadel of realized dreams and opportunities that the entire world will have no choice but to acknowledge.

  74. Avatar ILEME OBINNA PATRICK says:

    Reg no: 2018/242297
    Course: Development Economics 2
    Course code: Eco 362

    In your opinion do you think these goals MDGs were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    In the year 2000 the United nations together with the world bank and the IMF developed eight point agenda tagged the Millennium development goal (MGS) which they plan to achieve before the year 2015 this goals includes;
    a. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    b. Achieve universal primary education
    c. Promote gender equality and empower women
    d. Reduce child mortality
    e. Improve maternal health
    f. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    g. Ensure environmental sustainability
    h. Develop a global partnership for development
    In a bid to promote a globalized and developed world and economy and aid in developing underdeveloped countries these goals were set Yet, this goals could not be achieved due to the fact that the success of the goals was not experienced equally across the globe; this in itself is a major defeat. Consider a few of these statistics from different countries concerning the same MDGs.

    Extreme Poverty 50 Percent Reduction Rate:
    Southeastern Asia exceeded the goal for extreme poverty reduction by 16 percent
    Southern Asia exceeded the goal by 12.5 percent
    Northern Africa scraped by at about 1.2 percent
    Sub-Saharan Africa was by far the most behind. It did not even meet the goal for extreme poverty reduction and was 12.5 percent away from doing so.
    The extreme poverty reduction goal of at least a 50 percent reduction in those living on $1.25 a day arguably had the best statistics for each country; from there it goes steadily downhill. This trend can be seen throughout the different Millennium Development Goals. Sub-Saharan Africa was far from reaching its goals, and not one country achieved the goal set for maternal mortality rate reduction.
    Gender inequality was also a focus of the MDGs, but unfortunately, according to the United Nations, “gender inequality persists in spite of more representation of women in parliament and more girls going to school. Women continue to face discrimination in access to work, economic assets and participation in private and public decision-making.”
    Although there were huge successes achieved through the MDGs, it is important to note that more than 800 million people continue to live in extreme poverty.
    According to the U.N., “children from the poorest 20 percent of households are more than twice as likely to be stunted as those from the wealthiest 20 percent and are also four times as likely to be out of school. In countries affected by conflict, the proportion of out-of-school children increased from 30 percent in 1999 to 36 percent in 2012.”
    In addition, the numbers for global emissions of carbon dioxide as well as water scarcity are disheartening. There has been a 50 percent increase in carbon dioxide emissions and water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of the world in comparison to 1990 statistics.
    These points prove how the UN together with the world bank failed to achieve the Millennium goals.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good Governance is an approach to government that is committed to creating a system founded in justice and peace that protects individual’s human rights and civil liberties. According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors of Participation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness, Consensus Oriented, Equity and Inclusiveness, Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Accountability. These are the qualities that the government do not possess especially the Nigerian government.
    There exist no transparency when we talk about public finance or account, the gap between the rich and the poor is extreme as there in uneven wealth distribution by the government the rule of law is bent to government officials favour, e.t.c
    Until these issues are sorted there will be no good governance.

  75. Avatar BENJAMIN GIFT IHUNANYA 2018/241855 says:

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    The goals were achieved, the MDGs have saved the lives of millions and improved conditions for many more. For instance:
    Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty declined by more
    than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.
    Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
    The primary school net enrolment rate in the developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015.The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 increased globally from 83 percent to 91 percent between 1990 and 2015.
    Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
    Many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago. The developing regions as a whole have achieved the target to eliminate gender disparity in primary, secondary and tertiary education. Women have gained ground in parliamentary representation in nearly 90 per cent of the 174 countries with data over the past 20 years. The average proportion of women in parliament has nearly doubled during the same period.
    Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
    Since the early 1990s, the rate of reduction of under-five mortality has more than tripled globally.
    Goal 5: Improve maternal health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000.More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.
    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent between 2000 and 2013, from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million. Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in Sub Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent.
    Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    In 2015, 91 per cent of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76 per cent in 1990. Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.
    Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
    Official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 percent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion. In 2014, 79 per cent of imports from developing to developed countries were admitted duty free, up from 65 per cent in 2000.The proportion of external debt service to export revenue in developing countries fell from 12 per cent in 2000 to 3 per cent in 2013.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Governance and political leadership in Nigeria and many developing countries have been driven by self-interest and other primordial considerations, which take priority over that of the public. The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder – farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. Statistically speaking, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the World Governance Index in areas such as government effectiveness, political stability and the presence of violence and terrorism, rule of law, and control of corruption. Nigeria is perceived in the 2020 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index as a highly corrupt country with a score of 25/100 while its corruption ranking increased from 146 in 2019 to 149 in 2020 out of 180 countries surveyed.

  76. Avatar NGADI GOD'SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME: NGADI GOD’SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO: 2018/242405
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    1- The MDGs goals has been achieved to a very great extent although they were not able to meet up within the specific time frame. Most of the goals were achieved by the collective effort of international bodies such as IMF, World Bank, WHO, UNICEF etc.
    Inorder to curb poverty in underdeveloped and developing countries, the World Bank and IMF released funds to sponsor the creation of job opportunities and support major economic projects.
    The UNICEF has also made getting secondary school education easy through the UBE program.
    WHO has also been able to send relief items to developing countries to reduce the rate of hunger and malnutrition.
    It is worthy to note that all these socio economic problems cannot be solved totally but its effect can be grossly reduced and this is what the MDGs goals has achieved.

    2- I will start by giving a definition of Good Governance.
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. It is the system by which entities are directed and controlled. It is concerned with structure and processes for decision making, accountability, control and behaviour at the top of an entity.
    Nigeria and many developing countries seems to be far from good Governance because they have not been able to uphold its principles such as:
    * TRANSPARENCY: This can be said to mean full disclosure of relevant information both public and private.Private firms do not disclose their financial statement and information regarding to government ministries, politics etc are hidden from the general public.
    * RULE OF LAW: The law is the highest authority. So, everyone is mandated to submit and accept it but those holding political offices and the few wealthy individuals frequently bend the law to suit their selfish agendas.
    * ACCOUNTABILITY: A nation is said to have good Governance when it is accountable to her citizens. Individuals in various sector of government are not accountable. They do not give proper record of their revenue earned and expenditure incurred. They do not follow due process. This is against good governance.
    * EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS: For a country to be regarded as having good governance, all her resources must be employed in such a way that a little input is used to get maximum output. Developing countries are yet to utilize their resources to its optimum. We can say that they are not Pareto-efficient.
    * RESPONSIVENESS: Most developing countries such as Nigeria show little concern to the needs of her citizens. They are self oriented.
    * CONSENSUS ORIENTATION: Decisions are made by the few. The people are not engaged in decision making. This is against good governance. Good governance is meant to carry the people along but this is not the case in the Nigerian system. Only a few take decision without allowing the masses speak up.

    In conclusion, we can see that Nigeria and some developing countries cannot be said to have good governance because the level of this principles or traits are very poor.

  77. Avatar Ezeamenyi chinonso ifesorochukwu says:

    NAME: EZEAMENYI CHINONSO IFESOROCHUKWU
    REG: 2018/251370
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    EMAIL ADDRESS: nonsofavour732@gmail.com
    Question 1: Although significant achievements have been made on many of the MDG targets worldwide, progress has been uneven across regions and countries, leaving significant gaps. Millions of people are being left behind, especially the poorest and those disadvantaged because of their sex, age, disability, ethnicity or geographic location. Targeted efforts will be needed to reach the most vulnerable people.
    1: Gender inequality persists Women continue to face discrimination in access to work, economic assets and participation in private and public decision-making. Women are also more likely to live in poverty than men. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the ratio of women to men in poor households increased from 108 women for every 100 men in 1997 to 117 women for every 100 men in 2012, despite declining poverty rates for the whole region.Women remain at a disadvantage in the labour market. Globally, about three quarters of working-age men participate in the labour force, compared to only half of working-age women. Women earn 24 per cent less than men globally. In 85 per cent of the 92 countries with data on unemployment rates by level of education for the years 2012–2013, women with advanced education have higher rates of unemployment than men with similar levels of education. Despite continuous progress, today the world still has far to go towards equal gender representation in private and public decision-making.
    2: Big gaps exist between the poorest and richest households, and between rural and urban areas In the developing regions, children from the poorest 20 per cent of households are more than twice as likely to be stunted as those from the wealthiest 20 per cent. Children in the poorest households are four times as likely to be out of school as those in the richest households. Under-five mortality rates are almost twice as high for children in the poorest households as for children in the richest. In rural areas, only 56 per cent of births are attended by skilled health personnel, compared with 87 per cent in urban areas. About 16 per cent of the rural population do not use improved drinking water sources, compared to 4 per cent of the urban population. About 50 per cent of people living in rural areas lack improved sanitation facilities, compared to only 18 per cent of people in urban areas.
    3:Climate change and environmental degradation undermine progress achieved, and poor people suffer the mostGlobal emissions of carbon dioxide have increased by over 50 per cent since 1990. Addressing the unabated rise in greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting likely impacts of climate change, such as altered ecosystems, weather extremes and risks to society, remains an urgent, critical challenge for the global community. An estimated 5.2 million hectares of forest were lost in 2010, an area about the size of Costa Rica. Overexploitation of marine fish stocks led to declines in the percentage of stocks within safe biological limits, down from 90 per cent in 1974 to 71 per cent in 2011. Species are declining overall in numbers and distribution. This means they are increasingly threatened with extinction. Water scarcity affects 40 per cent of people in the world and is projected to increase. Poor people’s livelihoods are more directly tied to natural resources, and as they often live in the most vulnerable areas, they suffer the most from environmental degradation.

    4: Conflicts remain the biggest threat to human development By the end of 2014, conflicts had forced almost 60 million people to abandon their homes—the highest level recorded since the Second World War. If these people were a nation, they would make up the twentyfourth largest country in the world. Every day, 42,000 people on average are forcibly displaced and compelled to seek protection due to conflicts, almost four times the 2010 number of 11,000. Children accounted for half of the global refugee population under the responsibility of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 2014. In countries affected by conflict, the proportion of out-of-school children increased from 30 per cent in 1999 to 36 per cent in 2012. Fragile and conflict-affected countries typically have the highest poverty rates.
    5: Millions of poor people still live in poverty and hunger, without access to basic services Despite enormous progress, even today, about 800 million people still live in extreme poverty and suffer from hunger. Over 160 million children under age five have inadequate height for their age due to insufficient food. Currently, 57 million children of primary school age are not in school. Almost half of global workers are still working in vulnerable conditions, rarely enjoying the benefits associated with decent work. About 16,000 children die each day before celebrating their fifth birthday, mostly from preventable causes. The maternal mortality ratio in the developing regions is 14 times higher than in the developed regions. Just half of pregnant women in the developing regions receive the recommended minimum of four antenatal care visits. Only an estimated 36 per cent of the 31.5 million people living with HIV in the developing regions were receiving ART in 2013. In 2015, one in three people (2.4 billion) still use unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who still practise open defecation. Today over 880 million people are estimated to be living in slum-like conditions in the developing world’s cities.With global action, these numbers can be turned around.
    Question 2:
    Promoting good governance that is accountable, transparent, honest, and participatory, that guarantees economic freedom—i.e., the right of citizens to freely exchange goods and contract with each other in business—and that is based on secured property rights, including land rights, is crucial for the progress of Ethiopia and for all of Africa. This is only possible by moving forward with constitutional reforms that place limits on government offi cials to prevent the abuse of power, guarantee economic freedoms, and control the negative incentives that drive corruption. A clear legal delineation and separation of public political activities from private economic activities is necessary to reduce corruption. Corruption can be defi ned as postconstitutional opportunism aimed at getting benefi ts for individuals or a group at the expense of society. Once a constitution is adopted, there is an incentive on the part of groups to benefi t through capture of the state’s redistributive power. One form of corruption, called “rent seeking,” occurs when individuals and groups expend resources to negatively affect the distributional outcome. Effective control of corruption must be based on institutional and constitutional reforms to constrain the ability of the state actors to intervene in private and market transactions. Tackling the problem of corruption, or the abuse of public trust for private gain, is not possible by simply jailing corrupt individuals without changing the incentives for corruption. It is imperative to create a constitution with checks and balances and rule of law. Where corruption exists, the effects typically fall disproportionately on the poor, since the cost of bribes is felt more severely by the poor than by the rich, and on small fi rms, since they feel the pinch more than large fi rms do (Figure 7.2.Overall, the reasons that states with poor governance fail stem from many factors. Failing states may be more rigid in decision making, and they may lack the capability to administer detailed plans. Bureaucratic obstacles may block private-sector initiatives and innovation. It is hard to replicate a private-market incentive system within a government. Branches of government may also be poorly coordinated and lack effective oversight. Excessive state controls may cause black markets to expand through increased incentives for rent seeking and corruption.
    Development planning may be manipulated by small, privileged groups for their own benefi t. Combinations of the above factors make it very diffi cult for a state to function effectively and to maintain a sense of societal order.

  78. Avatar ONUOHA IKENNA MICHAEL says:

    ONUOHA IKENNA MICHAEL
    2018/241860

    1. There really is no clear answer to this, but however, amongst the 129 countries that participated in the achievement of the millennium development goals (MGD’s), only 72 countries were able to achieve these goals with the developing regions falling short of this goal by a margin. If we were to be more precise, about 29 countries were able to meet the more demanding goals. Given these statistics it can be seen that some developing countries still have a lot to work on not just in terms of achieving the MDG’s but also making effective mechanisms that would ensure the achievement of these goals.

    2. The desire for good governance amongst other things is paramount for any country to have, but as we can see, despite the undeniable benefits of this attribute, many developing countries like Nigeria still find it hard to achieve. The question however can only seem to be, “what could be the cause?”. Nigeria is a multiethnic state, which operates a quasi-federal system of government, in the light of all these there are also underlying issues deeply rooted to the lack of good governance such as: tribalism, ethnic favouritism, corruption, political instability, terrorism, religious upheaval etc. Amongst all these mentioned, a core issue seems to be that of corruption which naturally assumes itself as a result of the non binding laws against its policy makers and government officials. These corruption, is as a result of the lack of transparency and accountability of the government to its people. All these not only makes the concept of good governance unattainable but also an ambiguous one.

  79. Avatar Urama Isaac Anenechukwu says:

    NAME: URAMA ISAAC ANENECHUKWU
    REG. NO. 2018/243823
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362
    LECTURER: RT. HON. MR PRESIDENT (PH.D)
    3RD ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 362- DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

    ANSWER TO QUESTION NUMBER 1
    Were the Millennium Development Goals a success?
    The answers I’ll give to that big Question is *”Yes! Even though there were some lapses in achieving some of the development gaols, but the fact that they failed to achieve some of the goals should not make us neglect the impact of the areas that was met to some extent and how it actually helped to better the economy of developing countries and the world economy at large.
    The United Nations has hailed the Millennium Development Goals – or MDGs – as “the most successful anti-poverty movement in history.” So have the goals and targets ushered into life 15 years ago achieved their objectives?
    “The MDGs helped to lift more than one billion people out of extreme poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet,” the UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently explained.
    But he didn’t finish there. “Yet for all the remarkable gains, I am keenly aware that inequalities persist and that progress has been uneven.”
    It’s true remarkable progress has been accomplished. Yet, around 1.5 billion people in conflict affected countries and on the extreme margins of society were unreached by the goals and unable to benefit from the tide that lifted their neighbours.
    So which goals were met and which fell short? Below, we’ll broadly examine what has been achieved for the main targets within the eight goals using information from The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.
    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. Globally the number of people living in extreme poverty has fallen from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015.
    However, target of halving the proportion of people suffering from hunger has narrowly been missed. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.
    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
    Primary school enrolment figures have shown an impressive rise, but the goal of achieving universal primary education has just been missed. The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.
    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
    Women have been the most affected by the global recession
    Women have been most affected by unemployment, underemployment, wage cuts, reduced benefits, decreased demand for migrant workers, lower remittances, lack of assets and credit, higher food, fuel and medicine prices
    Governments have cut back on social protections such as healthcare and employment
    About two two-thirds of developing countries achieved gender parity in primary education. Progress has been particularly strong in Southern Asia. Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.
    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.
    In practical terms this means 16,000 children under-five continue to die every day from preventable causes. A terrible reality made worse by the fact we know what each one of these major killers are, and what can be done to thwart them.
    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has been cut nearly in half. This is an impressive result, but as well with goal 4 it falls short of the two-thirds reduction that was aimed for. There were an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths in 2013.
    MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
    The results with MDG 5 are mixed. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids has not been met – although the number of new HIV infections fell by 40% between 2000 and 2013.
    According to the UN, over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent
    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainably
    Between 1990 and 2015, 2.6 billion people gained access to improved drinking water, meaning the target of halving the proportion of people without access to safe water was achieved. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation.
    MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
    Official development assistance from wealthy countries to developing countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.
    What comes next?
    The MDG’s successor – the Sustainable Development Goals – are due to be adopted by world leaders at a summit in New York in late September.
    All countries – as well as aid agencies, businesses and the public working in collaborative partnership – will implement this universal agenda for a transformed world. And the first order of business will be “reaching the furthest behind first.”
    For World Vision this means reaching vulnerable children in the world’s hardest places to live. They are the children in remote areas, in the midst of intractable conflicts and buffeted by droughts or flooding caused by the effects of climate change.
    World Vision believes sustainable development begins with healthy, nourished and well-educated children free from all forms of violence – and the SDGs represent an unprecedented opportunity to make these aspirations a reality. The real work now lies ahead: ensuring these new commitments to transform the lives of the world’s most vulnerable children are kept.
    CHALLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS – GAPS
    1) The MDGs failed to take into consideration a human rights framework in the accomplishment of their outcomes
    Human rights principles must be central to the achievement of MDGs, SDGs and the post-2015 agenda. Acceptable human rights standards should be used in achieving outcomes. For instance, mandatory testing of women for HIV violates their right to bodily integrity and autonomy
    Several international human rights agreements provide the necessary framework and ethical basis for the achievement of the MDGs for women and girls. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
    UN conferences have provided critical platforms to embed human rights priorities in the development agenda: Rio, Vienna, Cairo, Copenhagen, Beijing
    2) The MDGs are not en-gendered
    En-gendering the MDGs would have implied mainstreaming a gender dimension that should result in equal rights and equal opportunities for women through the achievement of all the MDGs and not only MDG 3, and MDG 5
    In MDG 1, for example, we know that more women than men fall below the poverty line and that the depth of poverty is greater for extremely poor women. Women face greater difficulties in accessing land and other livelihood resources and that they carry the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work. Yet, in MDG 1, there is no indication of the gender dimensions of poverty
    The MDGs also failed to include other key areas within the women’s rights agenda, including violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and rights, women, peace and security issues
    The MDG framework does not recognize discrimination and inequality as factors that have led to rural communities, the poorest households and ethnic minorities being left behind
    There is no guarantee that achieving MDG goals and targets improve living conditions for the most disadvantaged and marginalized groups
    3) MDGs lack an enabling environment
    Their achievement has been challenged by global economic policies
    The 2015 agenda has to be designed in an environment that reduces the disparity between the agenda’s goals and macroeconomic, trade development and investment polices and fiscal policies
    Governments must mobilize the maximum available resources to meet human rights obligations. This means governments must review all sources of revenue including tax revenue
    Appropriate financial regulation should be put in place so that women’s rights do not retrogress due to a global, national crises or austerity phases
    States that are parties to the ICESCR are also under a “minimum core” obligation to ensure the satisfaction of, at the very least, “minimum essential levels of each of the rights” in the ICESCR. Even in times of severe resource constraints, states must ensure that rights are fulfilled for vulnerable members of society
    A consistent approach to the participation of rights holders, including the right to information, freedom of expression, assembly and association, and the accountability of duty-bearers is imperative for women who face negative traditional cultural and behavioral stereotypes that often make their informed participation impossible
    Focusing on the duty-bearers will provide accountability at multiple intersecting levels – local, national, regional and international creating an enabling environment for the MDGs
    4) Future achievements can benefit from reviewing best practices
    Since 2002 German Development Cooperation has supported Cambodia and especially the Ministry of Women´s Affairs (MOWA) in putting policies and strategies in place to substantially reduce gender-based violence. One of the main achievements was the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence that was passed by the Parliament in 2005
    EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women´s Empowerment in Development (2010-2015)
    Germany in the MENA region, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia – “Economic Integration of Women in the MENA Region” focuses on gender inequalities and gender stereotypes at the workplace, media campaigns with public and private stakeholders
    4) Gender Equality is under-funded
    In 2012 official development assistance (ODA) stood at $126 billion presenting a decline in allocable aid. Aid for gender equality = $22 billion
    There is an urgent need to channel more funds towards women’s political and economic empowerment
    Limited funding for women’s rights and gender equality is a crucial factor restraining the achievement of the MDGs for women and girls
    5. The target of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/Aids by 2015 has not been fully met, although the number of new HIV infections fell by around 40% between 2000 and 2013.
    CONCLUSIONS- GOING FORWARD WE NEED TO:
    1. Embed the MDGs in a human rights framework
    2. Look at all MDGs through a gender lens and apply the principles of gender-mainstreaming to all MDGs and the 2015 agenda
    3. Collect better data (disaggregated)
    4. Build accountability into all actions
    5. Have gender-responsive budgeting

    QUESTION NUMBER 2.
    Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    ANSWER TO QUESTION NUMBER 2
    It is baffling how other countries of the world, especially, Western countries enjoy civilization, good hospitality, citizen welfare, and rule of law while African continent is way back left behind. In recent time, African continent, mainly, Nigeria, has suffered series of military coup, war and colonization.

    Holding that our colonial masters have moved on with variety of developments both in technology and economy, and one will ever ask, does Africans need second colonization?

    Yes, Africa does not need another colonization but need to look inward to know what is actually wrong with its system of governance, and try to make amendment where necessary. In this brief research basically focused for class presentation, it will concentrate on understanding what good governance means, citing countries that is transparent in their day to day government activities, pointing out causes of bad governance in Nigeria and make summarized recommendation on how to resolve those problems.

    Recently the terms “governance” and “good governance” are being increasingly used in development literature. Bad governance is regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that reforms and ensures “good governance” are undertaken.

    What is Governance and Good Governance?
    Governance is simply means the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)

    Good Governance is an approach to government that is committed to creating a system founded in justice and peace that protects individuals human rights and civil liberties.
    Good governance is to promote and sustain holistic and integrated human development. The central focus is to see how the government enables and authorizes its people, regardless of differences of caste, creed, class, political ideology and social origin to think and take decisions which will be in their best interest and which will enable them to lead a clean, decent , happy and autonomous existence.

    Factors of Good Governance
    According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors of Participation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness, Consensus Oriented, Equity and Inclusiveness, Effectiveness and Efficiency, and Accountability.
    Participation requires that all groups, particularly those most vulnerable, have direct or representative access to the systems of government. This manifests as a strong civil society and citizens with the freedom of association and expression.
    Rule of Law is exemplified by impartial legal systems that protect the human rights and civil liberties of all citizens, particularly minorities. This is indicated by an independent judicial branch and a police force free from corruption.
    Transparency means that citizens understand and have access to the means and manner in which decisions are made, especially if they are directly affected by such decisions. This information must be provided in an understandable and accessible format, typically translated through the media.
    Responsiveness simply involves that institutions respond to their stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.
    Consensus Oriented is demonstrated by an agenda that seeks to mediate between the many different needs, perspectives, and expectations of a diverse citizenry. Decisions needs to be made in a manner that reflects a deep understanding of the historical, cultural, and social context of the community.
    Equity and Inclusiveness depends on ensuring that all the members of a community feel included and empowered to improve or maintain their well being, especially those individuals and groups that are the most vulnerable.
    Effectiveness and Efficiency is developed through the sustainable use of resources to meet the needs of a society. Sustainability refers to both ensuring social investments carry through and natural resources are maintained for future generations.
    Accountability refers to institutions being ultimately accountable to the people and one another. This includes government agencies, civil society, and the private sector all being accountable to one another as well.

    The Most Five Transparent Nations on Good Governance
    The most transparent countries, those with open business and government practices, well-distributed political power and the least corruption, tend to be among the world’s strongest democracies and affluent nations.
    It’s wise to pay attention to the connection between corruption and inequality, warns the anti-corruption group Transparency International, because the two “feed off each other to create a vicious circle between corruption, unequal distribution of power in society, and unequal distribution of wealth.” Some nations heed this advice better than others.
    According to the U.S. News 2018 Best Countries Rankings, based on a global perception-based survey, these are the five most transparent countries:
    5: Sweden
    Sweden is one of several Nordic nations that typically does well on international lists about good governance and transparency. The country was ranked No. 4 out of 176 countries and territories surveyed in Transparency Internationals 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index and No, 2 on Reporters Without Borders’s 2017 World Press Freedom Index. The media is protected under Swedens Freedom of the Press Act of 1766, the first press freedom law in the world, according to Freedom House.

    4: Finland
    Finland has free and fair elections, an independent judiciary and equal rights for women and minorities, according to Freedom House. The country was ranked No. 3 out of 176 countries and territories surveyed in Transparency Internationals 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index. Finland is also No. 3 on the Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index, which reflects the degree of freedom that journalists, news media and others enjoy in each country.
    3: Switzerland
    Switzerland is a Central European nation that does well on lists measuring transparency and good governance. The country is a direct democracy in which civil liberties are respected, according to Freedom House, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom and democracy. Switzerland was ranked No. 5 out of 176 countries and territories surveyed in Transparency Internationals 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index.
    2: Canada
    Canada is one of the “most free” countries in the world, according to Freedom House, with “a strong history of respect for political rights and civil liberties.” The country ranks No. 22 on the Reporters Without Borders 2017 World Press Freedom Index, and No. 9 on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2016.
    1: Norway
    The Scandinavian country of Norway is regularly listed as one of the least corrupt countries in the world. The nation took the top spot on the Reporters Without Borders 2017 World Press Freedom Index and ranked No. 6 on Transparency Internationals 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index. “Norway has one of the most robust democracies in the world,” according to Freedom House.

    CAUSES OF BAD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
    Ethnic/regional interest: – taking closer look at the rotation of power amongst past leaders from different regions, you will observe how lopsided some sensitive offices are filled up. Not minding federal character system, national interest, and constitutional provision on allocation of power, majority of the key offices were filled up with people from one region. Critical example is the Mohammadu Buhari appointment of Security Chiefs, His Chief staff, INEC Chairman etc. This depicts high level of region and ethnical interest and it could be a reference point for other region that will clinch to power to continue in same direction. This act is corruption on its own.

    Nepotism/informal relationship: – The days of ethical ways of employment which demands merit has really gone. Today Nigeria has redefined employment process where the gateway to accept both graduate and nongratuate, competent and non-compotent employees into organization, especially government owned establishments, without minding the retrogressive movement and low productivity will cause. Nigeria can not expect to be better when it can not maintain a platform to scrutinize for qualified applicants. Good example of this informal relationship is traceable to government of Mr. Buhari where three job portfolios were given to one man. Mr. Fashola who read law handling position – Housing, Works, and Power – meant for Civil Engineers whilst there are technocrats to mount these positions in order to yield positive results. And you keep wondering why Nigeria infrastructural developments remain stagnant.

    Lack of implementation: – This avenue has given room for embezzlement of project funds. We have seen lite of projects, East-West road that has taken long over 10 years now, series of budgets made to that respect yet no visible accomplishment. A lot of them.

    Lack of rule of law: – Rule of Law gives rise to good governance but is unfortunate that Nigeria does not encourage rule of law. We have series of evidence that has proven that Nigeria does not maintain rule of law. Amnesty International in 2016 accused Mr Buratai, the Army Chief of staff of killing over 300 Shiites alleged to have obstructed Buratai’s vehicular movement during prayer hours. Transparency International also rated Nigeria low on several occasions. Including of unarmed peacefully protesting IPOB members said Amnesty international.

    Leadership incompetence: – Majority of Nigerian leaders does not meet leadership qualifications necessary to equip them into representative offices. In 2016, Mr. Buhari was requested to present his school certificate, as the president of Nigeria, he declined, and put up a counter motion, defended it with 13 Senior Advocates of Nigeria and 30 Lawyers. Till today, no single certificate has been presented to clarify that doubt. Nigeria deserve technocrats, learned men who can withstand the pressure of challenging economy and global competition.

    Ambiguous constitution: – Nigerian constitution is too ambiguous and does not meet the problem on ground. The constitution was a copy over during military regime, and the context of military and democracy does not align. According to Good Ebere Jonathan, the just past president of Nigeria, during one his 2015 campaign, he revealed that the constitution has so much authority and as a president he didn’t use up to 5% of it. Adding that if he employ the provisions kept for the president alone at 50% percent that his enemies and attackers will run into exile. If Nigeria constitution will reserve such alone to the president, why won’t the president intimidate other arms of government like the judiciary and legislature?

    Secular system: – The secular system of Nigeria deprives its citizens the opportunity to hold its bad leaders questionable. In Egypt, Masi won election through the back door, the people of Egypt in one voice carried out massive revolution, despite the military presence, masi was dethroned and imprisoned. Nigerians cannot carry out successful revolutionary protest that can cause a change because its people are divided by religion, belief, culture, language at high interest. It takes a nation to do that than a country, mainly merged without ancestral trace.
    Lack of ancestral trace:- Nigeria has no definite history that defined how they come to being, that protects their value, that gives in natural love and oneness. This has naturally created a discord even between the managers of 1914 amalgamation. It will always be easy for a Yoruba man to forgive a Yoruba man during dispute, so also Igbo man to Igbo man and Hausa man to Hausa man but if other way round, it will be difficult following absence of natural love, values, belief, biding culture, and past bloody experience held against each other.

    Religious intolerance: The issue of religious intolerance will never be emphasized. It’s a phenomenal issue and global dent. Countries that are divided between religion and language are still fighting till today around the world, and some are best resolved by separating them into countries. I think this will remain a pointer if nothing is quickly done about it. For exams, in the Nigerian constitute, Shari’a was mentioned and recognised but Christianity never mentioned. This is foundational and must be paid attention into.

    Centralized system/absence of true federalism: – Whenever I hear about federal republic of Nigeria, what next come to my mind is true federalism. According to Goodluck Jonathan, too much is reserved for the president, and the centralized system gives him more edge and power to get act foolishly when feels like.

    Lack of dependence on its on citizen/expatriate syndrome: – largely, Nigerian leaders does not recognise its citizens as resource rather consumer. They prefer and depends largely on foreigners instead of its citizens. Majority of government used engineers are foreigners even it is privileged to do technology/knowledge transfer to have its own citizens fill those gaps occupied by foreigners.

    Over dependence on foreign countries:- Nigeria do not have confidence on itself, it largely depends on other countries to do everything for them. Takes loan, buy arms, etc. The countries balance of payment if always at debt serving lane than other way.

    Third-world stigma/mentality:- The earlier we start thinking less of we bearing that word ‘Third-world’ country, the better will stand to see our global challenges. We hide so much under the word to keep getting assistance from the acclaimed civilized countries.

    Continental front/long term goal: African Union has not embraced challenge to compete with other continents, no visible long term visionary goals to help countries under it prioritize their and champion it.

    External interest:- Some countries selfish interest could also be a big challenge to constrain Nigeria from development. For example, British government, I think they like the condition of Nigeria and will also want it to remain confused and disjointed so that they can be able to keep achieving their aims.

    Excess blood spillage/civil war cleansing:- If we look physically to unravel problems befalling Nigeria is good to also look spiritual. Of the truth, too much blood of innocent citizens has flowed in the soil of Nigeria and could be causing spiritual undertone. Nigeria deserve cleansing.

    Transferred hatred/wrong historical indoctrination:- Some parents blindly indoctrinate their children by giving out some historical messages/stories in order to retaliate the past. The example of it is the killing of ‘Biafrans’ during 1967 – 1970 Civil War, average Igbo man sees Hausa man as his enemy. Calabari man will not like to accept Igbo man because of passed on histories of how Igbos almost overtake their land. That since then shows Igbos to be greedy therefore not accepted I their midst. This and others like it continue to cause disunity between neighbors, communities, states. Such existing issues can never allow development to strive. If Igbo man sees what will benefit Hausa man he will block it, so also the Calabaris to Igbos. etc.
    Shari’a/Christianity dichotomy and the constitution: The constitution recognizes the word Shari’a and it appears many times while the word Christianity was not found. This gives rise to running of parallel government in Nigeria by forming of Shari’a police and Shari’a law. This issues in its little way adds pressure into the system of governance that can discourage development.

    Unemployable graduates/lack of entrepreneurial spirit:- Today Nigerian youths lacks so any things that could give foundation to their rise, coupled with poor certificates. When they go into politics, they go with same blindness, with vision to see necessary projects for the country.

    Lack of motivational culture in organization:- Public and private organizations lacks motivational culture necessary to make works put their best. For example, Nigeria Police Force will always give reasons to be collecting morning on the road because indebtedness and poor salaries. These at macro level transcends into bad government.

    Poor government rules and regulations/poor economic policy:- government inability to enact good policies, rule and regulations to help business strive competitively makes it possible for government officials to hide under the regulations to perform poorly.

    Lack of confidence on the youth/untapped talents domicile in young Nigerians:- Nigeria does not see average youth as a catalyst to make a change in the system, therefore fails to equip them for economical benefits.

    Lack of Social media culture/social media:- Nigerians are just realizing the importance of social media as a tool to fight poor governance than the usual selfie upload and download system. The stream handle can be used to record evidence of crime which could be exhibit to fight bad public office holder.
    High political tussle/touts as party members:- The political atmosphere of Nigeria is too hostile for technocrats to come in. The use of thugs during g and after elections constitutes 50% of crime in Nigeria. God fathers compensate political thugs with political office thereby making the system ungovernable.

    Bitter Politics/uninclusive government/winner takes it all syndrome:- The Winner takes it all system of Nigeria Politics has caused more harm than good. It scares opposition away, including their experienced members that can bring expected change to governance. Opposition automatically becomes enemy and that goes with hatred.

    Greediness/hunger/desperation:- Some persons needs not to come close to power because of the way the see politics. They see politics as avenue to make money than to serve. Some out of desperation to become rich man/woman goes extra mile to breach rule of law to accomplish its selfish interest.

    Lopsided power sharing:- How can government achieve good governance when selection of office holder is based on my region than capable hands. Poor performance will definitely make no positive improvement in the life of the government.

    Problems Facing Nigeria as a Country
    Poverty: In Nigeria poverty is a creation of man due to the mismanagement of the commonwealth of the nation. Most Nigerian citizens are poor people living amidst wealth. Nigeria has more than enough to fund capital projects but choose to borrow. They supplies electricity to other countries like Niger, Benin Republic etc and stay in darkness back home. They export agricultural products yet having insufficient food to feed the citizen.

    Political Godfatherism: Godfatherism is a term used in Nigeria to describe the strongman- dominated politics in the country (Albert, 2005)
    Godfatherism in Nigerian politics is a ‘behavior in which economically, politically, and socially well-placed individual influence political and economic processes’ ( Joseph, 1987).
    Its all about sharing the national cake.
    Corruption:
    Insecurity and:
    Poor economy:

    Recommendations
    1. Nigerian leader should first of all be law abiding and should lead by example as this would help it’s citizens to follow their examples.
    2. Nigeria should be less dependent on Foreign Aides, excessive borrowing.
    3. Nigeria should patronize its products and give grants to small scale industries to boast innovations.
    4. If killings persist, Nigeria should be divided into regions to solve some long lasted crisis causing everyday blood spills like Herdsmen/Farmers clash, Biafra issues, etc and to encourage global business competition.
    5. The Federal government of Nigeria should be decentralized to encourage competition within member states and stabilize central government Local government Autonomy, State Policing, resource control etc.
    6. Reduce the presence of touts around corridor of power.
    7. Remove state of origin to encourage coexistence
    8. Maintain Rule of Law
    9. Institute Youth Entrepreneur Commission to over see the rising problem of youth so also to reduce crime. Consider soft stipend to help deuce vices pressure.
    10. Make regulations to guide use of internal engineers as against expatriates. Visible economic policy.
    11. Depend largely on its internal potentials.
    12. Nigeria should propose new constitution that will be contextually compiled and complements the democratic system currently in use than military adopted provisio
    Encourage birth control
    Adopt capital punishment for public office holder (holistically, not as with hunt apparatus or tool).
    Make Bachelor of Science a criterion for presidential position.

    REFERENCES
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342699225_Good_Governance_The_Problem_of_Nigeria/link/5f01bbe392851c52d619bdbb/download
    UNDP (1997) Governance for Sustainable Human Development. United Nations Development Programme
    https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/best-transparency?slide=7
    creativelearning.org/blog/2016/11/08/what-is-good-governance/

  80. Avatar Ibeawuchi Wisdom Ugochukwu 2018/241845 says:

    I’m my opinion, I believe these goals were not achieve by the Nigerian Government let’s talk about them individually

    Reducing Poverty; Presently Nigeria is ahead of India as the poorest country in the world with over 40% of it’s population living below the poverty line. It may appear to some that progress has been made by the Nigerian government to reducing Poverty through various programs and schemes, but what one seems to forget is that, while the government is initiating various activities for this cause, many other factors are acting against the efforts of the government. Security challenges, environmental degradation and various other activities have defeated the purpose of the various government schemes and programs. The Millennium Development Goals had specific, clear & explicit targets for poverty percentage reduction, which of course the government have failed to meet. Resulting in an avalanche effect of increasing hardship for average Nigerians.

    Improving Quality of people: Mere cognisance of the Nigerian environment would give a clear picture of how quality of people’s lives have not been improved. If Nigeria ranks as the country with the most poor people in the world, how then can we talk about quality of life? How do we even measure quality of life? Education, Health, Freedom of People, Good Governance and a host of other metrics are considered when depicting countries with quality of life. None of these factors are of a reasonable state in Nigeria where out of school children are ever increasing, Health quality seems stagnant, and freedom of people are restricted indirectly from bad governance. We then can’t conclude that Nigeria met it’s target for the MDG

    Environmental sustainability: Many of us awoke to the News on a certain morning, Niger Delta Militants had destroyed pipelines, why? Many factors actually, one being the environmental degrading activities many companies created in the environment and the lack of appropriate remedies to compensate for such externalities. Nigerian government may have set-up committee and funds to ease the pressure of these activities but when one evaluates the results of its actions it would be considered irrelevant and insignificant to the overall targets of the MDG

    Partnerships: Nigeria on the international scene has engaged in various strategic partnerships with other countries, many from its sister African Countries and Asian countries as well, notably China. These partnerships could have had a major impact on the Nigerian economy, and how well it can better influence and build solid relationship with other countries, but the corrupt government has lessened the effects it could have created

    The other MDG’s targets are still debatable as to their impact. They are

    Good Governance

    According to UNDP, “Good Governance is, among other things, participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable. And it promotes the rule of law. Good governance ensures that political, social, and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of development resources”

    According to the world bank (1992) “good governance is central to creating and sustaining an environment which fosters strong and equitable development and it is an essential complement to sound economic policies”.

    Governance needs some parameters to make it good, there are 8 major characteristics of good governance. These are mentioned below

    Participation
    Rule of Law
    Transparency
    Responsiveness
    Consensus Oriented
    Equity and Inclusiveness
    Effectiveness and Efficiency
    Accountability.

    In Nigeria and other developing countries, these metrics are very low when compared to other developing countries, one would begin to think if the weakness of these factors impede development at a significant level. Nigeria has over the years seen low participation of its nations citizens in the decision making process. The rule of law of the country and other developing countries is lacking supremacy in most situations with people in office bending it to their preference. Other factors like transparency, responsiveness, Customer orientated, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency and accountability are considered low in Nigeria.

  81. Avatar Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    2018/245427
    Economics Education
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    1. In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    No,
    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) therefore have been the world´s only time-bound and quantifiable targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions: income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and social exclusion, while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability. This eight goal initiative was planned to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, while aiming to achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development. Based on these goals, the world has galvanized previously unprecedented efforts to meet the needs of the world’s poorest and most disadvantaged.
    Nigeria, like most other nations of the world, signed this treaty and promised to work towards the realization of this goal. To achieve this, a number of steps were taken, including the release of central government funds. Offices were created and individuals appointed to key positions to work towards the MDG targets. However, at the end of the MDG period in 2015, the big question is where is Nigeria in all this as a nation? As a review of the MDGs in Nigeria by Olabode and colleagues in 2014 concluded that Nigeria would not attain the MDG targets because Nigeria have failed to meet any of the targets due to a multiplicity of health system-related, political and systemic challenges. It is questionable as to whether infant deaths have reduced in Nigeria and if there has been a significant change in malaria-induced mortality and morbidity. It seems that maternal death rates have not significantly changed. With the Federal Government yet to pay teachers’ salaries, whether schools have higher enrolment is a moot point. With the regular healthcare workers’ strikes, attempts to reduce national mortality rates have been severely hampered. it will be a disservice to Nigeria and Nigerians for anyone that is the government or international organizations to claim that any of the eight MDG targets were actually met in Nigeria to date.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    For sometime now, there has been a recurrent and sustained argument that the Nigerian state, like its counterparts in Africa and other countries of the developing world, underperforms due to lack of state capacity to deal with the contemporary complexities of governance. Governance and political leadership in Nigeria have been driven by self-interest and other primordial considerations, which take priority over that of the public. The state has failed in three major areas: security of lives and properties, promotion of the rule of law, and provision of visionary leadership. The “petroleum-rich” Nigerian state, confronted by sociopolitical instability, high degree of corruption, mass hostility to the “public,” and poor macroeconomic management, continue to display the attributes of a state in crisis (Akinola, 2008). Successive governments in Nigeria, like in many African states, lack the political will to initiate or sustain policy or structural transformation, or to embark on sound economic reform to reposition the state for greatness. With the weakness of the Nigerian state and its ineffectiveness, it has become challenging to eradicate impoverishment, engage in infrastructural development, and stem the tides of insurgency and terrorism, which have the potency to derail the country’s moderate political development. So in conclusion, Nigeria won’t be able to experience good governance so long corruption continues to exist among their leaders and even within the people been governed.

  82. Avatar Julius Loveth Olachi (2018/242294) says:

    JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI
    2018/242291
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    No.1
    Yes, the goals of MDGs were achieved, although some were successful and some failed .

    The breakdown of the success and failure of the MDGs
    Goal 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER
    Extreme poverty has declined significantly over the last two decades. In 1990,
    nearly half of the population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day;
    that proportion dropped to 14 per cent in 2015.
    • Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more
    than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. Most progress has
    occurred since 2000.
    GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION:
    The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 has increased globally from 83 per
    cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015. The gap between women and men has
    narrowed.

    Goal 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN
    Many girls are now in school compared to 15years ago. Between 1991 and 2015, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment as a
    share of total female employment has declined 13 percentage points. In contrast,
    vulnerable employment among men fell by 9 percentage points.

    Goal 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY
    Despite population growth in the developing regions, the number of deaths of
    children under five has declined from 12.7 million in 1990 to almost 6 million in
    2015 globally.

    Goal 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
    More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in
    2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.

    Goal 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES
    Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015,
    primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global
    malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate
    by 58 per cent.
    • More than 900 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets were delivered to
    malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2004 and 2014.

    Goal 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
    Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met
    the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both.
    • Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. The
    proportion of people practicing open defecation has fallen almost by half since
    1990.

    Goal 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
    Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 per cent of the world’s population
    in 2000 to 43 per cent in 2015. As a result, 3.2 billion people are linked to a global
    network of content and applications.

    Although significant achievements have been made on
    many of the MDG targets worldwide, progress has been
    uneven across regions and countries, leaving significant
    gaps. Millions of people are being left behind, especially
    the poorest and those disadvantaged because of their
    sex, age, disability, ethnicity or geographic location.
    Targeted efforts will be needed to reach the most
    vulnerable people.

    NO. 2

    The failure of governance in Nigeria manifests in the declining capacity of political leaders to recognize systemic risks such as election fraud, terrorist attacks, herder-farmer conflict, armed banditry, and police brutality and put in place the necessary measures to navigate these challenges. In contrast with the current system in which leadership is attained through bribery, intimidation, and violence, Nigeria needs an epistocratic system of governance that is founded on the pedigree of its political leaders and the education of its voters.

    The development of the country is held back by poor overall governance, serious corruption, weak and complex institutions, massive inequality and very limited access for most of the population to basic services.

  83. Avatar Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi/2018/242426 says:

    Name: Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi
    Reg number: 2018/242426
    Department: Economics
    1. To an extent the MDGs have been able to achieve their goals. There has been an improvement in the welfare of the people. They have been able to reduce poverty, reduce hunger. Infant death has been reduced though there is still room for more improvement.
    2. Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. It is the system by which entities are directed and controlled. It is concerned with structure and processes for decision making, accountability, control and behaviour at the top of an entity.
    The Principles of Good Governance;
    1.Rule of law: The Rule of Law states that nobody is above the law but we can see that in developing countries like Nigeria some politicians bend the rules for their own benefits.
    2. Transparency: Transparency is full disclosure of both public and private information. But in this developing countries it is the opposite. The leadership keeps hoarding information from the public.
    3. Responsiveness: This is when the government respond to the needs of the citizens on time but it is not so in developing countries like Nigeria.
    4. There is no consensus of orientation.
    5. Effectiveness and efficiency: The government of developing countries are neither effective nor efficient
    6. Accountability: These government of developing countries are not countable to the people.

    Following the principles of good governance we can see most of these developing countries have been unable to meet up to the standard of good governance thereby keeping them far behind.

  84. Avatar Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT:
    (1) In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    (2) Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    DISCUSSION:

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals with measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world’s poorest people. To meet these goals and eradicate poverty, leaders of 189 countries signed the historic millennium declaration at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000.
    These goals includes;
    MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education
    MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
    MDG 4: Reduce child mortality
    MDG 5: Improve maternal health
    MDG 6: Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for Development.

    Many developing countries made a huge success in achieving these goals, for example;
    Ethiopia achieved most of the health MDGs: a 67% reduction in under-five mortality, a 71% decline in maternal mortality ratio, a 90% decline in new HIV infections, a decrease in malaria-related deaths by 73% and a more than 50% decline in mortality due to tuberculosis.
    The major successful countries include China (whose poverty population declined from 452 million to 278 million) and India. The World Bank estimated that MDG 1A (halving the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day) was achieved in 2008 mainly due to the results from these two countries and East Asia.

    Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1 for example – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty – is a particularly important one and while most people are not aware of it, the world has actually achieved this goal.
    Globally, the number of deaths of children under 5 years of age fell from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013.
    In developing countries, the percentage of underweight children under 5 years old dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013.
    Globally, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013.
    Existing cases of tuberculosis are declining, along with deaths among HIV-negative tuberculosis cases.
    In 2010, the world met the United Nations Millennium Development Goals target on access to safe drinking-water, as measured by the proxy indicator of access to improved drinking-water sources, but more needs to be done to achieve the sanitation target.

    Using Nigeria as a case study to know if these goals were achieved:
    Nigeria was among the 189 countries from across the world that endorsed the United Nations.
    Millennium Declaration in New York in September 2000, which led to the adoption of the
    eight time-bound Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and their monitorable indicators.

    In Details;
    MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education:
    The net enrolment in basic education (as domesticated in Nigeria to mean six years of primary
    schooling and three years of junior secondary education) has had a fluctuating history of an
    upward trend to the mid-point assessment year. This positive trend was however halted in
    later years as a result of the disruptions brought about by the Boko Haram insurgency. The
    insurgency led to the destruction of many schools with the school children constituting a large
    size of the internally displaced population.

    MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women:
    The pursuit of gender parity in basic education in Nigeria has witnessed strong progress
    when seen against the prevailing patriarchal culture and practices in most parts of the country.
    There has been a steady increase in the ratio of girls to boys in basic education in Nigeria with the end-point status of 94% in 2013 being a significant achievement compared to the 82%
    achieved in 1991. The statistics from both the World Bank and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
    (MICS) corroborate the high gender parity index recorded by Nigeria. The success at the basic
    education level has not been replicated at the tertiary level where there is weak progress even
    though the policy environment has been supportive at every level of the educational pipeline.

    MDG 4: Reduce child mortality:
    Nigeria’s efforts aimed at reducing avoidable child deaths have been met with gradual and
    sustained progress. The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) has improved remarkably from 191
    deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 89 deaths per 1000 live births in 2014 as the end-point
    status. Considering the end-point status of U5MR, Nigeria falls short of the 2015 target of 64
    deaths per 1000 live births by 28%, And so others.
    In general terms, the report indicates that Nigeria has made appreciable progress in the
    attainment of MDGs in the last 14 years, particularly, in the area of universal primary education
    enrolment; achieving gender parity in education; reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS;
    reducing maternal deaths, as well as, halving the percentage of people living in absolute
    hunger for which it received a recognition from the Food and
    Agricultural Organisation
    (FAO). In spite of the appreciable progress, some of the targets could not be met due to
    challenges in the areas of poverty, insecurity, social inequality, absence of inclusive growth and youth unemployment.

    (2):
    Governance can be defined as: “The system by which entities are directed and controlled. It is concerned with structure and processes for decision making, accountability, control and behaviour at the top of an entity.
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.
    Good governance is at the heart of any successful business. It is essential for a company or organisation to achieve its objectives and drive improvement, as well as maintain legal and ethical standing in the eyes of shareholders, regulators and the wider community.
    Good governance promotes accountability, transparency, efficiency and rule of law at all levels and allows efficient management of human, natural, economic and financial resources for equitable and sustainable development, guaranteeing civil society participation in decision-making processes.

    What Constitutes Good Governance are:
    Participation.
    Consensus oriented.
    Accountability.
    Transparency.
    Responsive.
    Effective and efficient.
    Equitable and inclusive.
    Follows the rule of law.

    Transparency:
    Information and transparency can never be separated, for the latter is built on free flow of the former. The media acts as a communication tool between government, public servants and the general public. This calls for a press that is not heavily regulated and operates freely promoting democracy and good governance. Processes, institutions and information should be made directly accessible to those concerned with them, and characteristics of good governance ensure enough information is provided to understand and monitor them. To achieve transparency, officials should be prepared to answer each and every discrepancy that needs clarity.

    Effectiveness and efficiency:
    Making the best use of resources while meeting needs of the people is what we call efficiency and effectiveness. Prior to their election, politicians make promises including management of resources because that is where the eyes and hearts of the people are. Good governance simply actions these promises into life after election.

    Accountability:
    Accountability means decision-makers in government, despite using their discretion on some decisions, are still answerable to those who elected them into power. The private sector and civil society organizations are also accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. Characteristics of good governance include accountability, which differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external to an organization. The idea of accountability serves as a reminder that no politician or public administrator has absolute power to do as they please.

    Equity:
    The most important goal of any government is the wellness of its people. Equal opportunities to improve or maintain well-being should be availed to every individual. This has to be done with no discrimination of any sort. Lately emphasis has been put by governments and lobby groups on gender equity. However, people living with disabilities are usually left out.

    Inclusivity:
    The biggest mistake any government can make is perceiving oppositions and opposing views as enemies. Good governance emphasizes on inclusivity outside political lines or any other differences for that matter.

    Consensus orientation:
    It is a public secret that alternative views exist everywhere, even among people of the same group (for example the same political party). This means for governments it is even more important to stay woke and approach alternative views critically. “Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interests of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures.

    Rule of law:
    This has been a contested topic in almost all democracies where certain social classes of seem immune to certain pieces of legislation. For there to be good governance worth mentioning legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially. Particular attention is then paid to laws on human rights. These are basic provisions agreed upon by all nations who are signatories to the bill of rights. If a piece of legislation violates any of these rights it needs to be repealed, although some governments have held on to some oppressive laws.

    Participation:
    Every citizen should be afforded a voice in decision-making processes of a nation. This can be done either (in very few cases) directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. These institutions can be inform of wards led by elected Councilors, constituents led by elected legislators and other organizations whose aim are facilitating communication between government and the people using characteristics of good governance.

    Some developing countries are far from these attributes of good governance, In Nigeria for example is way behind;
    In Nigeria, there’s corruption, high cost of living, unemployment, education, housing, healthcare, and infrastructure.
    Problems of Nigeria also includes;
    Bribe and corruption – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    Poor economy – unemployment and reservation
    uneducated people – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    Inequality – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major cause for backwardness.

  85. Avatar Nnadebe Jane Amarachi (2018/241863) says:

    NNADEBE JANE AMARACHI
    2018/241863
    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS

    YES, I think these goals were achieved, albeit, not all of it.
    According to the united National, it hauled it as “the most successful anti-poverty movement in history.”
    The UN secret general explained that the MGDs has helped to alleviate about 1.5 billion people from poverty, to make inroads against hunger, to enable more girls to attend school than ever before and to protect our planet.
    Though, for all its remarkable gains some fell short.

    MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    The target of reducing extreme poverty rates – people living on just $1.25 a day – by half was met five years ahead of the 2015 deadline. The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen from 23.3 per cent in 1990 to 12.9 per cent in 2014.

    MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
    The primary school enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 per cent this year, up from 83 per cent in 2000.

    MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
    Only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half since 1990 – dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births. This falls short of the targeted drop of two-thirds.

    MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health
    From 1990 to 2015, the maternal mortality declined by 45 % worldwide. Globally, more than 71 % of births were assisted by skilled health personnel in 2014, an increase from 59 % in 1990.

    MDG 6: Combat Hiv/Aids, Malaria And Other Diseases
    The number of new HIV infections fell by approximately 40 % between 2000 and 2013. The global malaria incidence rate fell by an estimated 37 % and the mortality rate by 58 %. Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention and treatment interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives.

    MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability
    The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90% of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor.

    MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for development
    Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector.

    NO 2

    Good governance manifesting in areas of rule of law, transparency, accountability, citizens participation among others are sine qua non for national peace and development. However, ‘poverty of leadership’ in most of the Nigeria’s 57 years of existence has not only hindered the nation’s development, but continued to threaten its peace and stability. While it is widely believed that bad governance is prevalent in autocratic and oligarchic systems, it is evident now that bad governance does exist much more in democracies.
    Governance and political leadership in Nigeria have been driven by self-interest and other primordial considerations, which take priority over that of the public. The state has failed in three major areas: security of lives and properties, promotion of the rule of law, and provision of visionary leadership. In conclusion, the nature and characters of the political leadership explains the Nigerian state incapacity for effective governance.

    CHALLENGES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
    1. Dismal State of Press Freedom:
    Authoritarian governments continue to use legal pressure, imprisonment, and other forms of harassment to suppress independent reporting.
    2. Lack of Voice and Weak Accountability.
    3. Political Instability.
    4. Corruption.
    5. Poor Economic Growth.
    6. Corruption.
    7. Transparency.
    8. Dealing with Corruption

  86. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg No. 2019/247552 (2/3)
    Course Code: Eco 362
    Course Title: Development Economics II
    Answers:
    1. Globalization is the term used to describe the growing worldwide integration of the people and countries. It is a process of integrating economic decision-making such as consumption, investment and saving all across the world. This means that part of globalization is a process
    of creating global market place in which increasingly, all nations are made to participate.The features that characterize globalization include interconnection of sovereign countries through trade and capital flow; harmonization of the economic rules that govern the
    interaction or relationship between these sovereign nations; create structures to support and facilitate dependence and interconnection; and creation of a global market place. However, globalization brings about advancement in information technology, harmonization of different cultures and belief and harmonization of the political systems of different countries
    of the world.
    Globalization has led to the intensification of the world social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many Kilometers away and vice versa. The components of globalization include:
    Movement of people, goods and services across the world. Interdependence of economic transaction.
    Belief on the efficacy of the market.
    Public and private sector development.
    The belief on the effectiveness of the market presuppose an adherence to economic
    fundamentalism, the Washington consensus or a form of dogmatism in the extreme in which
    there is a strong belief that markets can handle any and everything. More important is the fact that the principles and mission statement of globalization are constantly reviewed and sustained by multinational corporation (MNCS), the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
    World Bank (WB), World Trade Organization and the industrialized countries or Europe and North America (Kankwenda, 2004).Since globalization largely depends on technological efflorescence, massive industrialization
    and solid infrastructural base to triumph, it automatically means that countries that are lagging behind in development, with micro-economic inconsistence will be enveloped and be manipulated by those that have been developed. This could lead to inequality in the global economy.
    EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE ECONOMY OF NIGERIA AND THE YOUTHS.
    The effect of globalization on the economy of Nigeria. There are positive and negative influences of globalization on the Economy of Nigeria.
    The positive influence include:
    The opportunities to create wealth through the export-led growth, to expand international trade in goods and services and to gain access to new ideas, technologies and institutions.
    Globalization has reduced the barrier existing in international trade. The reduction in those barriers has opened the door for export led growth.
    Since globalization entails trade liberalization, it means that there is free and unrestricted movement of trade, finance and investment across the international border. Globalization allows Nigeria to export and import goods, capital and investment without restriction. promotes the rapid output growth that will increase national income and as a consequence enhance higher standard of living of developing country like Nigeria.
    Globalization has enriched the world economically, scientifically and culturally. This is because; globalization opens the economies to a wide variety of consumption of goods, new technology and knowledge. Through the ICT, globalization allows the access to ideas on new things and best practices in all area of human endeavour. New designs, production technology, new managerial practices, etc are made available to people, thereby helping them to change their old practices. These may lead to acquisition or imitation of foreign products, technologies and cultural practices. Globalization creates global market places, which, with the development in communication technology, can be accessed by any person from any location. This opens up a world of opportunities for business and also links them to market.
    Globalization encourages research, since through the Internet; one can access websites of different authors, organizations, and companies in different countries of the world
    The Negative Influences Include;
    The greatest concern about globalization is the ever-increasing gap between the rich and the poor. The observation in this case is that while global wealth has increased, it has become concentrated in the hands of the few privileged individuals and few countries. The distribution of global wealth has never been fair.
    There is very high inequality because while some countries such as India, Asia, United kingdom, etc have benefited from their integration into the global economy, most countries in Africa, more especially Nigeria where income has equally decreased is facing unrest and frustration (Salimono, 1999).Any adverse global shock in an interdependence world economy affects Nigeria. The propagation mechanism of the oil glut of 1982, 1998 and even 2015 brought decline in the import volume and change in the real price of commodities (oil). Since Nigeria depends heavily on crude oil as the main source of income or foreign exchange earning, her revenue suffers when there is a global shock.
    The effect of globalization is the fear of uncertainty and volatility on capital formation and productivity growth with its negative consequence on economic growth. There is economic instability as a result of tax on growth and prosperity (CBN, 2000). This problem of uncertainty is not from within but externally generated and Nigeria has not evolved a good mechanism that can absorb the shocks.
    The social effect of globalization is another fear considered, since globalization is associated with instability of output and employment. Thus there could be fear of job security, which can bring industrial conflicts if any attempt is made to disengage employee.
    Globalization tends to transmit the cultural pattern of developed countries to the rest of the world. In Nigeria today, our youths imitate the European and American consumption patterns, modes of transport, modes of dressing, method of communication including their music. They are at the verge of neglecting our cultural heritage.
    Effects of Globalization on Nigerian Youth.
    The Positive effects of globalization in Nigeria are:
    The advancement in technology such as the provision of telecommunication infrastructure, cross border data flow, the Internet, satellite networks and wireless telephone. Computers, mobile telephones, and the Internet have brought about major transformation in world communication. There is great improvement in transportation of goods by air, land and water. The major negative effects of globalization through ICT are the exposure of the Youth to negative Western culture. Most dangerous amongst them are: Pornography, money laundering, cultism, international terrorism, child abuse and Yahoo.com boys (419). It is extremely difficult for Nigeria with strong Christian and Islamic cultures to tolerate the level of pornographic activities that go on in the Internet.In many Nigerian Universities, polytechnics, Colleges of Education and urban centers, nudity has become a rich and elegant dressing style. Mode of dressing expressed through the exposure of various parts of the body is now a common occurrence among the Youth. The boys wear what is referred to as ‘sagging’, whereby trousers is no longer worn around the waist but would be hanging on the buttocks thereby exposing their underwear. Ladies wear clothes that expose their breasts in order to conform to their newfound culture.The use of abuse of drugs, uses of arms and ammunitions, Promiscuity, exposure to pornography and various other negative life styles are often a fall out of accessibility to the Internet and cable channels.The Internet provides the opportunity for the proliferation of cyber crime, which is global phenomenon, and Nigeria Youths is global phenomenon, and Nigeria Youths are not free from these crimes. The perpetrators of this crime, which is often referred to as ‘419’, ‘yahoo’ or Yahoo Plus’ are usually the criminal minded Youths and many unemployed Nigerian. Many of these fraudsters patronize cyber Cafés; browsing all night, sending Scan Mails to unsuspecting victims. Their activities are carried out in various dimensions, ranging from soliciting for money, illegal businesses, relationships and marriages. These Yahoo boys have deceived foreign women who are seeking for spouses through the Internet. Some of the dupped foreigners report their ugly experiences to the security agencies who sometimes succeed in apprehending and prosecuting the suspects.Trafficking in persons, which the international labour Organization (ILO, 2001) describes as the underside of globalization”, is one of the greatest human rights challenges of our time. Some of our young girls are Kidnapped or lured into following the perpetrators abroad of no defined destination with the plan to position the girls as sex machine with little remuneration. For instance these trafficked persons, women and girls are placed in brothels, streets corners, tourist establishments and private homes where they are forced to offer sexual activities for money.
    CONCLUSION
    From the discussion so far, it is clear that globalization is a welcome development not minding the problems inherent from it. It has both positive and negative impacts as discussed in this work but should be an irreversible process in Nigeria in accordance with natural laws.In this article, we have looked at globalization and its effect on Nigeria Youths and the economy. It is unbearable and shame that many Nigeria children cannot speak their dialect or understand any of their cultures. It is also unfair that the girls do not cover their breasts and other private part properly, and this should be condemned. The cyber café crime should also be condemned in its entirety. The advantages of globalization for Nigeria lie in the capacity for wealth creation through export led growth and the gains of expanded international trade of goods, services, and access to new products. Despite the fact that globalization provided opportunities for development and growth, there are associated serious problem that can be managed using appropriate fiscal policies. The macro-economic instability that had characterized Nigeria Government is as a result of globalization. The falls in price of crude oil, which is the major source of Nigeria revenue, affects the exchange rate of Naira, and as well affects both federal and states.
    2. A Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)”. Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.
    Characteristics of Good Governance
    It’s is characterized by the following;
    Participation:
    This requires that all groups, particularly those most vulnerable, have direct or representative access to the systems of government. This manifests as a strong civil society and citizens with the freedom of association and expression.
    Rule of Law:
    This is exemplified by impartial legal systems that protect the human rights and civil liberties of all citizens, particularly minorities. This is indicated by an independent judicial branch and a police force free from corruption.
    Transparency:
    This means that citizens understand and have access to the means and manner in which decisions are made, especially if they are directly affected by such decisions. This information must be provided in an understandable and accessible format, typically translated through the media.
    Responsiveness simply involves that institutions respond to their stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.
    Consensus Oriented:
    This demonstrated by an agenda that seeks to mediate between the many different needs, perspectives, and expectations of a diverse citizenry. Decisions needs to be made in a manner that reflects a deep understanding of the historical, cultural, and social context of the community.
    Equity and Inclusiveness:
    This depends on ensuring that all the members of a community feel included and empowered to improve or maintain their well being, especially those individuals and groups that are the most vulnerable.
    Effectiveness and Efficiency:
    This is developed through the sustainable use of resources to meet the needs of a society. Sustainability refers to both ensuring social investments carry through and natural resources are maintained for future generations.
    Accountability: refers to institutions being ultimately accountable to the people and one another. This includes government agencies, civil society, and the private sector all being accountable to one another as well.
    Challenges Faced By Good Governance In Developing Countries Like Nigeria
    The major problem Nigerians are facing is the issue of bad Governance which has resulted to poor socio-economic performance, human rights abuses, widespread poverty, gender inequalities and discrimination, growing incidence of violence, delay in justice, insecurity, corruption and lack of trust in the political system etc. All these have led to disenchantment amongst the electorate, especially the youth who make up 51% of the 84 million registered voters. This matters in a fast-growing population of over 200 million, with more than 60% of people under 25.There can be two possible effects from such disenchantment on voter turn-out in the 2023 elections; it can motivate high turn-out in which people demand better governance or lead to apathy and low turn-out. It is expected that the high stakes at play will mobilise the former. There is a need for people to participate in choosing political leaders who will serve the public’s interest and promote good governance.
    The human cost of bad governance is evident in the low level of basic infrastructure, weak healthcare and educational system, high unemployment and the number of out-of-school children, amongst others. Across the socio-economic class divide, there is a feeling that the effects of bad governance will catch up with everyone someday. The recent protests by young Nigerians against police brutality, the EndSARS protests, exposed the gross human rights abuses suffered by many Nigerians at the hands of the institution created to protect them. More than about the police itself, the protests demonstrated the youth’s discontentment with governance throughout the country.
    Nigerians are now demanding that the government tackles the root causes of poverty, insecurity, human rights abuses and socio-economic instability – through the levers of good governance. Moving ahead to the 2023 elections, attention must be focused on the overlooked question of who becomes a political leader to achieve these goals.

  87. Avatar ISIGUZO PURITY EZINNE says:

    Name: Isiguzo Purity Ezinne.
    Reg.no: 2018/242353
    Economics Dept.

    Answer
    At the beginning of the new millennium, World leaders
    gathered at the United Nations to shape a broad vision to
    fight poverty in its many dimensions. That vision was translated into the eight Millennium Development Goals
    (MDGs), and it has remained the overarching development
    framework for the world for the past 15 years.

    The MDGs final report below acknowledges
    uneven achievements and shortfalls in many areas. The
    work is not complete, and it must continue in the new
    development era.

    Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger-

    •Extreme poverty has declined significantly over the last two decades. In 1990,
    nearly half of the population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day;
    that proportion dropped to 14 per cent in 2015.

    • Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more
    than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. Most progress has
    occurred since 2000.

    • The number of people in the working middle class—living on more than $4 a
    day—has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015. This group now makes up half the
    workforce in the developing regions, up from just 18 per cent in 1991.

    • The proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen
    by almost half since 1990, from 23.3 per cent in 1990–1992 to 12.9 per cent in
    2014–2016.

    Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education-

    •The primary school net enrolment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 per
    cent in 2015, up from 83 per cent in 2000.

    • The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen
    by almost half, to an estimated 57 million in 2015, down from 100 million in 2000.

    • Sub-Saharan Africa has had the best record of improvement in primary education
    of any region since the MDGs were established. The region achieved a
    20 percentage point increase in the net enrolment rate from 2000 to 2015,
    compared to a gain of 8 percentage points between 1990 and 2000.

    • The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 has increased globally from 83 per
    cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015.

    Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women-

    •Many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago. The developing
    regions as a whole have achieved the target to eliminate gender disparity in
    primary, secondary and tertiary education.

    • In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in
    1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys.

    • Women now make up 41 per cent of paid workers outside the agricultural sector, an
    increase from 35 per cent in 1990.

    • Between 1991 and 2015, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment as a
    share of total female employment has declined 13 percentage points. In contrast,
    vulnerable employment among men fell by 9 percentage points.

    • Women have gained ground in parliamentary representation in nearly 90 per cent
    of the 174 countries with data over the past 20 years. The average proportion of
    women in parliament has nearly doubled during the same period. Yet still only one
    in five members are women.

    Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality-

    •The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half, dropping from
    90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2015.

    • Despite population growth in the developing regions, the number of deaths of
    children under five has declined from 12.7 million in 1990 to almost 6 million in
    2015 globally.

    • Since the early 1990s, the rate of reduction of under-five mortality has more than
    tripled globally.

    • In sub-Saharan Africa, the annual rate of reduction of under-five mortality was over
    five times faster during 2005–2013 than it was during 1990–1995.

    • Measles vaccination helped prevent nearly 15.6 million deaths between 2000 and
    2013. The number of globally reported measles cases declined by 67 per cent for
    the same period.

    • About 84 per cent of children worldwide received at least one dose of measles containing vaccine in 2013, up from 73 per cent in 2000.

    Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health-

    •Since 1990, maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide,
    and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000.

    • In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between
    1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent.

    • More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in
    2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.

    • In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more
    antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014.

    • Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union,
    increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 per cent in 2015.

    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases-

    •New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent between 2000 and 2013,
    from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million.

    • By June 2014, 13.6 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral
    therapy (ART) globally, an immense increase from just 800,000 in 2003. ART
    averted 7.6 million deaths from AIDS between 1995 and 2013.

    • Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015,
    primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global
    malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate
    by 58 per cent.

    • More than 900 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets were delivered to
    malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2004 and 2014.

    • Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment
    interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives. The tuberculosis mortality rate
    fell by 45 per cent and the prevalence rate by 41 per cent between 1990 and 2013.

    Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability-

    •Ozone-depleting substances have been virtually eliminated since 1990, and the
    ozone layer is expected to recover by the middle of this century.

    • Terrestrial and marine protected areas in many regions have increased substantially
    since 1990. In Latin America and the Caribbean, coverage of terrestrial protected
    areas rose from 8.8 per cent to 23.4 per cent between 1990 and 2014.

    • In 2015, 91 per cent of the global population is using an improved drinking water
    source, compared to 76 per cent in 1990.

    • Of the 2.6 billion people who have gained access to improved drinking water since
    1990, 1.9 billion gained access to piped drinking water on premises. Over half of the
    global population (58 per cent) now enjoys this higher level of service.

    • Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met
    the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both.

    • Worldwide 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. The
    proportion of people practicing open defecation has fallen almost by half since
    1990.

    • The proportion of urban population living in slums in the developing regions fell
    from approximately 39.4 per cent in 2000 to 29.7 per cent in 2014.

    Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development-

    •Official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 per cent
    in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion.

    • In 2014, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom
    continued to exceed the United Nations official development assistance target of
    0.7 per cent of gross national income.

    • In 2014, 79 per cent of imports from developing to developed countries were
    admitted duty free, up from 65 per cent in 2000.

    • The proportion of external debt service to export revenue in developing countries
    fell from 12 per cent in 2000 to 3 per cent in 2013.

    • As of 2015, 95 per cent of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular
    signal.

    • The number of mobile-cellular subscriptions has grown almost tenfold in the last 15 years, from 738 million in 2000 to over 7 billion in 2015.

    • Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 per cent of the world’s population
    in 2000 to 43 per cent in 2015. As a result, 3.2 billion people are linked to a global
    network of content and applications.

    Given the MDGs report of 2015, as shown above, I am of the view that although significant achievements have been made on
    many of the MDG targets worldwide, yet progress has been
    uneven across regions and countries, leaving significant
    gaps. Millions of people are being left behind, especially
    the poorest and those disadvantaged because of their
    sex, age, disability, ethnicity or geographic location.

    Targeted efforts will be needed to reach the most
    vulnerable people, as such
    leaders and stakeholders in every
    nation will have to work together, redoubling efforts to achieve
    a truly universal and transformative agenda. This is the
    only way to ensure a sustainable future and a dignified
    life for all people everywhere.

    Therefore, I conclude that the Millennium Development Goals were not wholly met.

    Thank you.

  88. Avatar Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo 2018/241848 says:

    Reg no:2018/241848
    Course code: 362
    Course title: Development Economics 2

    In the year 2000, the leaders from 189 countries nations ratified the Millennium Declaration which should be achieved before 2015. These goals include the following:
    1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. Achieve universal primary education
    3. Promote gender equality and empower women
    4. Reduce child mortality
    5. Improve maternal health
    6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    7. Ensure environmental sustainability
    8. Develop a global partnership for development

    These goals were supposed to change the course of the world especially relating to developing countries, yet these goals were not achieved as;

    a. In terms of poverty and hunger eradication, the plan of the united nations in conjunction with the world bank could not be met as more than a billion people worldwide still live in extreme poverty, and many more experience hunger and are vulnerable to environmental or price shocks. Undernutrition remains one of the world’s most serious but least addressed public health challenges. Nearly one-third of children in developing countries are underweight or stunted (low height for age), and undernutrition contributes to one-third of all child deaths. And this can also be attributed to the corruption in developing countries where the individuals in power unwilling to distribute wealth to the public decides to amass these funds sharing it among themselves and denying the poor public access to the fund allocated by the UN and IMF.

    b. In terms of education statistics shows that about 58 million children are still out-of-school. Even when children complete school, they often do so without acquiring basic skills necessary for work and life. Basic universal education which is supposed to be free for all by the government is paid for thereby making it expensive for the poor massive who are struggling to make ends meet to get average education.

    c. Despite a range of significant advances by the UN and world bank, too many women still lack basic freedoms and opportunities and face huge inequalities in the world of work. Discriminatory laws and customs constrain their time and choices, as well as their ability to own or inherit property, open bank accounts, or access inputs such as credit or fertilizer that would boost their productivity.

    d. Although the rate of child mortality from under 5 years have dropped from 12 million in 1990 to 6.6 million in 2015, yet under-5 mortality rates remain unacceptably high, especially considering that most of these deaths are due to preventable or treatable causes which most developing countries government are not interested in so long the officials are not affected by these causes.

    e. Of all the MDGs, the least progress has been made toward the maternal health goal. Every day, nearly 800 women across the globe die due to complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and 99% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Many low-income countries have high rates of maternal mortality and high fertility, which are closely linked to high infant mortality and gender inequality. More than a quarter of girls and women in sub-Saharan Africa cannot access family planning services, fueling unplanned pregnancies and spreading HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    f. As of 2013, 35 million people were still living with HIV. The center of the epidemic remains sub-Saharan Africa, home to 70% of all new HIV infections. Malaria kills about 660,000 people each year, imposing a huge toll on African economies and households. Economists believe that malaria is responsible for a growth penalty of up to 1.3% in some African countries, severely restraining economic growth in the region.

    g. Though this UN tried to ensure environmental sustainability, patterns have left hundreds of millions of people behind: 1.2 billion lack access to electricity, 870 million are malnourished, and at least 748 million are without access to clean, safe drinking water. While efforts to expand access to safe drinking water are on track to achieve this target in most regions, 2.5 billion people still lack access to improved sanitation. Land is still being degraded, forests lost, and species endangered as carbon emissions continue to change the environment we live in.

    h. In terms of developing a global relationship for development it can be noticed that the relationship is more of aiding for benefit than partnership as developed countries assists the developing countries in other to get their resources and at the same that sell it back to them thereby exploiting them than partnering with them.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Of course good governance is important to all Nations development and Growth yet in Nigeria and other developing countries it is difficult for development to take place due to the fact that corruption has taking over the situation of these developing countries are small and more of government funds being used by government individual for private or personal use.
    Most developing countries find it difficult to get good governance due to the greed involved in most developing countries leaders especially when it comes to Africa and in other developing nations.
    Also, this is not just about the government or the officials and politicians it is also about the individuals who vote them in positions. This goes two ways the leaders and followers. Followers are just interested in what they want at the moment from the political aspirants who tend to spend a lot on campaigns and politics and when they get into power they really want to get what they have spent back in terms of their private funds and in so doing they get their funds back from government purse and would not stop because they already used to it getting. Governance in developing countries especially in Nigeria is not just about the people in power it is also about the people who put them in power and also the reason why good governance is not achieved in Nigeria is because of the term Godfather all the people in power are supposed to fund those higher power that place them in office.
    And another reason is tribalism tribalism in Africa s an extent where people in power tends to favour their people more. That is they put their tribe people in political place(who might not be fit for the position) making them prioritymore than the country itself which affects proper or rights government

  89. Avatar Ugwu Serah Izunna says:

    NAME: UGWU SERAH IZUNNA.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/247399
    COURSE CODE: ECO 362.
    COURSE TITLE: ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT II.

    ASSIGNMENT.

    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.

    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    ANSWER.
    Millennium Development Goals
    In September 2000, leaders of 189 countries gathered at the United Nations headquarters and signed the historic Millennium Declaration, in which they committed to achieving a set of eight measurable goals that range from halving extreme poverty and hunger to promoting gender equality and reducing child mortality, by the target date of 2015.

    ACHIEVING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPING GOALS.
    Yes the millennium development goals were achieved because;

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) commit the international community to an expanded vision of poverty reduction and pro-poor growth, one that vigorously places human development at the centre of social and economic progress in all countries.

    Through critical analysis of target setting, equity, environment and power dimensions. IIED provides a particular focus on poverty reduction, water and sanitation, slum upgrading and tenure security, and ensuring that environment lies at the heart of all sustainable development strategies.

    We aim to show how best to include the basic fundamentals of life (access to land, shelter, food, power and rights) in the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) process and build on local organisations’ ability to address the priorities of local people. This implies a strengthening of local capacity to assess changes using key indicators designed and monitored at local levels.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) commit the international community to an expanded vision of poverty reduction and pro-poor growth, one that vigorously places human development at the centre of social and economic progress in all countries. The MDGs also recognise the importance of creating a global partnership for change, as high-income nations must reform their domestic and international policies related to agriculture, trade, and sustainable development; enhance the effectiveness of their aid programmes; and help poor countries to reduce their debt burdens. For their part, low-income nations must address fundamental issues related to governance, rights and social justice. In all cases, countries must set their own strategies and policies, together with their global partners, to ensure that poor people receive their fair share of the benefits of development.

    WHAT ARE THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND HOW ARE THEY BEEN ACHIEVED?
    The Millennium Development Goals are an ambitious agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives that world leaders agreed on at the Millennium Summit in September 2000. For each goal one or more targets have been set, most for 2015, using 1990 as a benchmark.

    The Millennium goal were achieved in the follow ways.

    (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target for 2015: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger..
    They helped in reducing the rate of huger and poverty by improving in agricultural growth.

    (2). Achieve universal primary education.
    Targets: That all boys and girls complete a full course of primary school.
    This was achieved because government approved free education to primary school. This helped both the rich and the poor to see the essence of education ..
    And also it helped the poor people who cannot afford the expenses of education to have access to go to school.

    (3). Promote gender equality and empower women
    Targets for 2005 and 2015: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.
    This target was achieved because women are allowed in the academic pursuit, unlike before that they regarded women’s education as useless.. That is why they assumed that women education ends in kitchen.

    (4). Reduce child mortality
    Target for 2015: Reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate among children under five.
    This helped to reduce the number of children that are been born.

    (5). Improve maternal health
    Target for 2015: Reduce by three-quarters the ratio of women dying in childbirth.
    The goal was achieved by reducing the rate of women dying during childbirth, by improving in their health care, providing some adequate drugs to take during pregnancy.

    (6). Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target for 2015: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
    The goal helped in reduction of the number of victims that died because of HIV/AIDS or malaria.

    (7). Ensure environmental sustainability
    Targets: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
    By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water.
    By 2020 achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.

    (8). Develop a global partnership for development
    Targets:
    Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction nationally and internationally. Address the least developed countries’ special needs, and the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States.
    Deal comprehensively with developing countries debt problems.
    Develop decent and productive work for youth.
    In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
    In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies especially information and communications technologies.
    IIED has published a series of briefing papers on MDG related issues – see below.

    MDGs Conference 2005
    In December 2005 IIED organised an international conference to share what IIED and partners have learned about local institutions that work and their critical role in achieving real and lasting improvements in the lives of the poorest people as well as effective management of natural resources. And to identify priorities for the proposed MDG-based national plans and processes to be put in place as a result of the 2005 UN World Summit decision, and also for the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness.

    Hitting the poverty reduction targets or missing the point?
    In November 2003 IIED organised an international conference to explore how tensions between global targets and local needs can be used creatively – as opposed to leading to paralysis or mis-direction. Participants came from a wide variety of contexts, with strong representation from Southern organisations focusing on local sustainability and also from donor agencies and international institutions. Key messages from this conference.

    Number 2.
    Understanding the Concept of Governance
    The concept of “governance” is not new. However, it means different things to different people, therefore we have to get our focus right. The actual meaning of the concept depends on the level of governance we are talking about, the goals to be achieved and the approach being followed.

    The concept has been around in both political and academic discourse for a long time, referring in a generic sense to the task of running a government, or any other appropriate entity for that matter. In this regard the general definition provided by Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1986:982) is of some assistance, indicating only that governance is a synonym for government, or “the act or process of governing, specifically authoritative direction and control”. This interpretation specifically focuses on the effectiveness of the executive branch of government.

    The working definition used by the British Council, however, emphasises that “governance” is a broader notion than government (and for that matter also related concepts like the state, good government and regime), and goes on to state:

    “Governance involves interaction between the formal institutions and those in civil society. Governance refers to a process whereby elements in society wield power, authority and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life and social upliftment.”

    “Governance”, therefore, not only encompasses but transcends the collective meaning of related concepts like the state, government, regime and good government. Many of the elements and principles underlying “good government” have become an integral part of the meaning of “governance”. John Healey and Mark Robinson1 define “good government” as follows: “It implies a high level of organisational effectiveness in relation to policy-formulation and the policies actually pursued, especially in the conduct of economic policy and its contribution to growth, stability and popular welfare.

    Good government also implies accountability, transparency, participation, openness and the rule of law. It does not necessarily presuppose a value judgement, for example, a healthy respect for civil and political liberties, although good government tends to be a prerequisite for political legitimacy”.

    We can apply our minds to the definition of governance provided by the World Bank in Governance: The World Banks Experience, as it has special relevance for the developing world:

    “Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with a professional ethos acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. Poor governance (on the other hand) is characterized by arbitrary policy making, unaccountable bureaucracies, unenforced or unjust legal systems, the abuse of executive power, a civil society unengaged in public life, and widespread corruption.”
    The World Bank’s focus on governance reflects the worldwide thrust toward political and economic liberalisation. Such a governance approach highlights issues of greater state responsiveness and accountability, and the impact of these factors on political stability and economic development. In its 1989 report, From Crisis to Sustainable Growth, the World Bank expressed this notion as follows:

    “Efforts to create an enabling environment and to build capacities will be wasted if the political context is not favourable. Ultimately, better governance requires political renewal. This means a concerted attack on corruption from the highest to lowest level. This can be done by setting a good example, by strengthening accountability, by encouraging public debate, and by nurturing a free press. It also means … fostering grassroots and non-governmental organisations such as farmers’ associations, co-operatives, and women’s groups”.
    Apart from the World Bank’s emphasis on governance, it is also necessary to refer to academic literature on governance, which mostly originates from scholars working with international development and donor agencies. The majority of these scholars has concentrated almost exclusively on the issue of political legitimacy, which is the dependent variable produced by effective governance. Governance, as defined here, is “the conscious management of regime structures, with a view to enhancing the public realm”.

    The contribution of Goran Hyden to bring greater clarity to the concept of governance needs special attention. He elevates governance to an “umbrella concept to define an approach to comparative politics”, an approach that fills analytical gaps left by others. Using a governance approach, he emphasises “the creative potential of politics, especially with the ability of leaders to rise above the existing structure of the ordinary, to change the rules of the game and to inspire others to partake in efforts to move society forward in new and productive directions”.

    His views boil down to the following:

    Governance is a conceptual approach that, when fully elaborated, can frame a comparative analysis of macro-politics.
    Governance concerns “big” questions of a “constitutional” nature that establish the rules of political conduct.
    Governance involves creative intervention by political actors to change structures that inhibit the expression of human potential.
    Governance is a rational concept, emphasising the nature of interactions between state and social actors, and among social actors themselves.
    Governance refers to particular types of relationships among political actors: that is, those which are socially sanctioned rather than arbitrary.
    To conclude, it is clear that the concept of governance has over the years gained momentum and a wider meaning. Apart from being an instrument of public affairs management, or a gauge of political development, governance has become a useful mechanism to enhance the legitimacy of the public realm. It has also become an analytical framework or approach to comparative politics.

    Nigeria’s Governance System and its Implication on the National Peace, Stability
    and Development Unarguably, a strong correlation exists among governance, peace, stability and
    development. Thus, the developmental failure being witnessed in Nigeria is a direct
    consequence of the pattern of governance offered by the successive nation’s managers.
    The governance method adopted by the Nigeria’s political leaders negates all known
    prescriptions of good governance. A critical view of system of governance in Nigeria
    revealed an aberration of global acceptable governance norms. In other words,
    governance system in Nigeria is a complete departure from governance indicators (see
    The World Bank: Worldwide Governance Indicators;
    Arising from deficit and anomaly in governance is the erosion of internal security
    across the country. Security lapses have continued to manifest in the areas of grave
    activities of insurgents. The insurgents such as the dreadful Boko haram with its series
    of bombing, and violent attack, have succeeded in mass destruction of lives and
    properties especially in the North-eastern part of the country. There is also emergence
    of different insurgents in the Niger Delta areas which engage in kidnapping of peoples
    and destruction of oil installations. Besides are anti-insurgents’ activities of the Nigeria
    security agencies which have equally led to killings of peoples and destructions of
    properties. All these activities have continued to fuel the wave of crimes among the teeming youths of the nation. It is not surprising therefore that, the vibrant youths’
    population have their energies misdirected to negativity because people managing the
    nation have no plan for them and their future. Thus, the youth are easily recruited into
    different insurgents group or into any other veritable crimes activities that will earn them incomes for their survival.
    The gigantic debt in which the nation finds itself is connected with poor governance.
    Ordinarily the nation should not have had cause to go about borrowing, given the enormous wealth that is naturally endowed with the country, especially the crude oil. What the nation’s managers have done with the nation wealth could be better understood by the assertion made by Amundsen (2010) who avows that the between 1960 and 1999 the sum of $380 billion had vanished into the pockets of the nation managers. Amundsen (2010) further assertively claims thus:Nigeria is heavily affected by the so-called ‘resource curse’: despite an estimated USD 400 billion in oil income since independence in 1960, the country has experienced…a very poor economic development, and it has a population more impoverished now than it was 50 years ago.
    Thus, it could be rightly deduced that the major bane to the nation’s development is
    the political and public officers who use public offices not for the services delivery for
    peoples, but for their selfish interest (Obo, Coker & Omenka, 2014). For this reason,
    Agagu and Ola (2011) referred to them as harbingers of “the scourge of poverty and
    crisis” that pervades the nations’ and inhibiting its developments. Corruption and
    unethical practices have continued to hinder public officers from meeting up with their
    responsibilities to the people they always professed they are serving. Corruption
    impedes economic development, the growth of democratic institutions, and the ability
    of developing countries to attract foreign investment (Ssekandi, n.d.).
    The laxity in governance has also culminated into the declining industries. For instance,
    poor governance resulting in creating hostile business environment have been one the
    reasons that led to relocation or folding up of businesses in the country. Gone are the
    days when companies and organisation such as Peugeot Automobile Nigeria;
    Volkswagen Nigeria; Dunlop Nigeria Limited; Michellin Nigeria; BATA; Lennards;
    Kingsway; A.G. Leventis; and Phillip Nigeria among others were flourishing in Nigerian, but now these companies and organisations are not in the country again. In a similar vein, industries such as Steel Rolling Mill, Osogbo; Steel Rolling Mill,
    Ajaokuta; Arewa Textile Mill; Nigeria Airways all are now moribund. For not making
    Nigeria Airways to work, the nation is losing as much as $2 billion to foreign airlines
    annually (Tokunbo, 2017). And of recent are such companies especially airlines who
    are pulling out of Nigeria with the reason of unfavourable economic policy by the
    government. These airlines include United Airlines, British Airways, Spanish National
    Airline Iberia, Air France-KLM, Qatar Air, and Etihad. Besides, are oil companies
    including Chevron, ExxonMobil, Ground Petroleum, and Pan Ocean among others.
    Consequently, many people have continued to lose their jobs. For instance, within these
    oil companies alone more than 3,000 oil workers have been sacked
    This is adding to the already escalated number of unemployed youths. As at 2016, the Youth
    Unemployment/Underemployment rate stood at 42.24 % as at the first quarter of 2016
    (National Bureau of Statistics, 2016), with the continuous sack of workers by different
    companies and organisations, the tempo at which the rate of unemployment is going
    can be detrimental to the national peace and stability, as ‘the youths can be ignited anytime’ (Obasanjo, 2013), and destabilised the fragile peace of the nation. The unpalatable problem of joblessness has made the youths to involve daily in crimes as
    economic activities, viz money laundering, drugs peddling and trafficking in people (The Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 2010).Another resultant effect of the system of governance on Nigerians is the perceptions of government by the people. Government are seen as an unreliable propagandist which cannot be trusted for its words. People have developed a kind of mistrust in
    government, as government promises are seen as rhetoric or utopian. People ‘in whom
    political power reside’ could no longer believe whatever government is saying. They are reneging to participate in political activities especially in voting during elections as there has not being anything to show for their political activities. This, perhaps, accounted for low turnout of voters in many of the recent elections in the country.
    Government’s ineptitude and lack of concern for the people has culminated in a situation where the people are deprived of social infrastructures and amenities. Where
    there are claims of the provision of amenities by the government, most of these amenities are either substandard or has already collapsed. Poor governance equally
    reflects in the area of poor placement of priorities by the government; a situation where leaders prefer to spend public scarce resources on uneconomic projects. These-so￾called leaders prefer to embark on such projects that will earn them immediate
    monetary gains, instead of investing on peoples’ dire-need infrastructures such as
    schools, hospitals, portable water, and accessible roads. Besides, basic infrastructure such as regular electricity supply is lacking, consequently many production industries
    are running at a loss. This has led to the closure of businesses in Nigeria, while others
    have relocated to other nations with relative regular supply of electricity.
    In addition to the above are poor road networks. Roads construction and maintenance are always budgeted for on yearly basis, but the money budgeted always ends up in
    public officers’ personal pockets, while roads are only built and maintained on papers.
    Even, few of the roads being constructed across the nation are substandard, that
    collapse easily after few months of the completion. It is not news that most of the
    nation’s highways are death traps. Many of the accidents that have occurred on these
    roads that have led to loss of peoples’ lives and their properties could have been averted
    if the roads are well constructed and properly maintained. Poor, irregular and inadequate water supply is also a result of poor governance. In addition, water supply is another project which the public officers are using to siphon
    the public money. Most of the politicians do embark on water projects as their communities or constituency projects. Many of them normally construct bore holes
    which would supply water for few days before the bore holes stop supplying water to
    the people. Further to the foregoing are poor health services and health facilities. It is a known fact that most of the government hospitals can only be likened to mere consulting clinics.
    That is why public officeholders do fly abroad for medical attention. Although huge
    amount of money is always reflected in the nation’s annual budget for hospitals
    maintenance, but substantial part of the monies is always diverted and mismanaged,
    leaving paltry sum of money for the hospitals need. For instance, despite the money
    voted for Aso Rock clinics and other federal government hospitals, the reigning
    President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari still prefer seeking medical attention abroad.
    Suffice to say that, it is the masses of the nation that poorly funded hospitals are
    reserved for. The nation’s education sectors are not excluded from the effect of poor governance.
    The educational sectors are suffering from underfunding and poor funding. Many
    primary and secondary schools in Nigeria are not good shape due to neglect by the
    successive governments. This has led to the proliferation of private schools that are mainly for profits and thus, run schools as business ventures. In the tertiary institutions,
    the story is not different. The academic and their non-academic counterparts in the
    higher institutions, from time to time embark on strike action for reasons related to
    funding of the institutions and salaries and allowances for the staff. The resultant effect
    is the continuous falling in the standards of higher education in Nigeria. This was why
    none of the nation’s universities was listed among the first one thousand university in
    the world. The first Nigeria’s university listed was the University of Ibadan, the oldest
    university in Nigeria, which was on number 1032nd in the July edition of the Ranking
    Web of Universities in the world
    The governance pattern has impoverished the large number of the nation’s citizens.
    The poverty continues to deal ruthlessly with majority of Nigerians. The outstanding
    revelation from nation number two citizen, Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo that about
    110 million Nigerians (61%) are still living below poverty line testifies to the fact that
    poverty is really ravaging the nation while the masses appears helpless (Osibanjo,
    2015). It should be noted, however, that there are some parts of the country where all necessary amenities are being put in place. These are reserved areas for the wealthy political class
    and their allies under different names, such as Government Reservation Areas (GRA’s), Banana Island, Victoria Island, Ikoyi, Lekki Beach areas, Maitama, Asokoro villa among others. Social amenities are concentrated in all these reserved areas to the detriment of other places populated by ordinary Nigerian citizens. Besides social amenities are the heavy presence of securities and security apparatuses to monitor and to make the environment secure appropriately.

    HINDRANCES TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    The first factor in the pool of hindrances to the attainment of good governance in Nigeria is organized

    corruption. Corruption has been broadly defined as a perversion or change from good to bad. Specifically,

    corruption or corrupt behaviour involves the violation of established rules for personal gains and profit (Sen, 1999 cited in Igbafe, 2011). According to Maria Costa (2013), a Brazilian scholar cited in Agwu (2011) she
    stated that “fighting corruption is a pre-condition for good governance and the rule of law, which in turn are foundation stones of sustainable development”. The high rate of corruption at various levels of government has greatly stunted the growth of the economy. Political and public office holders see their positions as avenues for illegal wealth accumulation to the detriment of the common Nigerian. That is why people see political appointment or election into public office as a ‘do or die’ affair because it appears to be the only way of getting access to the national cake (Agwu, 2011). The political and economic arrangement being practiced in Nigeria has entrusted a dis-proportionate amount of the nation’s wealth in the hands of a few individuals. The income
    gap between the rich and the poor is very wide and it keeps increasing by the day. The over attractiveness of political offices has made persons without any burning sense of vision or will for the state to vie for political
    positions. They are only motivated by the financial benefits accruing to the positions.
    Corruption fosters unaccountable governance as leadership strives to prevent the masses from getting to know how much funds are acquired and how they are put to use. According to Transparency International, corruption thrives where temptation to fraudulent activities coexist with permissiveness. Where institutional checks on power are missing, where decision making remains obscure; where civil society is thin on the ground; where
    great inequalities in the distribution of wealth condemn people to live in poverty (Igwe, 2012). Most politicians now engage in what is known as rent seeking. Rent seeking occurs when people seek to use government for their private gain (Almond et. al, 2006). Rents are benefits created through government intervention in the economy￾for example, tax revenue or profits created because the government has restricted competition. As Almond et al. (2006) further posit, “rent seeking may be a particularly serious problem in poor societies, where politics is often the surest or most effective way to get rich, and the courts and mass media may be too weak to constrain government officials from abusing their power.” The culture of impunity and social injustice has allowed corruption to thrive in governance. Corruption is a symptom of fundamental failure of governance and so the
    higher the corruption, the more sustainable development becomes elusive (Agwu, 2011). Corruption increases poverty and disproportionately affects those in the low income group because it pulls resources from the national treasury into the hands of a few individuals who are politically powerful. This of course has led to loss of government revenue, poor governance, failure of state institutions, brain drain and electoral malpractices, absence of law and order, civil unrest, poor investment channels, business failure, unemployment, poverty and unsustainable development (Agwu, 2011). Section 308 of the Nigerian Constitution (the immunity clause) which states that political office holders are immune from any criminal and civil offence for the period that they are in office has in a way helped to propagate corruption in government. Good governance is only spoken of when a person or group of persons is in power and has the authority to effectively and efficiently control the resources of the state. If they cannot be held accountable for misappropriation of resources or the abuse of power while in office, then good governance may be a mirage. The second factor in the pool of hindrances to the attainment of good governance is the lack of party ideology. In
    most democratic states, political parties form the government; that is after a general election has taken place
    which brings politicians into public offices. An ideology is a system of social beliefs. That is, a closely organized
    system of beliefs, values, and ideas forming the basis of a social economic, or political philosophy or program. In terms of governance, ideology can be seen as a group of ideas that informs government’s policies and actions (Chigwe, 2012). Sadly, the lack of ideology in the various political parties existing in the country is brought to bear in governance. Most political parties do not have a clear cut agenda of what they intend to pursue if voted into power. Rather they make promises made by politicians of old. The promise of good access roads, steady power supply, good public health care, and infrastructural facilities still dominate campaigns. An ideology is meant to serve as a driving force as well as a guideline for a party when it finally forms the government. When a political party without ideologies forms the government, automatically, that government would most likely lack an ideology. The crises in the ruling party in Nigeria that resulted in the factionalizing of the party are a reflection of lack of ideologies. It is a party in which party members project their individualistic and parochial tendencies. This is why when politicians finally take oath of office, they do not fulfill their electioneering campaign promises rather they concentrate on looting public funds. The Nigerian constitution is one of the few in the world that makes provision for the existence of the party system and of political parties in a democratic regime. In Europe and North America, parties grow and develop as autonomous political institutions for the articulation and aggregation of common interest, ideas, values and challenges of governance to those who subscribe to them (Oyovbaire, 2007). And because of the over reliance on support from the government…these political parties are largely known for their bareness in ideas and ideological disposition, and owned by a handful of persons with which to trade and bargain for material benefits (Oyovbaire, 2007). The third factor in the pool of hindrances is the federal character principle otherwise known as quota system. The federal character principle was enshrined in the 1979 Constitution and reaffirmed in subsequent constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The essence of the federal character principle according to Agbodike (1998),
    cited in Iyekekpolo et al., (2011) is to ensure social harmony among all Nigerians and to promote the stability and national integration of the nation. This policy provides that the six geo-political zones in the country must be represented in every cadre of the public service. This is aimed at fostering unity and national integration in Nigeria being a country with ethnic pluralism and cultural diversity. But this has come at a very high cost to governance in Nigeria. The formula has not adequately addressed the problems of the different and unequal ethnic groups. Unfortunately, this principle has been used to accelerate the promotion of mediocre and
    incompetent civil servant into government (Iyekekpolo et. al., 2011). This is because appointments into very sensitive public offices are sometimes not based on merit but on the geo-political zone a person is from to which that office has been zoned. This has enthroned mediocrity and jettisoned meritocracy thereby handing good governance a death sentence as people who may be more qualified for an appointment stand disqualified by reason of the part of the country they hail from. Appointment into departments and agencies of government are politicized. Politicians rather than technocrats and bureaucrats are being made to head key ministries and government parastatals. To this end, people find themselves in positions they do not necessarily qualify for but because they are politically connected. The implication of this is that decision making sometimes is parochial, unilateral and self-serving. The federal character principle has been manipulated by, and channeled to serve the overall interest of the petty bourgeois ruling class. It is the members of their class who formulate and operate the principle.

    SUMMARY.
    The type of governance so far rendered to Nigeria is not ‘good’. This has continued to
    manifest in the areas of nation’s development viz – bad roads networks, epileptic electricity supply, lack of portable water, poor healthcare delivery, falling educational system among others. Poor governance is also manifest in the areas of unemployment, poverty, hunger, diseases, violent, loss of dearly ones, loss of properties, and dislocation from one’s home as results of insurgents’ activities. The seeming inability to redeem the situation by the crop of leaders ascending the throne of governance in Nigeria poses danger for the future of the nation.
    The study concluded that only the practice of good governance, manifesting in the areas
    of rule of law, transparency, accountability, citizens’ participation among other can
    guarantee national peace, stability and development in Nigeria. The study thus recommended that proactive steps should be taken for the enthronement of good governance. This could be achieved if people in whom power reside can unite and design active methods of exposing corrupt public officeholders whether when they are in offices or after they have left. Forming and designing peoples’ oriented code of ethical behaviour which the people themselves will be able to enforce its provisions will be helpful.

  90. Name: Obeta magret uzochukwu
    Reg:2018/243669
    Dept:social science education (education/economics)
    Number 1:Do you think the SDGs goals were achieved,if yes how if no why?
    Yes the goals were achieved,my reasons are below
    The 2019 SDG index, Nigeria ranked 159th among 162 countries compared in terms of their achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Nigeria’s performance score of 46.4 is just a little above the score for the Central African Republic, a country sitting at the lowest rung of the index.
    While the ultimate goal of the SDGs is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030, the first four goals, namely, no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, and quality education, prioritize human welfare in the course of development. Attainment of these first four goals serves as the launch pad from where to attempt the realisation of the other goals.
    Since the SDGs were adopted in 2015, Nigeria has continued to struggle to achieve many of the targets. For instance, available reports indicate that Nigeria is nowhere close to achieving the first four preliminary goals. The pace of implementation of these goals also raises concerns particularly with the country’s failure to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which had similar development aspirations and a similar 15 year implementation period.
    As to the ‘No Poverty goal’, poverty still remains endemic in Nigeria. By 2019, Nigeria had become the global poverty capital with an estimated 91.8 million of its population living in extreme poverty. This is not unexpected for a country with a very low Human Capital Index rating and a high level of youth unemployment. In 2018, Nigeria ranked 152 of 157 in the World Bank’s 2018 Human Capital Index.
    On ‘zero hunger’, food insecurity still poses a considerable challenge to a number of Nigerians across the country. In the North East alone, 2.6 million people face the challenge of food insecurity and extreme hunger. Similarly, in 2019, the World Bank raised an alarm over Nigeria’s frightening food security crises.
    Health reports in Nigeria also do not suggest that Nigeria is meeting the SDG target on ‘good health and well-being’. In 2018, health challenges such as diarrhoea, malaria, neonatal disorders, HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, blood/endocrine disorders, unintentional injuries, nutritional deficiencies and other non-communicable diseases were identified as leading causes of death in Nigeria. Nigeria currently has the second-largest number of people living with HIV globally and the highest burden of malaria globally.
    Obviously, the ‘quality education’ goal for Nigeria is at best a mere fantasy. With over 13 million school-age children out of school, Nigeria still struggles to meet the SDG target on education. The quality of education in the country is declining especially in many public schools. Prohibitive costs of accessing quality private education leave many Nigerians without a chance to access quality education. The Nigerian girl child still does not have access to education at all or past a certain age, especially in the northern part of Nigeria. This is because they are considered ripe for marriage and are subsequently forced into marriage.
    These identified gaps bothering on the first four SDGs begs for a reflection on Nigeria’s commitment to meet the global goals by 2030. Five years after the adoption of these goals, considerable progress is expected to have been made on each of the goals. The goals are also expected to have effected changes in policy and practice.
    To achieve the SDGs within the remaining time frame, there is a need for specific interventions driven by a sustained political will. Also, human welfare and human capital development should be prioritized as they have the ability to fast track development.
    Top of these, strategic and effective poverty alleviation programmes should be developed to increase the ability of citizens to access balanced diets, to escape multidimensional poverty, to benefit from quality inclusive education and to avail every citizen their rights to universal health coverage.

    Number 2

    Nigeria is still grappling with the problem of bad governance it goes to show the level of non accountability and ever present manifestation of crude corruption that is open,naked disguised and yet legally untameable because of the system.
    Corruption (Omoluabi, 2007:3). Corruption is a household name in every society nowadays and the negative impact it has on the socio-economic and political setting of a country can hardly be over emphasized. There has been a global cry and coordinated efforts to tackle this social evil through the creation and implementation of anti-graft laws and policies across nations. Some nations have been successful in their quest to reduce the level of corruption while others are still lagging behind. In this light, Nigeria seems to be an example of a state that failed in combating corruption. From the common man in the street to the highest political figure, corruption is recurrent in almost every transaction in the Nigerian society. Within the last one decade, the issue of corruption and good governance has taken the centre stage in development discourse worldwide. Corruption is shaking the foundation of the nation as there is no sector that is not affected by this monster. The challenges of corruption remain a major devastating issue facing Nigeria since the colonial period, although, this phenomena has become a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our system (Muhammed, 2013:120). Over the years, public sector in Nigeria has been characterized largely by ineffectiveness and inefficiency. The situation is not different in other developing countries.
    High-level corruption has been identified as being responsible for Nigeria’s underdevelopment and growing crimes rates. It is instructive to note that the Nigerian government and citizens have not totally committed themselves to introducing and implementing measures that can prevent or drastically reduce the extent and consequence of corruption in the country. That is not to say that laws, institutions and programmes for controlling corruption have not been introduced by successive governments. On the contrary, every Nigerian government since 1975 introduced elaborate laws and programmes, only for officials to turn such programmes into fertile opportunity for corrupt practices and enrichment. Consequently, there has been a geometrical growth in the rate of corruption in the country (Etannibi, 2002:2). Etannibi (2002:9) also claimed that corruption is the source of many socio-economic and political problems that have militated against the attainment of economic development, equity, social justice, political integration and stability as well as democracy in Nigeria. The employment, promotions, postings and deployment processes in the federal service are riddled with corruption, and it was estimated that Nigeria had lost to corruption as much as $400 billion between 1966 and 1999.

  91. Avatar Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice says:

    Name: Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice
    Registration Number: 2018/249548
    Department: Social Science Education
    Unit: Economics and Education
    Email: paulbeatrice3417@gmail.com

    ASSIGNMENT:
    (1) In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?

    (2) Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    DISCUSSION:
    1. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight objectives with quantifiable targets and clear cutoff times for working on the existences of the world’s least fortunate individuals. To meet these objectives and kill destitution, heads of 189 nations marked the the millennium development goals statement at the Assembled Countries Thousand years Highest point in 2000.

    These goals includes;
    MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education
    MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
    MDG 4: Reduce child mortality
    MDG 5: Improve maternal health
    MDG 6: Combat HIV and AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
    MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for Development.

    Many non-industrial nations made a colossal accomplishment in accomplishing these objectives, for instance; Ethiopia accomplished the majority of the wellbeing MDGs: a 67% decrease in less than five mortality, a 71% decrease in maternal mortality proportion, a 90% decrease in new HIV diseases, a diminishing in intestinal sickness related passings by 73% and an over half decrease in mortality because of tuberculosis. The major fruitful nations incorporate China (whose destitution populace declined from 452 million to 278 million) and India. The World Bank assessed that MDG 1A (dividing the extent of individuals living on under $1 every day) was accomplished in 2008 essentially because of the outcomes from these two nations and East Asia.

    In general, the world accomplished 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1 for instance – dividing the portion of the total populace living in outrageous neediness – is an especially significant one and keeping in mind that a great many people don’t know about it, the world has really accomplished this objective. Around the world, the quantity of passings of youngsters under 5 years old tumbled from 12.7 million of every 1990 to 6.3 million out of 2013. In agricultural nations, the level of underweight youngsters under 5 years of age dropped from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013. Worldwide, new HIV contaminations declined by 38% somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2013. Existing instances of tuberculosis are declining, alongside passings among HIV – negative tuberculosis cases. In 2010, the world met the Assembled Countries Thousand years Advancement Objectives focus on admittance to safe drinking-water, as estimated by the intermediary sign of admittance to further developed drinking-water sources, yet more should be done to accomplish the sterilization target.

    Involving Nigeria as a contextual investigation to know whether these objectives were accomplished:
    Nigeria was among the 189 nations from across the world that embraced the Assembled Countries. Thousand years Revelation in New York in September 2000, which prompted the reception of the eight time-bound Thousand years Improvement Objectives (MDGs) and their monitorable pointers.

    In Subtleties;
    MDG 2: Accomplish widespread essential instruction:
    The net enrolment in essential training (as tamed in Nigeria to mean six years of essential tutoring and three years of junior optional schooling) has had a fluctuating history of a vertical pattern to the mid-point evaluation year. This positive pattern was anyway stopped in later years because of the disturbances achieved by the Boko Haram uprising. The uprising prompted the obliteration of many schools with the younger students establishing a huge
    size of the inside dislodged populace.

    MDG 3: Advance orientation balance and enable ladies:
    The quest for orientation equality in essential schooling in Nigeria has seen solid advancement when seen against the predominant male centric culture and practices in many pieces of the country. There has been a consistent expansion in the proportion of young ladies to young men in essential schooling in Nigeria with the end-point status of 94% in 2013 being a huge accomplishment contrasted with the 82% accomplished in 1991. The measurements from both the World Bank and Different Marker Bunch Overview (MICS) support the high orientation equality list recorded by Nigeria. The accomplishment at the fundamental instruction level has not been reproduced at the tertiary level where there is feeble advancement despite the fact that the approach climate has been steady at each level of the instructive pipeline.

    MDG 4: Diminish kid mortality:
    Nigeria’s endeavors pointed toward diminishing avoidable kid passings have been met with steady and supported advancement. The under-five death rate (U5MR) has improved amazingly from 191 passings for each 1000 live births in 2000 to 89 passings for every 1000 live births in 2014 as the end-point status. Considering the end-point status of U5MR, Nigeria misses the mark regarding the 2015 objective of 64 passings for each 1000 live births by 28%, Thus others. Overall terms, the report demonstrates that Nigeria has gained obvious headway in the fulfillment of MDGs over the most recent 14 years, especially, in the space of widespread essential training enrolment; accomplishing orientation equality in schooling; diminishing the spread of HIV and AIDS.

    2. Governance is an idea that has been around for a really long time and is normally utilized by numerous people. There is practically no agreement on the authority meaning of governance because its utilization frequently relies upon the expected reason, individuals included, and the socio-world of politics of the term.

    As per the United Nations (UN), governance alludes to the exercises of all political and authoritative specialists to oversee their country. In the mean time, as expressed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), governance is an idea where a nation is made due, including monetary, arrangement, and legitimate viewpoints.

    In this manner, by and large, governance has the significance: the dynamic cycle and the most common way of figuring out which approaches will be carried out and not executed.

    Definition of Good Governance
    During the 1990s, the World Bank turned into the primary worldwide organization to embrace the idea of good governance into loaning plans for non-industrial nations and acquaint thought with the overall population. In its 1992 report entitled “Government and Development”, the idea of good governance was composed as the manner by which power is utilized to manage the monetary and social assets of a country for advancement.

    Presently, the term good governance has regularly been utilized by public and global associations. Good governance plans to limit defilement, consider the assessments of minorities, pay attention to the voices of the mistreated individuals in the dynamic cycle, and react effectively to the necessities of the local area now and later on.

    Eight Standards of Good Governance
    Refering from the United Countries Monetary and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), the idea of good administration has eight standards.

    1. Cooperation
    Cooperation in the idea of good governance here is a chance for everybody to voice their viewpoints through organizations or portrayals. Likewise, everybody, no matter what, has the privilege to opportunity of affiliation and articulation.

    2. Law and order
    To execute good governance the legitimate structure in the nation should be implemented fair-mindedly, particularly concerning basic liberties regulation.

    3. Straightforwardness
    Straightforwardness implies that each arrangement taken and executed by the public authority should be done under existing guidelines. Moreover, there should be an assurance that any data connected with the strategy can be gotten to by everybody, particularly the people who are straightforwardly impacted by the approach.

    4. Responsiveness
    Good governance needs establishments and cycles to endeavor to serve all partners inside a sensible time.

    5. Consensus oriented
    This fifth standard is connected with the dynamic cycle. At the point when the dynamic cycle can’t oblige everybody’s desires, then, at that point, at least, the choice should be a choice that can be acknowledged by everybody and doesn’t hurt anybody.

    6. Value and comprehensiveness
    Great administration guarantees equity for the local area. Everybody has a similar chance to keep up with and work on their government assistance.

    7. Viability and productivity
    Each dynamic interaction and its foundations should have the option to create choices that meet each local area need. Local area assets should likewise be used ideally by the public authority.

    8. Responsibility
    All organizations engaged with great administration have full liability to the general population for working on the nature of society.

    In conclusion, It very well may be inferred that good governance is an optimal idea to accomplish its objectives. However, obviously, carrying out good governance isn’t generally so natural as it shows up on paper. There are a couple of nations that have demonstrated fruitful in executing this idea in their administration. Quick and mindful activity from different gatherings will without a doubt be exceptionally useful in executing good governance. Therefore, when a country fails to exhibit the above mentioned qualities of a good governance such country is said to be far from the experience of good governance. Bad governance has a way of affecting every sector thereby resulting to poor economic growth as well as resulting to an increase in the presence of corruption in the economy.

  92. Avatar Mbah+Chisom+Mary says:

    NAME : Mbah Chisom Mary
    DEPARTMENT: Education/ Economics
    REG NO: 2018/244295
    EMAIL : chisommary111@gmail.com
    ANSWERS

    1) At the turn of the millennium, the world’s nations set themselves development goals with the ambition to reach these in the following 15 years. Referencing the historic moment of their inception the UN named them the Millennium Development Goals or MDGs for short. The goals encompassed development in a broad sense, from increasing economic welfare of the poorest, to health and education, to humanity’s impact on the environment.The MDGs comprised of 8 Goals, measured by 18 Targets .
    There is clearly more red than green, but let’s look at the good news first. Overall, the world achieved 3 and a half targets: MDG Target 1.A – halving the share of the world population living in extreme poverty – is a particularly important one and while most people are not aware of it, the world has actually achieved this goal. The achievement of MDG 3 meant that the gender disparity in education was closed at the global level. And MDG Target 6.C on malaria and tuberculosis was achieved as the world was able to reduce the global rate of new infections. For MDG 7 the world achieved half of this goal – while the goal for sanitation was missed, the world did reach the goal on providing access to safe drinking water. What is clear however, is that most of the UN’s development goals were missed. 12 of the targets are shown in red.
    The degree to which they were missed varies between several near misses and a few very clear and alarming failures. The MDG targets on which the world failed most miserably were the environmental targets in MDG 7 which called for a “reversal of the loss of environmental resources” and a “reduction of biodiversity loss“. While there were certainly some important successes – very positive trends in the decline of substances which deplete the ozone layer for example –, the global evidence shows that most environmental indicators regressed; global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions increased approximately 50%; global forest area continued its decline; overexploitation of fish stocks increased; and the Red List Index concluded that “a substantial proportion of species in all taxonomic groups examined to date are declining overall in population and distribution”.

    On many other aspects of global living conditions where the world fell short of achieving the target, the world nevertheless made progress. Often the story is that the world has achieved progress, but not as fast as needed to reach the MDGs: the share of people in hunger fell, the share of children in school increased substantially, more women got access to reproductive health and contraceptives, the maternal mortality nearly halved, and the global child mortality rate more than halved. Substantial progress has been achieved in the first 15 years of the new millennium, but in most aspects not as fast as the achievement of the MDGs required.
    2) Nigeria and many other developing countries have been termed underdeveloped. The rate of poverty and backwardness in Nigeria and other developing countries is largely worrisome.
    Good governance includes all the process by which decisions are made and implemented. It covers setting out goals and walking towards and achieving them. Before Nigeria and other developing nations gained independence, their colonial masters were accused to be responsible for it. But after independence? What happened? From bad to worse.
    Many Factors are Responsible for This Namely;
    a) Corruption : Nigeria is one of the most corrupt nations in the world. A nation as corrupt as Nigeria who does not think good of her citizen, whose only and major aim is embezzlement of fund and enrichment of self can never go above scratch. Every sectors is corrupt and selfish in motive.
    b) Gender Inequality : A nation where women are not given their rightful positions, where women are restricted to a certain role and neglected in almost spheres. A nation where the women are seen as the weaker sex and hence should be under the men . A nation as this cannot be said to be aiming towards good governance considering the percentage of women that make up the population.
    c) Growing Incidence of Violence: How can we talk about good governance when war and anarchy is the order of the day. A nation where peace is lacking, the masses suffer. During this time of Violence, government uses the opportunity to unleqi wickedness on the citizen. Resources are also diverted to gain peace.
    d) Delay in Justice: Due to the corrupt nature of our leaders, passing the right judgement is always ba problem. Here evil is celebrated and the trust buried.
    e) Marginalization of the poor, Economically and Socially Backwards People: The government and it’s officers are only concerned I. Enriching themselves. The major and central goal which is the betterment of the masses and neglected. Here the rich continues to get richer while the poor continue to get poorer.

  93. Avatar GWOM PAUL JACOB says:

    Gwom Paul Jacob
    2018/243820
    Economics
    Evaluating Nigeria’s Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) 673 development agenda known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs which was launched September 25, 2015 and commenced operation in 2016 comprises of 17 targets with the aim to improve livelihood, stability of the economy and environment, and protect the planet for future generations (Sachs, 2012; Emas, 2015:2-3; Waziri, 2015). The goals are as follows:
    1) End poverty in all ramifications
    2) End hunger, food security and promote sustainable agriculture
    3) Good Health and Wellbeing
    4) Quality Education and life-long opportunities
    5) Gender Equality and Women empowerment
    6) Clean Water and Sanitation for all
    7) Accessible, Affordable, Reliable and Sustainable energy for all
    8) Promote Decent Work and Economic Growth
    9) Promote sustainable industrialization
    10) Reduce Inequalities within and among countries
    11) Build inclusive safe and sustainable cities and communities
    12) Promote sustainable consumption and production pattern
    13) Urgent action to address Climate Change
    14) Conservative and Sustainable use of marine resources, oceans and seas
    15) Protect, Restore and Promote terrestrial ecosystem and halt biodiversity loss.
    16) Promote peaceful and inclusive society, rule of law, effective and accountable society while ensuring sustainable development
    17) Strengthen mean of implementation and global partnership for sustainable development.
    The goals which are in line with Spangenberg (2005) and Rio Earth Summit (1992) is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable development. It emphasises on the economic, environmental, social and institutional issues of the society. Spangenberg argues that the four systems have to maintain its capability to survive and evolve in meeting up with impending demands. It should be considered that the SDGs is a broader version of the MDGs by taking into consideration loopholes of the MDGs and relative challenges of the society. For instance, the Goal 2 of the MDGs focused on achieving universal primary education inadvertently

  94. Avatar Ubochioma Favour Ugomma says:

    Ubochioma Favour ugomma
    2018/245392
    princessfavluv@gmail.com

    QUESTION 2
    In my office pinion do I thing the millennium development gooals were achieved?
    If yes, how?
    If no why?

    ANSWER
    I don’t think all the goals were achieved.

    I’LL BE USING JUST TWO GOALS TO BACK UP MY POINT.

    Goal 1:
    Erradicate extreme poverty/hunger.

    There is a popular saying *”if poor Nigerians were a country it would be more populous than Germany”*
    About 90 million people – roughly half Nigeria’s population live in extreme poverty, this is according to estimates from the World Data Lab’s Poverty Clock.
    Prior to independence in Nigeria (1960), the level of poverty was really low. However, 60 years after gaining independence, Nigeria rose from a low poverty level to become one of the countries with the highest incidence of poverty in the world today. Nigeria did not achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty targets by 2015 in spite of the measures initiated by successive administration to reduce poverty since 1980. No matter how hard successive governments both military and democratic have tried to reduce poverty, it has been to no avail. Thus, poverty is a major impediment to Nigeria’s socio-economic development and has been persevered despite various interventions.

    Goal 2
    Achieve universal primary education.

    In 1976 the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme was launched, but it was widely considered to be unsuccessful.
    UPE is a type of education given to children in the first stage of education.Between 1976 and 1992, the scope of first level of education in Nigeria as a nation was 6 years but this was later expanded to 9years when basic education included the first three years of secondary school education.
    Universal Primary Education in Nigeria is an educational system that was started in the mid 1950s but Several factors made the UPE to fail, they are:

    1.Inadequacy of Teachers and Quality Instruction.

    2.Poor Management of Primary Schools.

    3.Poor teacher preparation.

    4. Poor implementation of primary School objectives.

    QUESTION 2

    Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!

    Using Nigeria as a case study, good governance is lagging a great deal. The major problem Nigeria has that poises a great hindrance to good governance is CORRUPTION. If corruption is not totally scraped, then in the next decade bad governance will still be a problem.Men are only concerned about their well being and not the general well being of the nation as a whole. Take away CORRUPTION and the country will take a new toll.

  95. Avatar Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel says:

    Name: Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel
    Reg. No:2018/249 788
    Department: Economics
    Email:ezekielikukennaya4@gmail.com

    Eco.362 (1-2-2022–Online Discussion/Quiz 3—Evaluating the Performance of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Good Governance)

    Comment:
    Question 1
    The millennium development goals ( MDGS) were not achieved because the targets of these goals were not met . Between the year 2000 and 2015, a lot of people still leaved in extreme poverty and hunger. However, the pursuit of the goals made some level of positive impacts. In the efforts to achieve universal primary education, a lot of children were enrolled through free education program and establishment of more schools even in rural areas by the government. Gender equality in education were pursued and the enrollment of the girl child increased tremendously even though, not all girls and boys completed the course of primary education in 2005 and at all levels in 2015. For example, the northern part of Nigeria did not support Western education and girl child education. The incedence of child mortality was reduced due to the provision of improved health care services for children.. Maternal mortality also decreased due to provision of improved medical facilities and maternal health care services ( for example, antenatal services).
    The six goal of the ambitious development agenda which stressed on combating HIV/ AID , malaria and other major diseases yielded positive result as awareness programs were created to enlighten people on the dangers, causes and how to prevent the deadly virus , malaria and other major diseases.
    On the other hand, the efforts to achieve environmental sustainability largely failed as majority of people in rural areas lacked access to safe drinking water; even few boreholes provided within the time did not last long .The goal to achieve global partnership for development was not achieved as it’s core targets were not and still not achieved even in the present time.Globalization has not still become a more positive force for all the World’s people. Developing countries have been unable to compete favourably with developed countries and it has lead to high level of poverty in less developed countries .Many developing countries including Nigeria were still heavily indebted, there has been lack of decent and productive work, poor public health services and low level of computer literacy.
    The failure to achieve the MDGs led to the launch and pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs) which is people’s centered and planet sensitive initiatives to make the world a better place to live on or before the year 2030

    Question 2
    Failure of Developing countries in their quest for good governance

    Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind their quest for good governance because they lack the qualities of good governance. They make laws but they do not allow the law to rule. There is lack of transparency, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency in their institutions of governance. Government do not respond to the needs of the masses, the people do not participate in decision making and implementation, there is no equity and inclusive governance and this has made the people unable to believe that they are stakeholders. All these led to criminalization of policies, high level of corruption, gender inequality ( for example, gender based violence), growing incedence of violence, delay in justice, concentration of administrative system in the central government( making them to have enormous power), marginalization of socially and economically backward section of the society.
    The aftermath these is persistent failure in the quest for good governance in Nigeria and many developing countries.

  96. Avatar Nnamani Chidimma Esther says:

    Name: Nnamani Chidimma Esther
    Reg no: 2018/243795
    Department: Economics
    Assignment on ECO 362

    Questions
    1. Do you think that the eight millennium development goals were achieved? If yes why, if no why not?

    Some of the goals were achieved in Nigeria, such as
    Goal 2: to achieve universal primary education. The number of out of school children reduced between that 2005 and 2015, there were free education in almost in the 36 states of the country, children whose parents couldn’t afford to send school were able to enroll and got their first school leaving certificate, there were some cases where a committee were set up to check children who are hawking during school hours, with this the goal was achieved to some extent

    Goal 3: promote gender equality and empower women; within the time frame, there has been tremendous improvement in women empowerment, women now holds some political positions, they are now part of the decision making agents, women now owns businesses that thrives, this goal helped to prove that WEEK (women’s education ends in the kitchen) is wrong.
    The girl child education became very important, the girl child was given rights to education same with male, the fruit of this goal is showing today because the number of educated girls and women are increasing more than that of men.
    Goal 4: reduce child mortality; the rate of death of children under reduced, this was achieved through immunization, anti-natal and post-natal medical care, improved technology and trained personals.
    Goal 5: improved maternal health; accessibility to medical care and improved technology has helped to save many pregnant women from death.

    2. Good governance is good for all nations but Nigeria and many developing countries seem to be far behind in their quest for good governance. Discuss!
    Good governance is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.
    When it comes to Nigeria and other developing countries, it seems to be a different case because
    Rule of law; this concept says that nobody is above the law, everybody is equal in the eyes of the law, but in Nigeria those in political offices and wealthy ones are immune to law. The law is only made for the poor.
    Accountability: it is one attribute of good governance where the policy makers and those in charge of the affairs of the economy are responsible of any decision they made, they are to give accurate account of all their activities.
    Transparency: good governance should be transparent, this means the public should be made to know what is happening in the economy, the citizens should be part of the decision making through their representatives but in Nigeria case the outcome of the decision is imposed on the citizens.
    Inclusiveness: in making decision everyone has to be included, no gender inequality, the citizens should be made to believe that they are part of the government, that is the are also stakeholders, but in Nigeria the opposite is the case.

  97. Avatar Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness says:

    MOLOKWU CHIAMAKA GOODNESS
    ECONOMICS
    2018/242393
    ASSIGNMENT

    1. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 goals that UN Member States have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.
    The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. Each MDG has targets set for 2015 and indicators to monitor progress from 1990 levels. Several of these relate directly to health.
    While some countries have made impressive gains in achieving health-related targets, others are falling behind. Often the countries making the least progress are those affected by high levels of HIV/AIDS, economic hardship or conflict.

    Millennium Development Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    Target 1.C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    Undernutrition which includes fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc, along with suboptimal breastfeeding; is the underlying cause of death in an estimated 45% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age. The proportion of underweight children in developing countries has declined from 28% to 17% between 1990 and 2013. This rate of progress is close to the rate required to meet the MDG target, however improvements have been unevenly distributed between and within different regions.

    Millennium Development Goal 4: reduce child mortality
    Target 4.A. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
    Globally, significant progress has been made in reducing mortality in children under 5 years of age. In 2013, 6.3 million children under 5 died, compared with 12.7 million in 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, under-5 mortality declined by 49%, from an estimated rate of 90 deaths per 1000 live births to 46. The global rate of decline has also accelerated in recent years – from 1.2% per annum during 1990–1995 to 4.0% during 2005–2013. Despite this improvement, the world is unlikely to achieve the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction in 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015.
    More countries are now achieving high levels of immunization coverage; in 2013, 66% of Member States reached at least 90% coverage. In 2013, global measles immunization coverage was 84% among children aged 12–23 months. During 2000–2013, estimated measles deaths decreased by 74% from 481 000 to 124 000.

    Millennium Development Goal 5: improve maternal health
    Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
    Target 5.B. Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
    Despite a significant reduction in the number of maternal deaths – from an estimated 523 000 in 1990 to 289 000 in 2013 – the rate of decline is less than half of what is needed to achieve the MDG target of a three quarters reduction in the mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.
    To reduce the number of maternal deaths, women need access to good-quality reproductive health care and effective interventions. In 2012, 64% of women aged 15–49 years who were married or in a consensual union were using some form of contraception, while 12% wanted to stop or postpone childbearing but were not using contraception.
    The proportion of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy was about 83% for the period 2007–2014, but for the recommended minimum of 4 or more visits the corresponding figure drops to around 64%.
    The proportion of births attended by skilled personnel – crucial for reducing perinatal, neonatal and maternal deaths – is above 90% in 3 of the 6 WHO regions. However, increased coverage is needed in certain regions, such as the WHO African Region where the figure was still only 51%.

    Millennium Development Goal 6: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    Target 6A. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
    Target 6B. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.
    In 2013 an estimated 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV – down from 3.4 million in 2001. By the end of 2013 about 12.9 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Of these, 11.7 million lived in low- and middle-income countries, representing 36% of the estimated 32.6 million people living with HIV in these countries. Should current trends continue the target of placing 15 million people on ART by 2015 will be exceeded.
    The decrease in the number of those newly infected along with the increased availability of ART have contributed to a major decline in HIV mortality levels – from 2.4 million people in 2005 to an estimated 1.5 million in 2013. As fewer people die from AIDS-related causes the number of people living with HIV is likely to continue to grow.

    Target 6C. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
    MALARIA
    About half the world’s population is at risk of malaria, and an estimated 198 million cases in 2013 led to approximately 584 000 deaths – most of these in children under the age of 5 living in Africa. During the period 2000–2013, malaria incidence and mortality rates of population at risk have both fallen globally, 30% and 47% respectively. The coverage of interventions such as the distribution of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has greatly increased, and will need to be sustained in order to prevent the resurgence of disease and deaths caused by malaria. Globally, the MDG target of halting by 2015 and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria has already been met.
    TUBERCULOSIS
    The annual global number of new cases of tuberculosis has been slowly falling for a decade thus achieving MDG target 6.C to reverse the spread of the disease by 2015. In 2013, there were an estimated 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths (including 360 000 deaths among HIV-positive people). Globally, treatment success rates have been sustained at high levels since 2007, at or above the target of 85%. However, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which emerged primarily as a result of inadequate treatment, continues to pose problems.

    Millennium Development Goal 7: ensure environmental sustainability
    Target 7C: By 2015, halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The world has now met the MDG target relating to access to safe drinking-water. In 2012, 90%of the population used an improved source of drinking-water compared with 76% in 1990. Progress has however been uneven across different regions, between urban and rural areas, and between rich and poor. With regard to basic sanitation, current rates of progress are too slow for the MDG target to be met globally. In 2012, 2.5 billion people did not have access to improved sanitation facilities, with 1 billion these people still practicing open defecation. The number of people living in urban areas without access to improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in the size of urban populations.

    Millennium Development Goal 8: develop a global partnership for development
    Target 8E. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential medicines in developing countries. Many people continue to face a scarcity of medicines in the public sector, forcing them to the private sector where prices can be substantially higher. Surveys undertaken from 2007-2013 show the average availability of selected generic medicines in 21 low- and middle-income countries was only 55% in the public sector. Even the lowest-priced generics can put common treatments beyond the reach of low-income households in developing countries. The greatest price is paid by patients suffering chronic diseases. Effective treatments for the majority of the global chronic disease burden exist, yet universal access remains out-of-reach.

    2. Good governance for sustainable human development is a multidimensional process involving socioeconomic and political transformation of societies; it is aimed at enhancing human progress in all its dimensions, including freedom of political and economic choice. A program of good governance, along with education on how to achieve peaceful transformation and confl ict resolution, should be instituted across schools, universities, and colleges to teach citizenship, the qualities of a civil society, and responsible ethical conduct.
    HINDRANCES OF GOOD GOVERANCE IN NIGERIA
    bribe and corruption – this snatches away the opportunity from the deserving to the less eligible candidate in any field.
    poor economy – unemployment and reservation
    uneducated people – poor education system and not access to education by everyone is a failure for the nation.
    inequality – discriminating on the basis of gender, class , creed and religion is major cause for backwardness.

    The importance of good governance comes from its relationship with the development of a country and the reduction of poverty, in particular. Setting an agenda for reaching good governance is of huge interest but also a complex task, hence while governments believe they apply the elements/principles of good governance in their decision-making, cultural differences do cause conflict especially in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria with diverse religion, language, culture, history and belief systems (Grindle, 2004).
    However heterogeneous, the Nigerian society has the need to secure sustainable development and the welfare of the people cannot be compromised. Hence people of different tribes, languages, colour, history and customs have need for those things that make live worth living provided for them by the government whom they entered into contract with. This is done through governance, which the UNDP defines as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels, comprising the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences. By implication governance is administered at three levels: Economic governance which includes decision-making processes that affect a country’s economic activities and its relationships with other economies, with major implications for equity, poverty and quality of life; Political governance which is the process of decision-making to formulate policy; and administrative governance which is the system of policy implementation (Waziri, 2009).

  98. Avatar Omeke Chinenye Joy says:

    Name: Omeke Chinenye Joy
    Reg. No: 2018/244290
    Department: Social Science Education (Economics)
    Eco 362 third quiz answers
    1. Yes the goal of the millennium Development was achieved to some extent in the following areas:
    Goal 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER
    Extreme poverty has declined significantly over the last two decades. In 1990, nearly half of the population in the developing world lived on less than $1.25 a day; that proportion dropped to 14 per cent in 2015. Globally, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined by more than half, falling from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 836 million in 2015. Most progress has occurred since 2000.
    The number of people in the working middle class—living on more than $4 a day—has almost tripled between 1991 and 2015. This group now makes up half the workforce in the developing regions, up from just 18 per cent in 1991. Also, the proportion of undernourished people in the developing regions has fallen by almost half since 1990, from 23.3 per cent in 1990–1992 to 12.9 per cent in 2014_2016
    Goal 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
    The primary school net enrolment rate in the developing regions has reached 91 per cent in 2015, up from 83 per cent in 2000. The number of out-of-school children of primary school age worldwide has fallen by almost half, to an estimated 57 million in 2015, down from 100 million in 2000. Sub-Saharan Africa has had the best record of improvement in primary education of any region since the MDGs were established. The region achieved a 20 percentage point increase in the net enrolment rate from 2000 to 2015, compared to a gain of 8 percentage points between 1990 and 2000. The literacy rate among youth aged 15 to 24 has increased globally from 83 per cent to 91 per cent between 1990 and 2015. The gap between women and men has narrowed.
    Goal 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPLOYMENT
    Many more girls are now in school compared to 15 years ago. The developing regions as a whole have achieved the target to eliminate gender disparity in primary, secondary and tertiary education. In Southern Asia, only 74 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 1990. Today, 103 girls are enrolled for every 100 boys. Women now make up 41 per cent of paid workers outside the agricultural sector, an increase from 35 per cent in 1990.
    Between 1991 and 2015, the proportion of women in vulnerable employment as a share of total female employment has declined 13 percentage points. In contrast, vulnerable employment among men fell by 9 percentage points. Women have gained ground in parliamentary representation in nearly 90 per cent of the 174 countries with data over the past 20 years. The average proportion of women in parliament has nearly doubled during the same period. Yet still only one in five members are women.
    Goal4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY
    The global under-five mortality rate has declined by more than half, dropping from 90 to 43 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Despite population growth in the developing regions, the number of deaths of children under five has declined from 12.7 million in 1990 to almost 6 million in 2015 globally.
    Since the early 1990s, the rate of reduction of under-five mortality has more than tripled globally.In sub-Saharan Africa, the annual rate of reduction of under-five mortality was over five times faster during 2005–2013 than it was during 1990–1995. Measles vaccination helped prevent nearly 15.6 million deaths between 2000 and 2013. The number of globally reported measles cases declined by 67 per cent for the same period. About 84 per cent of children worldwide received at least one dose of measles containing vaccine in 2013, up from 73 per cent in 2000.
    Goal 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
    Since 1990, the maternal mortality ratio has declined by 45 per cent worldwide, and most of the reduction has occurred since 2000. In Southern Asia, the maternal mortality ratio declined by 64 per cent between 1990 and 2013, and in sub-Saharan Africa it fell by 49 per cent. More than 71 per cent of births were assisted by skilled health personnel globally in 2014, an increase from 59 per cent in 1990.
    In Northern Africa, the proportion of pregnant women who received four or more antenatal visits increased from 50 per cent to 89 percent between 1990 and 2014. Contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15 to 49, married or in a union, increased from 55 per cent in 1990 worldwide to 64 per cent in 2015.
    Goal 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES
    New HIV infections fell by approximately 40 per cent between 2000 and 2013, from an estimated 3.5 million cases to 2.1 million. By June 2014, 13.6 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally, an immense increase from just 800,000 in 2003. ART averted 7.6 million deaths from AIDS between 1995 and 2013. Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rate by 58 per cent.
    More than 900 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets were delivered to malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2004 and 2014. Between 2000 and 2013, tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions saved an estimated 37 million lives. The tuberculosis mortality rate fell by 45 per cent and the prevalence rate by 41 per cent between 1990 and 2013.
    Goal 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
    Ozone-depleting substances have been virtually eliminated since 1990, and the ozone layer is expected to recover by the middle of this century. Terrestrial and marine protected areas in many regions have increased substantially since 1990. In Latin America and the Caribbean, coverage of terrestrial protected areas rose from 8.8 per cent to 23.4 per cent between 1990 and 2014.
    In 2015, 91 per cent of the global population is using an improved drinking water source, compared to 76 per cent in 1990. Of the 2.6 billion people who have gained access to improved drinking water since 1990, 1.9 billion gained access to piped drinking water on premises. Over half of the global population (58 per cent) now enjoys this higher level of service.
    Globally, 147 countries have met the drinking water target, 95 countries have met the sanitation target and 77 countries have met both. Worldwide, 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. The proportion of people practicing open defecation has fallen almost by half since 1990. The proportion of urban population living in slums in the developing regions fell from approximately 39.4 per cent in 2000 to 29.7 per cent in 2014.
    Goal 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
    Official development assistance from developed countries increased by 66 per cent in real terms between 2000 and 2014, reaching $135.2 billion. In 2014, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom continued to exceed the United Nations official development assistance target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income.
    In 2014, 79 per cent of imports from developing to developed countries were admitted duty free, up from 65 per cent in 2000. The proportion of external debt service to export revenue in developing countries fell from 12 per cent in 2000 to 3 per cent in 2013.
    As of 2015, 95 per cent of the world’s population is covered by a mobile-cellular signal. The number of mobile-cellular subscriptions has grown almost tenfold in the last 15 years, from 738 million in 2000 to over 7 billion in 2015. Internet penetration has grown from just over 6 per cent of the world’s population in 2000 to 43 per cent in 2015. As a result, 3.2 billion people are linked to a global network of content and applications.
    2. THE QUEST FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
    The role of governance in the polity of a state cannot be over emphasized. It is important to note that the growth and development of a state is dependent upon the manner in which the government of the state sets the platform for effective and proper discharge of authority and control. The issue of good governance is a phenomenon that has stunted the growth of many nations of the world with reference to Africa and Nigeria in particular. Nigeria, since independence in 1960, has battled with the issue of good, credible and accountable government in the country. The search for good governance seems to be Nigeria’s most urgent need at this time in her history. Most Nigerians believe strongly that the factor that had crippled the country’s progress in virtually every field of human endeavour is poor leadership and bad governance (Nnamdi, 2009). Politicians who form the government with no developmental plans; and even the ‘party manifesto’ they sold to the electorates during the electioneering campaign are most often not fulfilled. Sadly, the manifestos of most political parties in the country are not ideologically driven. Rather, political actors see their involvement in politics as a means for primitively accumulating wealth. While some view it as a means of investment through the sponsorship of candidates (godfathers) for elections so that when their candidates win, they would recoup a million fold what they spent to get their godsons into office. This has greatly diverted the attention of political office holders from the primary objectives of improving the general welfare of the state to settling political scores with godfathers.
    Ironically, the government of the United States of America has called on Nigeria to help strengthen good governance in Africa; a subject of perception she (Nigeria) is yet to achieve. In a meeting with President Jonathan of Nigeria, President Obama of the United States of America said he hopes President Jonathan would use his new tenure to diversify the Nigerian economy and strengthen democracy and good governance in Africa (Adedoja, 2011)
    Good governance is integral to economic growth, the eradication of poverty and hunger, and sustainable development. The views of all oppressed groups, including women, youth and the poor, must be heard andconsidered by the governing bodies because they will be the ones most negatively affected if good governance is not achieved. The level of underdevelopment in Nigeria today is largely adduced to bad governance in the country. In the recent past, it was believed that bad governance in Nigeria was associated with the several years of military rule. But since the transition to democratic rule, there has hardly been any significant improvement in terms of good governance in Nigeria. There is no access to basic infrastructural facilities, public health care, potable water etc. There is a high rate of unemployment, inflation is on the rise and poverty is ravaging the system. The United Nations defined poverty as a situation whereby an individual is forced by circumstances to exist on less than one U.S dollar per day (Igbafe, 2007). The United Nations statistics show that over 100 million Nigerians live in abject poverty. This represents over 67% of the entire population. Also, according to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Nigeria occupies the 153rd position out of 186 under the Human Development Index. All of these trends and more are attributed to bad governance in Nigeria.
    Thus, Todaro (1986) asserts that there is a positive correlation between good governance and national economic development. Since governance in Nigeria and much of Africa has been pathetically bad, it is not surprising that national development has been correspondingly very slow, especially where there has been a long period of military interregnum as was the case in Nigeria.. The high rate of youth unemployment of between 20 and 75% of Nigerian youths who graduate from tertiary institutions year by year contributes to insecurity and high rate of crimes in the country. The springing up of the Boko Haram sect made up of idle Muslim youths in Nigeria is not unconnected with the usual frustration arising from unemployment.
    For all these problems to be curbed, good governance is indispensable.The term good governance would be more meaningful if an idea of governance itself is explained. This brings the question, what is governance? There is no universally acceptable definition of governance. This is because a lot of scholars have put forward various definitions as to what governance stands for. For instance, Oyovbaire (2007) sees governance as the proper use of legitimate power and authority in the affairs of a nation or the people. Governance can be defined as the process that is employed to achieve the noble end of the state. Governance is the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development (Agwu, 2011). According to Ogundiya (2010), “governance is the process of allocating resources, through the instrumentalities of the state, for the attainment of public good”. Thus, governance includes institutional and structural arrangement, decision making processes, policy formulation and implementation capacity, development of personnel, information flow and the nature and style of leadership within a political system.
    Therefore, Good governance is, among other things, about being participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable. And it promotes the rule of law. Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resources (UNDP, 1997). Good governance is described as the government of the society. It encompasses the just exercise of authority, the ability for problem solving and conflict resolution, the capacity for efficient management of resources for development, and high level of responsiveness to the needs and the interest of the general populace. Good governance revolves around the structure and functioning of the state, its relationship with the civil society and its role in development (Nnamdi, 2009).
    For governance to be good, the welfare of the Nigerian people must be the primordial objective of the government. As Chinua Achebe, in his book The Trouble with Nigeria rightly pointed out that “the trouble with Nigeria is simply and squarely a failure of leadership.” It was his opinion that “there is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character, there is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land or climate or water or air or anything else,” the problem is based on leadership (Achebe, 1983; cited in Dike, 1999). Therefore according to Dike (1999), “The lack of selfless, non-corrupt and committed leaders has contributed immensely to the sociopolitical and economic predicaments facing Nigeria today.” In ensuring good governance, the different arms, institutions and agencies of government have their roles to play. For instance, the legislature provides oversight or checks over the performance by the executive and, indeed, also by the judiciary. Similarly, within the parameters of the constitution, the executive is expected to lead the people in the path of good governance, and to ensure that security of life and property and defense against external aggression are provided. In like manner, the judiciary provides the critical oversight to governance especially over the activities of the executive and legislative branches. In particular, the judiciary jealously guards the conduct of government such that actors observe the provisions of the constitution, the rule of law and any other behaviour patterns that could conduce to, or detracts from good governance (Oyovbaire, 2007).
    References
    https://www.gogle.com/ mdg2015rev(July 1).pdf
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330484552_Good_Governance_and_National_Development_Nigeria_in_Perspective
    https://www.wvi.org/united-nations-and-global-engagement/article/were-mdgs-success

  99. Avatar Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    NAME: UDEZE OBIANUJU CHARITY
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/244283
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

    Question 1:
    In September 2000, leaders from about 189 nations ratified the Millennium Declaration. The declaration was an unprecedented global commitment and one of the most significant United Nations documents in recent times. It offers a common and integrated vision on how to tackle some of the major challenges facing the world of our time. The declaration has resulted in Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) focused on reducing poverty, improving the quality of peoples’ lives, ensuring environmental sustainability, and building partnerships to ensure that globalization becomes a more positive force for all the world’s people. Also specific targets and indicators have been set and put in place for each of the goals, to be achieved by 2015.
    In your opinion do you think these goals were achieved? If yes,how? If no, why?
    Answer:
    No, the goals were not achieved.
    The Millennium Development goals were set up to be achieved between 2000 and 2015 but as we obviously can see, these goals have not been achieved in greater proportion of the world’s populations. The reasons are as follow:
    Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
    This goal has to do with reducing poverty. It has two targets and each of these targets has their indicators
    Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day
    Indicators
    a. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day (a)
    b. Poverty gap ratio
    c. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

    Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
    Indicators
    a. Growth rate of GDP per person employed
    b. Employment-to-population ratio
    c. Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
    d. Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
    From the above goal, it is appalling that the MDG goal on reducing poverty were not achieved especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries. A lot of people still live below 1dollar per day and the unemployment to population ratio has widened. A lot of people are unemployed not to talk of those who are underemployed.
    Goal 7. Ensure environmental Sustainablility
    Now, this goal deals with ensuring environmental sustainability. It has 3 targets with the various indicators for each target.
    Target 1. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources
    Indicators
    a. Proportion of land area covered by forest
    b. CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
    c. Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits Proportion of total water resources used
    Target 2 Reduce by half the proportion of people with sustai