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Eco. 361—23-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 3–More Vital Questions to Budding Economists)

Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

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  1. Avatar Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Name: Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    Reg. No: 2018/245427
    Department: Economics/Education
    E-mail: obiesiemmesoma@gmail.com
    Clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    A. Modernization theory : Is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.
    B. Structuralism : Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth.
    C. Dependency theory : It is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market.
    D. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society.
    E. The basic needs model : It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line.
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The most hold back include:
    Macroeconomic factors that can affect entire economies, including such things as interest rates, inflation rates, and unemployment rates, along with periods of growth and contraction, Inefficiencies within the micro-economy. Imbalances in the structure of the economy. A rapidly growing or declining population. A poor country such as India could not save enough of its annual national income to sustain high rates of investment. The lack of domestic savings was without doubt the most serious constraint to economic growth in the early decades after political independence, the foreign exchange constraint.
    A. Interlocking Various Circle.
    B. Population Problems.
    C. The Difficult of Adapting Western Technology.
    D. Lack of Preparation for an Industrial Revolution.
    E.The International Context.
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Enhancing women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development.
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Human Rights define extreme poverty as being characterised by social exclusion and by an accumulation of insecurities in many areas of life: a lack of identity papers, unsafe housing, insufficient food, and a lack of access to health care and to education.
    The causes are:
    A. Increase rate of rising population
    B. Less productivity in agriculture
    C. Less utilization of resources
    D. A short rate of economic development
    E. Increasing price rise
    F. Unemployment
    G. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship
    H. Social factors, political regime and dictatorship, western countries and the global order, physical geography diseases.
    Key policies include; boosting social policies, promoting coherence between agriculture and social protection; strengthening the capacity of producer organizations and rural institutions; and increasing investment in rural infrastructure, research and services to create new income generating.
    Minimum wage laws, social security, negative income taxes, and in-kind benefits.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.
    The most effective policy is free market enterprise protected by strict property laws and a powerful judiciary.
    10. Do rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    a. Yes
    Rapid population growth threaten the economic progress of developing nations when the population growth is tending to overpopulation. However in a situation where the country in question is under developed and its resources under utilized. A rapid population growth would be welcomed and appreciated. Because as the country tends towards optimum population, and reasources properly utilized, the economy of the nation would flourish.
    b. I don’t believe that large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Now let me explain my reason with an real life example,
    If we look into the society of the people living in Northern Nigeria, whom are mostly Hausa and fulani people, who most are Islamic people whose religion permits marriage of a man to more than one woman, leading to raising of large families in the society which has brought about alot of societal problems for them such as high rate of beggars, hawkers, Crime, etc. This is due to the fact that, in a typical large family catering for the needs of every member of the family is difficult, and this is made evem more difficult when the families are in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment. When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.
    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Acquiring optimum health is paramount to sustain an enjoyable and long-term lifestyle. Wealth is a major supporter for optimum health because it gives you the financial freedom to make healthy choices and avail of any existing health and fitness resources. Unfortunately, in our market place today, the healthier food choices are more expensive than the damaging processed varieties. Fitness, sports and recreational supplies and equipment can also carry hefty prices. As a result, those who experience lack of wealth have limited access to most average and higher level resources that support a healthy lifestyle.
    At some point in our lives we will be forced to deal with known or unexpected health issues. In many cases these issues may be extremely costly and not all health insurance coverage includes all expenses. When dealing with any health issues, it’s important that all focus and energy is invested into the recovery process and not consumed by the stress and anxiety of dealing with any financial strain due to the lack of money.
    For those who experience wealth, they are not concerned with the expenses of treatments, medications, travel and accommodations if needed or any other required expenses. Unfortunately, for those who experience the lack of money, these expenses become a major distraction and in many cases, it becomes a serious limitation. And yes, health helps to spur success development.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Poor public health slows development, reduces labour force, wide spread of infection and diseases, underproduction, increase in mortality rate, poverty, Decrease in human capital development. What is needed to address these problems are
    A. Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior
    B. Formulating health improvement policies.
    C. Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease
    D. Establishment of more health care centers
    E. Assure Health Services
    F. Employment or health experts.

  2. Avatar Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Name: Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    Reg. No: 2018/245427
    Department: Economics/Education
    E-mail: obiesiemmesoma@gmail.com

    Clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    A. Modernization theory : Is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.
    B. Structuralism : Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth.
    C. Dependency theory : It is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market.
    D. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society.
    E. The basic needs model : It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The most hold back include:
    Macroeconomic factors that can affect entire economies, including such things as interest rates, inflation rates, and unemployment rates, along with periods of growth and contraction, Inefficiencies within the micro-economy. Imbalances in the structure of the economy. A rapidly growing or declining population. A poor country such as India could not save enough of its annual national income to sustain high rates of investment. The lack of domestic savings was without doubt the most serious constraint to economic growth in the early decades after political independence, the foreign exchange constraint.
    A. Interlocking Various Circle.
    B. Population Problems.
    C. The Difficult of Adapting Western Technology.
    D. Lack of Preparation for an Industrial Revolution.
    E.The International Context.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Enhancing women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development.
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Human Rights define extreme poverty as being characterised by social exclusion and by an accumulation of insecurities in many areas of life: a lack of identity papers, unsafe housing, insufficient food, and a lack of access to health care and to education.
    The causes are:
    A. Increase rate of rising population
    B. Less productivity in agriculture
    C. Less utilization of resources
    D. A short rate of economic development
    E. Increasing price rise
    F. Unemployment
    G. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship
    H. Social factors, political regime and dictatorship, western countries and the global order, physical geography diseases.
    Key policies include; boosting social policies, promoting coherence between agriculture and social protection; strengthening the capacity of producer organizations and rural institutions; and increasing investment in rural infrastructure, research and services to create new income generating.
    Minimum wage laws, social security, negative income taxes, and in-kind benefits.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.
    The most effective policy is free market enterprise protected by strict property laws and a powerful judiciary.

    10. Do rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    a. Yes
    Rapid population growth threaten the economic progress of developing nations when the population growth is tending to overpopulation. However in a situation where the country in question is under developed and its resources under utilized. A rapid population growth would be welcomed and appreciated. Because as the country tends towards optimum population, and reasources properly utilized, the economy of the nation would flourish.
    b. I don’t believe that large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Now let me explain my reason with an real life example,
    If we look into the society of the people living in Northern Nigeria, whom are mostly Hausa and fulani people, who most are Islamic people whose religion permits marriage of a man to more than one woman, leading to raising of large families in the society which has brought about alot of societal problems for them such as high rate of beggars, hawkers, Crime, etc. This is due to the fact that, in a typical large family catering for the needs of every member of the family is difficult, and this is made evem more difficult when the families are in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment. When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Acquiring optimum health is paramount to sustain an enjoyable and long-term lifestyle. Wealth is a major supporter for optimum health because it gives you the financial freedom to make healthy choices and avail of any existing health and fitness resources. Unfortunately, in our market place today, the healthier food choices are more expensive than the damaging processed varieties. Fitness, sports and recreational supplies and equipment can also carry hefty prices. As a result, those who experience lack of wealth have limited access to most average and higher level resources that support a healthy lifestyle.
    At some point in our lives we will be forced to deal with known or unexpected health issues. In many cases these issues may be extremely costly and not all health insurance coverage includes all expenses. When dealing with any health issues, it’s important that all focus and energy is invested into the recovery process and not consumed by the stress and anxiety of dealing with any financial strain due to the lack of money.
    For those who experience wealth, they are not concerned with the expenses of treatments, medications, travel and accommodations if needed or any other required expenses. Unfortunately, for those who experience the lack of money, these expenses become a major distraction and in many cases, it becomes a serious limitation. And yes, health helps to spur success development.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Poor public health slows development, reduces labour force, wide spread of infection and diseases, underproduction, increase in mortality rate, poverty, Decrease in human capital development. What is needed to address these problems are
    A. Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior
    B. Formulating health improvement policies.
    C. Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease
    D. Establishment of more health care centers
    E. Assure Health Services
    F. Employment or health experts.

  3. Avatar Nweke Melody chioma says:

    Name : NWEKE MELODY CHIOMA

    Reg No: 2018/243742

    Department: Economics

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    The most influential theories of development include the following:

    Modernization: This theory is used to describe the process of society’s modernization. Modernization is a model for making a gradual shift from a “pre-modern” or “traditional” society to “modern” society. Max Weber (1864–1920), a German sociologist, coined the term “modernization theory.” Modernization theory strives to describe the process of social evolution as well as identify the social variables that contribute to social growth and development. Traditional societies will develop as more modern practices are adopted, according to this theory.

    Dependency: This theory was developed in the late 1950s. According to dependency theory, the peripheral position of affected nations in the global economy is the primary source of underdevelopment. On the global market, underdeveloped countries typically offer cheap labor and raw supplies. These resources are sold to developed economies with the infrastructure to turn them into finished goods. Underdeveloped countries end up paying high costs for finished goods, draining capital that could otherwise be used to improve their own productive capacity. As a result, a vicious cycle exists, maintaining the world economy’s division into a rich core and a poor periphery.

    World-Systems: The criticisms of Dependency Theory led to the development of World Systems Theory. The theory was developed by Immanuel Wallerstein in 1979. World Systems Theory, like dependence theory, proposes that wealthier countries benefit from and exploit the citizens of other countries. In disparity to dependency theory, this model acknowledges the modest benefits that low-status countries in the global system obtain. According to the world’s economic structure is split into three categories: core countries (e.g., U.S., Japan, Germany), semiperipheral countries (e.g., South Korea, Taiwan, Mexico, Brazil, India, Nigeria, South Africa), and peripheral countries (e.g., most African countries and poor countries in South America and Asia).

    Globalization: Globalization is a theory whose goal is to analyze contemporary international events in terms of development, economic conditions, social scenarios, political and cultural influences. Communication and international relationships are at the center of Globalisation Theory, with these ties aimed at cultural and economic factors in communication.

    The theories are not compatible based on their background, focus, and direction. While modernization theory views development as a systematic process. Dependency theory is built on the elements of neo-Marxist theory. The world system theory sees capitalism as the dominant system and globalization theory focuses on greater global integration of economic transactions.

    According to dependency and theories of dualism, underdevelopment is the result of the historical evolution of a highly unequal global capitalism system of rich-poor relationships. Developed countries are either intentionally or unintentionally exploitative of poor countries. As a result, underdevelopment is a result of external factors.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Various factors impacting the economy can slow down, or even reverse, the rate of economic growth, and they include:

    Imbalances in the economy’s structure.
    A population that is rapidly increasing or decreasing.
    Lack of financial resources.
    Human capital is in short supply.
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy
    Corruption and bad government.
    Missing markets
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Several studies have proven that without women’s empowerment and gender equality, sustainable development is unachievable. The fact that women account for more than half of Nigeria’s population makes empowering them to participate actively in all development projects a compelling circumstance.

    The highest return on all development initiatives is improving women’s roles and status. For example, increases in the position and status of women in the labour force may result in an increase in total household expenditure, government tax revenues, private enterprises, and personal savings, and therefore the resources available for successful development.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    The following are some of the reasons for extreme poverty:

    Conflict: Poverty can be caused by a conflict in a variety of ways. Large-scale, long-term violence, such as that seen in Syria, can bring society to a standstill, ruin infrastructure, and force people to flee, compelling families to sell or abandon all of their property. In Syria, almost 70% of the population presently lives in poverty.

    Inequality: Inequality exists in many forms around the world, ranging from economic to social inequities such as gender, caste systems, and tribal loyalties. However, regardless of the level of inequality, the result is usually the same: unequal or no access to the resources required to keep or elevate a family out of poverty.

    The limited capacity of the government: Many people in the United States are aware of the various social welfare programs available to them if they require medical or nutritional assistance. However, not every government can provide this kind of assistance to its residents, and without that safety net, poor families are at risk of falling further into poverty if something goes wrong. Governments that are ineffective also contribute to several of the other reasons for severe poverty described above, as they are unable to provide vital infrastructure or secure the safety and security of their inhabitants in the event of war.

    Social injustice: Whether it’s gender discrimination, racism, or other forms of social injustice, poverty follows. People who are victims of social injustice have a difficult time getting a good education, finding suitable employment, and gaining access to resources that can help them escape poverty.

    Here are policies the government can take to cut poverty, boost economic security, and improving the lives of the poorest of the poor

    Create jobs
    Direct provision of goods/services
    Raise the minimum wage
    Economic Security
    Support pay equity
    Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    Increasing benefits to the poor

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Mr. President, I strongly agree that rapid population growth threatens the economic progress of developing nations. Rapid population growth is one of the key contributors to Third World countries’ poverty and underdevelopment.

    Rapid population growth has exceeded increases in food production, resulting in the overuse and destruction of arable land. Rapid economic development has been limited by rapid population growth, which has resulted in significant unemployment.

    In the long term, population growth, according to Thomas Malthus, will reduce living standards. The theory was straightforward: given a finite amount of land, population increase will eventually restrict the number of resources that each individual can use, leading to disease, starvation, and war. So, for me rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations.

    Mr. President, large families do not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. In this situation, having huge families can be bad for the economy. For example, an increase in the unemployment rate will result in an increase in the crime rate. The two issues arise as a result of large families living below the poverty line. These function as an additional impediment to economic progress and development.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    There is so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world mostly because of government bad policies. For example, in the case of Nigeria, there was a neglect of the role of agriculture in employment generation. The agricultural sector has the capacity of reducing the Nigerian unemployment rate if proper policies are undertaken to promote agriculture in the country.

    People continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim simply because of their belief that there are a variety of jobs in the city. They believe that cities offer a plethora of job opportunities. However, the number of individuals coming to cities in search of employment outnumbers the number of cities that can absorb this labour, and the number of job opportunities in cities is inadequate. This creates an imbalance, which leads to a variety of socioeconomic problems in cities. As a result, rural areas provide cities with an endless supply of labour. Economically, such labor will be inexpensive, but it will also result in unemployment and underemployment, which are common in most developing-country cities.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Research has shown that population health does play a significant role in a community’s economic strength, and that strong community health can help shield a community against economic shocks.

    People who are in better health are more productive economically. Because healthier people expect to live longer and are naturally more concerned about their future financial demands, better health leads to higher savings rates which constitute the funds needed for investment. So, better health help promotes successful development.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    It’s important to note that the residents in many of the world’s poorest countries have the worst health. When a bigger proportion of the population becomes ill as a result of inadequate public health services, the country’s economic prosperity is compromised.

    People who have poor public health are less productive economically. However, countries with good public health are more productive economically Because healthier people expect to live longer and are naturally more concerned about their future financial demands, better health leads to higher savings rates which constitute the funds needed for investment.

    One important solution to this problem is for government to provide adequate public health care and this can be done by:

    Ensuring that public healthcare facilities are adequately funded.
    Ensuring the employment of well trained personnel.
    Putting in place an efficient training program for public health workers.

  4. Avatar NWOKE EBERECHI ANGEL says:

    NAME: NWOKE EBERECHI ANGEL
    REG NO:2018/251570
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    Which are the most persuasive hypotheses of development, and would they say they are viable? Is underdevelopment an inside (locally) or remotely (globally) incited peculiarity?

    Structuralism and direct phases of growth model are the most compelling speculations of development. They are viable on the grounds that they are both worried about rebuilding the economy so that lead to industrialization and monetary development.

    Underdevelopment is an inside incited peculiarity on the grounds that most factors which lead to the issue of underdevelopment in emerging nations are locally or inside created. A portion of these variables might be because of the accompanying:

    Government approaches

    The People’s Culture

    Environment and Geography of the country

    Asset Availability and so on

    7. What requirements most keep down sped up growth, contingent upon neighborhood conditions?

    Coming up next are the elements that most keep down sped up financial growth, contingent upon nearby conditions:

    Culture of individuals

    Government arrangements

    Helpless usage of assets

    Absence of Infrastructure

    Weakness

    8. How might upgrades in the job and status of ladies gainfully affect development possibilities?

    A famous platitude takes note of that when you enable a man, you enable a person; when you engage a lady, you enable a country. Working on the job and status of ladies yields the best yield on all development speculations. Decreasing the job and the situation with ladies who are in dynamic workforce, for instance, may prompt decrease in absolute family use, government charge incomes, private organizations and individual investment funds; and henceforth the assets accessible for a fruitful development. These conditions illustrated above may consolidate to smother financial growth and development. So in a general public where there is an improvement in the job and status of ladies, there will undoubtedly be extraordinary monetary growth and development.

    9. What are the reasons for outrageous poverty and what approaches have been best for working on the existences of the least fortunate of poor people?

    A portion of the reasons for outrageous poverty include:

    Degenerate Government

    Absence of Economic Infrastructure

    Helpless Access to Education

    Helpless Access to Healthcare

    Compelling approaches for Improving the existences of the most unfortunate of the poor among others are:

    Correspondence and Representation for all

    Expanded Access to Education

    Miniature financing

    Occupation Creation

    Admittance to Healthcare

    Monetary Security

    10. Fast populace growth undermining the monetary advancement of emerging countries? Do enormous families bode well in a climate of broad poverty and monetary uncertainty?

    Fast populace growth is a gigantic danger to monetary advancement and development in emerging nations. Accepting the circumstance in Nigeria as a contextual analysis; the nation is in a time of financial decay, still the populace is developing at a disturbing rate. In this situation, the economy needs to take into account substantially more individuals than it can support. The present circumstance undermines financial advancement as in surpassing the conveying limit of the economy will go about as a drag to any arrangement for monetary advancement.

    No, it doesn’t bode well to have enormous families in face of broad poverty and monetary uncertainty. Since having enormous families in the present circumstance can be inconvenient to the economy. For example, there will be an increment in joblessness rate prompting an expansion in crime percentage. The two elements come to fruition because of having enormous families in poverty stricken economies. These further goes about as a drag on any monetary advancement and development.

    11. For what reason is there such a lot of joblessness and underemployment in the creating scene, particularly in the urban communities, and for what reason do individuals keep on moving to the urban areas from provincial regions in any event, whenever their odds of getting an ordinary line of work are extremely thin?

    There is such a lot of joblessness and underemployment in the emerging nations in light of the fact that these twin factors joblessness and underemployment-are the fundamental distinctive elements of creating economies; they are additionally pervasive in creating economies due to the terrible condition of the economy in these states.

    Why individuals from provincial regions move to the urban areas is on the grounds that they feel that there are various work open doors in the urban areas. Yet, the quantity of individuals moving to the urban areas for business is more than the quantity of urban communities that ingest this work and furthermore, the quantity of open positions in the urban areas are restricted. This causes an unevenness which prompts different financial troubles in the urban areas. The provincial regions are hence, a wellspring of limitless work to the urban communities. Monetarily, such work will be modest and this likewise prompts joblessness and underemployment run of the mill of most urban communities in agricultural nations.

    12 Wealthier social orders are likewise better ones since they have more assets for further developing sustenance and medical care. Yet, improves wellbeing likewise assist with prodding effective development?

    Indeed, better wellbeing assist with prodding effective development. In an economy where the residents are solid, fruitful development can be achieved. Since when any of the residents become ill, they are certain that they will be appropriately dealt with in very much supported and exceptional general medical care offices and furthermore, a sound individual will actually want to consider ways of fostering the economy since there is no compelling reason to stress over his wellbeing.

    13. What is the effect of helpless general wellbeing on the possibilities for development, and what is expected to resolve these issues?

    A sound country is a rich country and any economy that has solid individuals will undoubtedly prosper and advance. In emerging nations helpless general wellbeing is a significant hindrance to development in light of the fact that these nations have more wiped out individuals who are not enough dealt with. At the point when a bigger piece of the populace is wiped out because of helpless general wellbeing offices, then, at that point, the financial movement of that nation will be seriously endangered.

    There is need for the public authority in these nations to move forward to deal with this issue of helpless general wellbeing. The public authority can do this by:

    Sufficiently financing public medical care offices.

    Adequately outfitting these medical care offices with the fundamental clinical supplies.

    Establishing viable preparing modified for the general wellbeing laborers.

  5. Avatar Izueke Maximilian Chidera. 2018/246268 says:

    Name : IZUEKE CHIDERA MAXIMILIAN
    REG NO: 2018/246268
    DEPARTMENT : Combined social sciences
    (Economics/political science)

    1a) Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible?
    *Answer * Development Theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society can best be achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches.
    The four major theories of development are : modernization, dependency, worldsystem and globalization.
    According to the modernization theory, modern societies are more productive, children are better educated, and the needy receive more welfare. Modernization is a progressive process which in the long run is not only inevitable but desirable.
    Dependency is a double-edge sword that can either promote or demote the status of the dependent. The case of the dependency relationship between less advanced countries (LACs) and most industrialized countries (MICs) is a pertinent example that explains the attitude developed by each party to situate and maintain itself in its current status to be classified as underdeveloped, developing or develop. Dependency involves some sort of reliance of an economic agent on another through which the power of the dependent party is reinforced or weakened owing to its ability or inability to take advantage of the dependence relationship.
    The world-systems theory considers trade mechanisms, it distinguishes between the direct transactions, which are those who have a greater, more significant and immediate effect on a country; and those operations which are indirect trade transactions, such as future trade stipulations, and the speculations on transportation costs, combustibles prices, and forecasts on agricultural crops, when they depend on weather conditions to obtain their productivity and yield.
    The theory of globalization coincides with several elements from the theory of modernization. One aspect is that both theories consider that the main direction of development should be that which was undertaken by the United States and Europe. These schools sustain that the main patterns of communication and the tools to achieve better standards of living originated in those more developed areas. On this point it is important to underline the difference between the modernization perspective and the globalization approach. The former follows a more normative position -stating how the development issue should be solved-, the latter reinforces its character as a “positive” perspective, rather than a normative claim

    1b) Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    2) What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Peoples’ belief or tradition: most people might not want development because they are afraid that their culture or tradition will be destroyed.
    Literacy: The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    3) How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    w. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over US$6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15% of GDP.
    4) What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    -Poverty can be caused by so many things:
    Gender inequality, conflict, hunger, malnutrition, poor healthcare systems, little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, climate, lack of education, poor public works and infrastructure etc.
    4b) To reduce poverty, government policies could include:
    1. Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.
    2. Minimum wages. Regulation of labor markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    3. Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    4. Direct provision of goods/services – subsidized housing, free education and healthcare.

    5) Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    The effect of population growth can be positive or negative depending on the circumstances. A large population has the potential to be great for economic development: after all, the more people you have, the more work is done, and the more work is done, the more value (or, in other words, money) is created.
    Large families don’t make sense in an environment with widespread poverty and financial insecurity because such families will be malnourished, uneducated and will sometimes have low self-esteem.

    6) Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    Unemployment and underemployment in less developing countries like Nigeria is that as compared with the magnitude of population and labor force there is limited availability of capital or complementary resources which include land, factories, machines, tools and implements-the means with which labor produces.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labor force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited. This has resulted in surplus labor which is manifested in the existence of huge magnitude of under-employment or disguised unemployment and open unemployment in both the rural and urban areas.
    People travel to the city even when they know that their chances of getting jobs are slim is because even if they don’t get jobs, they can at least enjoy some benefits that is in the cities like good road, good healthcare, clean water and they are hopeful of getting jobs someday.
    7) Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Illness typically leads to increased household
    expenditures on health services and goods, and may also reduce time spent producing income that
    allows them to consume market goods. In response to this change in income and/or expenditure,
    households may reduce their consumption of non-health goods and/or liquidate household
    savings or assets (and by so doing diminish their opportunities to generate the stock of financial
    and physical capital that will enable it to maintain or increase its consumption possibilities in the
    future). Furthermore, ill-health can interfere with the consumption of non-market activities (e.g.
    WHO guide to identifying the economic consequences of disease and injury

    giving up unpaid housework or leisure time to look after a sick household member) and of course
    reduces the stock of health itself.

    8) What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Just like the saying; health is wealth. Poor public health will surely be a setback on development, it takes a healthy and mentally sound worker to be efficient in his work and when half of the public health is poor it will surly affect the rate of development in the economy
    This problem can be solved by providing good health care and a conducive living environment.

  6. Avatar Nwokobia Adaeze says:

    NAME: Nwokobia Adaeze
    REG NO: 2018/241865
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    EMAIL: nwokobiaadaeze@gmail.com

    THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
    Theory Of Mordenization-Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    Structuralism-Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.

    Dependency theory- Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    Basic Needs Theory -The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers.

    CONSTRAINTS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Corruption-Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Population- Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment.

    Low growth- Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.

    Lack of savings- A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply. High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.

    Debts-In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.

    HOW CAN IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ROLE AND STATUS OF WOMEN HAVE AN ESPECIALLY BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS?
    Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential. Empowering girls is the key to economic growth, political stability and social transformation.

    C CAUSES OF POVERTY.
    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. A marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty.

    2. CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN

    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.LACK OF EDUCATION

    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here.

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty.

    8. POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty.

    9. LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or healthcare, or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.

    10. UNEMPLOYMENT
    11. This might seem like a no-brainer: Without a job or a livelihood, people will face poverty. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change) and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals puts increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonial rule — while conflict over land has forced people away from their source of income and food. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty.

    WAYS OF IMPROVING POVERTY
    EQUALITY AND REPRESENTATION FOR ALL
    One of the main causes of extreme poverty is marginalization — the systemic barriers that lead to groups of people going without representation in their communities. In order for a community or country to work its way out of poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society.
    INCREASE ACCESS TO EDUCATION
    According to UNESCO, if all students in low-income countries had just basic reading skills (nothing else), an estimated 171 million people could escape extreme poverty. If all adults completed secondary education, we could cut the global poverty rate by more than half. Education develops skills and abilities, corrects some of the imbalances that come out of marginalization, and decreases both risk and vulnerability.
    END WAR AND CONFLICT
    No war means that budgets allocated to cover the cost of conflict can be used to deliver public services. It also reduces risks faced by the most vulnerable communities, and ensures that goals towards equality and inclusion can be maintained.
    IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER
    Simply eating three meals a day and getting a healthy amount of calories and nutrients can go a long way to addressing the cycle of poverty. When a person doesn’t have enough to eat, they lack the strength and energy needed to work. Contaminated water can lead to debilitating illnesses.

    RAPID POPULATION GROWTH THREATENING the ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS? Do LARGEST FAMILIES MAKE ECONOMIC SENSE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY AND FINANCIAL INSECURITY?
    Rapid population growth creates problems of unemployment because manpower increases with the increase in population. It is not possible to provide job to all the people because government has limited resources and means and so it can create only limited opportunities.

    WHY IS THERE SO MUCH UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, ESPECIALLY IN THE CITIES, AND WHY DO PEOPLE CONTINUE TO MIGRATE TO THE CITIES FROM RURAL AREAS EVEN WHEN THEIR CHANCES OF FINDING A CONVENTIONAL JOB ARE VERY SLIM?
    In the world, three out of four people living in poverty and suffering from hunger live in rural areas. This data, released by FAO, emphasizes the extent of rural poverty, caused by factors such as lack of employment and opportunities, limited access to services and infrastructure, and conflicts over natural resources and land. Added to these circumstances are the adverse effects of climate change, which aggravate alarming phenomena such as the exhaustion of natural resources, deforestation, soil erosion, a decline in crop yields, or the loss of agrobiodiversity.
    This set of unfavorable conditions causes significant migratory flows to cities, especially of young people seeking new income and employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration in Central America has contributed to the population growth of cities, and the region is today the second in the world to register the highest and fastest urbanization rates, with an average growth rate of 3.8 during the last two decades. Likewise, according to World Bank forecasts, by 2050 the region will have doubled its urban population, mainly due to rural migrants who come to the cities in search of economic opportunities and access to basic services.

    WEALTHIER SOCIETIES ARE ALSO HEALTHIER ONES BECAUSE THEY HAVE MORE RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING NUTRITION AND HEALTH CARE. BUT DOES BETTER HEALTH ALSO HELP SPUR SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT?
    Health is an important determinant of economic development; a healthy population means higher productivity, thus higher income per head. Fifty percent of divergence in economic growth between developing countries and developed countries is attributed to ill-health and low life expectancy.

  7. Avatar Okoye favour says:

    NAME:OKOYE FAVOUR
    REG NO:2018/249186
    IFYFAVOUROKOYE@GMAIL.COM

    6.Modernisation theory is one of the most influential theories of development.Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979). The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, “traditional” countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the 1950s and 1960s, then went into a deep eclipse. It made a comeback after 1991 but remains a controversial model.

    Modernization theory both attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies and seeks to explain the process of social evolution. Modernization theory is subject to criticism originating among socialist and free-market ideologies, world-systems theorists, globalization theorists and dependency theorists among others. Modernization theory stresses not only the process of change but also the responses to that change. It also looks at internal dynamics while referring to social and cultural structures and the adaptation of new technologies.

    Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a ‘pre-modern’ or ‘traditional’ to a ‘modern’ society. Modernization theory suggests that traditional societies will develop as they adopt more modern practices.
    They are compatible because they are both concerned with restructuring the economy in such a way that lead to industrialization and economic development.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system.

    7.The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    The constraints on development include
    • Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.

    • Imbalances in the structure of the economy.

    • A rapidly growing or declining population.

    • Lack of financial capital.

    • Lack of human capital.

    • Poor governance and corruption.

    • Missing markets.

    • Over-exploitation of environmental capital.

    • Barriers to trade.

    8.Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations.
    The Role of Women as Caretakers

    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    The Role of Women as Educators

    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.
    The Role of Women in the Workforce

    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.

    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers

    Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    9.a.LACK OF RESERVE.
    B.LIMITED CAPACITY OF THE GOVERNMENT
    C.LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE
    D.CLIMATE CHANGE
    E.POOR EDUCATION
    F.INEQUALITY
    G.CONFLICT
    H.LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO LIVELIHOODS OR JOBS.
    Policies for improving the life of the poorest of the poor include
    1.create jobs
    2.Raise the minimum wage.
    3.Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    4.support pay equity

    10.Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility.
    No, it does not make sense to have large families in face of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Because having large families in this situation can be detrimental to the economy. For instance, there will be an increase in unemployment rate leading to an increase in crime rate. The two factors come about as a result of having large families in poverty stricken economies. These further acts as a drag on any economic progress and development.

    11.Lack of Physical Capital Relative to Labour Force.
    B.Lack of Wage Goods and Unemployment in Developing Countries.
    C.poor quality of education
    D.lack of skills
    E.Negligence of agriculture and other natural resources.
    Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Some of these people move simply to seek new opportunities and improve their lives. Others are forced to flee due to conflict or sudden or slow onset disasters, such as drought, flooding or rising sea levels, which are often exacerbated by climate change and environmental stress.

    12.Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.

    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems.

    13.Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth.
    Things needed to address this issues includes;
    – Formulating health improvement policies.
    – establishment of more health care centers
    – and employment or health expert

  8. Avatar Okeke Mmesoma .F. says:

    Name: Okeke Mmesoma .F.
    Department: Library and information science/Econs
    Reg Number: 2018/245372

    6) According to the theories of economic development, modernization theory is the most influential;The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies.This theory states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in societies. Yes, they are compatible.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced(internationally) process which is perpetuated (organized) by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system in order to sustain their economic change through advancement.

    7) What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    There are a lot of constraints that hold back growth; increase and decrease in population,poor governance and corruption, over exploitation of natural resources, imbalance in the economic structure, low level of literacy reduces the rate of economic growth.

    8) How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community and increase economic and social growth, increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities.Education and training programmes for boys, girls and adults were needed to eliminate a gender-segregated labour market.

    9) What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The causes of extreme poverty can be linked to corrupt government, lack of economic infrastructure, conflict, increase rate of population, less utilization of resources, climate change, poor health facilities.etc
    Creation of jobs there reducing unemployment, support pay equity, expand medicals, sustained economic growth, national minimum wages, poverty alleviation scheme, good governance, investment in Small and large scale business.etc.

    10) Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of countries,it has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, it has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Because of its causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious or societal groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs.
    the general view was that high birth rates and rapid population growth in poor countries would divert scarce capital away from savings and investment, thereby placing a drag on economic development.It also reduces spending on enhancing the economic potential of each child both in education and other aspects.

    11) why there is much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world is wherefore;
    A)Lack of Wage Goods and Unemployment in Developing Countries: when the unemployed people or disguisedly unemployed people who are withdrawn from agriculture are engaged in some public works, they will have to be supplied with wage-goods so that employed labourers can subsist. If the wage-goods are not sufficiently available, their employment in capital-creation works cannot be sustained. Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy. Now, the total quantity of wage-goods required to employ all the disguised unemployed workers in agriculture, according to them, would exceed the actual available supply of wage-goods even when the release of wage goods by the withdrawal of disguised unemployed is take into account.
    B)Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital: The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood. Now, if the working force grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition of labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them.
    C) Inequitable Distribution of Land: Causes of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment. As a result many persons who were self-employed in agriculture have become landless agricultural labourers who suffer from acute unemployment and under-employment.
    D) Lack of Infrastructure: when I say infrastructure, I generally mean machines, plant & equipment, factory buildings etc. But a similar factor responsible for huge unemployment prevailing in these countries is lack of infrastructure such as roads, power, telecommunications, highways, irrigation facilities in agriculture. Inadequate availability of infrastructure is a great obstacle for the generation of opportunities for productive employment.
    11b) why people continue to migrate to the city from rural areas even when they chances of finding conventional jobs are very slim is because Rural areas have very less small scale factories so people not working in fields try jobs in urban small or large scale industries according to their skills. In rural areas, less employment opportunities, low wages, drought, lack of basic amenities, landlessness, social factors act as push factors and more employment opportunities, higher income, better wages, better facilities activities as pull factors towards the rural to urban migration.
    They migrate too for the reason of education.

    12) Does better health also help spur successful development? Yes, because it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.
    Ensuring health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth.

    13)The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development will make Individuals suffering from illness to be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    B) what are needed to address these problems of poor public health development are;
    a)Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco.
    b)Improve health standards.
    c)Improve research.
    d)Transnational support.
    e)Reduction in consumption.
    f)Recycle and reuse.
    g)Reduce corruptive actions
    h)Promote vaccinations
    I)Education and research
    j)Convince others: Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem. However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.

  9. Name: Iko Grace Onu
    Reg. No. 2011/179787
    Assignment on Eco 361
    Questions: As the special adviser to Mr. President on development and employment generation;
    • which are the most influecial theories of development; and are they compatible? Is underdelopment an internally (domestic) or externally(internationally) induced phenomenon?
    • ANSWERS
    6a.The meaning of development has been a burden on ancient political scholars. It has acquired diverse meanings and interpretations from different scholars such as Amartya Sen, Todaro, Coralie Bryant, etc. Development is defined by Todaro and Smith as a multi-dimensional process that involves major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as economic growth, reduction of inequality, and eradication of absolute poverty. Most scholars propounded theories concerning development, how it is achieved and how it is impeded. These theories are the Modernization theory, the Dependency theory and the Feminist theory.
    The modernization theory elaborates on two main categories of societies in world, namely the traditional and modern societies. Theorists argue that the traditional societies are entangled by norms, beliefs and values which are hindering their development process. Therefore they must adapt the modern style of living, thus concentrate on accumulation of capital and industrialization.
    In essence, this theory seeks to improve the standard of living of inferior societies, that is, improves the economic growth of supposed traditional societies to acquire basic and secondary necessities of life, by introducing modern technology and economic strategy to the third world. Modernization theorist, Rostow, also proposed swift machineries of transition for traditional societies to develop; these are preparation to take-off, take-off, drive to maturity and the period of mass consumption. These transitional path processes put traditional societies on the development path. Again, the theory succeeds in the idea that the norms, values and beliefs of a society can affect the social change of that society.
    Despite the advantages attributed to the theory, it has weaknesses which must be addressed. Firstly, the theory seeks to entail only the economic and concrete industrial growth of the third world countries. The theory lacks Amartya’s view of development, which states that “development can be seen as the process of expanding the freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen,1999). To Sen, development entails freedom, liberty, and self esteem of humanity which are neglected by the theory.
    Secondly, the modernization theory posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern countries. It fails to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.Lastly, Wallerstien pointed out that the theory creates dependency and exploitation of the third world countries. The theory neglects the social and cultural structure of the third world countries and imposes on the poor, ethnocentric processes to develop.
    The dependency theory on the other hand opposes the modernization theory. Its main argument is that, the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor countries to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.It was a great analysis done by Frank A. Gunder by being able to debunk the weak, non historical and ethnocentric issues propounded by the modernization theory (Webster 1984).
    Also, Gunder succeeded in pointing out the economic inequalities among the developed and the developing countries, as well as the rampant internal inequalities in the various periphery countries and the exploitation of economic surplus developing countries during colonialism. Again, the theory posits an essence emphasis on the fact that development is not mainly based on the cultural values but rather, the economic and social structures and procedures.
    Dependency theory incurs some weaknesses. Frank failed to exhibit the specific and key dependency of the less developed countries on the metropolis, he merely stated that poor countries depend on rich countries with no specific clarification. The theory downplays internal development. It promotes the idea that indigenous industries cannot develop by it productivity which is not true. Moreover, the theory refuses to point out how the developed countries get access to the economic surplus of the third world countries.
    The feminist theory of development has its main argument being that, women have a great influence in development therefore must be empowered to partake in decision making and its implementation. This theory plays much role in the building of women capacity and capabilities as development is concerned. Also feminists were able to bring awareness of gender inequalities among societies and engaged in massive activities to emancipate women. Feminists succeeded in propounding theories namely, Women in Development (WID) and Woman and development (WAD) to promote equity.Despite feminists’ achievement on the theory, they seemed to address the interest of females instead of addressing issues concerned with gender as a whole. This was criticized by the Gender and development theory. Also, upon all the activities and struggle to attain a high standard of living for women, there are still high inequalities among our social world unaddressed. The feminist theory failed to point out the actual actions and procedures which must be taken by the society and men to empower women in development process but just emphasized on why women must be part and neglected the “how”.
    6b. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    Underdevelopment is thus externally induced. Developing countries are destined to be the sweatshops of the rich nations (through their multinationals for example) and depend on developed nations for manufacturing goods that are high-value-added. Many developing countries were forced to become exporters of primary commodities by their colonial masters. Many of these countries still depend on primary commodities after independence. However, with average prices of primary commodities falling substantially (by half in many cases) since 1950s, dependence on primary commodities export is impoverishing to these countries. The economies of Zambia and Nigeria had been negatively affected by falling prices for their commodities exports. However, countries like Thailand and Malaysia who used to depend heavily on tin, rubber and palm oil are able to diversified into manufacturing exports. These countries went on to develop strong manufacturing sector.
    7. The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    The constraints on development include:
    1. Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    2. Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    3. A rapidly growing or declining population.
    4. Lack of financial capital.
    5. Lack of human capital.
    6. Poor governance and corruption.
    7. Missing markets.
    8. Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    9. Barriers to trade.
    8. Improvements in women’s employment in the private sector could be achieved by remedying the shortfall between the skills taught at school and those required in the labour market, guaranteeing equal access to quality learning, fostering women’s education and training in science and technology universities and similar centres, introducing on-going learning programmes for women and encouraging private enterprises to launch training programmes for women graduates, encouraging the private sector and foundations to invest in programmes and the improvement of skills to favour women’s enterprises and career opportunities for women and girls, and supporting recruitment, retention and progress of women and girls in the fields of science, technology and innovation by means of transparent criteria.
    In other words, mirror representation says that the proportion of women in leadership should match the proportion of women in the population that they govern. Mirror representation is premised on the assumption that elected officials of a gender would likely support policies that seek to benefit constituents of the same gender.
    Several efforts have been made to address the low representation of women in Nigeria in elective and appointive positions in Nigeria; among such efforts are the establishment of Women Political empowerment office and Nigeria Women Trust Funds, Women Lobby Group. Other efforts include the institution of an INEC gender policy, the national multi-stakeholder dialogue; the initiation of several interventions to actualize affirmative action and the convening of the Nigeria Women Strategy Conference. The National Center for Women Development in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics are making efforts to have evidence-based data about this issue. Presently the available data are not harmonized.
    Hopes are high that the result will show the progress steadily made to achieving the affirmative declaration and determine how the gap that erstwhile existed has been closed as well as to measure the variation between where we are and the affirmative action of 35 percent. Also, it will improve evidence-based planning and programming involving women in decision making; increase the support of key stakeholders on measures to increase the representation of women in decision-making and further improved awareness of new advocacy tools among stakeholders to support the campaign for increased representation of women in decision making in Nigeria.
    Other amiable factors which of course could increase women’s intentions to politics and the world of economics include; the identification of aspirants and pairing them with established women politicians, playing mentoring a role and providing capacity building training to young or aspiring female politicians, Building a Coalition of NGOs and Grassroots women associations that coordinates the support and advocacy for women aspirants. Also, creating an enabling environment that allows for women to engage in the decision-making process in a sustainable and effective way free from political harassment and violence, establish legal funds to assist women politicians to challenge electoral malpractices of any form at all levels of political processes.
    In addition, a quota system at all levels of government is introduced and will engage relevant stakeholders such as the Independent National Electoral Commission and political parties. Authorities should act in accordance with the target of ensuring gender equality in maintaining both financial and monetary policies; and medium-term programmes, medium-term financial plans and annual plans should be redesigned to this effect. Implementation results should be evaluated and audited continuously by the independent monitoring mechanisms. Lastly, Special budget items should be included in the budget for active measures to transform sexist structures while pre-school education is strengthened and increase enrolment rates to help promote women’s participation in the workforce through improved childcare services.
    Except there is strict adherence to the following recommendations, women participation might remain unchanged. However, platforms involving women movement as a veritable platform to seize political power and consolidate the power on this same platform. Be that as it may, there is an increase in women participation on these bases and women movements are promising in achieving gender equality and equity.
    9a. CAUSES OF POVERTY
    1. Inequality and marginalization
    2. Conflict
    3. Hunger, malnutrition, and stunting
    4. Poor healthcare systems — especially for mothers and children
    5. Little or no access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene
    6. Climate change
    7. Lack of education
    8. Poor public works and infrastructure
    9. Lack of government support
    10. Lack of jobs or livelihoods
    11. Lack of reserves

    9b. ATTEMPTS TO ERADICATE POVERTY
    1. Create jobs
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    4. Support pay equity
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    6. Establish work schedules that work
    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    8. Expand Medicaid
    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry
    10. Do no harm
    10a. The main common characteristics of developing countries and determinants of economic growth have remained under-developed or in other words, what have been the obstacles to their development and constraints on their economic growth.
    There are not one but several explanations, both economic and non-economic, for their underdevelopment. In the present chapter we are concerned with the study of some explanations of underdevelopment. A suitable strategy of development to accelerate the rate of economic growth can be framed if the correct explanation of their underdevelopment can be known.
    10. As population increases, per capita available income declines. People are re- quired to feed more children with the same income. It means more expenditure on consumption and a further fall in already low savings and consequently in the level of investment.
    11a.Inadequate education and lack of productivity is costing jobs. Unemployment increases progressively with decreased educational levels; and the education system is not producing the skills for the labour market. Labour supply is affected by the increase in the number of job seekers over the years.
    11b. The poor economic conditions and lack of employment opportunities in villages are the main push factors that drift the rural population to the urban areas. The rural areas, which are less developed, have poor agricultural conditions and greater population pressure on land, push the surplus population to urban centres.
    12.In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.
    13a. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    13b. The solutions to these problems must thus come from both inside developing countries and the international community. The population of developing countries must be encouraged to hold their governments accountable to promises made to work towards the achievement of the Millennium Goals. Industrialised countries must heed the sharp warning implicit in the breakdown of the WTO Doha Development Round Ministerial Meeting in Cancun in 2003, where the message by developing countries to the world’s richest nations was that the latter must adapt to a new “progressive globalisation” agenda in order to ensure the future smooth functioning of the world economy.
    14. Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development. No country can achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. Education enriches people’s understanding of themselves and world. It improves the quality of their lives and leads to broad social benefits to individuals and society. Education raises people’s productivity and creativity and promotes entrepreneurship and technological advances. In addition it plays a very crucial role in securing economic and social progress and improving income distribution.
    15. Improvement of water harvesting, cultivating drought-resistant crops, ecological restoration, combined with better local governance, financial instruments, integrated resource management, sound public services, and better urban-rural linkages could help rural communities around the world to become more sustainable.
    16. environmental Sustainable development could be defined as a condition of balance, resilience, and interconnectedness that allows human society to satisfy its needs while neither exceeding the capacity of its supporting ecosystems to continue to regenerate the services necessary to meet those needs nor by our actions diminishing biological diversity.
    16b. The main challenges to sustainable development which are global in character include poverty and exclusion, unemployment, climate change, conflict and humanitarian aid, building peaceful and inclusive societies, building strong institutions of governance, and supporting the rule of law.
    17. Privatisation is widely promoted as a means of improving economic performance in developing countries. However, the policy remains controversial and the relative roles of ownership and other structural changes, such as competition and regulation, in promoting economic performance remain uncertain.
    18. Invest in technology, human capital, and physical capital. Provide incentives of a market-oriented economic context.Work to reduce government economic controls on market activities.Deregulate the banking and financial sector.Reduce protectionist policies.
    19. International trade allows countries to expand their markets and access goods and services that otherwise may not have been available domestically. As a result of international trade, the market is more competitive. This ultimately results in more competitive pricing and brings a cheaper product home to the consumer.
    When a country enters into trade with another country, it gains from trade. The gain from trade leads to income distribution in the country. ADVERTISEMENTS: … The government redistributes income between them in accordance with a defined welfare function.
    20.
    21. Globalization is a process of global economic, political and cultural integration. It has made the world become a small village; the borders have been broken down between countries. ”The history of globalization goes back to the second half of the twentieth century, the development of transport and communication technology led to situation where national borders appeared to be too limiting for economic activity” (Economic Globalization in Developing Countries, 2002). Globalization is playing an increasingly important role in the developing countries. It can be seen that, globalization has certain advantages such as economic processes, technological developments, political influences, health systems, social and natural environment factors. It has a lot of benefit on our daily life. Globalization has created a new opportunities for developing countries. Such as, technology transfer hold out promise, greater opportunities to access developed countries markets, growth and improved productivity and living standards. However, it is not true that all effects of this phenomenon are positive. Because, globalization has also brought up new challenges such as, environmental deteriorations, instability in commercial and financial markets, increase inequity across and within nations. This paper evaluates the positive and negative impact of globalization on developing nations in the following proportions;
    1- Economic and Trade Processes Field
    Globalization helps developing countries to deal with rest of the world increase their economic growth, solving the poverty problems in their country. In the past, developing countries were not able to tap on the world economy due to trade barriers. They cannot share the same economic growth that developed countries had. However, with globalization the World Bank and International Management encourage developing countries to go through market reforms and radical changes through large loans. Many developing nations began to take steps to open their markets by removing tariffs and free up their economies. The developed countries were able to invest in the developing nations, creating job opportunities for the poor people.
    2- Education and Health Systems
    Globalization contributed to develop the health and education systems in the developing countries. We can clearly see that education has increased in recent years, because globalization has a catalyst to the jobs that require higher skills set. This demand allowed people to gain higher education. Health and education are basic objectives to improve any nations, and there are strong relationships between economic growth and health and education systems. Through growth in economic, living standards and life expectancy for the developing nations certainly get better. With more fortunes poor nations are able to supply good health care services and sanitation to their people. In addition, the government of developing countries can provide more money for health and education to the poor, which led to decrease the rates of illiteracy. This is seen in many developing countries whose illiteracy rate fell down recently. It is truth that, living standards and life expectancy of developing countries increase through economic gains from globalization. According to the World Bank (2004) ” With globalization, more than 85 percent of the world’s population can expect to live for at least sixty years and this is actually twice as long as the average life expectancy 100 years ago”. In addition, globalization helped doctors and scientists to contribute to discover many diseases, which spread by human, animals and birds, and it helped them to created appropriate medicines to fight these deadly diseases
    3- Culture Effects
    Globalization has many benefits and detriment to the culture in the developing countries. Many developing countries cultures has been changed through globalization, and became imitate others cultures such as, America and European countries. Before globalization it would not have been possible to know about other countries and their cultures. Due to important tools of globalization like television, radio, satellite and internet, it is possible today to know what is happening in any countries such as, America, Japan and Australia.
    22. Industrialization is often essential for economic growth, and for long-run poverty reduction. The pattern of industrialization, however, impacts remarkably on how the poor benefit from growth. Pro-poor economic and industrial policies focus on increasing the economic returns to the productive factors that the poor possess, e.g. raising returns to unskilled labour, whereas policies promoting higher returns to capital and land tend to increase inequality, unless they also include changes in existing patterns of concentration of physical and human capital and of land ownership. Use of capital-intensive methods instead of labour-intensive ones tends to increase income disparities, as does the employment of skill-biased technologies, especially where the level of education is low and human capital concentrated. Also, the location of industrial facilities has an impact on overall poverty reduction and inequality. Due to this change, domestic inequality in those countries is expected to decline because of the increased demand for labour, whereas inequality would increase in countries with an abundant endowment of capital. Liberalization of foreign direct investment can also decrease inequality in capital-importing countries, but that depends in part on the degree of skill-bias of technologies employed by foreign invested firms. In several countries, trade and investment liberalization has, indeed, decreased absolute poverty and sometimes also inequality. Bourguignon and Morrison (1990), for example, analyze the determinants of inequality in 35 developing countries and conclude that the phased removal of trade protection in manufacturing reduces the income of the richest 20 per cent of the population and increases the income of the poorest 60 per cent. Dollar and Kraay (2004), who examined impacts of increased trade on growth and inequality, found changes in growth rates to be highly correlated with changes in trade volumes. No systematic relationship between changes in trade volumes and changes in household income inequality was found, and they conclude that on average greater globalization is a force for poverty reduction.
    23. How did so many developing nations get into such serious foreign-debt problems, and what are the implications of debt problems for economic development? How do financial crises affect development?
    Bonn, 11 February 2019. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) have again branded almost half of low-income countries as heavily indebted – despite the extensive debt relief received by most low-income countries between 2000 and 2012 under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). High foreign debt hampers the development of these countries because the money has to be used for interest and principal payments and is not, therefore, available for key investments, such as infrastructure or social spending. Long-standing internal and external problems are again among the key causes of debt in low-income countries. However, the current situation differs significantly from previous debt crises. In particular, the creditors involved have mainly granted non-concessional loans and not concessional loans.
    Poor debt management and low government revenues due to inefficient tax policies and weaknesses in the rule of law are among the internal causes. Furthermore, the loans are often used for the consumption of goods, rather than for productive investments. In addition, there are external shocks, such as falling commodity prices since 2011 or natural disasters like floods or storms. Structural problems, such as a poorly diversified economic and export structure, result in their economies being highly vulnerable to price and demand fluctuations on the world market.
    What is new about the current debt situation is that the creditors – and therefore the debt structure – have changed significantly. Developing countries have significantly increased their borrowing at market conditions, especially from new lenders such as China and India, and from private creditors. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), public debt at market conditions as a share of total debt doubled between 2007 and 2016 in low-income countries, rising to 46 percent. Compared to the concessional loans from traditional bilateral (notably lenders in the OECD Development Assistance Committee) and multilateral creditors such as the IMF and WB, these loans have higher interest and shorter maturities. This further jeopardises the debt sustainability of developing countries.
    Compared to those countries that are not members of the Paris Club, public debt as a share of GDP in low-income countries doubled between 2007 and 2016. One of these lenders stands out in particular: China. In contrast, loans from members of the Paris Club have declined considerably.
    In developing countries, the amount of public debt owed to private creditors as a share of total debt rose from around 40 percent in 2000 to 60 percent in 2016, according to UNCTAD. Moreover, not only has foreign debt increased, but domestic debt has also risen sharply in developing countries.
    In order to prevent a renewed debt crisis in developing countries, it is of primary importance to establish good debt management practices. The capacity for public debt management needs to be improved and an appropriate debt structure established which takes into account loan maturities and the ratios of domestic and foreign currency. Good debt management also provides greater transparency and more complete data on the debt situation in developing countries. The good debt management measures implemented to date by lenders, such as the Debt Management Facility of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and UNCTAD’s Debt Management and Financial Analysis System Programme, must be further expanded and improved. Another important element is establishing a set of uniform principles for responsible lending and borrowing. There have been various proposals so far from the United Nations, the G20, the OECD and the Institute of International Finance (a global association of private financial institutions). In the event of a debt crisis, it will be difficult to coordinate with such a heterogeneous group of creditors. As a result, the use of collective clauses in bond contracts should be extended now to simplify any future restructuring of government bonds.
    Given the expected rise in global interest rates and the shorter maturities of non-concessionary loans, there will continue to be considerable risks for the debt sustainability of developing countries in the future. It is high time that action is taken and agreements at international level reached in order to stop another debt crisis occurring.
    24. Most of the recent research concludes that aid supports growth, as shown in the excellent summary by Ardnt, Jones, and Tarp. They find that the research shows that a “sustained inflow of foreign aid equivalent to 10 percent of GDP is roughly expected to raise growth rates per capita by one percentage point on average.” For developing countries with per capita growth rates of 3-4 percent per year, an extra percentage point of growth is an important addition. Other reviews of the recent literature have reached similar conclusions. Even The Economist magazine, long skeptical of aid, changed its tune a couple of years ago, concluding that most evidence shows that aid boosts growth.A final argument is political—that aid keeps bad governments in power. But again, recent research suggests the opposite: since the end of the Cold War, aid has helped support democratic transitions both by reinforcing broad development progress and by supporting civil society organizations, stronger judicial systems, and multiparty elections. Aid programs (alongside diplomacy and other tools of international engagement) are not the driving force behind development, but they can help support development progress along the way.
    25. The process of globalization is thus not only reorganizing power at world level but also at national and subnational levels (Peck and Durnin, 1999). As domestic firms move part of their production to other countries, technology, knowledge and capital become more important than landthe traditional source of State powerand this redefines the function of the State (Rosecrance, 1996; Sideri, 1997). The loss of sovereignty to supra-national regional institutions is more acceptable than to international institutions that are more remote. The European Union is an example of such regional integration and governance (Bressand, 1990). Social programmes within the European Union are enforcing major re-distributions of revenue between individual countriesaprocess currently being challenged. The nationState as the possessor of the sense of identity is being replaced by sub-nations and internal regions as government is devolved. 5 A recent study by Subramanian and Lawrence (1999) finds that national locations remained distinctive. Policy barriers at the borders, differences in local cultures in their widest sense and nature and geography contribute to distinctiveness. This, together with the ability of incumbents to ensure outsiders are disadvantaged (Buckley et al., 2001) and the first entrant benefits of local firms, reinforce the differentiation of national economies. International competition remains imperfect and international price differences persist because arbitrage is costly. Domestic market conditions largely determine prices and wages. MNE affiliates remain firmly embedded in their local economy, and such local firms identify closely with national governments. Subramanian and Lawrence (1999) conclude that national borders still matter, as they continue to engender and coincide with important discontinuities stemming from government policies, geography and societal differences. The authors stress information discontinuities, which coincide with national boundaries and so create search and deliberation problems for trading and manufacturing firms. These issues also account for the alleged ‘home bias’ of MNEs. FDI is the key tool by which MNEs bridge cross-border discontinuities. The two contrasting paradigms of a world made up of self-contained national economies and a ‘borderless world’ is incomplete and captures only part of a complex and subtle story. Lenway and Murtha (1994) examine the role of the State as a strategist along four dimensions: authority versus markets; communitarianism versus individualism; political versus economic objectives; and equity versus efficiency. They state that international business scholarship “places a benchmark value on efficient international markets and tends to regard states as causes of deviation from this ideal” (p. 530). Globalization and corporate governance Two key issues interact to provide governance issues arising from the globalization of business. First is the existence of unpriced externalities. These impose costs, for example, pollution, on the local economy and environment. Second is the remoteness of production and service activities from their ultimate owners or controllers, for example, shareholders. These two factors interact because the mechanism for correcting negative externalities becomes difficult to implement due to remoteness and lack of immediate responsibility. They are also becoming regional leaders. The attempt to design policies to attract every stage of the global factory is futile, resulting in the subsequent increase in the value of differentiated factor productivities and the role of industrial policy choices. The issue of control of governance of global factories is a more subtle issue. There are barriers to entry to markets, 9 locations, new functions (R&D, marketing) and new products (innovation, product improvement). These barriers often are of a different nature, for instance, barriers to diversification (of products) differ from barriers to internationalization.
    26. The various tools of fiscal policy such as budget, taxation, public expenditure, public works and public debt can go a long way for maintaining full employment without inflationary and deflationary forces in underdeveloped economies.
    Obviously, taxation and public expenditure is a powerful instrument in the hands of public authority which greatly affect the changes in disposal income, consumption and investment.
    During inflation, such measures are adopted which help to wipe off the excessive purchasing power and consumer demand. Tax burden is raised in such a manner as it may not retard new investment. Keeping in view all facts in mind, it is stated that fiscal policy plays very significant role for promoting economic development and stability of under developed countries.
    It is illustrated by the following points:
    1. To Mobilize Resources:
    The foremost aim of fiscal policy in underdeveloped countries is to mobilize resources in the private and public sectors. Generally, the national income and per capita income is very low due to low rate of savings. Therefore, the governments of such countries through forced savings pushes the rate of investment and capital formation which in turn accelerates the rate of economic development.
    2. To Accelerate the Rate of Growth:
    Fiscal policy helps to accelerate the rate of economic growth by raising the rate of investment in public as well as private sectors. Therefore, various tools of fiscal policy as taxation, public borrowing, deficit financing and surpluses of public enterprises should be used in a combined manner so that they may not adversely affect the consumption, production and distribution of wealth.
    3. To Encourage Socially Optimal Investment:
    In underdeveloped countries, fiscal policy encourages the investment into those productive channels which are considered socially and economically desirable. This means optimal investment which promotes economic development and avoids wasteful and unproductive investment. They tend to raise productivity and widen the market to enjoy external economies. At the same time, unproductive investment is checked and diverted towards productive and socially desirable channels.
    4. Inducement to Investment and Capital Formation:
    Fiscal policy plays crucial role in underdeveloped countries by making investment in strategic industries and services of public utility on one side and induces investment in private sector by giving assistance to new industries and introduces modern techniques of production. Economic development is a most dynamic process which involves changes in the size and quality of population, tastes, knowledge and social institutions. Keeping all factors in mind, if social marginal productivity in socially desirable projects is low, fiscal policy should be framed to raise social marginal productivity and to divert resources to that productive channels where the social marginal productivity is the highest.
    27.Microfinance, also called microcredit, is a type of banking service provided to unemployed or low-income individuals or groups who otherwise would have no other access to financial services. While institutions participating in the area of microfinance most often provide lending—microloans can range from as small as $100 to as large as $25,000—many banks offer additional services such as checking and savings accounts as well as micro-insurance products, and some even provide financial and business education. The goal of microfinance is to ultimately give impoverished people an opportunity to become self-sufficient.
    For more than twenty years microfinance has been viewed as a key poverty reduction strategy. However, more recently its real value and impact have been questioned, with both economic and social problems linked to it. Findings of the study Microfinance and the business of poverty reduction: Critical perspectives from rural Bangladesh suggest these concerns are well founded.
    The research reports the results of an ethnographic study of microfinance in three villages in rural Bangladesh, all of which had been targeted by microfinance organisations. It focuses on households and individuals and documented the experience of microfinance borrowers over time. The study involved observations of borrower meetings, focus groups and in-depth interviews, and was conducted by two teams of researchers and their locally based associates. Data collection focused on subjective experiences arising from a life of poverty, such as feelings of vulnerability and helplessness. The study approached the problem of poverty reduction schemes from the perspective of the receivers of microfinance rather than from the supply side, the microfinance organisations themselves. It found that microfinance has led to increasing levels of indebtedness among already impoverished communities and exacerbated several dimensions of vulnerability, these being:
    1) Economic vulnerability – The study finds that microfinance clients had little success in escaping poverty. Loans were primarily used for necessities such as food and medicine, home repair, or education, rather than income generating activity. Added to that, the income generating schemes advocated by providers and NGOs, specifically agricultural ones, did not yield profitable results. When borrowers took out further loans from alternative providers to pay off existing loans, they found themselves trapped in a spiral of debt. Microfinance can therefore exacerbate poverty, the very thing it is supposed to combat.
    2) Social vulnerability – Communities that have strong familial and social networks are considered better equipped to deal with poverty. “Solidarity groups” consisting of family, friends and associates often stuck together and supported family members dealing with debt. However, due to the fear of debt default, surveillance increased within and between groups of borrowers and led to an erosion of trust, even amongst family members. Aggressive repayment tactics from lenders often involved public shaming of defaulters which adversely affected their social ties with both community and family. The “solidarity groups” that were the basis of the social collateral of microfinance loans thus led to an erosion of bonding social capital.
    3) Environmental vulnerability – the findings indicate that traditional farming practices in the villages are increasingly supplanted by income generating schemes encouraged by microfinance providers and NGOs, such as maize growing. As well as a high occurrence of crop failure due to inexperience and the generally unsuitable weather conditions, there is also evidence that maize growing has an adverse effect on the quality of the region’s soil and thus on the viability of future farming. The aggressive promotion of non-traditional cash crops can result in environmental vulnerabilities and threats to sustainable farming.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Agbalajobi, D.T. (2009). Women’s participation and the political process in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. A publication of African Journal of Political Science and International Relations Vol. 4(2), pp. 075-082, February 2010
    Dauda, R. O. S. (2012). Does female education promote economic performance? Evidence from Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 5(1), p201.
    Inter-Parliamentary Union and UN Women. “Women in Politics 2019 Map” Available at https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2019/03/women-in-politics-2019-map
    Neumayer, E. & De Soysa, I. “Globalization, Women’s Economic Rights and Forced Labour.” The World Economy 30(10), 1510 – 1535: (2007).
    Article suggesting that increased trade can help promote and realize two core International Labour Organization (ILO) standards. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2007.01060.x/abstract
    Phillips A (1995). The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Polity Press The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
    UNESCO (1999). Unit for the Promotion of the Status of Women and Gender Equality, Passport to Equality, Paris, p.6.
    United Nations (forthcoming). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2019. New York
    UN Women. ‘In Brief: Women’s Leadership and Political Participation.
    UNICEF (2006), “Equality in politics and government” (PDF), in UNICEF (ed.), The state of the world’s children 2007: women and children: the double dividend of gender equality, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, pp. 50–67, ISBN 9789280639988.
    UNICEF (2006), “Reaping the double dividend of gender equality” (PDF), in UNICEF (ed.), The state of the world’s children 2007: women and children: the double dividend of gender equality, New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, pp. 68–87, ISBN 9789280639988.
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    Rostow, Walter W. 1960.The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-communist Manifesto
    Todaro, Michael and Stephen Smith. 2012. “What Do We Mean by Development?” in Economic Development. (11h edition). P. 14-25. England: Pearson Education Limited.

  10. Avatar AMEH PIUS , 2018/SD/37691 says:

    NAME: AMEH PIUS
    REG NO:2018/SD/37691
    DEPARTMENT: LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
    COURSE CODE: ECOb361
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    PURPOSE; QUIZ ASSIGNMENT.
    QUESTION 6a: Which are the most influential theories of developmentpment and are they compatible? 6b: Is underdevelopment an internal (domestically) or externally (internally) induced phenomenon?.
    ANSWER:6a:THE THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
    Modernization theory,
    Dependency theory and
    Feminist theory.
    The modernization theory elaborates on two main categories of societies in world, namely the traditional and modern societies. Theorists argue that the traditional societies are entangled by norms, beliefs and values which are hindering their development process. Therefore they must adapt the modern style of living, thus concentrate on accumulation of capital and industrialization.
    The dependency theory on the other hand opposes the modernization theory. Its main argument is that, the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor countries to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.
    6b: Underdevelopment is externally induced phenomenon because according to;
    Dependency Theories.
    In the 1970s, the international dependency theories viewed developing countries as beset by institutional, political and economical rigidities. Developing countries were caught up in a dependence and dominance relationship with developed nations.
    The neocolonial dependence model is basically a Marxist approach. It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.

    QUESTION 7: What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local contribution?.
    ANSWER:
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    The constraints on development includes:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Barriers to trade.
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.
    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.
    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.
    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.
    Population
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.
    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following:
    Low growth
    Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.
    Lack of savings
    A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply. High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.
    Debts
    In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.
    Crowding out
    In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing. This means that a government may borrow from local capital markets, if indeed they exist, which causes a relative shortage of capital and raises interest rates.
    Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.
    Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.
    Inadequate financial markets
    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.
    Low risk individuals and firms are deterred from borrowing, and a lemons problem arises, with only high risk individuals and firms choosing to borrow. Thus, the credit market in developing economies is under-developed or completely missing, with few wishing to borrow, and with those who wish to lend expecting high loan defaults and hence charging very high interest rates.
    Insurance markets
    In a similar way to credit markets, insurance markets may be under-developed, with few insurers willing to accept ‘bad’ risks. Insurance charges (premiums) will be driven up, and potential entrepreneurs may be deterred from taking out insurance, or will be unwilling to take uninsured risks. The result is that new businesses may fail to develop.
    Absence of property rights in the following areas:
    Property rights are not protected
    Employment rights do not exist
    Competition law is limited or absent
    Under-investment in human capital
    Human capital development requires investment in education. Education is a merit good, and the long term benefit to society is often considerably under-perceived, and therefore, under-consumed.
    For many in developing economies, the return on human capital development is uncertain compared to the immediate return from employment on the land. Therefore, there is little incentive to continue in full-time education.
    The solution is to reduce information failure by promoting the benefits of education and using the market system to send out effective signals to encourage people to alter their behaviour. For example, loans, grants and aid can be made conditional upon funds being allocated to provide ‘free’ education and books, or to fund teacher training, or to raise the wages of teachers so that more will train in the future.
    Over exploitation of environment and non-renewable resources
    The long term negative effect of the excessive use of resources may be less clear than the short term benefit. This means that there is a tendency for countries not to conserve resources. However, this can have an adverse effect on growth rates in the future.
    Too many resources
    Evidence suggests that some countries with the greatest scarce resources do not necessarily exploit them effectively, and may fail to develop fully. This might be because over-abundance creates a kind of Dutch disease – a complacency which can exist when a country has high quantities of valuable resources. This means that there is a tendency to squander any comparative advantage, and the potential benefits of the resources are lost.
    Over-abundance creates a disincentive to be efficient – the reverse of what has happened to Japan, which has very limited oil reserves, and needs to be efficient in the production of manufactures to enable it to import the oil it needs.
    One issue is that the allocation of property rights may be difficult when resources are so vast. Furthermore, there are likely to be inefficiencies associated with government failure as government attempts to dominate the economy and the exploitation of resources.
    Protectionism
    One significant constraint on the economic prosperity of less developed countries is the protectionism adopted by some developed one. Developed counties can impose tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures individually, or more commonly as a member of a trading bloc.
    QUESTION 8: How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    ANSWER:
    The role of women in nation building cannot be over-emphasised. Over the years, women have been relegated to the background on issues of development, especially in developing countries, such as Nigeria.
    The reason may have been that, the views of women are always sentimental. While women have contributed positively to the progress of humanity, this article will focus on the role played by women in the development of Nigerian politics.
    Women have been playing leading role in shaping our nation and this dates back to the pre-colonial era. In the history, we have read about women, who played active part in the administrative system and business. Women during the pre-colonial period were allowed to participate in the administration of communities. For instance, the exploit of Iyalode (women leader) of the old Oyo Empire has remained the reference point on how political involvement women can engender a free society. Not only did they shape the political system of the period, they also act as mediators in inter-ethnic rivalry. This can be seen in exploit of Moremi during the Ife-Modekeke war.The role of women in a country’s administration has regained its prominence internationally. Liberia president Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has made history as Africa’s first female president.
    Also, we have the likes of Hilary Clinton in the United States. The world has, in the past decades, witnessed an unprecedented expansion of women’s rights, being one of the most profound social revolutions we have ever seen. Couple of decades back, only two countries allowed women to vote. Today, that right is virtually universal. Also,
    QUESTION 9: What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Major causes of extreme poverty are:
    1: Government Corruption
    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.
    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.3. Poor Access to Education
    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.
    4. Poor Access to Healthcare
    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.
    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.
    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.
    5. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home, while over 800 million suffer from hunger. You might think that poverty causes hunger and prevents people from accessing clean water (and you would be right!), but hunger and water insecurity are also big reasons why people struggle to escape extreme poverty.
    If a person doesn’t get enough food, they simply don’t have the strength and energy needed to work, while lack of access to food and clean water can also lead to preventable illnesses like diarrhea. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or spend what little money remains on medicine, it drains already vulnerable populations of money and assets, and can knock a family from poverty into extreme poverty.
    Even if clean water sources are available, they’re often located far from poor, rural communities. This means that women and girls collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.
    6. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs
    This might seem a bit like a “no brainer.” Without a job or a way to make money, people will face poverty. But it’s easy to assume that if someone wants a job, they could have one. That just isn’t true, particularly in developing and rural parts of the world. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change), and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals is putting increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods.
    7. Conflict
    Conflict can cause poverty in several ways. Large scale, protracted violence that we see in places like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroy infrastructure, and cause people to flee, forcing families to sell or leave behind all their assets.
    8. Inequality
    There are many different types of inequality in the world, from economic to social inequalities like gender, caste systems, or tribal affiliations. But no matter the inequality, it generally means the same thing: unequal or no access to the resources needed to keep or lift a family out of poverty.
    9. Limited capacity of the government
    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty if something goes wrong. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.
    10. Lack of reserves
    People living in poverty don’t have the means to weather the storms of life. So when there is a drought, or conflict, or illness, there is little money saved or assets on hand to help. In Ethiopia for example, repeated cycles of drought have caused harvest after harvest to fail, causing a widespread hunger crisis. To cope, families will pull their children from school, and sell off everything they own to eat. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.

    11. Climate change

    1. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force..
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.
    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.
    4. Support pay equity
    6. Establish work schedules that work

    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.
    .
    8. Expand Medicaid
    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry
    10. Do no harm
    The life of individuals should be protected.
    11.Invest in girls’ education

    Educating girls is proven to have both economic returns and intergenerational impact. For Nigeria to improve on this front, it must increase its investment in education.
    12. Expand economic opportunities and embrace technology
    Ending poverty in Nigeria will entail improving the country’s economic productivity and opportunities for its citizens. This will mean investing in human capital potential and creating jobs for women and young people, increasing financial access and opportunities these groups in rural communities, and advancing technological innovation.
    Nigeria ranks 152 out of 157 countries on the World Bank’s Human Capital Index. One of the low-hanging fruits would be to embrace educational reforms that focus on developing new skills through robust and well-funded technical and vocational education and training programmes for those millions of Nigerians outside the formal school system, or who possess only a primary education.

    Also – and notwithstanding its limitations – access to microfinance has been proven to reduce poverty around the world. While there are valid arguments for the use of grants and other social safety payouts to people living in poverty, it is important to bring people into the financial system as this could help governments better plan and integrate services for the poorest of the poor.
    QUESTION 10:Rapid population growth threatening economic progress of developing nation’s?.
    Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    ANSWER:Rapid population is a big threat to the economic progress of developing nations,eg: Nigeria.
    It is believed in science that matter occupies space and space is limited, as a result, this phenomenon in turn will show that the fixed factor like space (environment) will be affected when a continuous factor like population growth is put on it. The space in this case is the geographical area of Nation such as Nigeria, which is 923,768 sq km and the population is estimated to be about 120 million (Department of Petroleum Resources DPR Nigeria 2005 est.)
    To really appreciate the seriousness and danger of population crash in Nigeria, we need to examine its impacts on Nigeria’s ecosystem and resources. These impacts are seen already through:

    • Non-renewable resource consumption and depletion like crude oil, coal etc
    • Land degradation and waste disposal
    • Weather modification
    • Rapid urbanization
    • Water pollution, soil pollution and air pollution
    Thus, population control is seriously needed if Nigerian’s are to leave sustainably, but the question is: where is population control needed most in Nigeria and what might inhibit its success? A lot of factors have been noted to work simultaneously to inhibit population control in Nigeria. The following factors amongst many are generally considered to be the most important:

    Religion: The Islamic religion in Nigeria promotes large families with the encouragement of early marriage and polygamous family system. The Christian religion in turn prohibits the most effective forms of contraception and most are anti-abortion.
    10b:
    Larger families are more frequent with early marriage and rapid birth of the first child. In larger families, child rearing becomes more rule ridden, less individualized, with corporal punishment and less investment of resources. Smaller families tend to result in higher IQ, academic achievement, and occupational performance. Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described.
    QUESTION 11: Why are there so much Unemployment and Underemployment in the developing world especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities,from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional jobs are very slim?
    : What is Unemployment? This is a situation whereby one who is capable, qualified and willing to work but doesn’t have job.
    Major reasons for Unemployment are as follows;
    1. EPILEPTIC ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY
    Lack of regular electric power supply is the biggest cause of unemployment in Nigeria. Talking of how lack of electricity has caused unemployment in Nigeria, the matter is multi-faceted.
    Many foreign companies that would have come to invest in this country (considering the big marketing vista in Nigeria) and which would have provided many employment opportunities to Nigerians to reduced unemployment, have changed direction to other neighbouring countries with constant electricity supply in order to avoid operating at loss with 24-hours running of generators (which) is now becoming the tradition in Nigeria.
    The same problem has affected many local companies which could not cope with the high cost of running electric plants/generators all the time, and were thus forced to fold up and threw their employees into the labour market.
    What about self-employed Nigerians like welders and welding-related artisans who require high electric current which only public power or bigger generators can provide? Many of such ones have been thrown into unemployment as they could not afford bigger generators (in the absence of public power) for their work.
    Added to that is the large number of PHCN workers who were recently thrown into unemployment when the company was privatized to reduce expenses for the Federal Government as the company was not able to provide regular electric power to the public.
    2. POOR QUALITY OF EDUCATION
    Every year, many graduates come out from the universities and colleges of education in Nigeria with little or nothing to contribute to the society.
    According to the National Bureau of Statistics, more than 200,000 alumnae graduate from Nigeria tertiary institutions yearly, but only very little number of them secure jobs after years of their graduation. The reason is because there are little facilities and ill-equipped lecturers/instructors who rendered poor services to the graduates when they were in their institutions.
    And so, the graduates come out of school half-baked, without practical background to make good impact to the society, neither are they able to defend the certificates which they are holding. The result is that they add to the unemployment level of the country each year.

    LACK OF SKILLS
    Another problem that is closely related to that of poor quality education, as a cause of unemployment in Nigeria, is of lack of skills.
    For many years running, most Nigerian youths have disdained acquisition of skills, thinking that the time spent on such is wasted, and opting for so-called ‘clean-shirt’ and ‘easy’ ways of making money. With such mentality, these youths have grown into middle-age and even senior age without any skill to fall, thus becoming liabilities to themselves and others.
    On the other hand, it is hard to see any person who is full of skills suffering from unemployment. A skillful person can adjust to many situations and environments and at least, feed himself and his household appropriately.
    It is therefore, recommended that graduates who studied various fields of engineering — mechanical, electrical/electronics, etc. — should humble themselves to do practical training or apprenticeship in workshops of technicians for practical knowledge. In that way, such graduates will be fully equipped for employment (by employers or by themselves) and help reduce unemployment in the country.
    3. NEGLIGENCE OF AGRICULTURE AND OTHER NATURAL RESOURCES
    Nigeria, as a country, is blessed with many un-utilized resources which are enough to gainfully engage every un-employed person. But the craze for quick ‘oil money’ has made both government and individuals to direct all attention to only the oil industry.
    Those who are older would recall that the Federal Government and the Regional Governments of Nigeria managed the country with agricultural and other natural resources before the ‘oil boom’ (which has now become ‘oil gloom’).
    In those days, cocoa production was the mainstay in Western Nigeria (with the famous Cocoa House built from the proceeds); groundnut production was the mainstay in Northern Nigeria with the fame of the ‘Groundnut Pyramids’ back then; coal from Udi in Enugu, was the mainstay of Eastern Nigeria while rubber and palm oil were the mainstay of Midwestern Nigeria.
    It is hereby recommended that the various governments of Nigeria as well as rich individuals should establish mechanized farms in various parts of the country to absolve many job-seekers. In the same vein, the Federal Government could compel the various multi-national companies operating in Nigeria, to establish a farm as a way of boosting the economy and engaging more job-seeking Nigerians, to reduce unemployment in the country.
    4. CORRUPTION
    Corruption can be defined as immoral action which could involve bribery, embezzlement or misappropriation of public funds for personal use. A corrupt government can be said to be a government which makes use of public funds for their (the government officials’) personal and selfish use.
    Corruption is a cause of unemployment Nigeria because when those in government who are to use public money for building more industries are busy embezzling the funds for their selfish use, the result is massive increase in unemployment rate.
    Without going too far, Nigeria is said to be the 8th most corrupt country in the world and so, has high unemployment rate. The corruption in Nigeria makes government to spend less on the welfare of the citizens of the country.
    When corruption is taken as normal routine, functions which are to be performed by three or even four persons are taken up by only one person and that one person collects all the salaries meant for the three or four persons.

    Also, some major reasons for Underemployment are ;
    Underemployment occurs when a person does not work full time or takes a job that does not reflect their actual training and financial needs. That is, their job doesn’t use all their skills and education, or provides less than full time work. This is not the same as unemployment, which refers to people who are not currently employed at all.
    Who is Considered Underemployed?
    Underemployment is divided into three common categories, as follows:
    Skilled workers in low-income jobs
    Skilled workers in jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills
    Part-time workers who would rather work full-time
    Types of Underemployment
    Two types of underemployment exist: visible and invisible.
    1. Visible
    Visible underemployment comprises employees who work fewer hours than what is considered normal in their field or industry. They possess the skills to work in a full-time position but are unable to find regular employment. They usually work part-time jobs to make ends meet.
    2. Invisible
    Invisible underemployment refers to people who work in jobs that don’t utilize their skills – such as a financial analyst working as a waiter in a restaurant. This type of underemployment is very difficult to measure and requires extensive research and surveys.
    In addition, a third type of underemployment exists, which is called “marginally attached to the labor force.” It includes people who have looked for employment in the past year, who would like to work, and are available for work, but are “discouraged workers” or those who have given up looking for employment altogether because of their prolonged inability to find work.
    Underemployment also includes people with full-time employment but who live below the poverty line. They are known as the “working poor.”
    Causes of Underemployment
    There are many factors that cause underemployment in an economy. Following are a few of the most common causes:
    1. Business cycle
    One of the main reasons for underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    2. Supply and demand
    Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.
    When certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.
    3. Technological changes
    Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    technological changes
    Effects of Underemployment
    Underemployment is a social problem that affects job growth, business growth, poverty levels, and the emotional and psychological health of the underemployed.
    1. Poverty levels
    When a person is forced to take up jobs that do not match their skills, they typically receive an income that is below their pay grade. With inadequate income, families do not consume as many goods and services as before.
    The reduction in demand leads to slow business growth, pushing the economy toward a recession or depression due to low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and little to no job growth. Many families who previously enjoyed a comfortable standard of living begin to struggle financially.
    2. Structural unemployment
    With underemployment, workers who no longer work in their chosen field lack the ability to update their skills with on-the-job training. Some people acquire skills in different industries while others drop out of the workforce altogether. This phenomenon is commonly known as structural unemployment.
    3. Psychological problems
    Underemployment can cause poor mental health. The stress and anxiety are a result of not being able to make ends meet, which creates a sense of inadequacy. Relationships with a partner can also suffer as a result of underemployment. Underemployment can seriously affect an individual’s mental and emotional health.
    Reasons why people migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding conventional jobs are very slim.
    Youthful workers in the labor force tend to experience more underemployment as a result of switching jobs and moving into and out of the labor force. Many public policies can also discourage the creation of employment, such as a high minimum wage, high unemployment benefits, and a low opportunity cost associated with terminating workers.
    Employment is the primary source of income for a person and hence, it is the source of economic growth. It is considered a lagging economic indicator. High underemployment suggests a low GDP and low demand for labor.
    Cuases of rural-urban migration in Nigeria
    Rural-urban migration may be occasioned by voluntary forces or involuntary forces. Involuntary or forced migration is migration that takes place when the migrant has no choice on whether to move or not. Examples include ethno-religious crises, conflicts and wars, political strife, family and land disputes, conflicts with neighbours etc. Voluntary migration is movement done by choice (Lykke, 2002). Factors responsible for voluntary rural-urban migration include urban job opportunities, better housing conditions, rural land tenure and inheritance patterns, better education opportunities, better health services, extreme poverty etc. Oftentimes, rural dwellers see and hear success stories about people that left the community, moved to cities and are supposedly ‘doing well’. This acts as incentives for out-migration especially among youths.

    Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.
    My own candid advice to Mr President that ;
    * Government should make sure that there is peace and stable security in the rural areas which may force some people migrate from rural to urban,
    *Government should also provide social amenities in the rural areas which tends to draw the attention of rural duwellers to urban areas,
    *Also, encouraging youths into mechanized Agriculture for massive production and output,
    *Access to road networks, which ease communication.
    *They should make sure that the rural duwellers have access to medical facilities and care.
    QUESTION 12: Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    : Health is defined as state of being to which most of us aspire – a blessing, a desirable quality, to he ability to carry out a range of physical activities and ability to cope psychologically with the demands of everyday life.(Aggleton,1990).
    Health and development
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities.
    *Health influences economic development status through education and higher skills.
    *Improvements in health leasds to an increase in per-capita income and has positive and significant effect on socio economic development.
    *Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development,contributing to economic good and prosperous communities.
    *Individuals who are healthier leads to fertility rate which in turn leads to increase in population.
    *Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.
    *It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems.
    However, my advice to Mr President or rather the government is that they should make sure that the lives of health of citizens will be properly taking care of.
    Because they say that“a healthy people is a people.
    QUESTION 13: What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is the need to address these problems?
    ANSWER:
    According to the WHO (1978) health is rooted in contemporary conceptualizations of health as a book psycho-social phenomenon and not simply the absence of disease.

    Public Health refers to both processes and beliefs about the way in which health is structured. It encompasses primary care, disease prevention, and community development within a holistic framework, with the aim of providing essential community focused health care (Shoultz & Hatcher, 1997).
    Poor Public Health in any country is no small issue because of the great demand for these services met with unreliable supply and the beleaguering low accessibility to health services, especially in a nation like Nigeria.

    Poor implementation of policies, socioeconomic, cultural, and political challenges are inherent and increase the difficulties associated with accessibility and availability.
    Also, there are issues of affordability, sustainability, and durability of health care facilities and services.
    Random fact: Nigeria has an average life expectancy of 44 years.
    Nigeria still has one of the poorest child health and maternal indices in the world which is quite paradoxical because in September 1990, a Milestone was marked in Nigeria after the declaration of Safe Motherhood Initiative at the time.

    The initiative was praised by many countries and observers because of the perceived benefits that would accrue not to only the country but also to the rest of the world by the reduction in mortality which was expected to follow the initiative.

    Yet, over 20 years later, things do not seem to have moved even close to what was expected. Other reforms have been raised due to concerns on the quality and financing of health care delivery especially in the public sector.
    Some of these programmes include Public Private Partnerships (PPP) reforms at the Federal Ministry of Health. However, the non validation and non implementation of this policy might have led to loss of interest in the partnership.

    The maternal mortality ratio is the most commonly used indicator of maternal death. It measures a woman’s risk of dying from a given pregnancy. According to the World Bank (2000), it is expressed as the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.

    Health Financing Mechanisms In Nigeria
    The National Health Insurance Scheme NHSS was established in 2005 by Decree 35 of 1999 of the Federal Government of Nigeria and had the primary aim of improving health care financing by reducing the health care cost borne by individuals.

    Health care financing schemes used in Nigeria are usially user fees and social health insurance schemes. The problem however, is that the informal sector is usually left out.
    Some donor agencies like the World Health Organization, UNICEF, USAID etc, have played important roles in financing some health projects in Nigeria.

    The bulk of the Nigerian fund set aside for health is got from taxes, insurance schemes and donor agencies.

    In Nigeria many challenges are faced in public health service rendering. These challenges are even faced right from the scene of incidents such as accidents.

    Dr Badejo Olawage, a Surgeon at the National Hospital in Abuja says that one major problem has to do with the actions of well meaning but ignorant bystanders in crisis situations.

    According to him “these people sometimes cause more damage to the patients when they attempt to administer first aid.

    1. Lack Of Proper Public Education On Health And Safety
    As explained above, the average Nigerian is not knowledgeable about basic first aid practices. This therefore makes if difficult for bystanders to provide help to accident victims. The ones that do about it the wrong way and end up causing more serious problems to the victims.

    However, health and safety education in Nigeria is rapidly growing in recent time. One example is the orientation of NYSC members at their camps concerning first aid and first aid tips.

    These people in turn join community development groups and some of them undertake sensitization programmes and teach community people and secondary school students about these things. Also, HIV awareness and orientation has increased immensely throughout the country.

    2. Lack Of Basic Health Amenities In Rural Areas
    The lack of basic health facilities in rural areas is a major problem as the majority of people living there do not have access to health facilities.

    This has caused wide spread migration issues because residents of rural areas move to urban areas because of the better health facilities.

    The mass migration has created a mirage which has led the government to situate even more infrastructures in the urban areas to cater for the needs of the new population in urban centres whuich has again resulted in a large inequality with regard to situating health care facilities, thus abandoning a vast majority to live in these rural places with little or no medical presence.

    3. Lackadaisical Attitude Towards Health Care
    The government has over the years shown poor attitude towards health care. It is no news that top politicians and government officials travel outside the country to get their medical treatment.

    This alone shows the lack of faith of the Nigerian leaders in the health care they are providing and also proves the importance of health and health care facilities.

    The government, instead, spends more time and money on things that the people can ‘see’, such as roads. They play

    on the ignorance of people by constructing roads and ‘counting’ the number of roads constructed as achievements. They act with the objective of being ‘re-elected’, forgetting that people will equally appreciate an improvement in health care provision.

    4. Bureaucracy
    The health sector in Nigeria is deeply fragmented, with only a small fraction of the healthcare coming from a unified and organized centre.

    Private hospitals provide at least 70% of the healthcare in the country with the rest coming from the three levels of government and even community funded health institutions.

    Most African countries, Nigeria included coordinate their health care service delivery in an heirarchy. The vertical line goes from sm

    all peripheral units to larger clinics and a referral chain, and this is expected to work, albeit theoretically. In reality, this hardly ever works as the people behave in different patterns from how they are expected to behave. This causes a huge friction in public health service rendering.

    5. One-sided Insurance Schemes
    Health insurance schemes usually benefit mainly people in the formal sector including Civil Servants, and those in the organized private sector with a vast majority of the people in the informal sector like farmers, traders, hunters, and other self employed and unemployed people left out.

    6. Corruption
    There is hardly a problem in Nigeria that does not have corruption as one of its contributing factors. Corruption has eaten deep in the roots of the government and economy. Monies meant for health purposes are usually misappropriated.

    7. Migration Of Health Professionals To Other Countries
    Day after day, we hear of the excellent results of Nigerian health students and professionals abroad. These well qualified individuals usually leave the shores of the country in search of greener pastures which are not readily available in Nigeria.

    8. Strike Actions By Medical Professionals
    The incessant strike actions by doctors, nurses and other health professionals cause serious friction in service delivery. During the course of these strikes, deaths increase and sicknesses become worse.

    9. Nepotism And Tribalism
    The appointment of chief officers in health institutions is really not based on qualification these days, but on who you know and who knows you.

    10. High Operational Costs
    The operational costs of clinics are are high due to the bad state of basic amenities such as power supply. The hospitals thus have to spend more on fuel, and the patients pay for this.

    11. High Financial Cost
    The cost of procuring technologically advanced machines and equipment that are needed in a modern hospital is high. The lump sum expenditure usually scares governments away from investing at once in health facilities.

    Other Challenges And Problems Include:
    a. Recession

    b. Poverty

    c. Obselete Infrastructure

    d. Poor Supply Chain of Drugs and other needs

    e. Poor remuneration and motivation

    f. Illiteracy

    g. Poor Management

    h. Unsustainable health care financing

    Prospects And Conclusion
    The health sector of any economy forms the backbone of its growth and development. Many countries are striving to keep pace with health care delivery because the sustainability and viability of any nation’s economic and social growth depends on the health care sector.

    The inherent challenges to the proper working of this mechanism are quite strong, however they can be reduced gradually, as can be seen already. There is greater awareness and improved technology at cheaper rates.

    To make the situation better managed, tighter control of available funds and operations should be used to enhance the quality of services.
    A healthy people is always a wealthy people.
    Health policies should be in line with the ever changing environment, as the only thing constant in life is change. Fighting corruption should equally boost health care service rendering quality.

    An integrated health care system that would be able to serve the vast majority of people in both rural and urban areas should be made. Health care should be made accessible.

    REFERENCE
    Hughes, J.B., G.C. Daily and P.R. Ehrlich, 1997. Population diversity: Its extent and extinction. Science, 278: 689-692.
    Hughes, J.B., G.C. Daily and P.R. Ehrlich, 1997
    ©2018 Johnson, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribu1. World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241591013.pdf. Accessed Sep
    Santacreu, Ana Maria. “Convergence in Productivity, R&D Intensity, and Technology Adoption.” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Economic Synopses, No. 11, 2017; https://doi.org/10.20955/es.2017.11.

  11. Avatar Igbokwe Cynthia Esther says:

    6. •Theory Of Modernization:It is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development.Modernization theory observes traditions and pre-existing institutions of so-called “primitive” societies as obstacles to modern economic growth. Modernization which is forced from outside upon a society might induce violent and radical change, but according to modernization theorists it is generally worth this side effect. Critics point to traditional societies as being destroyed and slipping away to a modern form of poverty without ever gaining the promised advantages of Modernization.
    •Theory Of Globalization:In terms of the globalization process that is taking place under current worldwide economic conditions, two main topics in international political economy are: (a) the structure of the international economic system; and (b) how this structure has changed (2). They can be addressed through the application of the theory of globalization from the development perspective. This globalization approach suggests that the structure of the global system, and the roles that countries play within the international division of trade and labor, is crucial in understanding a wide array of social, political, and economic changes within particular countries. The basic claim is that international connections, roles, and relationships are important variables in any analysis which tries to explain various dimensions of development -economic growth, for example- trade, financial links and communications among countries.
    •Dependency theory: This theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world
    market.Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy.
    •Theory Of World Systems:Also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective is a multidisciplinary approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis.”World-system” refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries, and the periphery countries.Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials.World-Systems Theory can be useful in understanding world history and the core countries’ motives for imperialization and other involvements like the US aid following natural disasters in developing Central American countries or imposing regimes on other core states.With the interstate system as a system constant, the relative economic power of the three tiers points to the internal inequalities that are on the rise in states that appear to be developing.

    7.• Corruption :Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.roblem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.
    • Poor human development :In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.
    • Environment and health issues :The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.
    • INADEQUATE FINANCIAL MARKETS:Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect..
    • POPULATION:Is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    8..Empower a woman and you are empowering the whole world cause Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over US$6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15% of GDP.

    9..Poverty can be caused by so many things:
    Gender inequality, conflict, hunger, malnutrition, poor healthcare systems, little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, climate, lack of education, poor public works and infrastructure etc.
    To Reduce Poverty, Government Policies could include:
    •Minimum wages. Regulation of labor markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    • Direct provision of goods/services – subsidized housing, free education and healthcare.
    •Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing
    •Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.

    10..Large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.large family size leads to the following:
    • Increase in crime rate.
    • High cost of living.
    • Scarcity of food and water.
    • General inflation.
    • Poor health facilities.

    11..There are many factors that cause unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities. Following are a few of the most common causes:
    • Supply and demand:Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.
    •Business cycle:One of the main reasons for underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    • Technological changes:Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    People continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim due to other factors which include, inequitable land distribution, environmental degradation, high vulnerability to natural disasters, violent conflicts, better education opportunities,diverse services, and less social discrimination in the cities.
    • Unbridled growth of the Population
    • Rural-urban migration
    • Misguided urban-planning policies.
    People migrate to the city even when there is no job because of the following reasons:
    – Economic and social policy that affect rural and urban real incomes: Recognize that every economic and social policy that affects rural and urban real incomes will influence the migration process directly or indirectly. As a result, the pattern of sectoral and geographic economic activity, income distribution, and even population growth will change. Because all economic policies have direct and indirect effects on the level and growth of urban and rural incomes, or both, they will all have an impact on the form and scale of migrant flows.
    – The concentration of social services in urban areas has led to overurbanization: Workers considering a move will assess a variety of things, including housing, stores, transportation, schools, hospitals, and other facilities. Visitors who travel outside of an African capital city are likely to be surprised by the economic and social disparities that exist between the metropolis and the surrounding countryside. These things, when combined, motivate people to migrate even when there are no jobs.

    12. There is a saying that “A healthy nation is a wealthy nation” so Yes I support the motion that better health spur successful development.this is because, in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children i.e to say:
    • It increase life expectancy.
    • Higher productivity.
    • Improved quality of human life.
    • Increase in force.
    • labourEnhanced human capital development.

    13. Impact of poor public health on development :Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.
    • Reduces labour force.
    • Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.
    • Decrease in productivity.
    • Reduces life expectancy.
    • Decrease in human capital development.

    SOLUTIONS
    • High investment in the health sector.
    • Increase in health care infrastructures.
    • Better health care equipments.
    • Employment of qualified medical practitioners.
    • Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  12. Avatar OGBUEFI EUGENE OGUEJIOFOR REG. NO. 2018/241873 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT says:

    6.Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Theories of modernization and growth
    Development involves innumerable variables, including economic, social, political, gender, cultural, religious, and environmental factors. But though development theory integrates concepts and perspectives from a range of disciplines, it was highly influenced by economic thought from the start. Early theoretical models of development equated development with economic growth and industrialization, and theorists saw countries that had not yet achieved these as being at an earlier or lower stage of development relative to Europe and North America. The most influential proponent of this view was the American economic historian Walt W. Rostow. His 1960 book, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, elaborated a linear-stages-of-growth model that defined development as a sequence of stages through which all societies must pass. This conception of the nature and process of development became the basic blueprint for modernization theory.

    Dependency and world systems theories
    Modernization theory claimed that once developing societies came into contact with western European and North American societies, they would be impelled toward modernization and, eventually, would achieve the economic, political, and social features characteristic of the nations of western Europe and the United States. However, by the 1960s it was apparent that the Third World was not passing through a stage of underdevelopment, as envisioned by modernization theory, but remaining underdeveloped. Thus, a counterclaim was advanced—that developing countries today are structurally different from the advanced countries and so will have to develop along different lines. This claim became the core of the structuralist thesis developed by intellectuals from Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Peru brought together by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA; today known as Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, ECLAC).

    The neoclassical counterrevolution
    In the 1980s a neoclassical (sometimes called neoliberal) counterrevolution in development theory and policy reasserted dominance over structuralist and other schools of thought in much of the world. The emergence of this counterrevolution coincided with the abandonment by the developed countries of social democratic and Keynesian economic policies and, in particular, the policy of controlling capital movements, as well as the post-World War II trading regime. Critics have pointed out that this counterrevolution also coincided with and seemed to offer justification and support for a wave of market-oriented interventions by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) and efforts to forge a unified global market regulated only by institutions reflecting the interests of transnational capital.

    7.What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    mon.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.

    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following:

    Low growth
    Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.

    Lack of savings
    A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply. High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.

    Debts
    In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.

    Crowding out
    In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing. This means that a government may borrow from local capital markets, if indeed they exist, which causes a relative shortage of capital and raises interest rates.

    Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.

    Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Inadequate financial markets
    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    Low risk individuals and firms are deterred from borrowing, and a lemons problem arises, with only high risk individuals and firms choosing to borrow. Thus, the credit market in developing economies is under-developed or completely missing, with few wishing to borrow, and with those who wish to lend expecting high loan defaults and hence charging very high interest rates.

    Insurance markets
    In a similar way to credit markets, insurance markets may be under-developed, with few insurers willing to accept ‘bad’ risks. Insurance charges (premiums) will be driven up, and potential entrepreneurs may be deterred from taking out insurance, or will be unwilling to take uninsured risks. The result is that new businesses may fail to develop.

    The principal – agent (landlord – tenant) problem
    In agriculture in particular, the principal-agent problem existing between landlord (principal) and worker (agent) creates asymmetric information and moral hazard. Workers may not bother to work hard. With low pay rates, the risks of being caught ‘shirking’ are small – the loss of pay is not a significant enough incentive to work hard and efficiently.

    Absence of property rights
    In many developing economies it is not always clear who owns property, especially land. Given this there is no incentive to develop the land because of the free-rider problem.

    Absence of a developed legal system
    In many developing economies there is an absence of a developed or appropriate legal system in the following areas:

    Property rights are not protected
    The right to start a business is limited to a small section or a favoured elite
    Consumer rights are not protected
    Employment rights do not exist
    Competition law is limited or absent
    Under-investment in human capital
    Human capital development requires investment in education. Education is a merit good, and the long term benefit to society is often considerably under-perceived, and therefore, under-consumed.

    For many in developing economies, the return on human capital development is uncertain compared to the immediate return from employment on the land. Therefore, there is little incentive to continue in full-time education.

    The solution is to reduce information failure by promoting the benefits of education and using the market system to send out effective signals to encourage people to alter their behaviour. For example, loans, grants and aid can be made conditional upon funds being allocated to provide ‘free’ education and books, or to fund teacher training, or to raise the wages of teachers so that more will train in the future.

    Over exploitation of environment and non-renewable resources
    The long term negative effect of the excessive use of resources may be less clear than the short term benefit. This means that there is a tendency for countries not to conserve resources. However, this can have an adverse effect on growth rates in the future.

    Too many resources
    Evidence suggests that some countries with the greatest scarce resources do not necessarily exploit them effectively, and may fail to develop fully. This might be because over-abundance creates a kind of Dutch disease – a complacency which can exist when a country has high quantities of valuable resources. This means that there is a tendency to squander any comparative advantage, and the potential benefits of the resources are lost.

    Over-abundance creates a disincentive to be efficient – the reverse of what has happened to Japan, which has very limited oil reserves, and needs to be efficient in the production of manufactures to enable it to import the oil it needs.

    One issue is that the allocation of property rights may be difficult when resources are so vast. Furthermore, there are likely to be inefficiencies associated with government failure as government attempts to dominate the economy and the exploitation of resources.

    Protectionism
    One significant constraint on the economic prosperity of less developed countries is the protectionism adopted by some developed one. Developed counties can impose tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures individually, or more commonly as a member of a trading bloc.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    The Role of Women as Caretakers
    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    “Rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutrition security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall well-being.”
    – UN Womenwatch Organization

    The Role of Women as Educators
    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Following are the main causes of poverty:-

    1. Increase rate of rising population:

    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

    2. Less productivity in agriculture:

    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

    3. Less utilization of resources:

    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.

    4. A short rate of economic development:

    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.

    5. Increasing price rise:

    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.

    6. Unemployment:

    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.

    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship:

    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.

    8. Social factors:

    Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.

    9. Political factors:

    We all know that the East India Company started lopsided development in India and had reduced our economy to a colonial state. They exploited the natural resources to suit their interests and weaken the industrial base of Indian economy. Hence, the planning was of immense failure to handle the problems of poverty and unemployment.

    10. Unequal distribution of income:

    If you simply increase the production or do a checking on population cannot help poverty in our country. We need to understand that inequality in the distribution of income and concentration of wealth should be checked. The government can reduce inequality of income and check the concentration of wealth by pursuing suitable monetary and price policies.

    11. The problem of distribution:

    The distribution channel should be robust in order to remove poverty. Mass consumption of goods and food grains etc. should be distributed first among the poor population. Present public distribution system must be re-organised and extended to rural and semi-urban areas of the country.

    12. Regional poverty:

    India is divided by the inappropriate proportion of poor in some states, like Nagaland, Orissa, Bihar, Nagaland, etc. is greater than the other states. The administration should offer special amenities and discounts to attract private capital investment to backward regions.

    1. Invest in girls’ education
    Nigeria is home to over 10 million out-of-school children, around half of whom are girls – and it is hardly coincidental that the country with the world’s highest number of out-of-school children is home to the highest number of people living in extreme poverty. Two-thirds of this population are concentrated in Nigeria’s highly populated north west and north-eastern regions, both of which have been ravaged by the terror group, Boko Haram, resulting in an educational emergency affecting about 2.8 million children.

    The 2018 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative best presents this picture. The poorest parts of Nigeria had the worst education indicators (school attendance and years of schooling) and these constitute the biggest percentage contribution to the MPI, followed by nutrition and child mortality – all issues that affect women the most.

    Educating girls is proven to have both economic returns and intergenerational impact. For Nigeria to improve on this front, it must increase its investment in education.

    My state, Kaduna – where I oversee the organization with the mandate of planning and fiscal resource allocation – has consistently increased its education budget over the past decade. As a result, enrolment figures have doubled from 1.1 million students in 2015 to 2.1 million students in school today. The state now ranks the highest in the northern region, recording the highest score in the senior school certificate examinations.

    2. Invest in health and wellbeing
    Increased investment in healthcare is linked to economic growth, and consequently to reducing poverty. Nigeria is battling with a number of crushing health indicators including malaria, tuberculosis and infant and maternal mortality, all of which have a sweeping impact on productivity.

    In order to end poverty, we must harness the demographic dividends through investment in health, education and livelihoods – especially for our young people. In remarks he made on October 2017, International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, the late Professor Babatunde Osotimehin – former executive secretary of the United Nations Population Fund – argued that “when countries’ age structures change favourably, meaning that they have more people of working age than dependents, they can see a boost to development, known as a demographic dividend, provided that they empower, educate and employ their young people.”

    Africa’s youth population is booming
    Image: Gates Foundation Goalkeepers report
    He was right. Sub-Saharan African countries – the last frontiers of poverty in the world – are witnessing explosive population growth, and the region is projected to grow by about 51% over the next three decades. The UN projects that Nigeria will have an estimated 398 million people by 2050, making it the third-largest country in the world.

    Lower population growth is not an automatic panacea for poverty. Rather, an educated, healthy and resilient youth population, as has been the case in China, is the best catalyst for growth. However, an absence of planning or an allocation of insufficient resources towards harnessing this bulging population could spell doom.

    3. Expand economic opportunities and embrace technology
    Ending poverty in Nigeria will entail improving the country’s economic productivity and opportunities for its citizens. This will mean investing in human capital potential and creating jobs for women and young people, increasing financial access and opportunities these groups in rural communities, and advancing technological innovation.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:

    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.

    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    Now, if the working force grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition of labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. The resulting unemployment is known as the long- term or chronic unemployment.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.

    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    Fourthly, Research and Development (R & D) activity has not been adequately directed to discover and identify labour-intensive appropriate techniques to be used in industries which, though labour-intensive, have also reasonably good productivity.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land:

    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.

    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:

    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.
    .
    6. Lack of Infrastructure:

    We have explained above lack of physical capital with which labour is equipped for productive employment as the cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India. By capital we generally mean machines, plant & equipment, factory buildings etc. But a similar factor responsible for huge unemployment prevailing in these countries is lack of infrastructure such as roads, power, telecommunications, highways, irrigation facilities in agriculture. Inadequate availability of infrastructure is a great obstacle for the generation of opportunities for productive employment.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.

    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems.

    Although global health has improved significantly in recent decades, this benefit has not been shared evenly within and among nations. Several hundred million people across the globe continue to go without basic health services, especially in rural areas and in the most impoverished communities. More than six million children die each year and nearly 300,000 women die in pregnancy or childbirth, many from preventable causes.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    -Reduces productivity
    -increases mortality rate
    -low zeal to work
    -decline in labour force

  13. Avatar Machi Chinedu Clement says:

    MACHI CHINEDU CLEMENT
    2018/242796
    ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

    6a. Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism

    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Mercantilism held that a nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of capital, represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state. It emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance (maximising exports and minimising imports) as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a positive trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs and subsidies to home industries were advocated. Mercantilist development theory also advocated colonialism.

    Economic Nationalism

    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.

    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model

    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    This theory modifies Marx’s stages theory of development and focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development.[4] The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five consecutive stages of development that all countries must go through during the process of development. These stages are “the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption”[18] Simple versions of the Harrod–Domar model provide a mathematical illustration of the argument that improved capital investment leads to greater economic growth.

    Structural-Change Theory

    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    Structural-change theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a “more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.” There are two major forms of structural-change theory: W. Lewis’ two-sector surplus model, which views agrarian societies as consisting of large amounts of surplus labor which can be utilized to spur the development of an urbanized industrial sector, and Hollis Chenery’s patterns of development approach, which holds that different countries become wealthy via different trajectories. The pattern that a particular country will follow, in this framework, depends on its size and resources, and potentially other factors including its current income level and comparative advantages relative to other nations.

    6b. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent
    There are two theories on the causes of undevelopment: the internal causation and external causation theories. Proponents of “internal causation theory” assume that a nation’s lack of development is a result from its failure to use its resources to stimulate modern economic growth. The reason of underdevelopment is derived from society’s failure to establish required products.
    External factors are the foundation for the underdevelopment in most developing countries which are still hindering development by allowing more developed countries to exploit them. Even though internal adjustments must also take place in order to see development, the external factors must change first allowing for internal adjustments.

    7. The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment.

    Population

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    Corruption

    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Inadequate financial markets

    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    8. Enhancing women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.

    9. Although there are many causes of poverty in Nigeria, some of the main culprits are calamitous weather, weak infrastructure and gender inequality that prevents women from contributing to the economy. One of the factors that generate poverty is the prevalence of natural disasters.

    1. Government Corruption

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.

    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.

    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000. With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    Inequality and marginalisation
    Conflict
    Hunger, malnutrition
    Poor healthcate systems
    Poor Access to water, sanitation and hygiene
    Climate change
    Lack of education
    Poor infrastructure
    Lack of Government support
    Solutions to Poverty
    1. EQUALITY AND REPRESENTATION FOR ALL

    One of the main causes of extreme poverty is marginalization — the systemic barriers that lead to groups of people going without representation in their communities. In order for a community or country to work its way out of poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society.

    2. BUILDING RESILIENCE — CLIMATE AND OTHERWISE…

    Poverty is most likely to occur when there is a high combination of marginalization and risk — with risk being its own combination of a person or group’s level of vulnerability and the hazards they face.

    4. INCREASE ACCESS TO EDUCATION

    According to UNESCO, if all students in low-income countries had just basic reading skills (nothing else), an estimated 171 million people could escape extreme poverty. If all adults completed secondary education, we could cut the global poverty rate by more than half. Education develops skills and abilities, corrects some of the imbalances that come out of marginalization, and decreases both risk and vulnerability.

    5. IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER

    Simply eating three meals a day and getting a healthy amount of calories and nutrients can go a long way to addressing the cycle of poverty. When a person doesn’t have enough to eat, they lack the strength and energy needed to work. Contaminated water can lead to debilitating illnesses.

    What’s more, improving access to clean water can mean that those who live in rural communities (often women and girls — see our first point on marginalization and equality) will save time walking to their nearest water point. Current estimates suggest that women and girls collectively spend 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water.

    6. END WAR AND CONFLICT

    No war means that budgets allocated to cover the cost of conflict can be used to deliver public services. It also reduces risks faced by the most vulnerable communities, and ensures that goals towards equality and inclusion can be maintained.
    Policies to tackle poverty
    In summary, to reduce poverty, government policies could include:

    • Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.

    • Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages

    • Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.

    • Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare

    10. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly, the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which places as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources. Rapid growth of population is largely responsible for the perpetuation of vicious circle of poverty in underdeveloped countries. On account of rapid growth of population people are required to spend a major part of their income on bringing up their children.

    Thus savings and rate of capital formation remain low, reduction in per capita income, rise in general price level leading to sharp rise in cost of living. No improvement in agricultural and industrial technology, shortage of essential commodities, low standard of living, mass unemployment etc. As a result the entire economy of an underdeveloped country is surrounded by the vicious circle of poverty.

    11. Keynes analyzed the cyclical type of unemployment and asserted that it was caused by deficiency of aggregate demand. The nature of unemployment in developing countries is quite different; rather than being cyclical it is of chronic and long-term nature.

    It is now almost universally recognized that the chronic unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited.

    This has resulted in surplus labour which is manifested in the existence of huge magnitude of underemployment or disguised unemployment and open unemployment in both the rural and urban areas.

    Capital as the major bottleneck to growth of employment was made popular by Harrod-Domar model of economic growth in which capital accumulation plays a pivotal role and according to which rate of growth of output depends upon the proportion of national income saved, divided by the capital-output ratio (g = s/v, where g stands for growth rate, s for the proportion of income saved and v for the capital-output ratio).

    12. health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. This indirect impact is easier
    to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of
    them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences

    13. Ill health, in turn, is a major cause of poverty. This is partly due to the costs of seeking health care, which include not only out-of-pocket spending on care (such as consultations, tests and medicine), but also transportation costs and any informal payments to providers. It is also due to the considerable loss of income associated with illness in developing countries, both of the breadwinner, but also of family members who may be obliged to stop working or attending school to take care of an ill relative. In addition, poor families coping with illness might be forced to sell assets to cover medical expenses, borrow at high interest rates or become indebted to the community.

    Solutions to tackle poor public health
    • Reducing the direct cost of care at the point of service, e.g. through reducing/abolishing user fees for the poor or expanding health insurance to the poor (including coverage, depth and breadth).

    • Increasing efficiency of care to reduce total consumption of care, e.g. by limiting “irrational drug prescribing,” strengthening the referral system, or improving the quality of providers (especially at the lower level).

    • Reducing inequalities in determinants of health status or health care utilization, such as reducing distance (through providing services closer to the poor), subsidizing travel costs, targeted health promotion, conditional cash transfers.

    • Expanding access to care by using the private sector or public-private partnerships.

    Assure an Adequate Local Public Health Infrastructure

    Assuring an adequate local public health infrastructure means maintaining the basic capacities foundational to a well-functioning public health system such as data analysis and utilization; health planning; partnership development and community mobilization; policy development, analysis and decision support; communication; and public health research, evaluation and quality improvement.

    Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior

    Promoting healthy communities and healthy behaviors means activities that improve health in a population, such as investing in healthy families; engaging communities to change policy, systems or environments to promote positive health or prevent adverse health; providing information and education about healthy communities or population health status; and addressing issues of health equity, health disparities, and the social determinants of health.

    Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease

    Preventing the spread of infectious disease means preventing diseases that are caused by infectious agents, such as by detecting acute infectious diseases, assuring the reporting of infectious diseases, preventing the transmission of disease, and implementing control measures during infectious disease outbreaks.  

    Protect Against Environmental Health Hazards

    Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.

    Prepare and Respond To Emergencies

    Preparing and responding to emergencies means engaging in activities that prepare public health departments to respond to events and incidents and assist communities in recovery, such as providing leadership for public health preparedness activities within a community; developing, exercising and periodically reviewing response plans for public health threats; and developing and maintaining a system of public health workforce readiness, deployment, and response.

    Assure Health Services

    Assuring health services means engaging in activities such as assessing the availability of health-related services and health care providers in local communities; identifying gaps and barriers; convening community partners to improve community health systems; and providing services identified as priorities by the local assessment and planning process.

  14. Avatar Iheukwumere Chinedu Kingsley says:

    Name: Iheukwumere Chinedu Kingsley
    Reg. Number: 2018/243099
    Department: Economics/Political Science
    Course: Eco 361

    Answer:

    6.
    The most influential theories of development are the Linear-stages model of development, the structural-change models and more predominantly in recent times the neoclassical or neo-liberal theory of development which postulates and emphasizes the benefits of free market operations, open economies and the privatization of unproductive or inefficient public institutions and enterprises. They’re compatible to a degree, in the sense that, they all seem for the actualization of one goal which economic developsment and to the degree that each of their tenants are compliment to one another and not contracting themselves.
    Underdevelopment being an internal induced phenomenon or an external induces phenomenon has no one sided answer, in the sense that, judging from both perspective there are some elements of truth; underdevelopment can be said to be externally induced judging from the human and natural resources drainage done by a more powerful country to a less powerful one (in context of Europe to Africa) and also underdevelopment can be said to be internally induced when the factor causes that are known to birth the index of underdevelopment in a geographical territory are seen to be caused or propelled by institutions or administrations whim the territory (in context of Africans to Africa).

    7.
    Local conditions that result in constraints holding back accelerated growth could be, depending on the locality current situation, war, bad administrative policies that hinders economic growth, insecurity which stands as a disincentive for foreign business and investments to come in, low educational standard which could make the external environment perceive intellectual labours within that locality as unqualified, etc.

    8.
    Improvements in the role and status of women in the economy have a beneficial impact on development prospects, in the sense that, if they are more educated it increases the general literacy level of the nation which is hypothetically going to lead to an increase in more accurate decision making in whatever sphere of the economy that women are found; and this education isn’t just restricted from economic related subjects alone rather it cuts across all other aspects of the economy

    9.
    The causes of extreme poverty varies from country to country, for some countries it’s bad governmental policies, for some it’s because of constant war, for some it’s because of their structural system of administration, for some it’s their taxation system, and so on.
    Several policies and measures have been taken by different countries to solve this problem but a notable one in the case of Nigeria is that of the millennium development goals(MDGs) of 2015 of which has eight objectives.

    10.
    Rapid population growth could either be favourable or unfavorable to the progress of developing nations; favourable in the sense that, if the increase in population is within the working or labour age grade then it’s hypothetically favourable for a developing country because an increase in the working labour class will lead to an increase in the labour force of the nation and then eventually and an increase in productivity and GDP but if the increase in population growth is within the age grade of old people and infants then it’s bad for the economy because there won’t be enough labour power to put into productivity which will lead to a decline in productivity and it eventually becomes hard to Carter for and sustain such large population with a declining productivity.

    11.
    There are so much unemployment and underemployment in developing countries; because there are not enough job to meet the request for jobs in the economy; unemployment because the jobs aren’t enough to go round and underemployment because when people can’t get a job that suits their qualification they then resolve to what is available, and in this case, a job that’s less than their qualification or not even anywhere around their field of study.

    12.
    In this case one can introduce the popular saying that ‘health is wealth’ because it’s only a healthy nation that can sit down and plan their economy to have or be on the path that leads towards a successful development; and also in a healthy nation, little to no generated revenue are channeled towards fighting any diseases in other to keep the people healthy, hence most of the generated revenue are channeled towards things that leads to a successful economic development.

    13.
    The impact of poor public health in the prospects of development will be seen in the decline of production because when you have a population of people who have bad health conditions they won’t be able to give their best in the economic activities in other to increase in GDP which then leads to a declining development progress. Nations can address the issues of healthcare challenges by simply investing more money and channeling more attention to the improvement of the facilities and provision of healthcare services to the public

  15. Avatar Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel says:

    Name: Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel
    Department: Economics
    Reg no:2018/249 788
    Email:ezekielikukennaya4@gmail.com

    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Modernization theory :

    Modernization theory had two major aims

    It attempted to explain why poorer countries have failed to develop, focussing on what cultural and economic conditions might act as ‘barriers’ to development

    It aimed to provide a non-communist solution to poverty in the developing world by suggesting that economic change (in the form of Capitalism) and the introduction of western values and culture could play a key role in bringing about modernisation.

    Modernization Is used to analyze the processes in which transformation from crude to global economy in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of crude or ‘backward’ societies. Various scholars from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.

    Are the development theories compatible?

    Modernization theory and structural change theory are compatible because both theories tends to focus on transformation of the society from crude/agrarian society to global/advanced society.

    Is underdevelopment an internally or externally induced phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is induced by both internal and external phenomenon.
    Development is fostered locally and internationally in every given economy ,but it depends more on the internal phenomenon ( the attitude of the locals to Development).

    External phenomenon affects the economy through it’s operations :
    They include international trade, globalization, sustainable development, the effects of epidemics, such as HIV, Corona Virus and the impact of catastrophes on economic and human development.

    7.What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    The following are the factors that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    Culture of the people
    Government policies
    Poor utilization of resources
    Lack of Infrastructure
    Insecurity
    Lack of managerial leaders as head of state

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Improvements in the role and status of women have beneficial impact on the economy in the sense that it increases the labour force of the economy. As we know increase in labour force leads to increase in productivity of an economy, if labour is efficiently employed.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Some of the causes of extreme poverty
    widespread famines and lack of healthcare in poor developing countries were to blame.

    Participants discussed factors such as the lack of crops in poorer countries, which made it virtually impossible to produce food, in effect leading to starvation and an increase of famines. Other participants in this group recognised that geography played a part, with some countries landlocked and without a natural water source, more prone to famines and droughts.

    Other factors include:
    Corrupt Government
    Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    Poor Access to Education
    Poor Access to Healthcare
    Effective policies for Improving the lives of the poorest of the poor among others are:
    Equality and Representation for all
    Increased Access to Education
    Micro-financing
    Job Creation
    Access to Healthcare
    Economic Security

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations?
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations.when there is increase in population growth it leads to overpopulation which occurs when population is greater that than resources that can be enough to cater for the population. And this over population causes social vices that disrupt economic growth.

    Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Large families doesn’t make sense in an environment experiencing poverty and financial insecurity
    In general, although overall income rises somewhat with family size, an increase in the number of children appears to reduce the family’s standard of living, especially in young families with small children. Current consumption increases as the number of children increases: families with 4 or more children in which the household head is under the age of 35 and has had more than 12 years of education tend to spend 40% more than childless couples of similar age and educational level. Despite the increased spending, per capita consumption falls for all age and education categories. Larger families devote more of their income to necessities and less to luxuries. Among young couples in which the household head has had 9 to 12 years of education, the proportion of income used to buy food rises from 15% if there are no children present to 25% if there are 4 or more. The proportion of food expenditures devoted to meals eaten out also falls steadily as the number of children rises.
    In general larger families may lead to unemployment.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    a)High and Rapid Population Growth

    One of the major factors responsible for the high level of unemployment in developing countries is the rapid growth in population. There has been an increase in the growth of the labor forces along with the inadequate supply of jobs. The rapid population growth has been coupled with rural-urban migration. This has increased the population in cities thereby raising the level of joblessness.

    b)Lack of quality education

    Most employers believe that Nigerian graduates are unemployable. This is the result of the educational program which usually include theories and a lack of practical use of knowledge. Also, most tertiary educational courses lack entrepreneurial training. For example, a graduate of agriculture course knows the theory but lacks necessary practical agricultural skills.

    c)Lack of infrastructure

    Lack of good roads, steady and sustainable power supply has made the economy hostile to investors. The lack of infrastructure has led to the high cost of production. The absence of investors influences the number of available jobs. The operating companies also use fewer people because of the high cost of production.

    d)Unstable and corrupt political environment

    Another key problem is poor leadership and high level of corruption in the developing society. The failure of the government to perform their constitutional duties has resulted in the high level of unemployment. Also, the high level of corruption in a country among politicians has resulted in the mismanagement of the funds and resources supposed to be used for the creation of job opportunities for the people.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Improving human health and providing access to affordable, high quality health care is a key concern of all countries. It is not only an ethical and social imperative; it is also a necessary ingredient for the sustainable long-term development of our economies and societies. Good health improves people’s wellbeing. Healthy workers are more productive and healthy students learn better. In many developed countries, health care is one of the most important and dynamic growth sectors in the economy.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Poverty and poor health worldwide are inextricably linked. The causes of poor health for millions globally are rooted in political, social and economic injustices. Poverty is both a cause and a consequence of poor health. Poverty increases the chances of poor health. Poor health, in turn, traps communities in poverty. Infectious and neglected tropical diseases kill and weaken millions of the poorest and most vulnerable people each year.

    what is needed to address these problems discussed above?

    a) Investing in Education: One of the most important ways to improve health in developing countries is by educating citizens. Educating people enables them to obtain safer jobs, increased health literacy, take preventive healthcare measures, avoid riskier health behaviors and demand better-quality health services.

    b) Increasing Health Benefits for the Poor: Poorer countries receive much lower health benefits than richer countries. In developing areas, the poor are subjected to higher risk of contracting diseases and lower access to quality healthcare. This is solely due to the cost of medicine, treatments and vaccinations.

    c) Promoting Primary and Essential Healthcare: A way to improve health in developing countries involves governments providing cost-effective health packages for everyone. An example of this would be Ethiopia and Malawi, where governments have focused on achieving universal vaccine coverage, developing cleaner water supplies and creating better sanitation practices.

  16. Avatar AJAH, ANGELA N. says:

    NAME: AJAH, ANGELA N.
    REG. NO.: 2019/246659
    EMAIL: ajahangelanelly@gmail.com
    DEPARTMENT : LIBRARY & INFORMATION SCIENCE/ECONOMIC
    COURSE CODE : Eco. 361 (Online Discussion Quiz 2—Some Vital Questions on Development 1)
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS.
    LECTURER: TONY ORIJI

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Answer.
    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    The constraints on development include:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.
    Inefficiency
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    ‘X’ Inefficiency
    X inefficiency can arise when there is a lack of competition in a market. It is primarily associated with inefficient management, where average cost is above its minimum. Competition is limited in many developing economies, and resources are often allocated by government. This means that inefficient management is common.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.

    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    Population: Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    Lack of real capital: Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following:

    Low growth: Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.

    Lack of savings: A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply. High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.

    Debts: In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang.
    Crowding out: In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing.
    Absence of credit markets: Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries.
    Corruption: Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Insurance markets: In a similar way to credit markets, insurance markets may be under-developed, with few insurers willing to accept ‘bad’ risks. Insurance charges (premiums) will be driven up, and potential entrepreneurs may be deterred from taking out insurance, or will be unwilling to take uninsured risks. The result is that new businesses may fail to develop.
    The principal – agent (landlord – tenant) problem
    In agriculture in particular, the principal-agent problem existing between landlord (principal) and worker (agent) creates asymmetric information and moral hazard. Workers may not bother to work hard. With low pay rates, the risks of being caught ‘shirking’ are small – the loss of pay is not a significant enough incentive to work hard and efficiently.

    Absence of property rights: In many developing economies it is not always clear who owns property, especially land. Given this there is no incentive to develop the land because of the free-rider problem.

    Absence of a developed legal system: In many developing economies there is an absence of a developed or appropriate legal system in the following areas:

    Protectionism
    One significant constraint on the economic prosperity of less developed countries is the protectionism adopted by some developed one. Developed counties can impose tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures individually, or more commonly as a member of a trading bloc.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer
    Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women, the representative of Singapore said this morning. He was addressing the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural), as it continued its general debate on the advancement of women and the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. He said economic globalization increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities, thus allowing more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality. The representative of the Bahamas said although many governments and the United Nations were confronting severe economic and budgetary restraints, there must be innovative ways to fund women’s programmes, and strengthen institutions and mechanisms. The Organization’s hiring freeze should not be an excuse for inaction. Education and training programmes for boys, girls and adults were needed to eliminate a gender-segregated labour market, according to the representative of Denmark. His Government had introduced vocational courses for women within traditionally male-dominated areas and for men in traditionally female-dominated fields. Several other speakers this morning stressed the importance of women’s full participation in development. The representative of Sierra Leone said due to sociocultural beliefs, religious practices and the gender-biased interpretation of laws, women in developing countries suffered unequal treatment, rights and opportunity. Literacy was a high priority, because other initiatives, including political, economic and cultural sensitization, could be easily implemented if women were literate.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer
    9a.
    1. Increase rate of rising population: In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

    2. Less productivity in agriculture: In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

    3. Less utilization of resources: Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.

    4. A short rate of economic development: In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.

    5. Increasing price rise: Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.

    6. Unemployment: One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.

    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship: The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.

    8. Social factors: Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.

    9. Political factors: We all know that the East India Company started lopsided development in India and had reduced our economy to a colonial state. They exploited the natural resources to suit their interests and weaken the industrial base of Indian economy. Hence, the planning was of immense failure to handle the problems of poverty and unemployment.

    10. Unequal distribution of income: If you simply increase the production or do a checking on population cannot help poverty in our country. We need to understand that inequality in the distribution of income and concentration of wealth should be checked. The government can reduce inequality of income and check the concentration of wealth by pursuing suitable monetary and price policies.

    11. The problem of distribution: The distribution channel should be robust in order to remove poverty. Mass consumption of goods and food grains etc. should be distributed first among the poor population. Present public distribution system must be re-organised and extended to rural and semi-urban areas of the country.

    12. Regional poverty: The administration should offer special amenities and discounts to attract private capital investment to backward regions.

    13. Provision for minimum requirements of the poor: The government should take care of the minimum requirements, like drinking water, primary medical care, and primary education etc. of the poor.
    9b.
    1. Create jobs: The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018.
    2. Raise the minimum wage: In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty.
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers: One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends.
    4. Support pay equity: With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product.
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days: The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income.
    6. Establish work schedules that work: Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income.
    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education: The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work.
    8. Expand Medicaid: Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table.
    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry: The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. Today, more than 1.5 million Americans are behind bars in state and federal prisons, a figure that has increased fivefold since 1980.
    10. Do no harm: The across-the-board spending cuts known as sequestration—which took effect in 2013—slashed funding for programs and services that provide vital support to low-income families. Sequestration cost the U.S. economy as many as 1.6 million jobs between mid-2013 and 2014.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Answer.
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    Imbalance between Capital and Population:

    The first and foremost economic explanation of underdevelopment or the existence of mass unemployment and poverty of today’s developing countries is that in them there has come about a serious imbalance between population and productive resources, especially the stock capital.

    This imbalance between resources and population has manifested itself not only in low per capita income and poverty but also in the existence of huge open unemployment, disguised unemployment in the underdeveloped countries. The present stock of capital (including land) is quite insufficient to employ all at a reasonable level of real per capita income.

    In the present-day world man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood. With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to be engaged in productive activity.

    A nation’s stock of capital can be enlarged by increased investment which in the absence of any unutilised resources requires additional savings on the part of the community. The rate of capital formation should be kept sufficiently high so that employment opportunities are successively enlarged to absorb the increase in the labour force. Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production will be there to employ them.

    It is important to note that the existing imbalance between capital and land resources on the one hand and population on the other is a legacy of the past. Thus, the present state of underdevelopment must be viewed in the long-run setting of these countries.

    For several decades in the past the rate of investment and therefore the growth of the capital stock has not been keeping pace with the growth of population in underdeveloped countries like India. This implies that opportunities for productive employment have not been increasing commensurate with the growth of population and labour force. This has resulted in mass poverty and unemployment.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer.

    Causes of Unemployment and underdevelopment in Developing Countries:
    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:
    The major cause of unemployment and underdevelopment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.

    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    Now, if the working force grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition of labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. The resulting unemployment is known as the long- term or chronic unemployment.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.

    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land:

    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.
    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:

    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.
    6. Lack of Infrastructure:
    We have explained above lack of physical capital with which labour is equipped for productive employment as the cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India. By capital we generally mean machines, plant & equipment, factory buildings etc. But a similar factor responsible for huge unemployment prevailing in these countries is lack of infrastructure such as roads, power, telecommunications, highways, irrigation facilities in agriculture. Inadequate availability of infrastructure is a great obstacle for the generation of opportunities for productive employment.

    It follows from above that unemployment and under-employment prevailing in India and other developing countries is not cyclical Keynesian type of unemployment caused by decline in aggregate demand. Unemployment and under-employment in India are caused by more basic structural factors such as lack of capital, use of capital-intensive technologies, lack of access to land for agricultural household, lack of infrastructure, racial growth.
    Why do people migrate?
    People migrate for many different reasons. These reasons can be classified as economic, social, political or environmental:
    economic migration – moving to find work or follow a particular career path
    social migration – moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends
    political migration – moving to escape political persecution or war
    environmental causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding
    Some people choose to migrate, eg someone who moves to another country to enhance their career opportunities. Some people are forced to migrate, eg someone who moves due to war or famine.
    Push and pull factors
    Push factors are the reasons why people leave an area. They include:
    lack of services, lack of safety, high crime, crop failure, drought, flooding, poverty and war
    Pull factors are the reasons why people move to a particular area. They include:
    higher employment, more wealth, better services, good climate, safer, less crime, political stability, more fertile land, lower risk from natural hazards. e.t.c.
    Migration usually happens as a result of a combination of these push and pull factors.
    Nowadays, many people decide to migrate to have a better life. Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Answer:
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school .

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Answer:
    A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    Solutions
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  17. Avatar Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer says:

    Name: Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer
    Reg. No: 2018/248241
    Dept: Economics/Psychology

    QUESTIONS

    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    ANSWER

    The most influential theories of development are the structural-change theory, nationalism and linear stages of growth model.

    All three theories of development are compatible as they are pointing towards the direction of industrialization as a source of economic growth. They all agree on the policies of import substitution and barriers in order to encourage the growth of domestic industries.

    Structural-Change Theory

    This theory has its roots in South America. It talks about the continually changing structure of the nation’s economy. This change aims at transforming the society from just an agrarian nation to an industrial society.It is a development theory that highlights the structural aspect of the nation that limits the growth of the economy. It also explores the transformation of nations from subsistence production to industrialization.

    Structuralists agree that the government has a role to play if a nation is to develop. They believe that underdeveloped countries ought to reduce dependency on just trade. They promote government interference for economic growth in terms of policies such as ISI (import substitution industrialization)

    The structuralists emphasize self-sustaining growth which can only be achieved on the basis of increased export of manufactured goods and not just an overdependence on the export of primary goods. They encourage the use of trade barriers in order to ensure that to an
    extent, local substitutes are used in place of imported products and promote the growth of infant industries. This would make sure that the local industries expand to a level where they can compete with their foreign counterparts.

    The concept of this theory can be fully appreciated when we explore the economic growth of Russia after the communist overtook the royal leaders and industrialized the country. This change made Russia a powerful nation within a very short while. So concisely, structural change theory is simply the development of policies that intend to transform the structure of the economy of emerging nations.

    Economic Nationalism

    This theory simply involves policies that focus on formation of capital, control of labour and the economy using barriers such as tariffs. Economic nationalism promotes the restriction of the movement of goods, labor and capital. It dissuades international trade policies such as free trade policies and globalization.

    Economic nationalism is the concept that a nation should promote it’s industries by limiting the level of competition from large companies from other nations.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model

    This model of development maintains that economic growth is only a result of industrialization. The linear stages of growth model emphasizes that institutions of a country can limit growth as long as they can influence the savings of individuals and households and the investment ratio. In fact, the model was employed to rejuvenate the European economy after World War II. Linear stages of growth model is a modification of Marx’s stages theory of development but it is more concerned with the accumulation of capital through public and private savings.

    This theory postulates that there are five stages of development that all countries must go through during the process of development. These stages include the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption.

    6b. Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    ANSWER
    Underdevelopment is generally viewed as an externally induced phenomenon that is put up by a significant few elites that are powerful. They usually form an alliance with international capitalist systems to ensure the achievement of their desires.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    ANSWER
    Certain factors pose a constraint to growth. These factors include:

    Lack of infrastructure/infrastructural gap
    Physical infrastructures such as telecommunication, transportation, schools, and hospitals have a huge impact on economic growth and development. In fact, research has proven that there’s a positive relationship between the quality of infrastructure and economic growth. Let’s consider Sub-Saharan Africa which loses 2.1% of gross domestic product from blackouts alone  due to limitation to infrastructure investment.. This is why many countries increase expenditure on infrastructure as the years advance.

    Overdependence on natural commodities export/Primary Product Dependency
    This indeed is the plaque of Africa and particularly, Nigeria. The reliance on the export of natural resources instead of manufactured goods has become a constraint to development in these areas. Despite being rich in natural resources, for many African countries this is a curse rather than a blessing.

    The Savings Gap
    Its no secret that savings is the bridge to capital-intensive investments and lack of adequate funding is a cause of extreme poverty and a constraint to growth. This remains the problem of low-income countries, they lack the income to expand capacity and create an enabling environment for foreign direct investments.

    Unstable Incomes and Vulnerable Employment
    The level of uncertainty of employment and income in certain underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria poses a constraint to economic growth and development. This makes poverty inevitable and reduces the level of capital investments.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    ANSWER
    Today, women constitute 45.4 percent of the global workforce. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades. Indeed, when women are empowered to claim their rights and have access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, the economy grows, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    ANSWER
    Studies have been conducted to expose the root causes of extreme poverty. Among them, the key causes of poverty includes:
    Unemployment
    Overpopulation
    Lack of education
    Lack of basic infrastructure
    Corruption
    Poor human capital development
    Inequality and insecurity

    However, certain policies have been effective in reducing poverty and they include:
    Minimum wage policies
    Unemployment benefits
    Provision of funds for basic amenities such as healthcare and free education
    Free skill acquisition
    Youth empowerment programmes

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    ANSWER

    Definitely, larger families especially in poor regions have never been reasonable choices. In as much as this is/was prevalent in nations practicing subsistence agriculture, overpopulation has been discovered to cause and aggravate poverty. This is why certain countries establish certain policies to limit the amount of children families can have.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    ANSWER
    Underemployment and unemployment is simply proof of lack of jobs. And as observed over time, lack of jobs or good jobs in developing countries is a result of all or either of the following:

    Lack of physical capital in terms of industries, organizations and factories etc.
    The replacement of labour with capital-intensive methods of production
    The problem of unemployability
    Lack of infrastructure to encourage foreign investors
    Neglect of agriculture

    Individuals migrate from rural areas to urban areas for several reasons, but the most prevalent are:
    Access to better health facility
    Better road infrastructure
    Better education opportunity

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    ANSWER
    Certainly, better health spurs economic development. A group of unhealthy workers cannot think or perform well. An unhealthy nation is a weak nation. The conditions for successful development include a high level of productivity and increase in output. And if we can consider the theories of development above, industrialization is the key for economic growth and development.

    And so based on this, poor health care or lack of health facilities can significantly reduce the level of productivity as well as decrease output to a large extent.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWER
    As much as we may doubt it, poor health care definitely impacts badly on the economic growth and development of a nation. And as GDP is a major measure of economic growth, it is safe to say that poor health care can definitely cause a decrease in the GDP of a nation.

    To begin with, healthy workers are more productive than workers who are not. Better health also raises per capita income through a number of other channels. Let’s consider a few reasons why this is so:
    Healthy workers can save more: we’ve already discussed above how poor savings leads to underdevelopment, so it is ok to say that the lesser the savings of workers due to continuous expenditure or ill health, the lesser the prospects of development.

    Reduced foreign direct investments: no foreign investor will find a nation with endemic diseases or poor health infrastructures an ideal place or environment for smooth business except they intend to solve these exact problems. And as we know, FDI is a huge driver of rapid development.

    There are several approaches to solving these problems. Some include:
    seeking external funds
    Increased national allocation for healthcare
    Ensuring the quality of hospitals
    Investing in human healthcare

  18. Avatar Michael Dorathy uzoamaka,2018/241586 says:

    Michael Dorathy uzoamaka
    2018/241586
    Library and information science/economic
    dorathyuzoamaka2018@gmail.com
    Eco 361
    6.which are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible?is underdevelopment and internal(domestically)or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Common therories of development are ;
    -marchantilism
    -nationnalism
    -linear stages of growth model
    -structural change theory
    underdevelopment is internally induced. This is due to high level of corruption, embezzlement and other form of economically deterimental behaviours
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following are the factors that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    Culture of the people
    Government policies
    Poor utilization of resources
    Lack of Infrastructure
    Insecurity
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes. As a study from the IMF shows, policies that improve access to educational opportunities and finance for women can contribute to a reduction in inequality and an increase in economic growth for the developing country. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    – unemployment.
    – poor health care centers.
    – lack of infrastructure.
    – poor education.
    – weak institutions.
    – insecurity.
    -Corruption
    Policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor includes;
    – affordable, high-quality child care and early education.
    – Create jobs
    – Raise the minimum wage
    – Social Security
    – construction of roads and other infrastructure.
    – negative income tax system.
    healthcare

    10. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly, the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which places as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources. Rapid growth of population is largely responsible for the perpetuation of vicious circle of poverty in underdeveloped countries. On account of rapid growth of population people are required to spend a major part of their income on bringing up their children.

    Thus savings and rate of capital formation remain low, reduction in per capita income, rise in general price level leading to sharp rise in cost of living. No improvement in agricultural and industrial technology, shortage of essential commodities, low standard of living, mass unemployment etc. As a result the entire economy of an underdeveloped country is surrounded by the vicious circle of poverty.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    There is so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries because these twin variables-unemployment and underemployment-are the main distinguishing features of developing economies; they are also prevalent in developing economies because of the bad state of the economy in these states.
    Why people from rural areas migrate to the cities is because they feel that there are numerous employment opportunities in the citie,to access higher education qualification,for better business opportunity. But the number of people moving to the cities for employment is more than than the number of cities that absorb this labour and also, the number of job opportunities in the cities are limited. This causes an imbalance which leads to various socio-economic difficulties in the cities. The rural areas are therefore, a source of unlimited labour to the cities. Economically, such labour will be cheap and this also leads to unemployment and underemployment typical of most cities in developing countries.
    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Yes because the positive impact that health has on development occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rate and improved learning among schools.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy ,even dealth if not not properly handled
    1. Reduces labour force.once an individual is down in health the force applied to work will be reduced due to lack of strength from the individual
    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.assuming the individual is mentally derenged the ability to think and create or contribute will be in zero percent
    3. Decrease in productivity.in a company where the most of the workers are not healthy ,the rate of production will reduce eg if 20 bags of sugar is produce a day it will reduce to 5 or 8bags a day
    4. Reduces life expectancy.
    5. Decrease in human capital development. When one is down in health means of making money will diminish

    II. The solution to the problems :

    1. High investment in the health sector government should try and equip every health sector and also esterblish one where there is non.
    2. Increase in health care infrastructures. Government should provide the necessary both expertise
    3. Better health care equipments.medical equipment should be made available in health centers

    4. Employment of qualified medical practitioners. Professional should be employed and not quack doctor

    5. Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.awearness , seminar etc should be done Betty health esppecilly in rural areas

  19. Avatar Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu says:

    NAME:UGWU CYNTHIA UGOCHUKWU
    REG:2018/245470
    DEPT:ECONOMICS MAJOR
    ECO391 ASSIGNMENT
    6.WHAT IS THE MOST INFLUENTIAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND ARE THEY COMPATIBLE? IS UNDERDEVELOPMENT AN INTERNALL(DOMESTICALLY) OR EXTERNALLY ( INTERNATIONALLY) INDUCED PHENOMENON?
    The most influential theories of development: modernization, dependency, world-
    systems and globalization. These are the principal theoretical explanations to
    interpret development efforts carried out especially in the developing countries.
    THE THEORY OF MODERNIZATION
    According to Alvin So, there are three main and historical elements which were
    favorable to the inception of the modernization theory of development after the
    Second World War. First, there was the rise of the United States as a
    superpower. While other Western nations, such as Great Britain, France, and
    Germany, were weakened by World War II, the United States emerged from the
    war strengthened, and became a world leader with the implementation of the
    Marshall Plan to reconstruct war-torn Western Europe.
    Second, there was the spread of a united world communist movement. The
    Former Soviet Union extended its influence not only to Eastern Europe, but also
    to China and Korea. Third, there was the disintegration of European colonial
    empires in Asia, Africa and Latin America, giving birth to many new nation-
    states in the Third World. These nascent nation-states were in search of a
    model of development to promote their economy and to enhance their political
    independence.
    According to the modernization theory, modern societies are more productive,
    children are better educated, and the needy receive more welfare. According to
    Smelser’s analysis, modern societies have the particular feature of social
    structural differentiation, that is to say a clear definition of functions and political
    roles from national institutions. Smelser argues that although structural
    differentiation has increased the functional capacity of modern organizations, it
    has also created the problem of integration, and of coordinating the activities of
    the various new institutions.
    THEORY OF DEPENDENCY
    The foundations of the theory of dependency emerged in the 1950s from the
    research of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean sta Nomads. Mediterranean Perspectives.
    ECLAC-. One of the most representative authors was Raul Prebisch. The
    principal points of the Prebisch model are that in order to create conditions of
    development within a country, it is necessary:
    a) To control the monetary exchange rate, placing more governmental
    emphasis on fiscal rather than monetary policy;
    b) To promote a more effective governmental role in terms of national
    development;
    c) To create a platform of investments, giving a preferential role to national
    capitals
    d) To allow the entrance of external capital following priorities already
    established in national plans for development;
    e) To promote a more effective internal demand in terms of domestic
    markets as a base to reinforce the industrialization process in Latin
    America;
    f) To generate a larger internal demand by increasing the wages and
    salaries of workers, which will in turn positively affect aggregate demand
    in internal markets.
    The theory of dependency combines elements from a neo-marxist perspective
    with Keynes’ economic theory – the liberal economic ideas which emerged in
    the United States and Europe as a response to the depression years of the
    1920s-. From the Keynes’ economic approach, the theory of dependency
    embodies four main points: a) To develop an important internal effective
    demand in terms of domestic markets; b) To recognize that the industrial sector
    is crucial to achieving better levels of national development, especially due to
    the fact that this sector, in comparison with the agricultural sector, can
    contribute more value-added to products; c) To increase worker’s income as a
    means of generating more aggregate demand in national market conditions.
    THEORY OF WORLD SYSTEM
    A central element from which the theory of world-systems emerged was the
    different form that capitalism was taking around the world, especially since the decade of the 1960s. Starting in this decade, Third World countries had new
    conditions in which to attempt to elevate their standards of living and improve
    social conditions. These new conditions were related to the fact that the
    international financial and trade systems began to have a more flexible
    character, in which national government actions were having less and less
    influence. Basically these new international economic circumstances made it
    possible for a group of radical researchers led by Immanuel Wallerstein to
    conclude that there were new activities in the capitalist world-economy which
    could not be explained within the confines of the dependency.
    THEORY OF GLOBALIZATION
    The theory of globalization emerges from the global mechanisms of greater
    integration with particular emphasis on the sphere of economic transactions. In
    this sense, this perspective is similar to the world-systems approach. However,
    one of the most important characteristics of the globalization position is its focus
    and emphasis on cultural aspects and their communication worldwide. Rather
    than the economic, financial and political ties, globalization scholars argue that
    the main modern elements for development interpretation are the cultural links
    among nations. In this cultural communication, one of the most important
    factors is the increasing flexibility of technology to connect people around the
    world.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful.
    7.WHAT CONSTRAINTS MOST HOLD BACK ACCELERATED GROWTH, DEPENDING ON LOCAL CONDITIONS?
    Debts
    In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.
    Crowding out
    In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing. This means that a government may borrow from local capital markets, if indeed they exist, which causes a relative shortage of capital and raises interest rates.
    Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.
    Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.
    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    8.HOW CAN IMPROVEMENT IN ROLES AND STATUS OF A WOMAN HAVE BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS?
    Traditionally, women were considered to be full-time homemakers. Their responsibilities were to take care of their children and family. They didn’t have any role in the household earning. Over the years, the roles of women have changed. Here we are going to discuss it.
    . Child-bearing role
    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.
    . Education
    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.
    . Outside activities
    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.
    . Workplace
    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities. The percentage of the part-time job is more in case of women. Women are still often seen in the caring or teaching sector. But now more women are entering the male-dominated sectors like politics, the legal system, etc. as well. More women are occupying senior management positions.
    . Fighting for rights
    Women now have a voice, unlike before. Families are no more male-dominated. Like men, women also make major life decisions. Women have stood against dowry and domestic violence. Even in the workplace, they fight against sexual abuse and equality. Child marriage is being stopped in many communities.
    Men now play a role in child raising and household activities just like women. Both men and women now share their responsibilities both home and outside. Women now stand against any discrimination and torture. There have been lots of gender-issue related movements and many social organizations now fight for women’s rights. Women are now getting power even in rural areas. In many countries now women are the head of the state. Education has made women independent and they are no longer dependent on men to lead their lives.
    Business laws have changed to allow more women in the workplace and giving them a comfortable environment to work in. Women can now stand tall like men and get equal opportunities in everything.
    9.WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF EXTREME POVERY AND WHAT POLICIES HAVE BEEN MOST EFFECTIVE FOR IMPROVING LIVES OF THE POOREST OF THE POOR?
    1. Increase rate of rising population:
    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An
    average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.
    2. Less productivity in agriculture:
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.
    3. Less utilization of resources:
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.
    4. A short rate of economic development:
    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.
    5. Increasing price rise:
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    6. Unemployment:
    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship:
    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.
    8. Social factors:
    Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.
    Policies for improving the live of the poor:
    1. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.
    4. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.
    6. Establish work schedules that work
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.
    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.
    Boosting investments in Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant, as well as passing the Strong Start for America’s Children Act—which would invest in preschool, high-quality child care for infants and toddlers, and home-visiting services for pregnant women and mothers with infants—will help more struggling families obtain the child care they need in order to work and improve the future economic mobility of America’s children.
    8. Expand Medicaid
    Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table. Having health coverage is also an important buffer against the economic consequences of illness and injury; unpaid medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy. Studies link Medicaid coverage not only to improved health, improved access to health care services, and lower mortality rates, but also to reduced financial strain.
    I0.RAPID POPULATION GROWTH THREATENING THE ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS? DO LARGE FAMILIES MAKE ECONOMIC SENSE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY AND FINANCIAL INSECURITY?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    b. Rapid population growth stretches both national and family budgets thin with the increasing numbers of children to be fed and educated and workers to be provided with jobs. Slower per capita income growth, lack of progress in reducing income inequality, and more poverty are the probable consequences. Many characteristics of poverty can cause high fertility — high infant mortality, lack of education for women in particular, too little family income to invest in children, inequitable shares in national income, and the inaccessibility of family planning. Experience in China, Indonesia, Taiwan, Colombia, Korea, Sri Lanka, Cuba and Costa Rica demonstrate that birthrates can decline rapidly in low income groups and countries when basic health care, education, and low-cost or free family planning services are made widely available.
    11.WHY IS THERE SO MUCH UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT IN DEVELOPING WORLD ESPECIALLY IN THE CRISIS AND WHY DO PEOPLE CONTINUE TO MIGRATE TO THE CITIFROM RURAL AREA EVEN WHEN THEIR CHANCES OF FINDING CONVENTIONAL JOB VERY SLIM.
    causes of unemployment on developing countries
    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:
    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.
    2. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land:
    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.
    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.
    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.

    6. Lack of Infrastructure:

    We have explained above lack of physical capital with which labour is equipped for productive employment as the cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India. By capital we generally mean machines, plant & equipment, factory buildings etc. But a similar factor responsible for huge unemployment prevailing in these countries is lack of infrastructure such as roads, power, telecommunications, highways, irrigation facilities in agriculture. Inadequate availability of infrastructure is a great obstacle for the generation of opportunities for productive employment.
    There are many factors that cause underemployment in an economy.
    1. Business cycle
    One of the main reasons for underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    2. Supply and demand
    Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.When certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.
    3. Technological changes
    Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    . Why people migrate from rural areas to cities
    People usually move from rural area to an urban area for economic or employment opportunities, but the specific causes can be categorized as either “push” or “pull” factors. Push factors are what make people move away from a rural area, like a lack of jobs or social opportunities. Pull factors are reasons why people want to come to an urban area, such as better job opportunities or easier access to amenities like education and healthcare.
    12.WEAITHIER SOCIETIES ARE ALSO HEAITHIER ONES BECAUSE THEY HAVE MORE RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING NUTRITION AND HEAITH CARE. BUT DOES BETTER HEALTH ALSO HELP SPUR SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT.
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.
    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems.
    Although global health has improved significantly in recent decades, this benefit has not been shared evenly within and among nations. Several hundred million people across the globe continue to go without basic health services, especially in rural areas and in the most impoverished communities. More than six million children die each year and nearly 300,000 women die in pregnancy or childbirth, many from preventable causes.
    13.WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF POOR PUBLIC HEALTH ON THE PROSPECT FOR DEVELOPMENT AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM
    Disease and poor health represent a great burden to affected individuals. Whilst
    difficult to quantify, the welfare losses to the individual of being severely ill can be
    significant, particularly in those developing regions with limited social security
    provision and health care. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to
    work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a
    more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have
    an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    What is needed to address the problem
    (1) Innovation to develop the evidence base for actio.
    (2) a technical package of a limited number of high-priority, evidence-based interventions that together will have a major impact.
    (3) effective performance management, especially through rigorous, real-time monitoring, evaluation, and program improvement.
    (4) partnerships and coalitions with public- and private-sector organizations.
    (5) communication of accurate and timely information to the health care community, decision makers, and the public to effect behavior change and engage civil society.
    (6) political commitment to obtain resources and support for effective action.
    Programs including smallpox eradication, tuberculosis control, tobacco control, polio eradication, and others have made progress by addressing these 6 areas.
    WHEREAS MANY PUBLIC health programs do not achieve their potential impact, other programs succeed in improving health outcomes drastically. Limited and unstable funding, lack of automatic means to track and improve performance, workforce limitations, and insufficient political commitment can all cause public health programs to fail. Implementation can succeed and be sustained if organizations and coalitions effectively address 6 key areas: innovation, a rigorously established technical package, management, partnerships, communication, and political commitment.

  20. Avatar OKONKWO CHIKAODINAKA JUSTINA says:

    Name: OKONKWO CHIKAODINAKA JUSTINA
    REG NO:2018/242322
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMIC DEPT
    Email: okonkwochikaodinaka@gmail.com

    NO 6
    •Theory Of Modernization:
    It is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values.Modernization theory observes traditions and pre-existing institutions of so-called “primitive” societies as obstacles to modern economic growth. Modernization which is forced from outside upon a society might induce violent and radical change, but according to modernization theorists it is generally worth this side effect. Critics point to traditional societies as being destroyed and slipping away to a modern form of poverty without ever gaining the promised advantages of Modernization.
    •Theory Of Globalization:In terms of the globalization process that is taking place under current worldwide economic conditions, two main topics in international political economy are: (a) the structure of the international economic system; and (b) how this structure has changed (2). They can be addressed through the application of the theory of globalization from the development perspective. This globalization approach suggests that the structure of the global system, and the roles that countries play within the international division of trade and labor, is crucial in understanding a wide array of social, political, and economic changes within particular countries. The basic claim is that international connections, roles, and relationships are important variables in any analysis which tries to explain various dimensions of development -economic growth, for example- trade, financial links and communications among countries.
    •Dependency theory: This theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world
    market.Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy.
    •Theory Of World Systems:Also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective is a multidisciplinary approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis.”World-system” refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries, and the periphery countries.Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials.World-Systems Theory can be useful in understanding world history and the core countries’ motives for imperialization and other involvements like the US aid following natural disasters in developing Central American countries or imposing regimes on other core states.With the interstate system as a system constant, the relative economic power of the three tiers points to the internal inequalities that are on the rise in states that appear to be developing.

    No.7
    • Corruption :Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.
    Being the oil giant, which runs on the grease of politics, Nigeria could be characterized as a wealthy nation staying afloat on oil. However, the problem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.
    • Poor human development :In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.
    • Environment and health issues :The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.
    • INADEQUATE FINANCIAL MARKETS:Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect..
    • POPULATION:Is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    No. 8
    Empower a woman and you are empowering the whole world cause Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over US$6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15% of GDP.

    No.9
    Poverty can be caused by so many things:
    Gender inequality, conflict, hunger, malnutrition, poor healthcare systems, little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, climate, lack of education, poor public works and infrastructure etc.
    To Reduce Poverty, Government Policies could include:
    •Minimum wages. Regulation of labor markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    • Direct provision of goods/services – subsidized housing, free education and healthcare.
    •Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing
    •Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.

    No. 10
    Large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.large family size leads to the following:
    • Increase in crime rate.
    • High cost of living.
    • Scarcity of food and water.
    • General inflation.
    • Poor health facilities.

    NO. 11
    There are many factors that cause unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities. Following are a few of the most common causes:
    • Supply and demand:Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.
    •Business cycle:One of the main reasons for underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    • Technological changes:Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    People continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim due to other factors which include, inequitable land distribution, environmental degradation, high vulnerability to natural disasters, violent conflicts, better education opportunities,diverse services, and less social discrimination in the cities.
    • Unbridled growth of the Population
    • Rural-urban migration
    • Misguided urban-planning policies.
    People migrate to the city even when there is no job because of the following reasons:
    – Economic and social policy that affect rural and urban real incomes: Recognize that every economic and social policy that affects rural and urban real incomes will influence the migration process directly or indirectly. As a result, the pattern of sectoral and geographic economic activity, income distribution, and even population growth will change. Because all economic policies have direct and indirect effects on the level and growth of urban and rural incomes, or both, they will all have an impact on the form and scale of migrant flows.
    – The concentration of social services in urban areas has led to overurbanization: Workers considering a move will assess a variety of things, including housing, stores, transportation, schools, hospitals, and other facilities. Visitors who travel outside of an African capital city are likely to be surprised by the economic and social disparities that exist between the metropolis and the surrounding countryside. These things, when combined, motivate people to migrate even when there are no jobs.

    N0. 12

    There is a saying that “A healthy nation is a wealthy nation” so Yes I support the motion that better health spur successful development.this is because, in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children i.e to say:
    • It increase life expectancy.
    • Higher productivity.
    • Improved quality of human life.
    • Increase in force.
    • labourEnhanced human capital development.

    N0. 13

    Impact of poor public health on development :Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.
    • Reduces labour force.
    • Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.
    • Decrease in productivity.
    • Reduces life expectancy.
    • Decrease in human capital development.

    SOLUTIONS
    • High investment in the health sector.
    • Increase in health care infrastructures.
    • Better health care equipments.
    • Employment of qualified medical practitioners.
    • Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  21. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name; Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg no: 2019/247552 (2/3)
    Department: Education/Economics
    Email address: chiamakaphilia195@gmail.com
    Course code Eco 361

    Instruction:
    Following from the previous questiclearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    Question:
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Answer
    Scholars propounded theories concerning development, how it is achieved and how it is impeded. These theories are the:
    a. Modernization theory
    b. The Dependency theory
    c. The Feminist theory.

    a. MODERNIZATION THEORY:
    The modernization theory elaborates on two main categories of societies in world, namely the traditional and modern societies. Theorists argue that the traditional societies are entangled by norms, beliefs and values which are hindering their development process. Thereforethey must adapt the modern
    style of living, thus concentrate on accumulation of capital and industrialization. In essence, this theory seeks to improve the standard of living of inferior societies, that is,improves the economic growth of supposed traditional societies to acquire basic and secondary necessities of life, by introducing modern technology and economic strategy to the third world. Modernization theorist, Rostow, also proposed swift machineries of transition for traditional societies to develop; these are preparation to take-off, take-off, drive to maturity and the period of mass consumption. These transitional path processes put traditional societies on the development path. Again, the theory succeeds in the idea that the norms, values and beliefs of a society can affect the social change of that society.
    Despite the advantages attributed to the theory, it has weaknesses which must be addressed. Firstly, the theory seeks to entail only the economic and concrete industrial growth of the third world countries. The theory lacks Amartya’s view of development, which states that “development can be seen as the process of expanding the freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen,1999). To Sen, development entails freedom, liberty, and self esteem of humanity which areneglected by the theory.Secondly, the modernization theory posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern countries. It fails to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.Lastly, Wallerstien pointed out that the theory creates dependency and exploitation of the third world countries. The theory neglects the social and cultural structure of the third world countries and imposes on the poor, ethnocentric processes to develop.

    b. THE DEPENDENCY THEORY:
    The dependency theory on the other hand opposes the modernization theory. Its main argument is that, the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor countries to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.It was a great analysis done by Frank A. Gunder by being able to debunk the weak, non historical and ethnocentric issues propounded by the modernization theory (Webster 1984).Also, Gunder succeeded in pointing out the economic inequalities among the developed and the developing countries, as well as the rampant internal inequalities in the various periphery countries and the exploitation of economic surplus developing countries during colonialism. Again, the theory posits an essence emphasis on the fact that development is not mainly based on the cultural values but rather, the economic and social structures and procedures.Dependency theory incurs some weaknesses. Frank failed to exhibit the specific and key dependency of the less developed countries on the metropolis, he merely stated that poor countries depend on rich countries with no specific clarification. The theory downplays internal development. It promotes the idea that indigenous industries cannot develop by it productivity which is not true. Moreover, the theory refuses to point out how the developed countries get access to the economic surplus of the third world countries.
    c. THE FEMINIST THEORY:
    The feminist theory of development has its main argument being that, women have a great influence in development therefore must be empowered to partake in decision making and its implementation. This theory plays much role in the building of women capacity and capabilities as development is concerned. Also feminists were able to bring awareness of gender inequalities among societies and engaged in massive activities to emancipate women. Feminists succeeded in propounding theories namely, Women in Development (WID) and Woman and development (WAD) to promote equity.Despite feminists’ achievement on the theory, they seemed to address the interest of females instead of addressing issues concerned with gender as a whole. This was criticized by the Gender and development theory. Also, upon all the activities and struggle to attain a high standard of living for women, there are still high inequalities among our social world unaddressed. The feminist theory failed to point out the actual actions and procedures which must be taken by the society and men to empower women in development process but just emphasized on why women must be part and neglected the “how”.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Answer:
    SOCIAL OBSTACLES
    Following are the important social obstacles in the way of economic development :

    1. Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.

    2. Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth. In Indian and Pakistan…

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer:
    Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women, the representative of Singapore said this morning. He was addressing the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural), as it continued its general debate on the advancement of women and the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. He said economic globalization increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities, thus allowing more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality.
    Women’s empowerment has become a significant topic of discussion in development and economics. Economic empowerment allows women to control and benefit from resources, assets, and income. It also aids the ability to manage risk and improve women’s well-being. It can result in approaches to support trivialized genders in a particular political or social context. While often interchangeably used, the more comprehensive concept of gender empowerment concerns people of any gender, stressing the distinction between biological and gender as a role. Women empowerment helps in boosting the status of women through literacy, education, training and awareness creation. Furthermore, women’s empowerment refers to women’s ability to make strategic life choices which had been previously denied them.

    Nations, businesses, communities and groups may benefit from the implementation of programs and policies that adopt the notion of female empowerment. Empowerment of women enhances the quality and the quantity of human resources available for development. Empowerment is one of the main procedural concerns when addressing human rights and development.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer:

    Following are the main causes of poverty:

    1. Increase rate of rising population:
    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

    2. Less productivity in agriculture:
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

    3. Less utilization of resources:
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.

    4. A short rate of economic development:
    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.

    5. Increasing price rise:
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.

    6. Unemployment:
    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.

    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship:
    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.

    8. Social factors:
    Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.

    9. Political factors:
    We all know that the East India Company started lopsided development in India and had reduced our economy to a colonial state. They exploited the natural resources to suit their interests and weaken the industrial base of Indian economy. Hence, the planning was of immense failure to handle the problems of poverty and unemployment.

    10. Unequal distribution of income:
    If you simply increase the production or do a checking on population cannot help poverty in our country. We need to understand that inequality in the distribution of income and concentration of wealth should be checked. The government can reduce inequality of income and check the concentration of wealth by pursuing suitable monetary and price policies.

    11. The problem of distribution:
    The distribution channel should be robust in order to remove poverty. Mass consumption of goods and food grains etc. should be distributed first among the poor population. Present public distribution system must be re-organised and extended to rural and semi-urban areas of the country.

    12. Regional poverty:
    India is divided by the inappropriate proportion of poor in some states, like Nagaland, Orissa, Bihar, Nagaland, etc. is greater than the other states. The administration should offer special amenities and discounts to attract private capital investment to backward regions.

    13. Provision for minimum requirements of the poor:
    The government should take care of the minimum requirements, like drinking water, primary medical care, and primary education etc. of the poor.

    Policies for improving life’s of the poorest/poor include:

    1. Job creation:
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.
    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    2. Raise the minimum wage:
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers:
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.

    4. Support pay equity:
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.

    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days:
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.

    6. Establish work schedules that work:
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.

    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education:
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.
    Boosting investments in Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant, as well as passing the Strong Start for America’s Children Act—which would invest in preschool, high-quality child care for infants and toddlers, and home-visiting services for pregnant women and mothers with infants—will help more struggling families obtain the child care they need in order to work and improve the future economic mobility of America’s children.

    8. Expand Medicaid:
    Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table. Having health coverage is also an important buffer against the economic consequences of illness and injury; unpaid medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy. Studies link Medicaid coverage not only to improved health, improved access to health care services, and lower mortality rates, but also to reduced financial strain.

    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry:
    The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. Today, more than 1.5 million Americans are behind bars in state and federal prisons, a figure that has increased fivefold since 1980. The impact on communities of color is particularly staggering: One in four African American children who grew up during this era of mass incarceration have had a parent incarcerated.
    Mass incarceration is a key driver of poverty. When a parent is incarcerated, his or her family must find a way to make ends meet without a necessary source of income Additionally, even a minor criminal record comes with significant collateral consequences that can serve as lifelong barriers to climbing out of poverty. For example, people with criminal records face substantial barriers to employment, housing, education, public assistance, and building good credit. More than 90 percent of employers now use background checks in hiring, and even an arrest without a conviction can prevent an individual from getting a job. The “one strike and you’re out” policy used by public housing authorities makes it difficult if not impossible for individuals with even decades-old criminal records to obtain housing, which can stand in the way of family reunification. Furthermore, a lifetime ban—for individuals with felony drug convictions—on receiving certain types of public assistance persists in more than half of U.S. states, making subsistence even more difficult for individuals seeking to regain their footing, and their families.

    In addition to common-sense sentencing reform to ensure that we no longer fill our nation’s prisons with nonviolent, low-level offenders, policymakers should explore alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion programs for individuals with mental health and substance abuse challenges. We must also remove barriers to employment, housing, education, and public assistance. A decades-old criminal record should not consign an individual to a life of poverty.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Answer:

    Rapid population growth, also know as Exponential growth Population explosion refers to the rapid and dramatic rise in world population that has occurred over the last few hundred years. Between 1959 and 2000, the world’s population increased from 2.5 billion to 6.1 billion people.
    In Nigeria, we have the largest population in Africa, and it is growing at the rate of 3.2% a year. The U.S. Census Bureau says that at that rate, there will be an estimated 402 million people in Nigeria in 2050. The major triggers for population increase include early marriages, high birth rates and lack of family planning access.
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    First, what is Unemployment:
    Unemployment is a term referring to individuals who are employable and actively seeking a job but are unable to find a job. … Usually measured by the unemployment rate, which is dividing the number of unemployed people by the total number of people in the workforce, unemployment serves as one of the indicators.

    While Underemployment:
    Underemployment is a measure of employment and labor utilization in the economy that looks at how well the labor force is being used in terms of skills, experience, and availability to work. It refers to a situation in which individuals are forced to work in low-paying or low-skill jobs.

    The Nature and Causes of Unemployment in Developing Countries include
    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:

    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.

    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    Now, if the working force grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition of labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. The resulting unemployment is known as the long- term or chronic unemployment.

    ADVERTISEMENTS:

    A nation’s stock of capital can be enlarged by increased investment which in the absence of any unutilised resources, requires additional saving on the part of the community. The concern of the classical economists was to ensure that the rate of capital formation was kept sufficiently high so that employment opportunities were successively enlarged to absorb the additions to the working force of a country as a result of population growth.

    This is also the problem that the developing countries like India are facing today. In recent times, the labour force in India has been growing at more than 2 per cent per year, yet our rate of investment expressed as a percentage of our stock of capital has not been growing at a fast enough rate so as to keep pace with the growth of population. As a result, the country’s ability to offer productive employment to the new entrants in the labour market has been severely limited.

    This manifests itself in two things: first, the prevalence of large-scale open unemployment in the urban areas as evidenced by the statistics of employment exchanges; second, it manifests itself in the form of open unemployment in the rural areas as well as disguised unemployment in agriculture.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.

    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    ADVERTISEMENTS:

    Even firms in modern small industry sector which were expected to generate large employment opportunities have also tended to use capital-intensive techniques of production. Thus, Prof. J.C. Sandesara states, “the availability of cheap capital has tended to encourage the modern small-scale industries sector to over-capitalize and use more capital-intensive methods of production and thus reduce employment potential”.

    In agriculture, reckless mechanisation of various agricultural operations despite the existence of surplus labour has reduced the employment-augmenting effect of new high-yielding technology involving the use of HYV seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. This has prevented the generation of enough employment opportunities in rural areas.

    Now, a pertinent question is why capital-intensive techniques are used in industries despite the condition of labour-abundance in the economy. First reason is the relatively low price of capital, relatively low price of capital has caused by
    (a) lower rate of interest,
    (b) liberal depreciation allowance on capital investment permitted in the taxation system of the country,
    (c) relatively cheap capital equipment imported from abroad. Second, higher wages of labour in the organised sector relative to their productivity under pressure from trade unions. Thirdly, rigid labour laws also discourage the employment of labour. It is difficult to retrench labour even when it is not required in case an industrial unit becomes sick and proposes to close down or exit. Fourthly, Research and Development (R & D) activity has not been adequately directed to discover and identify labour-intensive appropriate techniques to be used in industries which, though labour-intensive, have also reasonably good productivity.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land:
    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.

    ADVERTISEMENTS:

    Sub-division of land holdings under the pressure of rapid population growth since 1951 has further reduced access to land for several agricultural households. As a result many persons who were self-employed in agriculture have become landless agricultural labourers who suffer from acute unemployment and under-employment.

    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.

    Agriculture though containing surplus labour can generate employment opportunities if proper strategy for its development is adopted. For instance, the empirical evidence shows that on an irrigated hectare of land the number of man-hours employed is almost twice that on the unirrigated hectare. Irrigation requires more labour input for watering the fields, but also since output per hectare on irrigated land is much higher, more labour is used for harvesting and threshing the crop. Besides, irrigation makes the adoption of double cropping possible which greatly raises the employment potential of agriculture.

    ADVERTISEMENTS:

    It is worth noting that new agricultural technology, commonly called green revolution technology, involving the use of HYV (High Yielding Varieties) seeds, greater use of fertilisers and pesticides along with water is highly labour absorptive. What is equally important, this new green revolution technology is size-neutral, that is, it can be equally well adopted by small farmers. Further, HYV seeds are of short-duration type, that is, they mature in a short time so that they make multiple cropping more feasible.
    The use of double or multiple cropping greatly enhances the opportunities of employment generation in agriculture. The experience of Punjab, Haryana and Western UP is a shining example of large employment generation in agriculture. What is needed for the generation of large employment opportunities in agriculture, the new green revolution technology should be widely diffused and adopted in the backward and lagging agricultural regions in India.

    6. Lack of Infrastructure:
    We have explained above lack of physical capital with which labour is equipped for productive employment as the cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India. By capital we generally mean machines, plant & equipment, factory buildings etc. But a similar factor responsible for huge unemployment prevailing in these countries is lack of infrastructure such as roads, power, telecommunications, highways, irrigation facilities in agriculture. Inadequate availability of infrastructure is a great obstacle for the generation of opportunities for productive employment.
    It follows from above that unemployment and under-employment prevailing in India and other developing countries is not cyclical Keynesian type of unemployment caused by decline in aggregate demand. Unemployment and under-employment in India are caused by more basic structural factors such as lack of capital, use of capital-intensive technologies, lack of access to land for agricultural household, lack of infrastructure, racial growth of population resulting in large annual increments in labour force year after year. Unemployment in India, as in other developing countries, manifests itself in both open unemployment and under-employment.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development
    At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth (Ruger et al., 2006).

  22. Avatar Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Dept:Economics.Name:Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    christiannonso111@gmail.com

    (6)which are the most influential theories of development and are compatible? is underdevelopment an internally / externally induced phenomenon?
    (Ans)
    The most influential theories of development economics are
    C1) mercantilism and physiocracy
    (2) Economic nationalism
    (3) post -ww11 theories
    (4)linear-stages-of-growth model
    (5) structural Change theory
    (6) international dependence theory
    (7)Neo classical theory

    Linear stage of growth model and structuralism serves the most influential theories they depict on how to restructure the economy in order to develop the economy and also ensure industrialization,these serve why they are compatible.
    (b) During the 1970s, the international dependency theories viewed developing countries as beset by institutional, political and economical rigidities. Developing countries were caught up in a dependence and dominance relationship with developed nations.
    According to the neoclassical dependency theories, It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries.
    . Thus ,Underdevelopment is thus externally induced. Developing countries are destined to be the sweatshops of the rich nations (through their multinationals for example) and depend on developed nations for manufacturing goods that are high-value-added. Many developing countries were forced to become exporters of primary commodities by their colonial masters. Many of these countries still depend on primary commodities after independence.

    (7)what constraints must hold back accelerated growth depending on local conditions?
    (Ans)
    The constraint includes:
    (1)inefficiency within the micro-economy.

    (2)imbalance in the structure of the economy.

    (3)a rapid growing or declining population.

    (4) lack of financial and human capital.

    (5)poor governance and corruption.

    (6)barrier to trade.

    (8) how can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    (Ans)
    Women now represent 40% of the global labour force and more than half of the world university students, overall productivity will increase , If their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural outputs in developing countries could increase as much as 2.5 to 4%

    (9)what are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    (ans)

    1. Increase rate of rising population:

    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

    2. Less productivity in agriculture:

    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

    3. Less utilization of resources:

    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.

    4. A short rate of economic development:

    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.

    5. Increasing price rise:

    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.

    6. Unemployment:

    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.

    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship:

    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.

    8. Social factors:

    Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.

    There are various policies that have been initiated to improve the poor which are the following :

    (a) encouragement of entrepreneurship in order to make people independent,most government try to encourage it citizens to be self independent ,that is try to encourage them to engage in activities that will make them financially stable, by so doing these tends to reduce the poverty in the nation.

    These is one of the reasons why entrepreneurship is being encouraged in secondary and tertiary institution in order to make the population economically productive.

    (b) granting of loan:these have served as one of the policies initiated to eradicate poverty, there are a lot of agencies that grant loan to people based on their potential business idea, when they see it as being reasonable, they proceed my granting their clients loan, even banks grant loans to people in order to encourage development of the economy e.g ADB(Agricultural development bank),industrial bank e. t. c are involved in ensuring economic development and these tends to reduce the poverty ratio

    (10)rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    (Ans)
    (a) Population growth to me can be seen as a double edged sword capable of improving or deteriorating the
    economy depending on the nations capacity of utilizing
    these human resources.for instance looking at China they have one of the highest population in the world and they
    have been able to utilize these human resource and these tends to be one of the reasons why they are among the developed nations of the world.
    on the contrary, using nigeria as a case study, as we
    all know Nigeria is a developing nations, the impact of the rapid population growth have not always gone well, these can be accounted for various reasons ,one of which is lack of adequate planning, looking at the economic history of developed nations they made adequate planning on the growing population, they were more focused on the future, if we can adapt to these the economy will improve, their should be provision for
    the increasing population such as health &educational facility ,job opportunities and so on.
    Rapid population serves as a threat to developing nations when their is no adequate planning, as the population is growing and when a large number of the
    population are not involved in economic activity, these can serve as a barrier to development, but in a situation
    when most of the Proportion of the population falls within working age these can spur development.
    (b) having a large family does not make any economic sense in a period whereby there is widespread
    Poverty and financial insecurity because of the costs involved,these have attributed to the fact why most families in developing nations involved in family planning
    due to the economic hardship of their country.

    (11)why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    (Ans)

    (a)The major reason for unemployment in developing nations especially in the cities is due to the high number of immigrants coming into the cities, and the job opportunities is not sufficient enough to sustain the increasing number of people in the cities, when these occurs ,unemployment set in ,that is why it is necessary for the government to provide adequate infrastructure in
    these cities so as to attract both local and foreign investors because such we encourage development.
    (b) people migrate to cities for various reasons, they mostly travel for employment opportunities, but in some cases when the job opportunity is slim there are other reason why they might want to migrate to the cities due to the following reasons :
    (I) the social infrastructure available in cities, there are high number of accessible road, hospital, borne hole water, these has a tendency of attracting immigrants who
    may not have these in their place of abode,these can be peculiar to people in rural Areas who do not have access to these infrastructures
    (ll) the high level of industrialization and commmercialization in urban areas have also contributed
    to attracting people to cities, for instance in Nigeria when we look at cities like enugu,onitsha,portharcourt,lagos ,Kano e.t.c due to the level of economic activities occurring in these areas, these has attracted people to these areas.

    (12)wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care but does better health spur development?
    (Ans)

    Health and economy might seem to be two different things. But, it doesn’t mean these two most important aspects in a country’s life cannot be optimized. When it comes to a country to optimize its economy, they need also to improve its health condition. People’s health is the main focus for a country to get along with global development. To reach the target of national growth, a country needs to make growing importance of health in the economy as a focus. But, why is health an important aspect for a country to grow?

    The Importance of Health for a Nation’s Economy
    Although these two aspects are not directly connected, considering health as one of the most important aspects of a nation’s development is crucial. In some cases, health is also a sign of a country’s prosperity and good economic condition. Here are some reasons why health is a vital factor for the economy:

    Healthy people are assets for a country. When it comes to a country to start a modern civilization, healthy people will support its development. With some concerning diseases that will be a threat to a country, the growing importance of health in the economy is a crucial thing to consider. Diseases like diarrhea, hepatitis, and others can treat people on a mass scale.
    Preventing diseases and illness is way easier than overcoming the problems. The budget for preventing diseases by supplying medicines and vaccines is more affordable than treating the disease. When a disease becomes a national crisis, a country will need to splurge more money for overcoming such a problem. Therefore, good prevention is required for every country.
    Healthier people are more productive. To improve a nation’s growth, having healthy people is what it needs for a country to grow. It might take more than medicine to keep the people healthy. But, increasing the people’s health is more important than just considering them as a minor aspect in a country.
    When people are healthy, the quality of a nation is also increased. Not only it increases the economy, but also almost all of its quality. As mentioned, people are the assets for a country to grow. Optimizing people’s health is what it takes for keeping people in being productive and healthy.
    (13)what is important of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?
    (Ans)
    (a) it lowers the amount of labour supplied, and as such reduce the work force which have a way of affecting the
    economy.
    (b) Human capital accumulation may also be adversely affected by poor health due to the higher levels of school absenteeism amongst those suffering from illness.
    (c) poor health has an impact on foreign and domestic investment, tourism, the internal mobility of labour and Land use. as the WHO(2001) claims, return to investment in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and tourism as well as investment in major infrastructure projects,are as a result of poor health.
    Possible solution to poor public health includes :

    (1)ensure access to quality health care services.

    (2)reduce rising costs of health care services and ensure efficiency in health care through programmes such as the:

    Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP),

    Mobile Health,
    Voluntary Contributors Social Health Insurance Programme (VCSHIP),
    Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Programme (TISHIP),
    Community Based Social Health Insurance Programme (CBSHIP),
    Public Primary Pupils Social Health Insurance Programme (PPPSHIP),
    and the provision of health care services for children under 5 years, prison inmates, disabled persons, retirees and the elderly.

  23. Avatar Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Dept:Economics.Name:Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    christiannonso111@gmail.com

    (6)which are the most influential theories of development and are compatible? is underdevelopment an internally / externally induced phenomenon?
    (Ans)
    (a)
    Linear stage of growth model and structuralism serves the most influential theories they depict on how to restructure the economy in order to develop the economy and also ensure industrialization,these serve why they are compatible.
    (b) During the 1970s, the international dependency theories viewed developing countries as beset by institutional, political and economical rigidities. Developing countries were caught up in a dependence and dominance relationship with developed nations.
    According to the neoclassical dependency theories, It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries.
    . Thus ,Underdevelopment is thus externally induced. Developing countries are destined to be the sweatshops of the rich nations (through their multinationals for example) and depend on developed nations for manufacturing goods that are high-value-added. Many developing countries were forced to become exporters of primary commodities by their colonial masters. Many of these countries still depend on primary commodities after independence.

    (7)what constraints must hold back accelerated growth depending on local conditions?
    (Ans)
    The constraint includes:
    (1)inefficiency within the micro-economy.

    (2)imbalance in the structure of the economy.

    (3)a rapid growing or declining population.

    (4) lack of financial and human capital.

    (5)poor governance and corruption.

    (6)barrier to trade.

    (8) how can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    (Ans)
    Women now represent 40% of the global labour force and more than half of the world university students, overall productivity will increase , If their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural outputs in developing countries could increase as much as 2.5 to 4%

    (9)what are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    (ans)

    1. Increase rate of rising population:

    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

    2. Less productivity in agriculture:

    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.

    3. Less utilization of resources:

    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.

    4. A short rate of economic development:

    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.

    5. Increasing price rise:

    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.

    6. Unemployment:

    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.

    7. Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship:

    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.

    8. Social factors:

    Our country’s social set up is very much backward with the rest of the world and not at all beneficial for faster development. The caste system, inheritance law, rigid traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravated the problem of poverty.

    There are various policies that have been initiated to improve the poor which are the following :

    (a) encouragement of entrepreneurship in order to make people independent,most government try to encourage it citizens to be self independent ,that is try to encourage them to engage in activities that will make them financially stable, by so doing these tends to reduce the poverty in the nation.

    These is one of the reasons why entrepreneurship is being encouraged in secondary and tertiary institution in order to make the population economically productive.

    (b) granting of loan:these have served as one of the policies initiated to eradicate poverty, there are a lot of agencies that grant loan to people based on their potential business idea, when they see it as being reasonable, they proceed my granting their clients loan, even banks grant loans to people in order to encourage development of the economy e.g ADB(Agricultural development bank),industrial bank e. t. c are involved in ensuring economic development and these tends to reduce the poverty ratio

    (10)rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    (Ans)
    (a) Population growth to me can be seen as a double edged sword capable of improving or deteriorating the
    economy depending on the nations capacity of utilizing
    these human resources.for instance looking at China they have one of the highest population in the world and they
    have been able to utilize these human resource and these tends to be one of the reasons why they are among the developed nations of the world.
    on the contrary, using nigeria as a case study, as we
    all know Nigeria is a developing nations, the impact of the rapid population growth have not always gone well, these can be accounted for various reasons ,one of which is lack of adequate planning, looking at the economic history of developed nations they made adequate planning on the growing population, they were more focused on the future, if we can adapt to these the economy will improve, their should be provision for
    the increasing population such as health &educational facility ,job opportunities and so on.
    Rapid population serves as a threat to developing nations when their is no adequate planning, as the population is growing and when a large number of the
    population are not involved in economic activity, these can serve as a barrier to development, but in a situation
    when most of the Proportion of the population falls within working age these can spur development.
    (b) having a large family does not make any economic sense in a period whereby there is widespread
    Poverty and financial insecurity because of the costs involved,these have attributed to the fact why most families in developing nations involved in family planning
    due to the economic hardship of their country.

    (11)why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    (Ans)

    (a)The major reason for unemployment in developing nations especially in the cities is due to the high number of immigrants coming into the cities, and the job opportunities is not sufficient enough to sustain the increasing number of people in the cities, when these occurs ,unemployment set in ,that is why it is necessary for the government to provide adequate infrastructure in
    these cities so as to attract both local and foreign investors because such we encourage development.
    (b) people migrate to cities for various reasons, they mostly travel for employment opportunities, but in some cases when the job opportunity is slim there are other reason why they might want to migrate to the cities due to the following reasons :
    (I) the social infrastructure available in cities, there are high number of accessible road, hospital, borne hole water, these has a tendency of attracting immigrants who
    may not have these in their place of abode,these can be peculiar to people in rural Areas who do not have access to these infrastructures
    (ll) the high level of industrialization and commmercialization in urban areas have also contributed
    to attracting people to cities, for instance in Nigeria when we look at cities like enugu,onitsha,portharcourt,lagos ,Kano e.t.c due to the level of economic activities occurring in these areas, these has attracted people to these areas.

    (12)wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care but does better health spur development?
    (Ans)

    Health and economy might seem to be two different things. But, it doesn’t mean these two most important aspects in a country’s life cannot be optimized. When it comes to a country to optimize its economy, they need also to improve its health condition. People’s health is the main focus for a country to get along with global development. To reach the target of national growth, a country needs to make growing importance of health in the economy as a focus. But, why is health an important aspect for a country to grow?

    The Importance of Health for a Nation’s Economy
    Although these two aspects are not directly connected, considering health as one of the most important aspects of a nation’s development is crucial. In some cases, health is also a sign of a country’s prosperity and good economic condition. Here are some reasons why health is a vital factor for the economy:

    Healthy people are assets for a country. When it comes to a country to start a modern civilization, healthy people will support its development. With some concerning diseases that will be a threat to a country, the growing importance of health in the economy is a crucial thing to consider. Diseases like diarrhea, hepatitis, and others can treat people on a mass scale.
    Preventing diseases and illness is way easier than overcoming the problems. The budget for preventing diseases by supplying medicines and vaccines is more affordable than treating the disease. When a disease becomes a national crisis, a country will need to splurge more money for overcoming such a problem. Therefore, good prevention is required for every country.
    Healthier people are more productive. To improve a nation’s growth, having healthy people is what it needs for a country to grow. It might take more than medicine to keep the people healthy. But, increasing the people’s health is more important than just considering them as a minor aspect in a country.
    When people are healthy, the quality of a nation is also increased. Not only it increases the economy, but also almost all of its quality. As mentioned, people are the assets for a country to grow. Optimizing people’s health is what it takes for keeping people in being productive and healthy.
    (13)what is important of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?
    (Ans)
    (a) it lowers the amount of labour supplied, and as such reduce the work force which have a way of affecting the
    economy.
    (b) Human capital accumulation may also be adversely affected by poor health due to the higher levels of school absenteeism amongst those suffering from illness.
    (c) poor health has an impact on foreign and domestic investment, tourism, the internal mobility of labour and Land use. as the WHO(2001) claims, return to investment in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and tourism as well as investment in major infrastructure projects,are as a result of poor health.
    Possible solution to poor public health includes :

    (1)ensure access to quality health care services.

    (2)reduce rising costs of health care services and ensure efficiency in health care through programmes such as the:

    Formal Sector Social Health Insurance Programme (FSSHIP),

    Mobile Health,
    Voluntary Contributors Social Health Insurance Programme (VCSHIP),
    Tertiary Institution Social Health Insurance Programme (TISHIP),
    Community Based Social Health Insurance Programme (CBSHIP),
    Public Primary Pupils Social Health Insurance Programme (PPPSHIP),
    and the provision of health care services for children under 5 years, prison inmates, disabled persons, retirees and the elderly.

  24. Avatar Obetta Kingsley says:

    Name: Obetta Kingsley
    Reg Number: 2018/249137
    Department: Economics

    The theories are not compatible because they dealt with different things. The modernisation theory dealt with the fact that different cultural beliefs, norms and values prevented development while dependency theory believe that nations developed as a result of their dependency on each other and the feminist theory believe that development bcomes as a result of equality of genders.

    Development is an internally induced phenomenon.
    Question 7. What constraints mostly hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions.
    Answer: the constraints to accelerated growth are:
    1. Productive, allocative and social inefficiency.
    2. Imbalances in the sense that Soo many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors of the economy with little growth.
    3. Lack of capital.
    4. Corruption
    5. High population growth rate.

    Question 8. How can improvement in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer: the roles on women on development are
    1. Women aid stability which is essential for development.
    2. They are educators.
    3. They are a source of social transformation. In order words they are caretakers.

    Question 9. What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer: the causes of extreme poverty are:
    1. Overpopulation
    2. Unemployment
    3. Inflation
    4. Inefficient utilization of available scarce resources.
    5. Lack of capital and qualified management or entrepreneur.
    The most effective policies for improving the poorest of the poor are:
    1. Job creation policies.
    2. Early child education
    3. Increase in minimum wage.
    4. Improved medical services.

    Question 10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Answer: rapid population growth are threatening to economic development because it will lead to increased unemployment and per capital income of that nation. It leads to hunger and starvation. It can also lead to increase in the number of uneducated members in the society.

    Question 11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer: the causes of unemployment are
    1. Lack of jobs.
    2. Excessive rural to urban migration.
    3. Lack of proper training.
    4. Inadequate social amenities.
    5. Lack of proper education.

    People continue to migrate to the cities because they desire better jobs, better education and also for adventure purposes but little did they know that there is no there there in the cities.

    Question 12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Answer: yes better health helps to spur successful development because it is only a healthy person that can work efficiently and effectively and make positive contributions to economic growth. Onces many people are healthy and working, the economy will be progressing. Also health is wealth in itself.
    Question 13. What is the impact of the poor public health on the prospects of development and what is needed to address these problems?
    Answer: the impact of poor public health are that it can lead to high death rate without a corresponding increase in birth rate, dropping out of jobs, increase in the number of sick people, etc.
    What is needed to address the problem are:
    1. Good hospitals.
    2. Good medical facilities.
    3. Employment of qualified medical personnels.
    4. Proper hygiene is also very necessary.

  25. Avatar ASOGWA RITA CHEKWUBE says:

    ASOGWA RITA CHEKWUBE
    2018/SD/37347
    DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 3/5

    QUESTION 6
    Mercantilism: Mercantilism is based on the principle that the world’s wealth was static, and consequently, many nations attempted to accumulate the largest possible share of that wealth by maximizing their exports and by limiting their imports via tariffs. Mercantilism replaced the feudal economic system.
    Linear stages of growth model: The linear stages of growth model assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments.
    The Structural change theory: Structural change contribution focuses on the models of structural analysis, particularly on the methods and principles that such models adopt; in this context, structural change becomes the underlying dominant theme of the present work. It indicates essentially a qualitative transformation and evolution of the economic systems, usually marked by technological progress and organizational changes. Technological factors, knowledge, institutions are all elements that contribute to the process of structural change.

    QUESTION 7
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Allocative inefficiency: Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production.
    Development constraints: The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    Productive inefficiency: Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.
    Lack of real capital: Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment

    QUESTION 8
    Women empowerment is seen as promoting women’s sense of self-worth, their ability to determine their own choices, and their right to influence social change for themselves and others. Female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of the women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19th and early 20th century where suffrage was a key feature. Women’s empowerment and promoting women’s rights have emerged as a part of a major global movement and is continuing to break new ground in recent years. But despite a great deal of progress, women and girls continue to face discrimination and violence in every part of the world.
    Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. They are also able to help fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential. contributing their skills to the workforce and can raise happier and healthier children. They are also four time’s less likely to get married young when they have eight years education, meaning that they and their families are healthier. A key part of this empowerment is through education. Girls who are educated can pursue meaningful work and contribute to their country’s economy later in life. Finally, Empowering girls is the key to economic growth, political stability and social transformation.

    QUESTION 9
    what are the cause of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Root causes of poverty includes:
    – Government Corruption. Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria.
    – Lack of Economic Infrastructure.
    – Poor Access to Education.
    – Poor Access to Healthcare.
    The effective way of improving the lives of the poorest of the poor:
    i. Create and improve access to jobs and income and develop entrepreneurial talent.
    ii. Providing all people with access to basic social services including education, health care, adequate food, sanitation, shelter and clean water.
    iii. Develop and implement rapid and sustained economic growth policies and programs, in areas such as health, education, nutrition and sanitation, allowing the poor to participate and contribute to the growth.
    iv. Remove the barriers to equal access to resources and services by the people.
    v. Improve management of water and other natural resources. Most of the rural poor depend on agriculture or other natural resources for their livelihood.
    vi. Empower people living in poverty by involving them in the development and implementation of plans and programs to reduce and eradicate poverty. Their involvement ensures that programs reflect those things that are important to them.

    QUESTION 10
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid growth is a really a serious threat to economic growth. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. Large families are not a very wise path with the rate of poverty in the count. In a situations where the available mouths remain unfed bringing more does not make much sense. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care.
    Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better. Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems. It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. When everyone is healthy full productive capability is achieved and therefore the economy will grow and be better.

    QUESTION 11
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Migration: People usually migrate to the city in search for better jobs even though the chances are slim because there are better pay for the job available in the cities.
    Poor approach to Employment Creation: Wrong employment policies of the government contribute immensely to the unemployment crises in Nigeria.
    Mismanagement of the Economy: The misuse of the country’s resources has led to crippling economic conditions across the country. The country’s wealth translates to the people’s wealth because a wealthy nation where resources abound will have citizens that can fend for themselves and create jobs for others.
    Investment Climate: Failure of government to create an enabling environment for sustainable growth hinders the creation of job opportunities by the private sector.
    Poor Infrastructure: Poor infrastructural development in Nigeria impedes business growth. When private sectors do not grow maximally, they cannot provide more jobs.Even with the unfavorable business environments, poor policy structure and framework for implementation, the private sector is struggling to sustain business and create employment opportunities.

    QUESTION 12
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Most Nigerians are flown out of the country when they are facing ill health. For so doing the receiving country would by all means try to improve it health sector to accommodate other foreigners coming to get treated. The issue of health is a vital one, some people are capable of paying for the fares to have a better treatment concerning an health issue and defection in a part of the world. Developing a place means making it better for human habitation. So human would want to be safe and in environment where they dwell in. The government of some western countries has over the years built a good and reliable health system in order to increase the revenue and by so doing development is taking place in the health sector. Successful development lies in the cost or positive decision taken by the government of the country in question.

    QUESTION 13
    – Investing in education: One of the most important ways to improve health in developing countries is by educating citizens. educating people enables them to obtain safer jobs, increased health literacy, take preventive healthcare measures, avoid risker health behaviors and demand better-quality health services.
    – Increasing the economy: Poverty can affect children’s cognitive development, and those living in poverty are over three times more likely to suffer from mental health problems. Most individual long-term conditions are more than twice as common in adults from lower socio-economic groups, and mental health problems are much more prevalent.
    – Increasing health benefits for the poor: Poorer countries receive much lower health benefits than richer countries. In developing areas, the poor are subjected to higher risk of contradicting diseases and lower access to healthcare.
    – Promoting primary and essential healthcare: A way to improve health in developing countries involves governments providing cost-effective health packages for everyone.

  26. Avatar ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA. REG NO: 2018/248582 says:

    ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA
    2018/248582
    ECONOMICS MAJOR
    300 LEVEL
    ECO 361 ASSIGNMENT

    QUESTION NO 6.
    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer
    The development theories are:
    Modernization theory
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    Sociological and anthropological modernization theory Edit
    The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies.[1]

    Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity.

    Linear stages of growth model Edit
    The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society.[2]

    According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation.[3]

    The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model.[3] Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: (1) Traditional society, (2) Preconditions for take-off, (3) Take-off, (4) Drive to maturity, (5) Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: (1) The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, (2) One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, (3) An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors.[4]

    The Rostow model has serious flaws, of which the most serious are: (1) The model assumes that development can be achieved through a basic sequence of stages which are the same for all countries, a doubtful assumption; (2) The model measures development solely by means of the increase of GDP per capita; (3) The model focuses on characteristics of development, but does not identify the causal factors which lead development to occur. As such, it neglects the social structures that have to be present to foster development.[4]

    Economic modernization theories such as Rostow’s stages model have been heavily inspired by the Harrod-Domar model which explains in a mathematical way the growth rate of a country in terms of the savings rate and the productivity of capital.[5] Heavy state involvement has often been considered necessary for successful development in economic modernization theory; Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Ragnar Nurkse and Kurt Mandelbaum argued that a big push model in infrastructure investment and planning was necessary for the stimulation of industrialization, and that the private sector would not be able to provide the resources for this on its own.[6] Another influential theory of modernization is the dual-sector model by Arthur Lewis. In this model Lewis explained how the traditional stagnant rural sector is gradually replaced by a growing modern and dynamic manufacturing and service economy.[7]

    Because of the focus on the need for investments in capital, the Linear Stages of Growth Models are sometimes referred to as suffering from ‘capital fundamentalism’
    Structuralism
    Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.
    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.
    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.
    Dependency theory
    Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.[10][11]

    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory, which is also reflected in the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, a famous dependency theorist. Wallerstein rejects the notion of a Third World, claiming that there is only one world which is connected by economic relations (World Systems Theory). He argues that this system inherently leads to a division of the world in core, semi-periphery and periphery. One of the results of expansion of the world-system is the commodification of things, like natural resources, labor and human relationships.[12][13]

    Basic needs
    The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.

    Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers.[14] There have been also many critics of the basic needs approach. It would lack theoretical rigour, practical precision, be in conflict with growth promotion policies, and run the risk of leaving developing countries in permanent turmoil.

    Neoclassical theory
    Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.

    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    QUESTION NO 7.
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Answer;
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    The constraints on development include:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.
    Inefficiency
    Productive inefficiency

    QUESTION NO 8.
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer;
    Women’s economic empowerment is central to realizing women’s rights and gender equality. Women’s economic empowerment includes women’s ability to participate equally in existing markets; their access to and control over productive resources, access to decent work, control over their own time, lives and bodies; and increased voice, agency and meaningful participation in economic decision-making at all levels from the household to international institutions.
    Empowering women in the economy and closing gender gaps in the world of work are key to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [1] and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Goal 5, to achieve gender equality, and Goal 8, to promote full and productive employment and decent work for all; also Goal 1 on ending poverty, Goal 2 on food security, Goal 3 on ensuring health and Goal 10 on reducing inequalities.
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes.[2] For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion,[3] recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.[4]
    Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to women’s economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girl’s health and wellbeing, as well as their income-generation opportunities and participation in the formal labour market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 per cent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years.[5] But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labour market outcomes.[6]
    Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increasing employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.[7]
    QUESTION NO 9.
    What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Some causes of ectreme poverty are:
    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    Conlict
    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Climate change
    Lack of education
    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
    LACK OF JOBS OR LIVELIHOODS
    LACK OF RESERVES
    In summary, to reduce poverty, government policies could include:

    Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.
    Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.
    There are two major types of poverty:

    Absolute poverty – when people have insufficient income to afford the necessities of life, such as food, rent and clothing.
    Relative poverty – when people have income significantly less than the average income for society.
    Some policies, such as promoting economic growth may be successful in reducing absolute poverty but less successful in relative poverty.

    Economic policies in more detail
    1. Sustained economic growth

    The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth

    2. Reduce Unemployment

    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.

    Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.

    See also Policies for reducing unemployment

    3. Progressive Taxes

    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.

    However, critics argue higher income taxes create a disincentive to work., leading to less output. This is because higher tax makes work less attractive and reduces the opportunity cost of leisure. Therefore people work less and enjoy more leisure. This is known as the substitution effect. Similarly higher corporation tax may discourage investment in the UK
    However, this is disputed by other economists, who point out that higher tax reduces incomes and this may encourage people to work more, to maintain their income. (This is known as the income effect)
    Evidence suggests that higher income tax has little incentive on the supply of labour, suggesting labour supply is relatively inelastic. However, it also depends at what level income tax is set. There is certainly a level where higher income tax will reduce incentives to work.
    Other problems with increasing income tax, include tax evasion and the fact firms may adjust wages to compensate for the higher taxes.
    4. Increasing benefits to the poor

    Means-tested benefits involve increasing welfare benefits to those on low incomes. For example, universal tax credit, food stamps or child benefit.

    Advantages of means-tested benefits:
    They allow money to be targeted to those who need it most. e.g family tax credit or pension credit.
    It is cheaper than universal benefits and reduces the burden on the taxpayer.
    However, the problem with using benefits to reduce poverty include:

    Means-tested benefits are often unpopular because people are stigmatised as being poor.
    Also, it may create a disincentive to earn a higher wage because if you do get a higher paid job you will lose at least some of your benefits and pay more tax. This is known as “the benefits trap” or the “poverty trap”. The poverty trap occurs where people on low incomes are discouraged from working extra hours or getting a higher paid job because any extra income they earn will be taken away in lost benefits and higher taxes. To avoid the poverty trap the government can grade benefits so that there isn’t an immediate cut off point.
    Some relatively poor may fall just outside the qualifying limit.
    Also, not everyone entitled to means-tested benefit will collect them because of ignorance or difficulties in applying.
    The government used to prefer universal benefits because it avoided the above problem, and people feel if they contribute towards taxes they deserve their benefits regardless of their wealth.

    However, in recent years, the welfare state has faced increased demands due to demographic factors leading to more calls for means-tested benefits.

    cash-benefits-income-decile
    Cash benefits by income decile. Show the poorest don’t receive the most benefits.

    5. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality. A related concept is the Voluntary Living Wage – an attempt to encourage firms to pay higher wages.

    In recent years, minimum wages have become more important in tackling in-paid work in both the UK and US.

    In the UK, the number of workers benefitting from the minimum wage has increased from 830,000 in 1999 to 2 million in 2018.
    In the US, there is a proposal to increase federal minimum wage to $15 by 2024 – a move that could see 33.5 million U.S. workers and 6.2 million workers in poverty see a rise in the minimum wage.
    A potential problem of increasing the minimum wage is that it may cause unemployment because firms may not be able to afford the workers. If it does cause unemployment, poverty could worsen. However, if firms have monopsony power, then they will be able to afford higher wages. Empirical evidence suggests that we can increase minimum wages fairly significantly before the cost of falling employment and higher prices outweigh the benefit of rising wages and higher productivity. See more on raising the minimum wage
    6. Benefits in kind. These are important public services which are provided free at the point of use (or subsidised). They mainly involve education and health care. Free education enables those from low-income families to gain skills and qualifications which can help lead to better jobs and higher incomes in the future.

    7. Universal basic income (UBI) A universal basic income or citizen’s income involves giving every citizen a weekly benefit – regardless of circumstances and income. The idea is to ensure everyone has a minimum income guarantee, but without any disincentives of losing means-tested benefits from working more. See more at Universal basic income (UBI)

    Policies to reduce poverty in developing economies
    To reduce poverty in developing economies, the focus may be on different policies.

    Education – greater spending on education and training can enable higher-skilled workforce.
    Foreign Aid – aid from developed countries can be used to invest in better health care and education. However, some argue aid can encourage dependency.
    Diversification of economy away from agriculture to manufacturing. This enables greater economic development but may be difficult to do without the right skills and infrastructure.

    QUESTION NO 10.
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Answer;
    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies.

    QUESION NO 11.
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer;
    There is so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries because these twin variables-unemployment and underemployment-are the main distinguishing features of developing economies; they are also prevalent in developing economies because of the bad state of the economy in these states.
    Why people from rural areas migrate to the cities is because they feel that there are numerous employment opportunities in the cities. But the number of people moving to the cities for employment is more than than the number of cities that absorb this labour and also, the number of job opportunities in the cities are limited. This causes an imbalance which leads to various socio-economic difficulties in the cities. The rural areas are therefore, a source of unlimited labour to the cities. Economically, such labour will be cheap and this also leads to unemployment and underemployment typical of most cities in developing countries.

    QUESTION NO 12.
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Yes, better health help spur successful development. In an economy where the citizens are healthy, successful development can be attained. Because when any of the citizens get sick, they are sure that they will be properly taken care of in well funded and well equipped public health care facilities and also, a healthy person will be able to think of ways to develop the economy since there is no need to worry about his health.

    QUESTION NO 13.
    What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  27. Avatar UGOCHUKWU CLEMENT C. says:

    UGOCHUKWU CLEMENT C.
    2018/SD/37180
    EDUCATION/ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 6
    The theories include:
    Modernization: The process of social change begun by industrialization. Modernization is the process that increases the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies. Modernization is good in that it increases rates of production but bad in that it harms the environment.
    Dependency: this theory shows notion that resources flow from a “periphery” of poor and underdeveloped states to a “core” of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
    World-system: World-systems theory is a multidisciplinary approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system as the primary unit of social analysis.
    Globalization: is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information.

    QUESTION 7
    Constraints that hold back accelerated growth are:
    Literacy :The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    Joint Family System: when all the members of the family live together, Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    Imbalances: Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.
    Low capital: In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    QUESTION 8
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Improvements in the role and status of women can have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects in three main ways:
    -With women now representing 40 percent of the global labor force and more than half the world’s university students, overall productivity will increase if their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural output in developing countries could increase by as much as 2.5 to 4 percent. Elimination of barriers against women working in certain sectors or occupations could increase output by raising women’s participation and labor productivity by as much as 25 percent in some countries through better allocation of their skills and talent .
    -Greater control over household resources by women, either through their own earnings or cash transfers, can enhance countries’ growth prospects by changing spending in ways that benefit children. Evidence from countries as varied as Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and the United Kingdom shows that when women control more household income, either through their own earnings or through cash transfers, children benefit as a result of more spending on food and education
    -Empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices. In India, giving power to women at the local level led to greater provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women.

    QUESTION 9
    Major causes of extreme poverty are, less productivity in agriculture, unemployment, increase rate of rising population, increase in price, a short rate of economic development, less ultilization of resources, shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship.
    The policies for effective improvement of the poor people include
    – Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    – Minimum wages: Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    – Direct provision of goods/services – subsidized housing, free education and healthcare

    QUESTION 10
    Rapid population growth has hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Lack of employment encourages criminal activities in the country and also it boost the underground economy. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction.
    Rapid population growth threatens the economic progress of developing nations and large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity
    Large families make an economic sense of poverty cause due to overpopulation unemployment rate would be high thereby posing a threat to financial security cause as it is said and I quote an idle mind is a devil’s workshop.

    QUESTION 11
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Some causes of unemployment are:
    Technology as the order of the day dictates the types of private-sector jobs available. What private sector employers see is a major disconnection in the demands of the industry and the products of higher institutions. This is why we have a large number of graduates not fitting the job available.
    Poor Management of the Economy: The country’s wealth translates to the people’s wealth because a wealthy nation where resources abound will have citizens that can fend for themselves and create jobs for others. The misuse of the country’s resources has led to crippling economic conditions across the country.
    Poor Investment Climate: Failure of government to create an enabling environment for sustainable growth hinders the creation of job opportunities by the private sector.
    Skills Mismatch: Apart from the lack of an enabling business environment, skills mismatch has been described as one of the major challenges in curbing unemployment by the private sector. Most of the jobs the private sector advertises differ from the courses studied in higher institutions.
    Poor Infrastructure: Although, faced with these harsh realities, innovations and the development of wealth persist. The private sector continues to expand and to provide employment. Poor infrastructural development in Nigeria impedes business growth. When private sectors do not grow maximally, they cannot provide more jobs. Even with the unfavorable business environments, poor policy structure and framework for implementation, the private sector is struggling to sustain business and create employment opportunities.

    QUESTION 12
    Better health assists to spur successful development; Studies show this is true for countries as well; health can be a causative factor for the aggregate economic growth of a country. Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth.
    Good health is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities.
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school.

    QUESTION 13
    What is needed to address the problem of public health are as follows:
    Improve health standards: In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards. it should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately. Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.
    Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco: One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco. This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.
    Reduce corruptive actions: In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions. Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.
    Promote vaccinations: Many citizens refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children. This behavior can cause the spread of diseases. By educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered
    Adequate research: Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues. Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs. Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.
    .

  28. Avatar Mbaso Raluchi says:

    Mbaso Raluchi
    2018/242437
    mbasoraluchi@gmail.com

    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following questions as the special adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally( domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory are two well-known theories of development. Eriksons theory was influenced by Freud’s ideas, even though his theory differed in a number of important ways. Like Freud, Erikson recognized the importance of the unconscious on development. He also believed that personality develops in the processes of predetermined stages. However, unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. The first stages of the both theories are focused on how the children develop a sense of independence and mastery. Freud’s and Erikson’s theories of development share a number of important similarities. Both stressed the importance of social experiences and recognized the role that childhood plays in shaping adult personality. The both theories are compatible as there are some prominent similarities in the both of them.
    There are other theories of development which includes;
    Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
    Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
    They are all compatible as they all show that development involves series of gradual stages.
    Underdevelopment involves having a relatively low economic level of industrial production and standard of living (as from lack of capital).
    Underdevelopment is a problem that has been plaguing the country for a very long time. It has so many negative effects on Nigerians. It has brought about so many consequences, but of all, the economy is the most affected sector because the economic sector controls all other aspect of the society.
    Underdevelopment is as a result of many contributing factors which include;
    -Illiteracy
    -corruption
    -Lack of accountability.
    -Low Per Capita Income
    -Slow Growth Rate of Per Capita Income
    -Economic Inequalities
    -Low Level of Living
    -Low Rate of Capital Formation, poverty
    -Backward Techniques of Production
    -Low Productivity of Labour
    -Underutilisation of Natural Resources
    -Large Scale Unemployment
    -Dominance of Agriculture
    – High Incidence of Poverty
    – Infrastructural backwardness
    – Low Volume of Foreign Trade
    Underdevelopment is majorly an internally induced phenomenon but can also be externally induced in situations like war.

    7. What constraint most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions? Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale.When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production.
    Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, encourage technology transfer and reduce productive and allocative inefficiency.

    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. Developing countires that focuses mainly on the production of agriculture and commodities with low growth potentials may allocate their scarce resources to these sector. In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. When a country experiences rapid growing population, they are not able to make enough provisions for their population and it could be detrimental as it would lead to a barrier for economic growth because the standard of living of the people would drop. It is also detrimental for a country to experience a rapidly declining population as it leads to a decrease in the available labourforce of the country.

    Lack of human capital.
    Human capital development requires investment in education. Education is a merit good, and the long term benefit to society is often considerably under-perceived, and therefore, under-consumed.
    For many in developing economies, the return on human capital development is uncertain compared to the immediate return from employment on the land. Therefore, there is little incentive to continue in full-time education.
    The solution is to reduce information failure by promoting the benefits of education and using the market system to send out effective signals to encourage people to alter their behaviour. For example, loans, grants and aid can be made conditional upon funds being allocated to provide ‘free’ education and books, or to fund teacher training, or to raise the wages of teachers so that more will train in the future.

    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    The long term negative effect of the excessive use of resources may be less clear than the short term benefit. This means that there is a tendency for countries not to conserve resources. However, this can have an adverse effect on growth rates in the future.Evidence suggests that some countries with the greatest scarce resources do not necessarily exploit them effectively, and may fail to develop fully. This might be because over-abundance creates a kind of Dutch disease – a complacency which can exist when a country has high quantities of valuable resources. This means that there is a tendency to squander any comparative advantage, and the potential benefits of the resources are lost.

    Lack of financial capital
    Lack of financial capital could also be a barrier to economic growth as if they may not be able to finance productivity without capital. Lack of financial capital could be due to debts, inadequate financial market, lack of credit market and lack of savings.

    8. How can improvement in role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Economic development is a process in which there is an advancement in the economy. By focusing on economic development, countries experience a better standard of living and the overall wellbeing of a country improves. The fact that women constitute half the entire population of the country makes empowering them to be an active part of all development initiatives in the country a compelling circumstance. Hence, this calls for the strong commitment of the government to empower women and utilize all the potentials of the country to bring about sustainable development.
    Women comprise a large part of the worlds population and when womens role and status improves, it impacts development in several ways:
    Women are farmers and food providers – In some parts of the world, 80% of basic food is produced by women. In doing this, women contribute to national agricultural output, general environmental maintenance and, most importantly, family food security. They achieve this despite the unequal access to land, machinery, fertilisers etc. It has been claimed that if men and women had equal access to these resources, there would be substantial gains in agricultural output for both men and women, their families and their communities.

    Women are business people and traders – Up to 40% of the world’s labour force are women and this does not include the informal work carried out by women. More often than not, workers in factories, in the home, on the land and in the market place are women. Despite this fact, the majority of these women remain dependent on men due to lack of access to necessary resources such as capital or credit, household resources and due also to patriarchal practices and traditions including those that relate to the economic position of women.

    Women are heads of households – In both developed and developing countries there has been an increase in female-headed households due to male migration, high death rates due to conflict or illness and abandonment or separation. Although female heads of households are much more likely to work than married women, they are ultimately more vulnerable to poverty, as their income would generally be lower than men’s. Female heads of households are likely to have a full time job, as well as care for and feed their children and any elderly or sick relatives and maintain their home also.

    Women are mothers, carers and support workers – In small rural communities in developing countries, more often than not, it is women who volunteer to be carers or support workers for local hospitals, charity organisations, community projects etc. Some 60%, or more, of female workers in developing countries are in informal employment (outside of agriculture). In sub-Saharan Africa alone, 84% of female, non-agricultural workers are informally employed.

    Women are community leaders, activists and role models – This stems from women’s role as mothers, carers and support workers. People within the community these women work in would look to them for help or guidance. Despite the high number of female community leaders and activists, women are still under-represented at higher levels with only 19% of women in parliamentary positions in the world.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Poverty is the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs.
    Poverty is as a result of many contributing factors which include;
    -Illiteracy
    -Lack of shelter
    -Limited access to clean water resources
    -Food insecurity
    -Physical disabilities
    -Lack of access to health care
    -Unemployment
    -Absence of social services
    -Gender discrimination
    -Poor infrastructure
    -Government corruption
    -Environmental circumstances such as natural disasters, droughts, limited resources or depletion of natural resources
    We have reviewed the causes of poverty , it is only rational to also review the effective policies for improving the lives of the poor. Effective ways of eradicating poverty could includes:
    Create Awareness, creating awareness about poverty includes increasing the peoples consciousness about poverty. Letting them know about poverty and ways they can prevent it. This could be made easier through social medias like facebook, twitter instagram, whatsapp and other educational platforms

    Take Action on Your Own
    There are a few simple ways we can help as individuals, such as funding a poor child’s education or by sponsoring a poor family and influencing others to do so. Raising money and donating it to nonprofit organisations can help as well. We could also donate clothes, food items, and educational materials to the poor to improve their wellbeing.

    Eliminate Gender Inequality
    With two-thirds of the world’s illiterate being female, the ratio of boys and girls should be made equal in primary, secondary and tertiary education. Girls that attend school are less likely to get married before age 18, thus decreasing child marriage rates by 64 percent worldwide. Similarly, literate women are less likely to spread diseases like HIV/AIDS due to a better knowledge of disease transmission, which helps to accelerate poverty reduction in the long run.

    Create Jobs Worldwide
    According to the International Labour Organization, 197 million people are without work worldwide. More employment options in a country mean more ways of how to stop poverty. To increase employment, non-literate people can be taught a few skills to make them employable.

    Increase Access to Proper Sanitation and Clean Water
    Access to clean water and sanitation directly affects health and education. Currently, 800 million people live without access to safe water and 2.5 billion live without adequate sanitation. Dirty bathrooms keep girls from attending schools, thus stopping them from receiving an education. Lack of clean water spreads diseases like diarrhea and cholera, which take the lives of more than one million children each year.

    Education
    Education helps increase individual earnings for every member of a family. UNESCO points out that basic reading skills can lift 171 million people out of extreme poverty, ultimately reducing the world’s total poverty by 12 percent. UNESCO also mentions there are currently about one billion illiterate adults in the world.
    Above are a few solutions about how to stop poverty, but first, it is important to understand the roots of the problems that cause poverty. Since different countries have different reasons for poverty, there will never be a single solution for all. However, these actions can do a lot to alleviate poverty anywhere.(Shweta Roy).
    The government plays a very crucial role in the eradication of poverty.There are several different government policies to reduce poverty. This includes: minimum wage laws, social security, negative income taxes, and in-kind benefits.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population. Rapid population growth could be threathening to the economic progress of developing nations as it would be difficult for a government to effectively allocate resources which would lead to a poor standard of living, unemployment and hence no economic progress. Rapid population growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid population growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction.
    Large families do not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. There are various problems of having a number of children, which includes:
    -The basic problem is with respect to employment generation programs, since there is a limit to what the government can generate.
    -Additional children hinder mothers from taking on employment, since the mothers have to look after them.
    -The low per capita household income compels the small children to involve themselves in child labor in order to sustain the family which can be very dangerous for a growing child.
    -All the family resources are exhausted in bringing up children, with a result that there is no savings in the poor family for any unsolicited future needs.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    An imbalance between the supply of labour and the demand for labour gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. Mass migration is an important cause for unemployment in urban areas. People migrate from rural areas in large groups when there is drought or when any other unfavourable conditions occur. A city or town can ill-afford to provide employment opportunities to all of the migrated people, thus, causing mass unemployment.
    The problem of unemployment that exists is an outcome of so many factors which hinders the progress of rapid industrialization, the rapid growth of population, the decay of small-scale and cottage industries, which led to a large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, and the low levels of investment that resulted in the slow expansion of the secondary and tertiary sectors.
    The most obvious cause of migration is the disparity in levels of income, employment, and standard of living. Migration brings both increase in supply of labour and increase in demand for labour. Migration has little impact on the already existing workers, the unemployed workers are the ones most likely to be affected by the presence of immigrants as they are actively competing for work to do. The influx of workers in urban areas increases competition for the job, houses, school facilities etc. The skills and qualifications of the migrants are also important because if that are well trained and migrate to the cities,they would have a better chance of productivity than remaining in the rural areas. Having large population puts too much pressure on natural resources, amenities and services as this makes the effective allocation of resources difficult.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also spur successful development ?
    Better health spurs successful development as when people are health, they tend to be more productive. Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.
    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    The relationship between the health of a population and the state of development of a society is complex and varies over time. Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. Poor health also contributes to reduced income, creating a negative feedback loop sometimes referred to as the health-poverty trap. When people are not healthy, it reduces their productivity capabilities. They also have to spend the money that could have been invested in more profitable things in getting treatment or other things
    As we all know, investing financial resources in health more wisely can improve the level of growth in the long run, improve poverty and contribute to the general wellbeing of the population. It is only rational to review the public health in the country for economic progress. There are various ways we could improve the general health in the country, which includes:
    -Reducing the proportion of hungry people in the country.
    -Evolution of child and infant mortality indicators.
    -Improving the maternal health in the country.
    -Sustainable access to safe drinking water.
    – Improving the healthcare infrastructures in the country
    – Improving the access to health care services in the country.

  29. Avatar Chibugo faith Enyesiobi says:

    Name: Chibugo Faith Enyesiobi
    Reg no: 2018/247409
    Email: adabeauty940@gmail.com
    Department: Combined social science
    (Economics and psychology)
    Question 6
    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon

    Answer
    The most influential theories of development are;
    1) Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations.
    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources.

    2) Economic Nationalism
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.
    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.

    3) Linear Stages of Growth Model
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.
    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.
    4)Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    And they are compatible in the sense they are a theories in different aspect that gives hope to countries in developing their economy and have. Good economic growth
    6b) Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.
    Question7
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions? Some of the constraints are:
    1. Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    2. Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth. In Indian and Pakistan…
    Question 8
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Answer
    On International Women’s Day 2019, the UN Women Partners met with BNP Paribas to promote women’s economic empowerment by supporting women in agriculture and sustainable development in Senegal. With this project, the UN aims to demonstrates its commitment to promoting women’s empowerment in order to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 5 – to achieve gender equality and empower women and girls. But, as Acting Regional Director for West and Central Africa, Oulimata Sarr, states it’s not just about furthering equality, women are actually key to the economic development of third-world countries like Senegal: “Women are at the centre of Senegalese development and we want to support them in promising agricultural value chains to ensure their sustainable economic empowerment.”
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status.
    Gender inequality remains an issue in the Sub-Saharan Africa region, it is one of the most unequal areas in the world and progress is much slower than in other regions. Much of the gender inequality in developing countries is caused by the prevalence of cultural norms that aggravate favouritism towards males.
    Gender inequality comes at a significant economic cost as it hinders productivity and economic growth globally, countries are losing $160 trillion in wealth because of differences in lifetime earnings between women and men. In addition, an IMF staff note paper showed that the obstacles to women entering the labour market have more economic cost than was believed to be the case, and benefits from reducing the barrier of gender inequality are likely to be larger than initially thought. Reducing gender inequality is therefore key to economic development.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes. As a study from the IMF shows, policies that improve access to educational opportunities and finance for women can contribute to a reduction in inequality and an increase in economic growth for the developing country. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”
    In Sub-Saharan Africa, fewer girls enrol in primary school than boys and there is an even lower enrollment rate in secondary school for girls compared with boys. Girls in this region are often prevented from attending school due to poverty and work demands at home, this is then further aggravated by higher rates of child marriage amongst girls in this situation.
    However, poverty decreases when more women and girls are educated. This is because with basic education, a woman is more likely to obtain a job and earn a higher wage since one percentage point increase in female education raises the average level of GDP by 0.37 percentage points.
    It’s not only about women earning higher wages, women also benefit their families and communities as they are often more likely to spend money on things that support their children, the household. This then improves the chances of their family to achieve health and prosperity.
    Giving girls equal access to education and opportunities, enables them to eventually grow into educated, resilient women able to take on leadership roles in their countries, resulting in significant positive developmental outcomes for that country. This in turn helps to speed up the reduction in gender inequality, as having more women in leadership roles, means they develop policies that will increase support for women and girls.
    For example, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia, Africa’s first female president, advocated the safety of women, empowerment of women, and women’s rights to participation in peace-building work. In countries such as Rwanda, an increase in the number of female politician and lawmakers has furthered gender equality by implementing reproductive rights and equal land rights for women, which has helped increase investments in land by 18 percentage points, twice the level observed for men. They have also established gender desks at police stations to help women who face domestic violence and other forms of violence.
    Women are crucial to the economic development of countries. By empowering women through policies such as greater access to educational opportunities and finance, this results in better economic development for everyone as women with economic resources and control over meaningful decisions tend not only to benefit themselves but also their households and communities. Women’s equality is vital to increasing sustainable economic growth in developing countries, in order to empower more women and girls, there needs to be better access to education, health and opportunities in the labour market.
    Question 9:
    What are the causes of extreme poverty , and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer
    For A country here some causes for extreme poverty
    1. Government Corruption
    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.
    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.
    3. Poor Access to Education
    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.
    4. Poor Access to Healthcare
    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.

    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.
    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.
    Good solutions include:
    1. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.
    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.
    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.
    4. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.
    6. Establish work schedules that work
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.
    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.
    Boosting investments in Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant, as well as passing the Strong Start for America’s Children Act—which would invest in preschool, high-quality child care for infants and toddlers, and home-visiting services for pregnant women and mothers with infants—will help more struggling families obtain the child care they need in order to work and improve the future economic mobility of America’s children.
    8. Expand Medicaid
    Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table. Having health coverage is also an important buffer against the economic consequences of illness and injury; unpaid medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy. Studies link Medicaid coverage not only to improved health, improved access to health care services, and lower mortality rates, but also to reduced financial strain.
    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry
    The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. Today, more than 1.5 million Americans are behind bars in state and federal prisons, a figure that has increased fivefold since 1980. The impact on communities of color is particularly staggering: One in four African American children who grew up during this era of mass incarceration have had a parent incarcerated.
    Mass incarceration is a key driver of poverty. When a parent is incarcerated, his or her family must find a way to make ends meet without a necessary source of income Additionally, even a minor criminal record comes with significant collateral consequences that can serve as lifelong barriers to climbing out of poverty. For example, people with criminal records face substantial barriers to employment, housing, education, public assistance, and building good credit. More than 90 percent of employers now use background checks in hiring, and even an arrest without a conviction can prevent an individual from getting a job. The “one strike and you’re out” policy used by public housing authorities makes it difficult if not impossible for individuals with even decades-old criminal records to obtain housing, which can stand in the way of family reunification. Furthermore, a lifetime ban—for individuals with felony drug convictions—on receiving certain types of public assistance persists in more than half of U.S. states, making subsistence even more difficult for individuals seeking to regain their footing, and their families.
    In addition to common-sense sentencing reform to ensure that we no longer fill our nation’s prisons with nonviolent, low-level offenders, policymakers should explore alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion programs for individuals with mental health and substance abuse challenges. We must also remove barriers to employment, housing, education, and public assistance. A decades-old criminal record should not consign an individual to a life of poverty.
    10. Do no harm
    The across-the-board spending cuts known as sequestration—which took effect in 2013—slashed funding for programs and services that provide vital support to low-income families. Sequestration cost the U.S. economy as many as 1.6 million jobs between mid-2013 and 2014. Some relief was provided this January, when Congress passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014, but many important tools to help low-income individuals and families pave a path to the middle class—such as adult and youth education and training programs, child welfare, and community development programs—were on a downward funding trend even before sequestration took effect.
    As Congress considers a continuing resolution to fund the federal government past October 1 and avoid another government shutdown, it should reject further cuts to programs and services such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, or WIC, which provides vital nutrition assistance to pregnant women and mothers with new babies. Thereafter, Congress should make permanent the important improvements made to the EITC and the Child Tax Credit as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which are set to expire in 2017. And it should avoid additional cuts to vital programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP, formerly known as food stamps, which suffered two rounds of deep cuts in 2013 and 2014.
    Question 10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Part A:
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    Part B
    No because there has been a uniformly high correlation between national income growth and falling birth rates, and between family incomes and fertility. Economists and demographers for the most part agree that important ingredients of improved living standards, such as urbanization, industrialization and rising opportunities for non-agrarian employment, improved educational levels, and better health all lead to changed parental perceptions of the costs and benefits of children, leading in turn to lower fertility.
    Question 11 Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer
    Lack of Physical Capital Relative to Labour Force:
    Keynesian theory is mainly concerned with cyclical unemployment, which emerges in the developed capitalist countries, especially in times of depression. During the period 1929-33, the developed capitalist economies suffered from serve depression which caused huge magnitude of unemployment. Keynes analysed this type of unemployment and asserted that it was caused by deficiency of aggregate demand.
    Nature:
    The nature of unemployment in under-developed countries is quite different; it is of chronic and long-term nature. It is now almost universally recognised that the chronic unemployment and under-employment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force.
    Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital
    . Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.
    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.
    Agriculture though containing surplus labour can generate employment opportunities if proper strategy for its development is adopted. For instance, the empirical evidence shows that on an irrigated hectare of land the number of man-hours employed is almost twice that on the unirrigated hectare. Irrigation requires more labour input for watering the fields, but also since output per hectare on irrigated land is much higher, more labour is used for harvesting and threshing the crop. Besides, irrigation makes the adoption of double cropping possible which greatly raises the employment potential of agriculture.
    [8/27, 2:40 PM] Akabugo: The majority of migrants worldwide, about 763 million, move within their own countries rather than abroad. A large share of migrants come from rural areas. They move from one rural area to another or from rural to urban areas. People decide to migrate for many reasons. Individuals and families consider factors such as risks, aspirations and socio-economic conditions. For many, migration is a way to cope with unemployment, food insecurity, poverty, or vulnerability to climate change. For others, it is an effective livelihood diversification strategy to adapt to the seasonality of agriculture. In recent years, demographic forces, globalization and climate change have been increasing the pressure to migrate both within and across countries.
    Migration poses challenges and opportunities for food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development. For instance, losses in human capital and agricultural labour may have negative impacts on crop production and food availability. On the other hand, people who migrate may be able to escape poor living conditions, reduce pressure on resources in the places they leave behind and support rural areas of origin through transfer of skills, know-how and remittances to family back home. Furthermore, migrant workers play an essential role in agri-food systems and ensuring food supplies. Fostering rural-urban socio-economic linkages; enhancing and diversifying employment opportunities in agri-food systems and green sectors, especially for women and youth; helping the poor to better manage risks through social protection; and leveraging remittances for investments in the rural sector can be effective strategies for improving livelihoods, increasing resilience and addressing the adverse drivers of migration. At the same time, it is key to facilitate better mobility between rural and urban areas, and between sectors of the economy to enhance the benefits of migration and its contribution to agriculture, rural development and climate adaptation
    Question 12: Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But, does better health spur successful development?
    Answer
    I)health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.
    improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth.
    Better health is central to human happiness and well-being. It also makes an important contribution to economic progress, as healthy populations live longer, are more productive, and save more
    II population health really does contribute meaningfully to a community’s economic strength, and that good community health helps protects against economic shocks, like the Great Recession
    : Ill-health results in unemployment and unemployment leads to poverty. This must be double agony, poor health in developing nation. It destroys all levels of human life and to prevent the hardships poverty inflicts on humans, the victims must die prematurely
    Question 13:What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Answer
    Disease and poor health represent a great burden to affected individuals. Whilst
    difficult to quantify, the welfare losses to the individual of being severely ill can be
    significant, particularly in those developing regions with limited social security
    provision and health care. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to
    work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a
    more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have
    an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic
    development. The many studies that have attempted to explain cross-country
    differences in economic growth and productivity rates have typically suggested that
    education, trade openness, savings, inflation and the initial level of income are
    amongst the key explanatory variables (Barro, 1991; Mankiw et al., 1992; Barro and
    Sala-i-Martin, 1995; Miller and Upadhyay, 2000). There are good reasons to suggest,
    however, that health is also an important determinant. Lvovsky (2001), for instance,
    estimates that the burden of disease in LDCs, expressed in disability-adjusted life
    years (DALYs) lost per million people, is approximately twice that in developed
    countries.1
    This results from the far higher incidence of disease and malnutrition in
    LDCs compared to developed regions. Whilst the burden of disease may be a function
    of poverty, a high disease burden is also likely to adversely affect a nation’s
    development prospects.
    part b
    I)Health information system The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project was set up to establish a dedicated highway of information relating to disease occurrence required for prevention and containment at the community level, but the slow pace of implementation is due to poor efforts in involving critical actors outside the public sector. Health profiles published by the government should be used to help communities prioritize their health problems and to inform local decision making. Public health laboratories have a good capacity to support the government’s diagnostic and research activities on health risks and threats, but are not being utilized efficiently. Mechanisms to monitor epidemiological challenges like mental health, occupational health and other environment risks are yet to be put in place.
    II)Health research system There is a need for strengthening research infrastructure in the departments of community medicine in various institutes and to foster their partnerships with state health services.
    III)Regulation and enforcement in public health
    A good system of regulation is fundamental to successful public health outcomes. It reduces exposure to disease through enforcement of sanitary codes, e.g., water quality monitoring, slaughterhouse hygiene and food safety. Wide gaps exist in the enforcement, monitoring and evaluation, resulting in a weak public health system. This is partly due to poor financing for public health, lack of leadership and commitment of public health functionaries and lack of community involvement. Revival of public health regulation through concerted efforts by the government is possible through updation and implementation of public health laws, consulting stakeholders and increasing public awareness of existing laws and their enforcement procedures.
    IV)Health promotion
    Stopping the spread of STDs and HIV/AIDS, helping youth recognize the dangers of tobacco smoking and promoting physical activity. These are a few examples of behavior change communication that focus on ways that encourage people to make healthy choices. Development of community-wide education programs and other health promotion activities need to be strengthened. Much can be done to improve the effectiveness of health promotion by extending it to rural areas as well; observing days like “Diabetes day” and “Heart day” even in villages will help create awareness at the grassroot level.
    V) Human resource development and capacity building
    There are several shortfalls that need to be addressed in the development of human resources for public health services. There is a dire need to establish training facilities for public health specialists along with identifying the scope for their contribution in the field. The Public Health Foundation of India is a positive step to redress the limited institutional capacity in India by strengthening training, research and policy development in public health. Preservice training is essential to train the medical workforce in public health leadership and to impart skills required for the practice of public health. Changes in the undergraduate curriculum are vital for capacity building in emerging issues like geriatric care, adolescent health and mental health. Inservice training for medical officers is essential for imparting management skills and leadership qualities. Equally important is the need to increase the number of paramedical workers and training institutes in India.
    VI)Public health policy
    Identification of health objectives and targets is one of the more visible strategies to direct the activities of the health sector, e.g. in the United States, the “Healthy People 2010” offers a simple but powerful idea by providing health objectives in a format that enables diverse groups to combine their efforts and work as a team. Similarly, in India, we need a road map to “better health for all” that can be used by states, communities, professional organizations and all sectors. It will also facilitate changes in resource allocation for public health interventions and a platform for concerted intersectoral action, thereby enabling policy coherence.
    Scope for further action in the health sector
    School health, mental health, referral system and urban health remain as weak links in India’s health system, despite featuring in the national health policy. School health programs have become almost defunct because of administrative, managerial and logistic problems. Mental health has remained elusive even after implementing the National Mental Health Program.
    On a positive note, innovative schemes through public-private partnerships are being tried in various parts of the country in promoting referrals. Similarly, the much awaited National Urban Health Mission might offer solutions with regards to urban health.

  30. Avatar ALISHA BLESSING UGBEDE says:

    ALISHA BLESSING UGBEDE
    2018/SD/37336
    EDUCATION/ ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 3/5

    QUESTION 6
    (1) The linear stages of growth model: According to this theory, all societies, regardless of economic dimensions, can be classified into one of five categories: traditional society, pre-conditions for take-off into self-sustaining growth, take-off, drive to maturity, and age of high mass consumption. It was argued that the advanced countries had all passed the stage of “takeoff into self-sustaining growth,” and that the underdeveloped countries that were still in either the traditional society or the “preconditions” stage only needed to follow a set of development rules to take off in their turn into self-sustaining economic growth.
    (2) Theories of structural change: This has to do with concept that underdevelopment is caused by underutilization of resources owing to structural or institutional elements that have their origins traced back to both domestic and foreign sources as well as international dualism. Development thus necessitates more than simply accelerated formation of capital.
    (3) The international-dependence revolution: International-dependence models see developing countries as troubled by institutional, political, and economic rigidities, both internal and international, and locked in a dependency and dominance relationship with affluent countries.
    (4) The neoclassical: The central argument of the neoclassical counterrevolution is that under-development results from poor resource allocation due to incorrect pricing policies and too much state intervention by overly active developing-nation governments.
    QUESTION 7
    The constraints that most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions are-
    Lack of human capital.
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.

    QUESTION 8
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Women’s access to income, education, health care and other resources must be given priority. Literacy must be considered the highest priority, because other initiatives, including political, economic and cultural sensitization could be easily implemented if women were literate.
    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.
    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.
    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.
    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities.
    QUESTION 9
    The causes of extreme poverty are as follows:
    1. Increase rate of rising population
    2. Less productivity in agriculture:
    3. Less utilization of resources:
    4. A short rate of economic development:
    5. Increasing price rise:
    6. Unemployment:
    QUESTION 10
    Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    QUESTION 11
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job is very slim?
    The level of unemployment and Underemployment in the developing World are as a result of the following
    – Lack of infrastructures
    – Immigration
    – Poor health status
    – Corruption and embezzlement
    – Poor policy implementation
    Although the chances of getting conventional employment is slim in the cities, people keep migrating because of the following reasons:
    – For security purposes.
    – Crop failures in the village
    – Aside employment purposes, to at least learn skills and education
    – As a result of war and disagreement
    – Natural disasters like flood, draught, famine, fire outbreak. etc4. Lack of better opportunities in the village.

    QUESTION 12
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development.
    Better health is central to human happiness and well-being. It also makes an important contribution to economic progress, as healthy populations live longer, are more productive, and save more
    Economic growth appears to lead to large health gains, particularly at low levels of economic development. In this case, an improvement in health enhances labour productivity and leads to gains in economic growth.
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Nevertheless, improved health outcomes alone are not sufficient for sustained high economic growth.
    QUESTION 13
    The impacts of poor public health on the prospects for development are-
    At a more aggregated level, a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on the country’s productivity, growth and ultimately, economic development, as the Government procure large deficits to curtail it’s spread, as seen in Covid-19.
    Lives lost mean reduced economic productivity, as well as personal tragedy, as this cuts the labour supply.
    Individuals suffering from illnesses may be unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants.
    Poor health can make households property exhausted, indebted and reduce their essential consumption.

  31. Avatar Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. says:

    Name: Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu
    Reg no.: 2018/242306
    Department: Economics

    1. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Theories have been made towards the economic development but the most recognized are two. which are;
    linear growth model and
    structural change theory

    Linear growth model focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development. while

    Structural Change Theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.

    both theories are in a sense compatible as there have proven to be effective in their own productive ways and as such each aims to achieve optimum development of an economy.

    Underdevelopment is mainly an internally induced phenomenon. external factors may have a few factors to contribute to the underdevelopment of a nation but the main upliftment/upgrading of a nation’s economy rest on the shoulders of that nation. no nation will abandon its own internal problems and affairs and try to help another nation’s underdeveloped problems. if a nation truly wants to develop they should focus mostly on policy making and implementations, strategic planning and management of resources. these are of a few important notes for an underdeveloped nation to use and upgrade themselves.

    2. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Most definitely, Religious and Traditional Taboos and beliefs, high levels of informality in the economy, Low productivity due to poor human capital development, negative balance of trade, lack of strategic planning and implementations, Corruption are the most critical factors which might hinder a nation’s growth and development. But CORRUPTION is the key factor.
    Corruption in the sense that those in power and authority tends to enrich themselves the more while not giving a hoot to how bad the economy is. they only care for their selfish gains and desires, therefore leading to mismanagement of public funds and lots of other atrocities.

    3. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    women in their own various capacities contribute a lot to the growth of the economy through their involvement in small and medium enterprises they tend to foster Economic growth and development.

    4. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    there are several causes of poverty in the economy such as Government Corruption, lack of good Economic infrastructures, Poor access to Quality education, poor access to healthcare, overpopulation, lack of innovative ideas, government restrictions, low financial capabilities to start up a lucrative business and many more.

    There hasn’t been a very effective policy that might help eradicate poverty in Nigeria. but there are a few existing policies such as health care policy, primary education, agricultural policies, small and medium enterprises policies, family planning etc

    5. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    When a nation is overpopulated, the available resources in that nation won’t be available for everyone. and as such it might lead to an increase in crime since everyone would definitely want to eat and survive. overpopulation is actually a cause of poverty and can actually lead to financial insecurity in a Nation.

    6. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    while unemployment is a situation when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work, Underemployment refers to a situation in which individuals are forced to work in low-paying or low-skill jobs.
    there’s much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world mainly because there are very few jobs available for the population due to overpopulation, lack of productive industries and scarcity of jobs while there are more than enough manpower ready to work at any point in time.
    most people in the rural area are of the mindset that there’s wealth in the urban regions that’s why they migrate from the rural areas to that if the urban. furthermore, they feel life is easier in the urban regions coz of the availability of essential basic amenities.

    7. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    As a popular saying goes “health is wealth”. when a society is healthy, they tend to be more productivities in their activities because when the body is down, the mind goes with it which will definitely lead to little or no productivity.

    8. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Most especially in developing countries, poor public health is a major setback to development because these nations have individuals who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger fraction or portion of the population is sick and can’t be efficiently and effectively be revived due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that nation will be at a standstill or slowly progress.

    the possible solutions to these problems are that there should be high investment in the health sector, Better health care equipments, Employment of qualified medical practitioners like the Doctors, Nurses, Surgeons etc, Increase in health care infrastructures, Public knowledge and awareness on better public health care maintenance.

  32. Avatar Oyibe Ebere Izuinya. 2018/245131 says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA

    REG. NUMBER: 218/245131

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    COURSE: ECO 361

    1. What are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible?

    i. Theory of modernization,
    ii. Theory of dependency,
    iii. Theory of world system, and
    iv. Theory of globalization.
    No. These theories are not compatible because they all have different views about development. Thus, modernization posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern society failing to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.
    Secondly, dependency theory argued that the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.
    Thirdly, theory of world system is of the view that there are worldwide conditions
    that operate as determinant forces especially for small and underdeveloped
    nations, and that the nation-state level of analysis is no longer the only useful
    category for studying development conditions, particularly in Third World
    countries. Those factors which had the greatest impact on the internal
    development of small countries were the new global systems of
    communications, the new world trade mechanisms, the international financial
    system, and the transference of knowledge and military links.
    Lastly, the theory of globalization is of the view that: cultural factors are the

    determinant aspect in every society. Second, it is not important, under current
    world conditions to use the nation-state as the unit of analysis, since global
    communications and international ties are making this category less useful.
    Third, with more standardization in technological advances, more and more
    social sectors will be able to connect themselves with other groups around the
    world. This situation will involve the dominant and non-dominant groups from
    1b. Is underdevelopment an internally ( domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon because it is is situation characterized by:
    i. Low literacy,
    ii. Low productivity,
    iii. Low income,
    iv. Low standard of living,
    v. Widespread poverty,etc.

    2. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth depending on local conditions.
    Social obstacles such as:
    i. Literacy. The literacy rate is low in developing countries. As a result, the rate of economic growth is reduced.
    ii. Joint family system. This a situation whereby all members of the family live together. In this case, only a few of the family members work while the rest do nothing.
    3. How can improvement in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Improvement in the role and status of women will:
    i. Expand job opportunities,
    ii. Increase GDP as government will generate more revenue from the taxes they pay.
    iii. It will also increase the literacy level of the economy.
    iv. It increases economic productivity and efficiency.

    4. What are the causes of extreme poverty?
    The causes of extreme poverty are:
    i. POOR HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.
    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence.
    ii. CONFLICT.
    Conflicts and violence also leads to poverty because it makes a country and its population to live below the global poverty line.
    iii. INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION.
    These describes the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. It includes gender inequality,caste systems, and marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations, etc. Here, individuals have little or no access to the resources needed to live a full, and productive life.
    iv. HUNGER, MALNUTRITION AND STUNTING:- Malnutrition and hunger is another reason why most countries in the developing world are poor. For instance,if a pregnant mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children thereby leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting both physical and cognitive can lead to a life time impacts. Example, in Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. This is because adults who were stunted as children earn less income than those who were not stunted.
    v. CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade.
    vi. LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, unwillingness to go to school, etc.

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty.

    vii. POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty.

    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.
    viii. LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or healthcare, or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.
    ix. LACK OF JOBS OR LIVELIHOODS
    This might seem like a no-brainer: Without a job or a livelihood, people will face poverty. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change) and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals puts increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonial rule — while conflict over land has forced people away from their source of income and food. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty.

    x. LACK OF RESERVES
    All of the above risk factors — from conflict to climate change or even a family illness — can be weathered if a family or community has reserves in place. Cash savings and loans can offset unemployment due to conflict or illness. Proper food storage systems can help if a drought or natural disaster ruins a harvest.

    People living in extreme poverty usually don’t have these means available. This means that, when a risk turns into a disaster, they turn to negative coping mechanisms, including pulling children out of school to work (or even marry), and selling off assets to buy food. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.

    4b. What policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The most effective policy is investment policy.

    5. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations?
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment in developing nations

    5b. Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    No.
    6. Why is there so much underemployment and underdevelopment in the developing world, especially in the cities?
    i. Education and training
    ii. Demand for labour mismatch supply
    iii. The effects of the 2008/2009 global recession.
    iv. General lack of interest for entrepreneurship.
    v. Slow economic growth.

    6b. Why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural to urban areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    i. Desire for upper mobility
    ii. Shocks that makes subsistence farming difficult
    iii. Insecure rural livelihoods, etc.

    7. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also spur development?
    Yes
    8. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development?

    i. Tobacco-related effects
    Tobacco also leads to serious public health effects.

    Tobacco is the most dangerous drug in terms of fatalities per year.

    Moreover, tobacco also leads to high social costs since the treatment of lung diseases can be quite costly and these costs are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.
    Therefore, the use of tobacco can lead to several private as well as public health issues.

    ii. Drug-related effects
    Illegal drugs can also cause several adverse health conditions.
    This may come in the form of serious diseases like HIV or also from overdoses.
    Although illegal drugs cause significantly fewer fatalities per year compared to legal drugs like alcohol or tobacco, illegal drugs still pose serious public health issues since people addicted to these substances are likely to suffer in a dramatic manner.

    iii. Obesity
    Obesity is a major public health issue in our current society.This is due to the fact that people mainly sit around the whole day, starring at their computer and waiting until the day is over and they can go home and watch their favorite serious on their couch.Moreover, many people eat quite unhealthily.This combination of low levels of exercise and unhealthy food leads to obesity for many people.Obesity in turn can lead to serious health conditions and affect people not only physically, but also mentally.

    iv. Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is a huge public health issue, especially in poor developing countries. In these countries, people usually have many children.However, many children need many resources in order to grow healthy.Poor families are often not able to provide enough food and minerals to their children, which results in malnutrition.Malnutrition can in turn lead to a weak immune system and may even lead to death.

    v. Mental issues
    Public health issues can also include mental issues.Since we are affected by so many impressions today, our brains may not be able to deal with all of them.There are many people who report that they feel burned out.The number of people suffering from mental illness increased drastically over the last decades.If our society and our value system continue to value excessive mental work, chances are that the number of mentally sick people will continue to increase in the future.

    vi. Air pollution
    Air pollution can also be regarded as public health issue since it contributes to all kinds of diseases.These diseases are likely to lead to high health costs in return which are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    vii. Global warming
    Global warming is another issue that can be caused by public health issues.A major factor for global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases.These gases are emitted in industrial processes, but also through the daily use of our cars.

    viii. Lack of access to basic care
    Many people worldwide lack access to basic care.This includes basic things like sufficient food and drinks but also includes basic supply with healthcare items.The lack of access to these basic items is usually due to the fact that many people around the world are quite poor and are not able to afford these basic daily life items.

    ix. Non-communicable diseases and consumption behavior.
    Non-communicable diseases are diseases that are not transmissible directly from one person to another.Examples for those kinds of diseases are autoimmune diseases, heart attacks or diabetes.These diseases are often related to our consumption behavior.For example, type 2 diabetes is often caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of sugar and a low level of physical activity.Non-communicable diseases cause serious health conditions for a large number of people worldwide.
    x. Antimicrobial resistance
    In mainstream medicine, antibiotics are often prescribed in an excessive way.However, the excessive use of antibiotics can lead to antimicrobial resistance.This means that certain bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.This in turn may lead to an increase in fatalities since antibiotics will no longer work to cure certain diseases.
    xi. Pandemics
    Some public health issues may also lead to pandemics.Pandemics are likely to spread in regions where living and health conditions are quite basic.Poor people will not be able to fight these pandemics in a sufficient way, which may lead to the death of many people worldwide.

    xii. HIV
    HIV is a big problem worldwide. HIV is often transmitted through sexual intercourse.HIV is a serious disease that takes away the lives of many people.It is especially harmful in countries which do not have proper HIV treatment.These people will usually have quite low life expectancies.Thus, HIV can be regarded as a serious public health issue.It is often caused by a lack of education or the unwillingness to use contraceptives.

    xiii. Dengue fever
    Dengue fever is transmitted by mosquitos. It is a severe disease that causes many fatalities per year.Especially in poor countries with low healthcare standards, Dengue fever has extreme adverse impacts.

    8b. What is needed to address these problems?

    i. Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    ii. Improve health standards
    iii. Improve research
    iv. Transnational support
    v. Reduction in consumption
    vi. Recycle and reuse
    vii. Reduce corruptive actions
    viii. Promote vaccinations
    ix. Education and research

  33. Avatar UZUIGWE ESTHER says:

    NAME: UZUIGWE ESTHER
    REG. NUMBER: 2018/SD/37300
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 3/5
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361

    QUESTION 1 Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    •Structural-Change Theory: When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power in Russia, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower. The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    •Linear Stages of Growth Model: The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II. This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.

    QUESTION 2: What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions? Some of the constraints are:
    – Lack of financial capital.
    – Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    – Missing markets.
    – Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    – Barriers to trade.
    – Rapidly growing or declining population.
    – Lack of human capital.
    – Poor governance and corruption.
    – Over-exploitation of environmental capital.

    QUESTION 3 How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status. Improving the role and status of women yields the highest return on all development investments. Reducing the role and the status of women who are in active labour force, for example, may lead to reduction in total household expenditure, government tax revenues, private businesses and personal savings; and hence the resources available for a successful development.
    In a society where there is an improvement in the role and status of women, there is bound to be unprecedented economic growth and development. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes.

    QUESTION 4: What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The causes of extreme poverty are as follows:
    Increase rate of rising population: People are added every year by an incredible number to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.
    Less utilization of resources: Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brings a downfall in the standard of living.
    Increasing price rise: The poor are becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    Unemployment: One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
    Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship: The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.
    Policies used in curbing poverty include:
    Set of policies designed to bring about far-reaching structural changes in the distribution of assets, power, and access to education and associated income- earning (employment) opportunities.
    Correcting distorted prices should contribute to greater productive efficiency, more employment, and less poverty. The promotion of indigenous technological research and development of efficient, labor-intensive methods of production may also be valuable.
    Set of policies aimed at changing the size distribution of income at the top by enforcing legislated progressive taxation on income and wealth, and at the bottom by implementing direct transfer payments and expanding the provision of publicly provided consumption goods and services.
    A set of targeted policies that go beyond social safety programs to offer programs that build the poor’s capabilities and human and social capital.

    QUESTION 5: Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Large families bring about increase in the country’s population which leads to rapid population growth. Rapid population growth can adversely affect the nation’s economy in the following ways;
    In an environment where there is financial insecurity, family members tend to be driven away in to doing the wrong things and partaking in activities illegal such as human and drug trafficking, robbery, fraud, prostitution and kidnapping etc. These illegal and bad vices tarnish the image of a nation and thereby reduces the economic progress of the nation by chasing foreign and local investors away to other nations.
    It brings about expansion of the nation’s budget: the larger the population, the bigger the nation’s budget because it they would have to make preparations for the whole country. This means that they would have to some of the funds allocated to the development and progress of the country to the maintenance of the country.
    Rapid population growth and large families will bring about unemployment, lack of social amenities such as water.
    Large families in a poverty stricken environment is not helpful in the improvement of the economy of a nation in the sense that in such families, the breadwinners would have problems catering for their whole families on an average worker’s salary.

    QUESTION 6
    Causes of Unemployment in Developing Countries:
    Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital: The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. With the growth of technology and specialisation, man needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. A nation’s stock of capital can be enlarged by increased investment which in the absence of any unutilised resources, requires additional saving on the part of the community.
    Use of Capital Intensive Techniques: It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital

    Inequitable Distribution of Land: inequitable distribution of land can be seen in many countries so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment
    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation: Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    6. Lack of Infrastructure: Unemployment and under-employment are caused by more basic structural factors such as lack of capital, use of capital-intensive technologies, lack of access to land for agricultural household, lack of infrastructure, racial growth of population resulting in large annual increments in labour force year after year. Unemployment in India, as in other developing countries, manifests itself in both open unemployment and under-employment.

    QUESTION 7
    Health affects economic growth directly through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. In order to explain the relationship between health and economic growth, it is necessary to understand the concept of health in a broad sense. Health is not only the absence of illnesses; it is also the ability of people to develop to their potential during their entire lives. In that sense, health is an asset individuals possess, which has intrinsic value (being healthy is a very important source of well-being) as well as instrumental value. In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health.
    This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences

    QUESTION 8 what is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth.
    * Provide community partnerships to identify and solve health problems.
    * Monitor health status to identify community health problems.
    * Enforce laws, rules and regulations that protect public health and the environment and ensure safety.
    * Diagonise and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community.
    * Develop policies and rules that support individual and community health efforts.
    * Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
    * Assure a competent workforce within the health care industry and public health departments.

  34. Avatar Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo 2018/241848 says:

    (6) Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    The following are the most influential theories of development in economic:
    (a) Mercantilism
    (b) Economic Nationlism
    (c) Linear stage of growth model
    (d) Structural change theories
    (a) Mercantilism
    It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations.
    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources.
    (b) Economic Nationalism
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.
    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.
    (c) Linear Stages of Growth Model
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.
    (d) Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    These theories are not compatible as they contradicts each others prepositions
    Underdevelopment is caused by internal phenomenon due to the fact that most develoing countries don’t utilise their natural and other resources to the fullest, relying on just one aspect of their income. Other factors such as corruption, lack of proper education, and so on also causes underdevelopment

    (7) What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following are constraints holding back accelerated growths on local conditions
    (a) Lack of access to amenities
    (b) Poor educational system
    (c) Inadequate health facilities
    (d) Poverty and lack of access to health facilities
    (e) Migration of labor force
    (f) Government neglect (uneven distribution of wealth)
    (8) How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    When women are enlightened or better put when their roles is being improved from being a mother to an active force of labour it improves development in the following ways:
    (a) Reduced population: When women move from the role of just child bearing to being educated, this affects the rate of child birth as child birth is no longer for wealth creation as in the olden days where large family size and children are needed for farming. This helps reduce the number of people consuming limited resources thereby creating some sort of development.
    (b) Payment of tax and other government levies: working class women pay tax and other levies imposed by the government which are used to build facilities that breeds development
    (c) Promote female education: When the status of women are improved they help promote education of younger women which will aid development
    (d) Creating Non Government Organization: When the role of women are improved this women aid in development by forming NGOs which see to the welfare of the masses thereby aiding development

    (9) What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The following are causes of extreme poverty:
    (a) Corruption
    (b) Unemployment
    (c) Lack of access to loan facility
    (d) Lack of access to loan facility

    (10) Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    When there is rapid growth in the population it leads to large population going after limited resources which will affect development because there will be more people than the available resources which means development will be hampered
    Large family size have negative effect in an environment of wide spread poverty and financial insecurity in the sense that it leads to increase in crime rate, child trafficking, homeless fellows, child abuse, underage employment and so on.

    (11) Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Underemployment and unemployment in developing countries is caused by factors such as overpopulation , corruption, lack of social amenities, improper management of government funds, lack or inadequate number of foreign investors, overdependence on a particular line of government income.
    Though there exist low chances of finding jobs in the city rural dwellers still migrate to the city for the following reasons:
    Modern life style
    Availability of modern facility
    Poor situations in rural areas
    Education pursuit
    Pursuit of white collar jobs

    (12) Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    A healthy nation is said to be a wealthy nation. As it is popularly said health is wealth. When workers of labour or citizens of a country are healthy production grows and improvement in services takes place thereby spurring successful development

    (13) What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    When the population is unhealthy, labour force is affected as workers of labour fall ill which affects development negatively
    To address this situation, health facilities should be provided. Also, healthy life style should be emphasized and taught , health rules (environmental laws) should be propounded and implemented and workers of labour should have rest or work free periods.

  35. Avatar ILEMUDA CORNELIUS HYCIENT. Course code:Eco 361,Reg. No:2018/SD/37241. Dep: EDU/ECO says:

    from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 6 : Development theories :

    1. Modernization theory :
    This theory Is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    2. Structuralism :

    This Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.

    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.

    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.

    3. Dependency theory :

    The theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.
    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    4. The basic needs model :

    It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.
    Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers.[14] There have been also many critics of the basic needs approach. It would lack theoretical rigour, practical precision, be in conflict with growth promotion policies, and run the risk of leaving developing countries in permanent turmoil.

    5. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor:

    classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.

    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    6. Postdevelopment theory is a school of thought which questions the idea of national economic development altogether.

    According to postdevelopment scholars, the goal of improving living standards leans on arbitrary claims as to the desirability and possibility of that goal. Postdevelopment theory arose in the 1980s and 1990s.

    According to postdevelopment theorists, the idea of development is just a ‘mental structure’ (Wolfgang Sachs) which has resulted in a hierarchy of developed and underdeveloped nations, of which the underdeveloped nations desire to be like developed nations.[15] Development thinking has been dominated by the West and is very ethnocentric, according to Sachs. The Western lifestyle may neither be a realistic nor a desirable goal for the world’s population, postdevelopment theorists argue. Development is being seen as a loss of a country’s own culture, people’s perception of themselves and modes of life. According to Majid Rahnema, another leading postdevelopment scholar, things like notions of poverty are very culturally embedded and can differ a lot among cultures. The institutes which voice the concern over underdevelopment are very Western-oriented, and postdevelopment calls for a broader cultural involvement in development thinking.

    Postdevelopment proposes a vision of society which removes itself from the ideas which currently dominate it. According to Arturo Escobar, postdevelopment is interested instead in local culture and knowledge, a critical view against established sciences and the promotion of local grassroots movements. Also, postdevelopment argues for structural change in order to reach solidarity, reciprocity, and a larger involvement of traditional knowledge.

    II. Development theories are compatible because they involve one another in other to achieve the desired objectives.

    III. Development is externally induced phenomena :

    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    NO. 7 Constraints to accelerated growth :

    1. Lack of interaction between the government and society:

    The problem is standing in the first row, among other basic economic problems facing Nigeria. The government will not be able to manage its economic, political, and social affairs without fostering interaction between it and the private sector and state civil society. Therefore, the government should include processes and mechanisms for citizens and groups to articulate their interests, mediate their differences, and work together.
    Good leadership will provide an enabling environment for people to enjoy quality governance and justice. Good governance starts with us; we are also responsible for this situation in the country.

    2. Corruption :

    Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.
    Being the oil giant, which runs on the grease of politics, Nigeria could be characterized as a wealthy nation staying afloat on oil. However, the problem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.

    3. Macroeconomy :

    The lack of consistency and the politicians’ greed are among the causes of the hemorrhage in the economy. Every administration, which comes on board, sets up a new policy initiative instead of working on the previous one. Consequently, Nigeria has a series of inefficient and poorly executed policies.
    In 2003, the federal government, under the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo established the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
    This programme headed by the former CBN governor, Prof Charles Soludo, was aimed towards sustainable growth and poverty reduction in the country. However, the programme failed to reach its objective.
    The late administration of Umaru Musa Yar’adua discarded the needs of the people. His administration created a plan to convert Nigeria into one of the top 20 biggest global economies by 2020.

    So, this program, which now seems to be dead, has gulped a considerable sum of money, which could have been used to solve some of the political and social-economic challenges facing Nigeria at the time.

    4. Poor human development :

    In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.

    5. Nature of the market :

    A lack of authentic competition in the system is among the problems facing the economy. Market forces guide actual capitalistic economics. The self-regulating character of the market defines where one works and lives, how much one earns, and what he/she can buy.
    By the way, each economy needs some form of government interference. But we are not talking about a monopoly. Good market governance must work hand in hand with healthy competition. Unfortunately, Nigeria is not among the countries where these two exist in one dimension. In Nigeria, the federal government has a valid monopoly of setting the price of products and other services and goods. In 2016, the federal government randomly increased the cost of fuel without paying attention to the negative distributive effects on the Nigerian economy. Although in the early part of 2020, the price of petroleum was reduced.

    6. Education and university systems :
    These days, corruption has also spread to the Nigerian educational system, especially in universities. Professors are used to taking money from students in exchange for good marks.
    Some students even say that they have to bribe university executives to have their exam results submitted and compiled for the National Youth Service Corps.
    Not too long ago at the Rivers State University, a renowned professor was sacked for extorting money from his students to improve their grades. This is a true reflection of the state of things in most universities across the country today.

    The higher institutions and universities in this country are not in shape. The facilities that are needed to adequately teach students so that they can be useful to companies after graduation are missing. Too much theory in our educational institutions and a total lack of practice is a big issue.

    7. Environment and health issues :

    The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.

    N0. 8

    Women development impact on economy :

    Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth.

    1. Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.

    2. Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development:

    GoalsAnd economic empowerment is also a right. There is no quick fix: women’s economic empowerment takes sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment from all development actors. Donors can also increase their investment.

    3. Economically empowered women foster a sense of identity :

    In Moldova, a country that gained independence only a generation ago and still struggles with its place in a complex geopolitical environment, citizens are striving to develop locally-made products that could reach similar renown and serve as points of collective pride. Empowering women-led and women-founded enterprises in the apparel sector has helped Moldova take a step in that direction. Joining together under the brand Din Inima: Branduri de Moldova (From the Heart: Brands of Moldova), women entrepreneurs have taken Moldovan-made apparel from a low-cost and low-quality necessity into a runway-worthy product, visibly increasing consumer loyalty and pride in locally-made apparel. Clothing will, of course, not single-handedly strengthen national identity, but the apparel sector’s success has helped foster a sense of national pride and cohesion. Aspiring entrepreneurs and artisans now have a model to draw from as they seek to make a name for Moldovan products globally.

    4. Economically empowered women, with a strong sense of community, can also be an important piece of the puzzle to countering violent extremism :
    In a place like the Pankisi Gorge area of Georgia, inhabited largely by minority ethnic groups, creating economic opportunity for women allows them to pass on values of inter-ethnic trust and community identity to their children, laying the foundation for the development of a more resilient and stable community.

    5. Economically empowered women serve as climate-change-adaptation champions:

    Adapting to climate change requires a willingness to do things differently than they have been done before and an ability to forego short-term gains in favor of long-term ones. In Morocco, women entrepreneurs have demonstrated these traits, recognizing success in their ventures and serving as climate change champions. When soil degradation and water scarcity made it increasingly difficult to make a living in Moroccan agricultural communities, Moroccan women spearheaded shifts in agricultural practices. Women producers switched from growing water-intensive traditional crops to less water-intensive medicinal and aromatic plants; they also began using renewable energy sources. The women are now securing a more sustainable income stream for their families and preventing further desertification through more efficient use of resources. Their entrepreneurial ability to adapt has allowed these women to help their families and help the planet.

    6. Economically empowered women shift gender norms :

    It’s human nature: the first time we see something we deem odd, we stop, stare, and gossip about it to our neighbors. The second time we see it, we shake our head and sigh. The third time, we simply shrug our shoulders and move on; what was once odd has become normal. In Bangladesh’s staunchly patriarchal society, historically, women have been discouraged from working outside of the home. But, women pioneers in the dairy sector are now taking on roles such as mobile input providers and artificial inseminators, which is contributing to a shift in gender norms. Women working in these positions have improved daily milk production, increased household incomes, earned women respect for their technical competence, and begun normalizing women’s work outside the home.

    7. Economically empowered women contribute to better health and nutrition outcomes :

    Increasing women’s incomes improves food security for children, by increasing the quantity, diversity, and nutrition value of food consumed in households. The same principle applies for women’s and children’s health; in numerous development contexts, a woman will have a hard time taking a day off and travelling to a distant clinic for services while her overwhelming concern remains how to feed her children. When a woman’s livelihood becomes stable because she learns to grow a more profitable crop or obtains financing to expand her business from a local village savings and lending association, she is able to afford more diverse, nutritious foods and take time off of work to seek health care for herself and for her family.
    This week, as we continue to explore the meaning of economic empowerment, I am reminded of a woman who grows flowers in western Georgia. Combining her horticultural skills with business acumen, she ingeniously leveraged existing transportation networks, societal trust, and established relationships to grow her business, including using the ubiquitous marshrutka (public minibus) network to distribute fresh flowers around the region. Her bravery and ingenuity, and the bravery and ingenuity of all other women entrepreneurs, are an inspiration. Much progress remains to be made in the years to come, but it’s certain that supporting women such as these in their endeavors is not only the right thing to do – it’s the smart thing to do.

    NO. 9

    Causes of extreme poverty :

    1. Government Corruption :

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure :
    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education :

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare :

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.
    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.
    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.
    policies for improving the lives of the poor
    1. Sustained economic growth
    The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment
    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.
    Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes
    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    NO. 10
    large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :
    A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.
    The size of a large family affects the national economy in the following ways:
    1.A large family size will spend most of the income on food. Therefore it will affect the savings of that family. When savings is affected, it will reduce investments.
    2.A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities.
    3.It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities.
    4.It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation.
    5.It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population
    NO. 11
    Reasons for much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world :
    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital :
    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.
    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.
    2. Use of Capital Intensive :
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.
    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land :
    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.
    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation :
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.
    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation :
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.
    II. Why people migrate to cities :
    1. Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    2 .Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    3 .Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    4 .Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    5 .The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

    N0. 12
    Yes, better health spur successful development.
    Because, in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.

    1. It increase life expectancy.

    2. Higher productivity.

    3. Improved quality of human life.

    4. Increase in labour force.

    5. Enhanced human capital development.

    N0. 13

    Impact of poor public health on development :

    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    1. Reduces labour force.

    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.

    3. Decrease in productivity.

    4. Reduces life expectancy.

    5. Decrease in human capital development.

    II. Solutions to these problems :
    1. Social determinants of health
    2. Living conditions. …
    3. Urban planning. …
    4. Revival of rural infrastructure and livelihood. …
    5. Education. …
    6. Nutrition and early child development. …
    7. Social security measures. …
    8. Food security measures. …

  36. Avatar NGADI GOD'SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME :NGADI GOD’S PROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO: 2018/242405
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361
    6.Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Modernization theory
    Structuralism
    Dependency theory
    The basic needs model
    Neoclassical development theory
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies.
    Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. 
    Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. 
    The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being.
    Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    7.What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Joint Family System:
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    Literacy :
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth. In Indian and Pakistan…
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Increase in Agriculture:if women farmers (43 per cent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries) had the same access as men, agricultural output in 34 developing countries would rise by an estimated average of up to 4 per cent. This could reduce the number of undernourished people in those countries by as much as 17 per cent, translating to up to 150 million fewer hungry people.
    Poverty Eradication:To help rural women escape poverty, in 2012 UN Women joined with the World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agriculture Development to launch a joint programme to empower poor rural women through economic integration and food security initiatives. The initiative aims to empower rural women to claim their rights to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, and to participate in shaping laws, policies and programmes.
    Knowledge Empowerment:The new online platform is an open global community for knowledge mobilization, innovation and partnerships. It seeks to re-vitalize women’s economic empowerment by building connections and bringing together people who need resources with those that have them. The portal will feature e-discussions, interviews, videos and other resources on rural women, food and poverty reduction from 15-25 October.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Inequality and marginalization: “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities.
    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs).
    Lack of Government support
    Lack of Jobs and livelihood
    Poor public work and infrastructure
    Lack of Reserve
    EFFECTIVE POLICIES
    Creation of jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs.
    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour.
    Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges.
    Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income.
    Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product.
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Population growth is now much more rapid.in industrializing Europe .it seldom exceeded 1.5 percent a year, compared with the 2 to 4 percent that most developing coun￾tries have averaged since World War II.Unlike nineteenth century Europe, large-scale migration from today’s developing countries is not possible.Compared with Europe, Japan, and North
    America in their periods of fastest population growth, income in developing countries is still low, human and physical capital are less built up,and in some countries political and social institu￾tions are less well established.Many developing countries whose economiesare still largely dependent on agriculture can nolonger draw on large tracts of unused land.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Overpopulation: Developing areas especially cities experience high level of unemployment and underemployment because of how densely populated they are. So, ten persons would be chasing a Job designed for one person and employers of Labour would exploit Labour and under pay them.
    Search for White collar Job: The growing desire of individuals in search of white collar Job is alarming and this jobs can only be found in cities. Therefore people in rural areas continually troop into urban areas in search of white collar jobs
    Availability of social amenities: Power supply, pipe borne water, Good roads, good medical facilities, etc are found in cities. The desire of rural dwellers to have a taste of good life influences their decision to migrate to cities despite all the vices that are prevalent in that region.
    The strong urge to feel belonging: it is believed that on the average, urban dwellers are richer than rural dwellers. So there is this strong urge among rural dwellers to travel to the city and find any job inorder to be recognised by their kindred.
    Insufficient capital for commercial farming: farmers have lost interest in farming because they do not have mechanised tools that can meet up with the Demand in market and this incapacity is making so many change profession.
    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health. In sum, health affects economic growth directly through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Undernourishment:The economic impact of malnutrition occurs largely through its effects on the labour force. Those suffering from malnutrition often feel weak and lacking in energy and are more susceptible to infection and other illnesses than those who receive the minimum dietary energy requirements (Dasgupta 1993, Chowdhury and Chen 1977).
    Malaria:Malaria is one of the most prevalent and challenging infectious diseases affecting developing countries. It is endemic in 91 countries, accounting for 40% of the world’s population, and is responsible for over 1 million deaths per year (McCarthy et al., 2000). Clearly such deaths will affect the supply of labour. However, in the majority of cases, particularly in labour-supplying adults, malaria is non-fatal, but results in frequent recurrent attacks that affect the productivity of labour supply.
    Like malnutrition, malaria is most common in the poorest regions of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike malnutrition, the incidence of malaria appears to be only a weak function of income.
    Waterborne diseases: Lack of access to sanitation and particularly to safe drinking water remains a great risk to health in developing countries. It is a strong determinant of waterborne diarrhoeal and other diseases such as amoebiasis, cholera, dysentery, schistosomiasis and typhoid fever as well as roundworm and guinea worm infections. It is estimated that diarrhoeal diseases alone (including dysentery) annually kill over 2 million children under the age of five (Warner, 1997). And yet, as with malnutrition and malaria, adults often survive the effects of waterborne diseases, but their labour productivity becomes severely impaired both during and after the period of disease.
    SOLUTION TO THESE PROBLEMS
    Government should increase her expenditure on citizens welfare by providing food that nourishes the health system.
    Investment in antimalaria protection (such as bed nets) and also health care services to treat sufferers and establishment of Eradication programmes which should focus on the control of mosquitoes.
    Production of water treatment: water treatment should be encouraged and mandated for people who are in water production business.

  37. Avatar Oyibe Ebere Izuinya. 2018/245131 says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA
    REG. NUMBER: 218/245131
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 361

    1. What are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible?
    i. Theory of modernization,
    ii. Theory of dependency,
    iii. Theory of world system, and
    iv. Theory of globalization.
    No. These theories are not compatible because they all have different views about development. Thus, modernization posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern society failing to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.
    Secondly, dependency theory argued that the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.
    Thirdly, theory of world system is of the view that there are worldwide conditions
    that operate as determinant forces especially for small and underdeveloped
    nations, and that the nation-state level of analysis is no longer the only useful
    category for studying development conditions, particularly in Third World
    countries. Those factors which had the greatest impact on the internal
    development of small countries were the new global systems of
    communications, the new world trade mechanisms, the international financial
    system, and the transference of knowledge and military links.
    Lastly, the theory of globalization is of the view that: cultural factors are the

    determinant aspect in every society. Second, it is not important, under current
    world conditions to use the nation-state as the unit of analysis, since global
    communications and international ties are making this category less useful.
    Third, with more standardization in technological advances, more and more
    social sectors will be able to connect themselves with other groups around the
    world. This situation will involve the dominant and non-dominant groups from
    1b. Is underdevelopment an internally ( domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon because it is is situation characterized by:
    i. Low literacy,
    ii. Low productivity,
    iii. Low income,
    iv. Low standard of living,
    v. Widespread poverty,etc.
    2. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth depending on local conditions.
    Social obstacles such as:
    i. Literacy. The literacy rate is low in developing countries. As a result, the rate of economic growth is reduced.
    ii. Joint family system. This a situation whereby all members of the family live together. In this case, only a few of the family members work while the rest do nothing.
    3. How can improvement in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Improvement in the role and status of women will:
    i. Expand job opportunities,
    ii. Increase GDP as government will generate more revenue from the taxes they pay.
    iii. It will also increase the literacy level of the economy.
    iv. It increases economic productivity and efficiency.
    4. What are the causes of extreme poverty?
    The causes of extreme poverty are:
    i. POOR HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.
    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence.
    ii. CONFLICT.
    Conflicts and violence also leads to poverty because it makes a country and its population to live below the global poverty line.
    iii. INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION.
    These describes the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. It includes gender inequality,caste systems, and marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations, etc. Here, individuals have little or no access to the resources needed to live a full, and productive life.
    iv. HUNGER, MALNUTRITION AND STUNTING:- Malnutrition and hunger is another reason why most countries in the developing world are poor. For instance,if a pregnant mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children thereby leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting both physical and cognitive can lead to a life time impacts. Example, in Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. This is because adults who were stunted as children earn less income than those who were not stunted.
    v. CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade.
    vi. LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, unwillingness to go to school, etc.

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty.

    vii. POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty.

    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    viii. LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or healthcare, or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.

    ix. LACK OF JOBS OR LIVELIHOODS
    This might seem like a no-brainer: Without a job or a livelihood, people will face poverty. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change) and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals puts increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonial rule — while conflict over land has forced people away from their source of income and food. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty.

    x. LACK OF RESERVES
    All of the above risk factors — from conflict to climate change or even a family illness — can be weathered if a family or community has reserves in place. Cash savings and loans can offset unemployment due to conflict or illness. Proper food storage systems can help if a drought or natural disaster ruins a harvest.

    People living in extreme poverty usually don’t have these means available. This means that, when a risk turns into a disaster, they turn to negative coping mechanisms, including pulling children out of school to work (or even marry), and selling off assets to buy food. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.

    4b. What policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    5. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations?
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment in developing nations
    5b. Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    No.
    6. Why is there so much underemployment and underdevelopment in the developing world, especially in the cities?
    i. Education and training
    ii. Demand for labour mismatch supply
    iii. The effects of the 2008/2009 global recession.
    iv. General lack of interest for entrepreneurship.
    v. Slow economic growth.

    6b. Why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural to urban areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    i. Desire for upper mobility
    ii. Shocks that makes subsistence farming difficult
    iii. Insecure rural livelihoods, etc.

    7. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also spur development?
    Yes
    8. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development?

    i. Tobacco-related effects
    Tobacco also leads to serious public health effects.

    Tobacco is the most dangerous drug in terms of fatalities per year.

    Moreover, tobacco also leads to high social costs since the treatment of lung diseases can be quite costly and these costs are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    Therefore, the use of tobacco can lead to several private as well as public health issues.

    ii. Drug-related effects
    Illegal drugs can also cause several adverse health conditions.
    This may come in the form of serious diseases like HIV or also from overdoses.
    Although illegal drugs cause significantly fewer fatalities per year compared to legal drugs like alcohol or tobacco, illegal drugs still pose serious public health issues since people addicted to these substances are likely to suffer in a dramatic manner.

    iii. Obesity
    Obesity is a major public health issue in our current society.This is due to the fact that people mainly sit around the whole day, starring at their computer and waiting until the day is over and they can go home and watch their favorite serious on their couch.Moreover, many people eat quite unhealthily.This combination of low levels of exercise and unhealthy food leads to obesity for many people.Obesity in turn can lead to serious health conditions and affect people not only physically, but also mentally.

    iv. Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is a huge public health issue, especially in poor developing countries. In these countries, people usually have many children.However, many children need many resources in order to grow healthy.Poor families are often not able to provide enough food and minerals to their children, which results in malnutrition.Malnutrition can in turn lead to a weak immune system and may even lead to death.

    v. Mental issues
    Public health issues can also include mental issues.Since we are affected by so many impressions today, our brains may not be able to deal with all of them.There are many people who report that they feel burned out.The number of people suffering from mental illness increased drastically over the last decades.If our society and our value system continue to value excessive mental work, chances are that the number of mentally sick people will continue to increase in the future.

    vi. Air pollution
    Air pollution can also be regarded as public health issue since it contributes to all kinds of diseases.These diseases are likely to lead to high health costs in return which are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    vii. Global warming
    Global warming is another issue that can be caused by public health issues.A major factor for global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases.These gases are emitted in industrial processes, but also through the daily use of our cars.

    viii. Lack of access to basic care
    Many people worldwide lack access to basic care.This includes basic things like sufficient food and drinks but also includes basic supply with healthcare items.The lack of access to these basic items is usually due to the fact that many people around the world are quite poor and are not able to afford these basic daily life items.

    ix. Non-communicable diseases and consumption behavior.
    Non-communicable diseases are diseases that are not transmissible directly from one person to another.Examples for those kinds of diseases are autoimmune diseases, heart attacks or diabetes.These diseases are often related to our consumption behavior.For example, type 2 diabetes is often caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of sugar and a low level of physical activity.Non-communicable diseases cause serious health conditions for a large number of people worldwide.
    x. Antimicrobial resistance
    In mainstream medicine, antibiotics are often prescribed in an excessive way.However, the excessive use of antibiotics can lead to antimicrobial resistance.This means that certain bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.This in turn may lead to an increase in fatalities since antibiotics will no longer work to cure certain diseases.
    xi. Pandemics
    Some public health issues may also lead to pandemics.Pandemics are likely to spread in regions where living and health conditions are quite basic.Poor people will not be able to fight these pandemics in a sufficient way, which may lead to the death of many people worldwide.

    xii. HIV
    HIV is a big problem worldwide. HIV is often transmitted through sexual intercourse.HIV is a serious disease that takes away the lives of many people.It is especially harmful in countries which do not have proper HIV treatment.These people will usually have quite low life expectancies.Thus, HIV can be regarded as a serious public health issue.It is often caused by a lack of education or the unwillingness to use contraceptives.

    xiii. Dengue fever
    Dengue fever is transmitted by mosquitos. It is a severe disease that causes many fatalities per year.Especially in poor countries with low healthcare standards, Dengue fever has extreme adverse impacts.
    8b. What is needed to address these problems?

    i. Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    ii. Improve health standards
    iii. Improve research
    iv. Transnational support
    v. Reduction in consumption
    vi. Recycle and reuse
    vii. Reduce corruptive actions
    viii. Promote vaccinations
    ix. Education and research

  38. Avatar AKACHUKWU PRECIOUS C says:

    AKACHUKWU PRECIOUS C.
    2018/SD/37433
    EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    3/5
    ECO 361
    QUESTION 6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible?
    Structuralism: The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI).
    Sociological and anthropological modernization theory: This theory states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies.The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential.
    Linear stages of growth model: Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society
    Dependency theory: Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market.

    QUESTION 7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    1. Lack of Savings: The levels of savings are important for determining levels of investment and hence the rate of economic growth. If there is a lack of savings, it limits investment and therefore, there is little prospect of economic development. However, sometimes the level of savings is misused on unproductive investment projects. The important thing is not level of savings but the economic management of investment resources. Also, low savings may be countered by foreign investment
    2. Corruption: It means that resources for development will not be used in their entirety for economic development. In some cases the % of corruption can be very high. Also, corruption may just take a % of investment, therefore there are still funds being used for investment. So unless stopping corruption, the economic growth in any country cannot easily attained.
    3. Human Capital: Lack of human capital is a constraint on growth. To diversify the economy and move towards industrialisation it is necessary to have skilled labour. The World Bank says human capital accounts for about 65% of economic development. Therefore, it can be a very significant constraint to growth. In many cases attempts to industrialise the economy suffered from lack of human capital. However, in many industries competitiveness can be achieved through low wage costs, as in China. Therefore, for labour intensive industries low wage costs can be more important than labour productivity.
    4. Poor Infrastructure: The weakness of the transport infrastructure includes poor access to ports, limited air links and freight capacity, limited rail capacity and poor condition of roads serving manufacturing, mining, tourism and rural producing areas. In addition, the problems with utilities (water, electricity and communication) affect production in the country because they are not only unreliable but also inefficient and expensive and hence slow economic growth.
    5. Poor Private and Public Co-operation and Dialogue: When there has been weak co-operation and consultation between the private and public sectors due to a lack of a recognised institution that would serve as a liaison between the two sides. This gap definitely is a main constrain to economic growth.

    QUESTION 8: Women development impact on economy :
    1. Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.
    2. Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development:
    3. Economically empowered women foster a sense of identity
    4. Economically empowered women, with a strong sense of community, can also be an important piece of the puzzle to countering violent extremism
    5. Economically empowered women serve as climate-change-adaptation champions: Adapting to climate change requires a willingness to do things differently than they have been done before and an ability to forego short-term gains in favor of long-term ones.
    6. Economically empowered women shift gender norms
    7. Economically empowered women contribute to better health and nutrition outcomes

    QUESTION 9
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    – Unemployment: This one of the biggest causes of poverty. This could be cyclical unemployment which occurs during recession, or structural unemployment which occurs when there is a mismatch of skills.
    – Poor education/skills: Education and skill acquisition go together and are necessary for the alleviation of poverty. Lack of education hinders the development of skills needed to increase productivity.
    – Social and political exclusion: Poor people of certain castes have to live in a separate locality and are excluded from mixing with better-off people. Due to such discrimination these people are deprived of better employment and growth opportunities. Social exclusion thus leads to poverty and can cause more damage than having a very low income.
    – Poor public health: This is due in part to the costs of seeking health care, which include not only out-of-pocket expenses for care (such as consultations, testing, and medicine), but also transportation and any unofficial payments to providers.
    – Uncontrolled population growth: Rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well-being, which tends to increase poverty. Second, in densely populated poor nations with pressure on land, rapid population growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty.

    QUESTION 10: Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth threatens the economic progress of a developing nation as resources available will not be sufficient enough for the various need of the population. Similarly, large families in a environment of widespread poverty doesn’t do well for the economy. The size of a large family affects the national economy in the following ways:
    •A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. Large family size means increase in population which will lead to increased use of public facilities, and in a developing economy, resources may not be sufficient to cover all needs.
    •A large family size will spend most of the income on food as feeding the family will come first before any other need. Therefore it will affect the savings of that family. When savings is affected, it will reduce investments.
    •It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population. In a developing economy, job opportunities are not easy to come by as a result of this, there is an increase in crime rate.
    •It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. In order to provide the needs of the public, the government will divert funds from other projects to provide more amenities to accommodate the increasing population.

    QUESTION 11: Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Some causes of unemployment includes:
    a. Legacy of apartheid and poor education and training.
    b. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:
    c. Inadequate education and lack of productivity is costing jobs
    • Role of trade union federations in government: Higher wage demands may lead to decline in new employment.
    • Slow economic growth
    . Urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to
    QUESTION 12: Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Better health and nutrition leads to earlier and longer school enrollment, better school attendance, and more effective learning. Health status, once attained, affects school performance, as has been shown in studies of many developing countries. Thus to improve the effectiveness of schooling which will improve development, we must improve the health of children in developing countries. Thus health can also be seen as a vital component of growth and development—as an input to the aggregate production function..
    Health is central to well-being and is fundamental to the broader notion of expanded human capabilities that lie at the heart of the meaning of development. Its dual role as both an input and output gives health its central importance in economic development. Healthier individuals are generally able to productively serve as human capital at any point in life.

    QUESTION 13
    PROTECTION AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARD: Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.
    PROMOTE HEALTHY COMMUNITIES AND HEALTHY BEHAVIOR: Promoting healthy communities and healthy behaviors means activities that improve health in a population, such as investing in healthy families; engaging communities to change policy, systems or environments to promote positive health or prevent adverse health; providing information and education about healthy communities or population health status; and addressing issues of health equity, health disparities, and the social determinants of health.
    ASSURE HEALTH SERVICES: Assuring health services means engaging in activities such as assessing the availability of health-related services and health care providers in local communities; identifying gaps and barriers; convening community partners to improve community health systems; and providing services identified as priorities by the local assessment and planning process.
    PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE: Preventing the spread of infectious disease means preventing diseases that are caused by infectious agents, such as by detecting acute infectious diseases, assuring the reporting of infectious diseases, preventing the transmission of disease, and implementing control measures during infectious disease outbreaks.  

  39. Avatar UGWUEKE LILIAN OGECHUKWU says:

    UGWUEKE LILIAN OGECHUKWU
    LIBRARY&INFORMATION SCIENCE
    2018/SD/37425
    THIRD YEAR

    ASSIGNMENT 361
    6.WHICH ARE THE MOST INFLUENTIAL THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT, AND ARE THEY COMPATIBLE? IS UNDERDEVELOPMENT AN INTERNALLY (DOMESTICALLY) OR EXTERNALLY (INTERNATIONALLY)INDUCED PHENOMENON?

    Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches.in this article,multiple draw are discussed,as are recent developments with regard to these theories.The most influential and compatible development theories are development theories of structuralism and dependency theory.Development theories of structuralism,this is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries.Dependency theory is essential a follow up to structuralism thinking,and share many of its core ideas.Whereas structuralism did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous was pursued,dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe.
    Underdevelopment per according to Walter Rodney is primarily made of two components,a comparative aspect as well the relationship of exploitation:namely,the exploitation of one country by another and so is externally induced.

    7.WHAT CONSTRAINTS MOST HOLD BACK ACCELERATED GROWTH,DEPENDING ON LOCAL CONDITIONS?

    The constraints to accelerated growth include:
    1.Inefficiencies with the micro-economy
    2.Imbalances in the structure of the economy
    3.A rapidly growing or declining population
    4.Lack of financial capital
    5.Lack of human capital
    6.Poor governance and corruption
    7.Missing market

    8.How CAN IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ROLE AND STATUS Of WOMEN HAVE AN ESPECIALLY BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS?

    The empowered women turn out to be agent of their progress,capable to work out choices to set their own program and be strong sufficient to confront their subsidiary location in the society.Though women comprise half of world’s population up till now they are the biggest group which is excluded from the benefits of social and economic development.Women constitute a strong labour force which wants to be mobilized and confident to make an efficient involvement to the development method
    Empowering women is essential to health and social development,communities and countries. When women are living safe,fulfilled and productive lives,they can reach their full potential.Empowering women are key to economic growth,stability,and social transformation.Improving the role and status of women through education and entrepreneurship reduces poverty by increasing their employability and enabling them to provide for their families and contribute to the economic development of their communities.

    9.WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF EXTREME POVERTY, AND WHAT POLICIES HAVE BEEN MOST EFFECTIVE FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF THE POOREST OF THE POOR?

    1.Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food
    2.Little or no access to livelihood or job
    3.Conflict
    4.Poor education
    5.Lack of infrastructure
    6.Limited capacity of the government
    Macroeconomic policies are suitable and necessary for growth.Macroeconomic stability by itself,however,does not ensure high rates of economic growth.In most cases,sustained high rates of growth also depend upon key structural measures,such as regulatory reform,privatization,civil service reform,improved governance,trade liberalization,and banking sector reform

    10.RAPID POPULATION GROWTH THREATENING THE ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF DEVELOPING NATIONS?DO LARGE FAMILIES MAKE ECONOMIC SENSE IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF WIDESPREAD POVERTY FINANCIAL INSECURITY?
    Rapid population growth means higher dependency burden which forces the young population to work to supplement the family income.It also creates social pressures on the government to spend more on the welfare of the people in order to maintain a minimum standard of living.In under developed countries,rapid growth of population diminishes the availability of capital per head which reduces the productivity of the labour force.Their income,as a consequence,is reduced and their capacity to save is diminished which,in turn,adversely affects capital formation.Large families grow great sense of reasoning as new skills are introduced,new financial sources created and new budgeting activated.

    11.WHY IS THERE SO MUCH UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD,ESPECIALLY IN THE CITIES,AND WHY DO PEOPLE CONTINUE TO MIGRATE TO THE CITIES FROM RURAL AREAS EVEN WHEN THEIR CHANCES OF FINDING A COVENTIONAL JOB ARE VERY SLIM?

    Causes of Underemployment
    1.Business Cycle
    2.Supply of workers are greater than demand
    3.Technological changes

    The following are the main causes of unemployment
    1.Caste system
    2.Slow economic growth
    3.increase population
    4.Agriculture is a seasonal occupation
    5.joint family system
    6.Fall of small industries

    12.WEALTHIER SOCIETIES ARE ALSO HEALTHIER ONES BECAUSE THEY HAVE MORE RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING NUTRITION AND HEALTH CARE.BUT DOES BETTER HEALTH ALSO HELP SPUR SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT?

    Nutrition and health are the fundamental conditions for human welfare.Recently,food sufficiency and easy access to food are considered as a basic human right.Good nutrition is an investment in human and social capital;Solid establishment of human capital is a key determinant of household and community,
    Which in turn builds a basis for development.
    Better nutrition is associated with faster economic growth in the long run.The magnitude of this effect,taken at the current sample mean,is about 0.5 percentage point for a 500 kcal/day increase in dietary energy supply.
    Since nutrition and health contributes for economic growth in the long run,any policies to improve nutritional status have a long-term provision.Corollary to this,a country,which implements this type of policies,must commit to it in the long run.

    13.WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF POOR PUBLIC HEALTH ON THE PROPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT, & WHAT IS NEEDED TO ADDRESS THESE PROBLEMS?

    Poor public health affects economic development primarily via total factor productvity,not as an additional factor of production or by affecting the productivity of one other factor of production only.If so,then including health as direct determinant of growth is conceptually inaccurate since health is likely to affect output growth indirectly via total factor productivity.
    However,a reversal of this relationship,with poor health itself contributing to poverty and underemployment,has generally not been quantified at a macroeconomic level until relatively recently.We have tried to improve on the existing literature by looking at three specific aspects of poor health rather than the aggregate measure of life expectancy and by directly estimating the effect of health on total factor productivity,rather than economic growth
    With a clear link between health and productivity emerging,the report calls for a global commitment to tackle health issues.This commitment must come from low income countries themselves,but also increased financial commitments from donor countries will be needed.it would appear that only increased and re-prioritized investment in health care,on a global scale,will release the developing world from the vicious cycle that links poor health and poverty.

  40. Avatar Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu says:

    Name: Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu
    Reg no.: 2018/242306
    Department: Economics

    1. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Theories have been made towards the economic development but the most recognized are two. which are;
    linear growth model and
    structural change theory

    Linear growth model focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development. while

    Structural Change Theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.

    both theories are in a sense compatible as there have proven to be effective in their own productive ways and as such each aims to achieve optimum development of an economy.

    Underdevelopment is mainly an internally induced phenomenon. external factors may have a few factors to contribute to the underdevelopment of a nation but the main upliftment/upgrading of a nation’s economy rest on the shoulders of that nation. no nation will abandon its own internal problems and affairs and try to help another nation’s underdeveloped problems. if a nation truly wants to develop they should focus mostly on policy making and implementations, strategic planning and management of resources. these are of a few important notes for an underdeveloped nation to use and upgrade themselves.

    2. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Most definitely, Religious and Traditional Taboos and beliefs, high levels of informality in the economy, Low productivity due to poor human capital development, negative balance of trade, lack of strategic planning and implementations, Corruption are the most critical factors which might hinder a nation’s growth and development. But CORRUPTION is the key factor.
    Corruption in the sense that those in power and authority tends to enrich themselves the more while not giving a hoot to how bad the economy is. they only care for their selfish gains and desires, therefore leading to mismanagement of public funds and lots of other atrocities.

    3. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    women in their own various capacities contribute a lot to the growth of the economy through their involvement in small and medium enterprises they tend to foster Economic growth and development.

    4. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    there are several causes of poverty in the economy such as Government Corruption, lack of good Economic infrastructures, Poor access to Quality education, poor access to healthcare, overpopulation, lack of innovative ideas, government restrictions, low financial capabilities to start up a lucrative business and many more.

    There hasn’t been a very effective policy that might help eradicate poverty in Nigeria. but there are a few existing policies such as health care policy, primary education, agricultural policies, small and medium enterprises policies, family planning etc

    5. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    When a nation is overpopulated, the available resources in that nation won’t be available for everyone. and as such it might lead to an increase in crime since everyone would definitely want to eat and survive. overpopulation is actually a cause of poverty and can actually lead to financial insecurity in a Nation.

    6. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    while unemployment is a situation when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work, Underemployment refers to a situation in which individuals are forced to work in low-paying or low-skill jobs.
    there’s much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world mainly because there are very few jobs available for the population due to overpopulation, lack of productive industries and scarcity of jobs while there are more than enough manpower ready to work at any point in time.
    most people in the rural area are of the mindset that there’s wealth in the urban regions that’s why they migrate from the rural areas to that if the urban. furthermore, they feel life is easier in the urban regions coz of the availability of essential basic amenities.

    7. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    As a popular saying goes “health is wealth”. when a society is healthy, they tend to be more productivities in their activities because when the body is down, the mind goes with it which will definitely lead to little or no productivity.

    8. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Most especially in developing countries, poor public health is a major setback to development because these nations have individuals who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger fraction or portion of the population is sick and can’t be efficiently and effectively be revived due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that nation will be at a standstill or slowly progress.

    the possible solutions to these problems are that there should be high investment in the health sector, Better health care equipments, Employment of qualified medical practitioners like the Doctors, Nurses, Surgeons etc, Increase in health care infrastructures, Public knowledge and awareness on better public health care maintenance.

  41. Avatar ILEME OBINNA PATRICK says:

    REG NO: 2018/242297
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 361(DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS I)

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Development economics seeks to understand and shape macro and microeconomic policies in order to lift poor countries out of poverty. Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.

    Mercantilism:
    Mercantilism  is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations.
    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources.

    Economic Nationalism:
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.
    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model:
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.
    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization . The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rate and investments.
    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.

    Structural-Change Theory:
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    CONCLUSION:
    These economic development theories are very much compatible with each other firstly because they all aim to bring about steady economic growth in underdeveloped countries and developing countries, secondly they all focus on Industrialisation as the major route to obtain development.
    Knowing all these I believe that underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon, because countries tends to implement wrong policies that is not compatible with the kind of economy they have.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:

    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    Inefficiency
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    X’ Inefficiency
    X inefficiency can arise when there is a lack of competition in a market. It is primarily associated with inefficient management, where average cost is above its minimum. Competition is limited in many developing economies, and resources are often allocated by government. This means that inefficient management is common.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.

    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following:

    Low growth
    Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.

    Lack of savings
    A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply.  High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.

    Debts
    In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.

    Crowding out
    In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing. This means that a government may borrow from local capital markets, if indeed they exist, which causes a relative shortage of capital and raises interest rates.

    Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.

    Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Inadequate financial markets
    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    Low risk individuals and firms are deterred from borrowing, and a lemons problem arises, with only high risk individuals and firms choosing to borrow. Thus, the credit market in developing economies is under-developed or completely missing, with few wishing to borrow, and with those who wish to lend expecting high loan defaults and hence charging very high interest rates.

    Insurance markets
    In a similar way to credit markets, insurance markets may be under-developed, with few insurers willing to accept ‘bad’ risks. Insurance charges (premiums) will be driven up, and potential entrepreneurs may be deterred from taking out insurance, or will be unwilling to take uninsured risks. The result is that new businesses may fail to develop.

    The principal – agent (landlord – tenant) problem
    In agriculture in particular, the principal-agent problem existing between landlord (principal) and worker (agent) creates asymmetric information and moral hazard. Workers may not bother to work hard. With low pay rates, the risks of being caught ‘shirking’ are small – the loss of pay is not a significant enough incentive to work hard and efficiently.

    Absence of property rights
    In many developing economies it is not always clear who owns property, especially land. Given this there is no incentive to develop the land because of the free-rider problem.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes.For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.

    Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to women’s economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girl’s health and wellbeing, as well as their income-generation opportunities and participation in the formal labour market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 per cent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years. But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labour market outcomes.

    Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increasing employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    A. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food

    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home, while over 800 million suffer from hunger. You might think that poverty causes hunger and prevents people from accessing clean water (and you would be right!), but hunger and water insecurity are also big reasons why people struggle to escape extreme poverty.

    If a person doesn’t get enough food, they simply don’t have the strength and energy needed to work, while lack of access to food and clean water can also lead to preventable illnesses like diarrhea. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or spend what little money remains on medicine, it drains already vulnerable populations of money and assets, and can knock a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    Even if clean water sources are available, they’re often located far from poor, rural communities. This means that women and girls collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    B. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs

    This might seem a bit like a “no brainer.” Without a job or a way to make money, people will face poverty. But it’s easy to assume that if someone wants a job, they could have one. That just isn’t true, particularly in developing and rural parts of the world. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change), and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals is putting increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonialism — while conflict over land disputes has forced people from the land they relied upon for food and money. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty. While inconsistent work and low paying jobs can land a family in poverty, absolutely no work means that a family can’t get by without assistance.

    C. Conflict

    Conflict can cause poverty in several ways. Large scale, protracted violence that we see in places like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroy infrastructure, and cause people to flee, forcing families to sell or leave behind all their assets. In Syria, around 70% of the entire population now lives below the poverty line — this in a country where extreme poverty was once very rare. Women often bear the brunt of conflict: during periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women are particularly vulnerable in these kinds of conflicts, too, as they often become the targets of sexual violence while fetching water or working alone in the fields.

    D. Inequality

    There are many different types of inequality in the world, from economic to social inequalities like gender, caste systems, or tribal affiliations. But no matter the inequality, it generally means the same thing: unequal or no access to the resources needed to keep or lift a family out of poverty.

    Sometimes inequalities are obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle — for example, the voices of certain people or groups might not be heard in community meetings, meaning they don’t get a say in important decisions. Regardless, these inequalities mean that the people affected don’t have the tools they desperately need to get ahead, and for already vulnerable families, this can mean the difference between being poor or living in extreme poverty.

    E. Poor education

    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. And why is that? There’s a lot of barriers stopping children from going to school. Many families can’t afford to send their children to school and need them to work. More still don’t see a benefit in educating girls. Education is often referred to as the great equalizer, and that’s because education can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. And, with even more education, world poverty could be cut in half.

    POLICIES TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY:

    A. Sustained economic growth

    The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth

    B. Reduce Unemployment

    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.
    Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.

    C. Progressive Taxes
    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.

    However, critics argue higher income taxes create a disincentive to work., leading to less output. This is because higher tax makes work less attractive and reduces the opportunity cost of leisure. Therefore people work less and enjoy more leisure. This is known as the substitution effect. Similarly higher corporation tax may discourage investment in the UK
    However, this is disputed by other economists, who point out that higher tax reduces incomes and this may encourage people to work more, to maintain their income. (This is known as the income effect)
    Evidence suggests that higher income tax has little incentive on the supply of labour, suggesting labour supply is relatively inelastic. However, it also depends at what level income tax is set. There is certainly a level where higher income tax will reduce incentives to work.
    Other problems with increasing income tax, include tax evasion and the fact firms may adjust wages to compensate for the higher taxes.

    D. Increasing benefits to the poor

    Means-tested benefits involve increasing welfare benefits to those on low incomes. For example, universal tax credit, food stamps or child benefit.
    5. National Minimum Wage  The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality. A related concept is the Voluntary Living Wage – an attempt to encourage firms to pay higher wages.

    In recent years, minimum wages have become more important in tackling in-paid work in both the UK and US.

    In the UK, the number of workers benefitting from the minimum wage has increased from 830,000 in 1999 to 2 million in 2018.
    In the US, there is a proposal to increase federal minimum wage to $15 by 2024 – a move that could see 33.5 million U.S. workers and 6.2 million workers in poverty see a rise in the minimum wage.
    A potential problem of increasing the minimum wage is that it may cause unemployment because firms may not be able to afford the workers. If it does cause unemployment, poverty could worsen. However, if firms have monopsony power, then they will be able to afford higher wages. Empirical evidence suggests that we can increase minimum wages fairly significantly before the cost of falling employment and higher prices outweigh the benefit of rising wages and higher productivity. See more on raising the minimum wage

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Yes rapid increase in population tends to affect the increase or progress in the growth and development of developing countries and No a large family does not make economic sense in an economy plagued with widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    There are many factors that influences unemployment and underemployment in the developing world there include
    a. Overpopulation
    b. Poor utilization of natural endowment
    c. Illiteracy
    d. Absence or limited number of industries

    People continue to migrate to the cities from the rural area even at the risk of not finding a conventional job due to some reasons below
    a. Ignorance
    b. Lack of information
    c. Poor orientation
    d. Better infrastructure in the cities
    e. Better educational systems in the cities

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Looking at the effects that covid-19 has done to the world’s economy in general, yes a healthy nation spurs economic growth.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Poor public health, is a major cause of poverty. This is partly due to the costs of seeking health care, which include not only out-of-pocket spending on care (such as consultations, tests and medicine), but also transportation costs and any informal payments to providers. It is also due to the considerable loss of income associated with illness in developing countries, both of the breadwinner, but also of family members who may be obliged to stop working or attending school to take care of an ill relative. In addition, poor families coping with illness might be forced to sell assets to cover medical expenses, borrow at high interest rates or become indebted to the community.

    Solutions to tackle poor public health
    • Reducing the direct cost of care at the point of service, e.g. through reducing/abolishing user fees for the poor or expanding health insurance to the poor (including coverage, depth and breadth).

    • Increasing efficiency of care to reduce total consumption of care, e.g. by limiting “irrational drug prescribing,” strengthening the referral system, or improving the quality of providers (especially at the lower level).

    • Reducing inequalities in determinants of health status or health care utilization, such as reducing distance (through providing services closer to the poor), subsidizing travel costs, targeted health promotion, conditional cash transfers.

    • Expanding access to care by using the private sector or public-private partnerships.

    Assure an Adequate Local Public Health Infrastructure

    Assuring an adequate local public health infrastructure means maintaining the basic capacities foundational to a well-functioning public health system such as data analysis and utilization; health planning; partnership development and community mobilization; policy development, analysis and decision support; communication; and public health research, evaluation and quality improvement.

    Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior

    Promoting healthy communities and healthy behaviors means activities that improve health in a population, such as investing in healthy families; engaging communities to change policy, systems or environments to promote positive health or prevent adverse health; providing information and education about healthy communities or population health status; and addressing issues of health equity, health disparities, and the social determinants of health.

    Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease

    Preventing the spread of infectious disease means preventing diseases that are caused by infectious agents, such as by detecting acute infectious diseases, assuring the reporting of infectious diseases, preventing the transmission of disease, and implementing control measures during infectious disease outbreaks.  

    Protect Against Environmental Health Hazards

    Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.

    Prepare and Respond To Emergencies

    Preparing and responding to emergencies means engaging in activities that prepare public health departments to respond to events and incidents and assist communities in recovery, such as providing leadership for public health preparedness activities within a community; developing, exercising and periodically reviewing response plans for public health threats; and developing and maintaining a system of public health workforce readiness, deployment, and response.

    Assure Health Services

    Assuring health services means engaging in activities such as assessing the availability of health-related services and health care providers in local communities; identifying gaps and barriers; convening community partners to improve community health systems; and providing services identified as priorities by the local assessment and planning process.

  42. NAME: ONAH MUNACHIMSO MODESTER
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO:2018/242421

    No7: What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following are the factors that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    Culture of the people
    Government policies
    Poor utilization of resources
    Lack of Infrastructure
    Insecurity
    No 8: Women development impact on economy :

    Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth.

    1. Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.

    2. Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development:

    GoalsAnd economic empowerment is also a right. There is no quick fix: women’s economic empowerment takes sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment from all development actors. Donors can also increase their investment.

    3. Economically empowered women foster a sense of identity :

    In Moldova, a country that gained independence only a generation ago and still struggles with its place in a complex geopolitical environment, citizens are striving to develop locally-made products that could reach similar renown and serve as points of collective pride. Empowering women-led and women-founded enterprises in the apparel sector has helped Moldova take a step in that direction. Joining together under the brand Din Inima: Branduri de Moldova (From the Heart: Brands of Moldova), women entrepreneurs have taken Moldovan-made apparel from a low-cost and low-quality necessity into a runway-worthy product, visibly increasing consumer loyalty and pride in locally-made apparel. Clothing will, of course, not single-handedly strengthen national identity, but the apparel sector’s success has helped foster a sense of national pride and cohesion. Aspiring entrepreneurs and artisans now have a model to draw from as they seek to make a name for Moldovan products globally.

    4. Economically empowered women, with a strong sense of community, can also be an important piece of the puzzle to countering violent extremism :
    In a place like the Pankisi Gorge area of Georgia, inhabited largely by minority ethnic groups, creating economic opportunity for women allows them to pass on values of inter-ethnic trust and community identity to their children, laying the foundation for the development of a more resilient and stable community.
    No 9: What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Poverty rarely has a single cause. A range of factors including rising living costs, low pay, lack of work, and inadequate social security benefits together mean some people do not have enough resources.
    WORKLESSNESS
    Since 2006, there has been a 60 per cent rise in the number of people moving repeatedly between work and unemployment.
    66 per cent of children in families with no working adults are in poverty.People who are not working overwhelmingly want to work, but face barriers to employment. Principally these are ill-health and childcare, but also caring responsibilities for family members.

    HIGH COSTS AND INADEQUATE BENEFITS
    In-work benefits, such as universal credit, are currently insufficient to overcome these labour market challenges and keep people out of poverty.
    In addition, the very high costs of housing and childcare increase families’ risk of poverty. It is generally accepted that where people are out of work or don’t earn enough money, the social security system should provide a safety net to prevent them falling into poverty. Unfortunately this is not the case.

    No 10:large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :

    A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.
    1. Increase in crime rate.
    2. High cost of living.
    3. Scarcity of food and water.
    4. General inflation.
    5. Poor health facilities.
    6. Underemployment.
    7. Unemployment.

    No11: Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment.
    When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.
    No13: What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  43. Avatar Odo juliana Chinenye says:

    NAME: ODO JULIANA CHINENYE
    REG. NUMBER: 2018/SD/37269
    YEAR OF STUDY: 3/5
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 6: Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.
    1. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent. From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development.
    2. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital.expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies.
    3. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.
    Question 7: What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The rate of growth can be slowed down or even reversed by various factors affecting the economy, some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others maybe difficult to resolve. These constraints are;
    1. Inefficiencies within micro economy, producers in less developed nations may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. this may be as a result of the inability to apply technology of production.
    2. Lack of real capital resources, many developing economies do not have the needed financial capital to engage in public and private investment. This is as the result of the following reasons, lack of savings, low growth, excessive debt burden etc.
    3. Population is a considerable constraints on economic growth either becos of it rapid increase or too slow rate of growth.
    4. Corruption on the parts of their leaders; some economies suffer from corruption in different sectors.
    5. Absence of a developed legal system to protect property right, the right to start business is limited to a small section of elite, consumer right are not protected, employment right do not exist, competition law is limited.

    QUESTION 8: How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Eliminating the gap in well-being between males and females is as much a part of development as is reducing income poverty. Greater gender equality enhances economic efficiency and improves other development outcomes. It does so in the following ways:
    •First, with women now representing 40 percent of the global labor force, overall productivity will increase if their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural output in developing countries could increase a lot Elimination of barriers against women working in certain sectors or occupations could increase output by raising women’s participation and labor productivity through better allocation of their skills and talent.
    •Second, greater control over household resources by women, either through their own earnings or cash transfers, can enhance countries’ growth prospects by changing spending in ways that benefit children. Evidence shows that when women control more household income either through their own earnings or through cash transfers—children benefit as a result of more spending on food and education.
    •Finally, empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices.

    QUESTION 9: What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.
    Policies to reduce poverty
    Minimum wage: Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.

    QUESTION 10: Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity. So large families do not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    QUESTION 11: Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    1. underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    2. Supply and demand: when certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.
    3. Technological changes: Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    4. The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school .Studies show this is true for countries as well; health can be a causative factor for the aggregate economic growth of a country.

    QUESTION 12: Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems. Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. The incentive effect is borne of the theoretical literature, and individuals who are healthier and have a greater life expectancy will have the incentive to invest in education as the time horizon over which returns can be earned is extended. It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Although global health has improved significantly in recent decades, this benefit has not been shared evenly within and among nations. Several hundred million people across the globe continue to go without basic health services, especially in rural areas and in the most impoverished communities. The role of health in economic development is analyzed via two channels: the direct labor productivity effect and the indirect incentive effect. The labor productivity hypothesis asserts that individuals who are healthier have higher returns to labor input. This is well tested in the empirical literature with mixed conclusions. Education is the driver of economic growth, and thus health plays an indirect role. Accounting for the simultaneous determination of the key variables – growth, education, fertility – the results show that the indirect effect of health is positive and significant. Without recognition of the indirect role of health the economic benefits of health improvements are underestimated.

    QUESTION 13:
    Good health is the foundation of a country’s human capital. Poor public health is economically unsustainable for families and entire countries. The impact of poor quality care goes well beyond mortality, but can lead to unnecessary suffering, persistent symptoms, loss of function, and a lack of trust in the health system. Other side effects are wasted resources and catastrophic health expenditures. To address the problem, we need
    – Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    – Improve health standards
    – Improve research
    – Transnational support
    – Reduction in consumption
    – Recycle and reuse
    – Reduce corruptive actions
    – Promote vaccinations
    – Education and research

  44. Avatar IKEGULU CHUKWUKASI DAVID says:

    Reg No: 2018/248743
    Department: ECONOMICS
    Course code: Eco 361
    Course Title: Development Economics I

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    In Economics development theories are theories that helps to move an underdeveloped or developing country to a developed one, these are some of the development theories.
    MERCANTILISM:
    Mercantilism is an economic theory that advocates government regulation of international trade to generate wealth and strengthen national power. Merchants and the government work together to reduce the trade deficit and create a surplus. It advocates trade policies that protect domestic industries.
    In mercantilism, the government strengthens the private owners of the factors of production. These four factors of production are:Entrepreneurship, Capital goods, Natural resources, Labor
    Mercantilism establishes monopolies, grants tax-free status, and grants pensions to favored industries. It imposes tariffs on imports. It also prohibits the emigration of skilled labor, capital, and tools. It doesn’t allow anything that could help foreign companies.In return, businesses funnel the riches from foreign expansion back to their governments. Its taxes pay for increase national growth and political power.
    By the end of the Second World War many of the countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America had failed to develop and remained poor, despite exposure to capitalism. There was concern amongst the leaders of the western developed countries, especially the United States, that communism might spread into many of these countries, potentially harming American business interests abroad and diminishing U.S. Power.
    In this context, in the late 1940s, modernisation theory was developed, which aimed to provide a specifically non-communist solution to poverty in the developing world – Its aim was to spread a specifically industrialised, capitalist model of development through the promotion of Western, democratic values.
    MODERNIZATION THEORY:

    Modernisation theory thought the ‘third world’ should develop like the ‘first world’
    There are two main aspects of modernisation theory – (1) its explanation of why poor countries are underdeveloped, and (2) its proposed solution to underdevelopment.
    Modernisation theory explained the underdevelopment of countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America primarily in terms of cultural ‘barriers’ to development’, basically arguing that developing countries were underdeveloped because their traditional values held them back; other modernisation theorists focused more on economic barriers to development.
    In order to develop, less developed countries basically needed to adopt a similar path to development to the West. They needed to adopt Western cultural values and industrialise in order to promote economic growth. In order to do this they would need help from Western governments and companies, in the form of aid and investment.

    THE LINEAR-STAGE GROWTH MODEL:

    The linear-stages-of-growth model was accorded a framework (in the 1950s) by W. W. Rostow in “The Stages of Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto”. The Rostow framework differed from Marx’s earlier exposition, and focused on accelerated accumulation of capital. The manifesto said that both domestic and international savings are utilized to spur investment. This serves as the primary engine to promote economic growth and hence, development. The model posits five consecutive stages that all countries must pass through on the way to development. These stages are

    (i) Traditional society;
    (ii) Pre-conditions for takeoff;
    (iii) Take-off ;
    (iv) Drive to maturity; and
    (v) Stage of high mass-consumption.

     Increase in capital investment that leads to greater economic growth is illustrated mathematically with simple versions of the Harrod-Domar Model.
    In economics, structural change is a shift in the basic way a market or economy functions or operates (Todaro & Smith, 2012). The structural change model demonstrates how a country’s economy transforms from the subsistence level which is concerned with agricultural produce for personal consumption to a modern industrial economy with greater output for worldwide consumption.
    In order to illustrate the structural change model, we’ll consider two approaches, they are:
    Two-sector surplus labor theoretical model which was developed by Nobel Laureate W. Arthur Lewis.
    Patterns of demand analysis formulated by Hollis B. CHEERY.

    CONCLUSION:
    These economic development theories are very much compatible with each other firstly because they all aim to bring about steady economic growth in underdeveloped countries and developing countries, secondly they all focus on Industrialisation as the major route to obtain development.
    Knowing all these I believe that underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon, because countries tends to implement wrong policies that is not compatible with the kind of economy they have.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Property rights are not protected
    The right to start a business is limited to a small section or a favoured elite
    Consumer rights are not protected
    Employment rights do not exist
    Competition law is limited or absent
    Under-investment in human capital
    Human capital development requires investment in education. Education is a merit good, and the long term benefit to society is often considerably under-perceived, and therefore, under-consumed.

    For many in developing economies, the return on human capital development is uncertain compared to the immediate return from employment on the land. Therefore, there is little incentive to continue in full-time education.

    The solution is to reduce information failure by promoting the benefits of education and using the market system to send out effective signals to encourage people to alter their behaviour. For example, loans, grants and aid can be made conditional upon funds being allocated to provide ‘free’ education and books, or to fund teacher training, or to raise the wages of teachers so that more will train in the future.

    Over exploitation of environment and non-renewable resources
    The long term negative effect of the excessive use of resources may be less clear than the short term benefit. This means that there is a tendency for countries not to conserve resources. However, this can have an adverse effect on growth rates in the future.

    Too many resources
    Evidence suggests that some countries with the greatest scarce resources do not necessarily exploit them effectively, and may fail to develop fully. This might be because over-abundance creates a kind of Dutch disease – a complacency which can exist when a country has high quantities of valuable resources. This means that there is a tendency to squander any comparative advantage, and the potential benefits of the resources are lost.

    Over-abundance creates a disincentive to be efficient – the reverse of what has happened to Japan, which has very limited oil reserves, and needs to be efficient in the production of manufactures to enable it to import the oil it needs.

    One issue is that the allocation of property rights may be difficult when resources are so vast. Furthermore, there are likely to be inefficiencies associated with government failure as government attempts to dominate the economy and the exploitation of resources.

    Protectionism
    One significant constraint on the economic prosperity of less developed countries is the protectionism adopted by some developed one. Developed counties can impose tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures individually, or more commonly as a member of a trading bloc.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to women’s economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girl’s health and wellbeing, as well as their income-generation opportunities and participation in the formal labour market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 per cent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years. But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labour market outcomes.

    Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increasing employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    a. Poor education

    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. And why is that? There’s a lot of barriers stopping children from going to school. Many families can’t afford to send their children to school and need them to work. More still don’t see a benefit in educating girls. Education is often referred to as the great equalizer, and that’s because education can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. And, with even more education, world poverty could be cut in half.

    b. Climate change

    You might be stunned to learn that the World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next ten years. As it is, climate events like drought, flooding, and severe storms disproportionately impact communities already living in poverty. Why? Because many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    c. Lack of infrastructure

    Imagine that you have to go to work, or to the store, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impassable. What would you do then? A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living “off the grid” means the inability to go to school, work, or market to buy and sell goods. Traveling farther distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. Isolation limits opportunity, and without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    d. Limited capacity of the government

    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty if something goes wrong. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.

    e. Lack of reserves

    People living in poverty don’t have the means to weather the storms of life. So when there is a drought, or conflict, or illness, there is little money saved or assets on hand to help. In Ethiopia for example, repeated cycles of drought have caused harvest after harvest to fail, causing a widespread hunger crisis. To cope, families will pull their children from school, and sell off everything they own to eat. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.

    POLICIES TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY:

    1. Reduce Unemployment

    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.
    Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.

    2. Progressive Taxes
    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.

    However, critics argue higher income taxes create a disincentive to work., leading to less output. This is because higher tax makes work less attractive and reduces the opportunity cost of leisure. Therefore people work less and enjoy more leisure. This is known as the substitution effect. Similarly higher corporation tax may discourage investment in the UK
    However, this is disputed by other economists, who point out that higher tax reduces incomes and this may encourage people to work more, to maintain their income. (This is known as the income effect)
    Evidence suggests that higher income tax has little incentive on the supply of labour, suggesting labour supply is relatively inelastic. However, it also depends at what level income tax is set. There is certainly a level where higher income tax will reduce incentives to work.
    Other problems with increasing income tax, include tax evasion and the fact firms may adjust wages to compensate for the higher taxes.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Yes rapid increase in population tends to affect the increase or progress in the growth and development of developing countries and No a large family does not make economic sense in an economy plagued with widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    There are many factors that influences unemployment and underemployment in the developing world there include
    a. Overpopulation
    b. Poor utilization of natural endowment
    c. Illiteracy
    d. Absence or limited number of industries

    People continue to migrate to the cities from the rural area even at the risk of not finding a conventional job due to some reasons below
    1. Ignorance
    2. Lack of information
    3. Poor orientation
    4. Better infrastructure in the cities
    5. Better educational systems in the cities

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Looking at the effects that covid-19 has done to the world’s economy in general, yes a healthy nation spurs economic growth.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Impact of poor public health on development :

    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    1. Reduces labour force.

    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.

    3. Decrease in productivity.

    4. Reduces life expectancy.

    5. Decrease in human capital development.

    II. Solutions to the problems :

    1. High investment in the health sector.

    2. Increase in health care infrastructures.

    3. Better health care equipments.

    4. Employment of qualified medical practitioners.

    5. Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  45. Avatar Ekpe Esther Chidinma says:

    Name:Ekpe Esther Chidinma
    Reg.number: 2018/250324
    Department: Economic
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenal?
    In a developed country there must be some basic qualities such as employment opportunities, satisfaction -at least- of basic needs, and the achievement of a positive rate of distribution and redistribution of national wealth. In a political sense this definition emphasizes that governmental systems have legitimacy not only in terms of the law, but also in terms of providing social benefits for the majority of the population. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    Allocative inefficiency:
    When developing economies remain closed to competition and they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    Population:
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    Firstly, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Women in rural area’s play a dual role-producers of goods and services as well as their domestic chores and wives and mothers–yet their contribution to economic development has been neglected. In terms of general household activities, women are found there. In terms of agricultural activities women are also there. Taken together, women’s contribution to economic activities is close to 80/% . The problems most often cited by survey respondents included health, malnutrition, repeated childbearing, and education. It can be improved by enhancing women with the following economic development , women must receive the following services: training in income generating activities, easy access to low-interest loans, and family planning services to limit childwbearing.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    1. INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty.
    2. CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line.
    3. HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    Hunger is a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work).
    What policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    1. Creation of job opportunities
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    4. Support pay equity
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity? Yes rapid population threaten the economic progress. It is found that economic development is slow where the population is increasing at faster rate. Population problem means the problem of fulfilling the basic needs like housing, food. Thus, the rapid population growth of population directly affects the economic, social and environmental development of a country.
    Large families makes widespread poverty and financial insecurity? Every child poverty reduces productivity and economic output and GDP each year.Children living in poverty have higher dropout rates and absenteeism, which limits their employability and lastly Poverty increases the risk of poor health.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    The basic cause of unemployment in developing countries is the deficiency of the availability of essential consumer goods, often called wage goods. … Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy.
    Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    1.Poor health, growth and development
    It is notable that many countries in the world also suffer from the greatest degree of poor health.
    2.Undernourishment
    3.Malaria
    4.Waterborne disease
    1.Every woman and newborn should have a complete, accurate, and standardized medical record.
    2.Health facilities need well-trained and motivated staff consistently available to provide care.
    3.No woman should be subjected to harmful practices during labour, childbirth, and the early postnatal period.
    4.Women and newborns who need referrals can obtain them without delay.
    5.Communication with women and their families must be effective and respond to their needs

  46. Avatar Odo juliana Chinenye says:

    NAME: ODO JULIANA CHINENYE
    REG. NUMBER: 2018/SD/37269
    YEAR OF STUDY: 3/5
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS

    QUESTION 6: Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.
    1. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent. From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterised by a core/periphery configuration
    2. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies.
    3. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.
    Question 7: What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The rate of growth can be slowed down or even reversed by various factors affecting the economy, some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others maybe difficult to resolve. These constraints are;
    1. Inefficiencies within micro economy, producers in less developed nations may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost.this may be as a result of the inability to apply technology of production.
    2. Lack of real capital resources, many developing economies do not have the needed financial capital to engage in public and private investment. This is as the result of the following reasons, lack of savings, low growth, excessive debt burdenetc.
    3. Population is a considerable constraints on economic growth either becos of it rapid increase or too slow rate of growth.
    4. Corruption on the parts of their leaders; some economies suffer from corruption in different sectors.
    5. Absence of a developed legal system to protect property right, the right to start business is limited to a small section of elite, consumer right are not protected, employment right do not exist, competition law is limited.

    QUESTION 8: How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Eliminating the gap in well-being between males and females is as much a part of development as is reducing income poverty. Greater gender equality enhances economic efficiency and improves other development outcomes. It does so in the following ways:
    •First, with women now representing 40 percent of the global labor force, overall productivity will increase if their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural output in developing countries could increase a lot Elimination of barriers against women working in certain sectors or occupations could increase output by raising women’s participation and labor productivity through better allocation of their skills and talent.
    •Second, greater control over household resources by women, either through their own earnings or cash transfers, can enhance countries’ growth prospects by changing spending in ways that benefit children. Evidence shows that when women control more household income either through their own earnings or through cash transfers—children benefit as a result of more spending on food and education.
    •Finally, empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices.

    QUESTION 9: What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
    The much-required capital and sustainable entrepreneurship play a very important role in accelerating the growth. But these are in short supply making it difficult to increase production significantly.
    Policies to reduce poverty
    Minimum wage: Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.

    QUESTION 10: Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity. So large families do not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    QUESTION 11: Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    1. underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    2. Supply and demand: when certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.
    3. Technological changes: Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    4. The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school .Studies show this is true for countries as well; health can be a causative factor for the aggregate economic growth of a country.

    QUESTION 12: Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems. Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. The incentive effect is borne of the theoretical literature, and individuals who are healthier and have a greater life expectancy will have the incentive to invest in education as the time horizon over which returns can be earned is extended. It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Although global health has improved significantly in recent decades, this benefit has not been shared evenly within and among nations. Several hundred million people across the globe continue to go without basic health services, especially in rural areas and in the most impoverished communities. The role of health in economic development is analyzed via two channels: the direct labor productivity effect and the indirect incentive effect. The labor productivity hypothesis asserts that individuals who are healthier have higher returns to labor input. This is well tested in the empirical literature with mixed conclusions. Education is the driver of economic growth, and thus health plays an indirect role. Accounting for the simultaneous determination of the key variables – growth, education, fertility – the results show that the indirect effect of health is positive and significant. Without recognition of the indirect role of health the economic benefits of health improvements are underestimated.

    QUESTION 13:
    Good health is the foundation of a country’s human capital. Poor public health is economically unsustainable for families and entire countries. The impact of poor quality care goes well beyond mortality, but can lead to unnecessary suffering, persistent symptoms, loss of function, and a lack of trust in the health system. Other side effects are wasted resources and catastrophic health expenditures. To address the problem, we need
    – Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    – Improve health standards
    – Improve research
    – Transnational support
    – Reduction in consumption
    – Recycle and reuse
    – Reduce corruptive actions
    – Promote vaccinations
    – Education and research

  47. Avatar OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    NAME : OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA.
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242433.
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.
    EMAIL: Okpuzoremmanuel232@gmail.com
    ECO 361 ASSIGNMENT.

    6.) Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced pheneomenon?
    The most influential theories of development:
    a.) Modernization theory
    b.) Dependency
    b.) World- system
    c.) Globalization
    Modernization Theory: According to the modernization theory, modern societies are more productive, children are better educated, and the needy receive more welfare. According to Smelser’s analysis, modern societies have the particular feature of social structural differentiation, that is to say a clear definition of functions and political roles from national institutions.
    Theory of dependency: The foundations of the theory of dependency emerged in the 1950s from the research of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
    The theory of dependency combines elements from a neo-marxist perspective with Keynes’ economic theory – the liberal economic ideas which emerged in the United States and Europe as a response to the depression years of the 1920s. From the Keynes’ economic approach, the theory of dependency embodies four main points:
    a) To develop an important internal effective demand in terms of domestic markets;
    b) To recognize that the industrial sector is crucial to achieving better levels of national development, especially due to the fact that this sector, in comparison with the agricultural sector, can contribute more value-added to products;
    c) To increase worker’s income as a means of generating more aggregate demand in national market conditions.
    d.) To promote a more effective government role in order to reinforce national development conditions and to increase national standards of living.
    Theory of world system: A central element from which the theory of world-systems emerged was the different form that capitalism was taking around the world.
    Globalization: The theory of globalization emerges from the global mechanisms of greater integration with particular emphasis on the sphere of economic transactions.
    6b.) Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    For me I think underdevelopment is both an internal and external induced phenomenon.
    Using international trade as an example; the trade of cars between an underdeveloped and a developed country. Car can bring about development in a country, it assists in transportation and other things that aids development in a nation. If there is a restriction in the trade of car between the two countries, there will be an underdevelopment in the developing country. In the developed country, there is a reduction in the rate of export and a reduction in the per capita income of car bringing about underdevelopment.
    Migration is another example which I will like to give. When people migrate to a country from the country they were initially let’s say they are migrating from Nigeria to Argentina. To Nigerians, labor force is been reduced and to the Argentines increased. To Nigeria, there is a reduction in the tendency to the rate of crime and to Argentina, an increase in the tendency of crime rate caused by the growing population.
    7.) What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following constraints can hold back economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    a.) Illiteracy: If the rate of literacy is low in any society, the society is prone to be downgraded with economic growth.
    b.) Joint family system: In a situation whereby families live together doing nothing except maybe quarrelling with each other, the economic growth reduces as it won’t in any way contribute to any growth in the country or society.
    c.) Corruption: The best examples of countries that have had poor economic growth due to regional conflicts are the Africa economics that are perpetually at war with each other and within themselves. Despite the availability of resources in the western African countries, the state of civil war in many of these countries has made the economic development of them stunted.
    d.) Scarce human Capital: Due to the lack of education and other social needs, those in the less developed world often lack the skills needed to grow the economy where and when necessary.
    e.) Poor infrastructure: When there is no good infrastructure, economy tends to go down. This is one of the most prominent factors that can reduce the growth of any economy.
    8.) How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects.
    9.) What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Below are some of the causes of Extreme Poverty:
    a.) Lack of education
    b.)Poor public works and infrastructure
    c.) Climate change
    d.) Conflict
    e.) Inequality and marginalization.
    9b.) Policies that have been made to reduce the rate of poverty and improving the lives of the poor:
    a.) Minimum wage laws which require that all employers to pay their employees a minimum amount of wage that is determined by the government.
    b.) Social security: which refers to several different government benefits, such as income support, tax credits, social welfare, or unemployment benefits.
    c.) Negative income tax: Here individuals with a higher income pay a more significant percentage of their income in taxes. As part of those additional tax revenues can be used to subsidize individuals and families with low income.
    d.) In kind benefits: are non-cash alternative to regular benefits. The idea behind this is to provide low-income families and individuals directly with access to certain goods and services they need most to increase their standard of living.
    10.) Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    10a.)Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population, and population pressure has led on the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.

    10b.) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right of security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disabkility and what have you beyond his control. So yes! Families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.
    11.) Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    11a.)
    i.)Lack of Physical capital relative to labor force
    ii.) The nature of unemployment in under-developed countries is quite different; it is of chronic and long-term nature.
    iii.)Lack of wage goods and unemployment in developing countries.
    iv.)Lack of the stock of physical capital
    11b.) For me I think they are migrating to find comfort, to visit family and friends, visit their love ones and all. People migrate to the urban areas to sell things made in the rural areas to get money.
    12.) Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Health is a key component of an individual’swelfare and standard of living. Sickness and ill health, and the risk of death, are central issues in shaping human capabilities and behavior.
    There is therefore a strong argument for health spending on the grounds that it has a direct effect on human wellbeing and happiness. The market for health is special and the provision of health often requires a large element of involvement by government. Infectious diseases have obvious externalities that create a large public interest in their control. In addition, the uncertainty of the occurrence of ill health, and the large medical bills that it may lead to, creates a need for insurance or borrowing to finance health expenditures.

    13.) What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Impact of poor public health on the prospects for development:
    a.) Limiting one’s ability to work
    b.) Reducing economic opportunities
    c.) Inhibiting educational attainment.
    d.) Individuals suffering from illness may be week, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants.
    Barriers that assist to address this issues:
    a.) Lack of consensus on the content of the public health mission
    b.) Inadequate capacity to carry out the essential public health functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance of services.
    c.) Inequalities in the distribution of services and benefits of public health.
    d.)Organizational fragmentation or submersion.

  48. Avatar NGADI GOD'S PROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME :NGADI GOD’S PROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO: 2018/242405
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    COURSE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361
    6.Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Modernization theory
    Structuralism
    Dependency theory
    The basic needs model
    Neoclassical development theory
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies.
    Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. 
    Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. 
    The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being.
    Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    7.What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Joint Family System:
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    Literacy :
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth. In Indian and Pakistan…
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Increase in Agriculture:if women farmers (43 per cent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries) had the same access as men, agricultural output in 34 developing countries would rise by an estimated average of up to 4 per cent. This could reduce the number of undernourished people in those countries by as much as 17 per cent, translating to up to 150 million fewer hungry people.
    Poverty Eradication:To help rural women escape poverty, in 2012 UN Women joined with the World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agriculture Development to launch a joint programme to empower poor rural women through economic integration and food security initiatives. The initiative aims to empower rural women to claim their rights to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, and to participate in shaping laws, policies and programmes.
    Knowledge Empowerment:The new online platform is an open global community for knowledge mobilization, innovation and partnerships. It seeks to re-vitalize women’s economic empowerment by building connections and bringing together people who need resources with those that have them. The portal will feature e-discussions, interviews, videos and other resources on rural women, food and poverty reduction from 15-25 October.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Inequality and marginalization: “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities.
    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs).
    Lack of Government support
    Lack of Jobs and livelihood
    Poor public work and infrastructure
    Lack of Reserve
    EFFECTIVE POLICIES
    Creation of jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs.
    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour.
    Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges.
    Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income.
    Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product.
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Population growth is now much more rapid.in industrializing Europe .it seldom exceeded 1.5 percent a year, compared with the 2 to 4 percent that most developing coun￾tries have averaged since World War II.Unlike nineteenth century Europe, large-scale migration from today’s developing countries is not possible.Compared with Europe, Japan, and North
    America in their periods of fastest population growth, income in developing countries is still low, human and physical capital are less built up,and in some countries political and social institu￾tions are less well established.Many developing countries whose economiesare still largely dependent on agriculture can nolonger draw on large tracts of unused land.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Overpopulation: Developing areas especially cities experience high level of unemployment and underemployment because of how densely populated they are. So, ten persons would be chasing a Job designed for one person and employers of Labour would exploit Labour and under pay them.
    Search for White collar Job: The growing desire of individuals in search of white collar Job is alarming and this jobs can only be found in cities. Therefore people in rural areas continually troop into urban areas in search of white collar jobs
    Availability of social amenities: Power supply, pipe borne water, Good roads, good medical facilities, etc are found in cities. The desire of rural dwellers to have a taste of good life influences their decision to migrate to cities despite all the vices that are prevalent in that region.
    The strong urge to feel belonging: it is believed that on the average, urban dwellers are richer than rural dwellers. So there is this strong urge among rural dwellers to travel to the city and find any job inorder to be recognised by their kindred.
    Insufficient capital for commercial farming: farmers have lost interest in farming because they do not have mechanised tools that can meet up with the Demand in market and this incapacity is making so many change profession.
    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health. In sum, health affects economic growth directly through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Undernourishment:The economic impact of malnutrition occurs largely through its effects on the labour force. Those suffering from malnutrition often feel weak and lacking in energy and are more susceptible to infection and other illnesses than those who receive the minimum dietary energy requirements (Dasgupta 1993, Chowdhury and Chen 1977).
    Malaria:Malaria is one of the most prevalent and challenging infectious diseases affecting developing countries. It is endemic in 91 countries, accounting for 40% of the world’s population, and is responsible for over 1 million deaths per year (McCarthy et al., 2000). Clearly such deaths will affect the supply of labour. However, in the majority of cases, particularly in labour-supplying adults, malaria is non-fatal, but results in frequent recurrent attacks that affect the productivity of labour supply.
    Like malnutrition, malaria is most common in the poorest regions of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike malnutrition, the incidence of malaria appears to be only a weak function of income.
    Waterborne diseases: Lack of access to sanitation and particularly to safe drinking water remains a great risk to health in developing countries. It is a strong determinant of waterborne diarrhoeal and other diseases such as amoebiasis, cholera, dysentery, schistosomiasis and typhoid fever as well as roundworm and guinea worm infections. It is estimated that diarrhoeal diseases alone (including dysentery) annually kill over 2 million children under the age of five (Warner, 1997). And yet, as with malnutrition and malaria, adults often survive the effects of waterborne diseases, but their labour productivity becomes severely impaired both during and after the period of disease.
    SOLUTION TO THESE PROBLEMS
    Government should increase her expenditure on citizens welfare by providing food that nourishes the health system.
    Investment in antimalaria protection (such as bed nets) and also health care services to treat sufferers and establishment of Eradication programmes which should focus on the control of mosquitoes.
    Production of water treatment: water treatment should be encouraged and mandated for people who are in water production business.

  49. Avatar Aneke Hannah Chimuaya says:

    Name: Aneke Hannah
    Reg no : 2018/2242453
    Course code: Eco 361
    Department: Economics department
    Email: aneke.Chimuaya. 242453@unn.edu.ng

    Question
    6)Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer
    6) Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Answer
    economic growth was held back by three key constraints.

    The first was the savings constraint. A poor country such as India could not save enough of its annual national income to sustain high rates of investment. The lack of domestic savings was without doubt the most serious constraint to economic growth in the early decades after political independence.
    The second was the foreign exchange constraint. This lack of hard currency to import the capital equipment needed to build new industrial capacity led to the Nehruvian quest to build a domestic capital goods industry ahead of a consumer goods industry.
    The third was the food constraint. The Mumbai critics of the Mahalanobis plans had warned that the impact of the lack of wage goods would be inflationary as money incomes went up. The mainstream plan models optimistically considered agriculture as a bargain sector in which production could be increased with minimal investment
    Question
    8)How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Question
    What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer
    1. INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle.
    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty.

    2. CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line.
    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    3.HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work).
    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    4. LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home. This means that people (which is to say, women and girls) collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.
    Contaminated water can also lead to a host of waterborne diseases, ranging from the chronic to the life-threatening. Poor water infrastructure — such as sanitation and hygiene facilities — can compound this, or create other barriers to escaping poverty, such as keeping girls out of school during menstruation.

    5. LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here.
    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end.

    1: Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.
    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    2. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.
    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.
    4. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.
    Question
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Answer
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.high population growth creates pressures on limited natural resources, reduces private and public capital formation, and diverts additions to capital resources to maintaining rather than increasing the stock of capital per worker.

    Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Yes, in a family where there are too many children, they make use of their labour force to conquer the existing poverty or financial insecurities.

    Question
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer
    The basic cause of unemployment in developing countries is the deficiency of the availability of essential consumer goods, often called wage goods. … Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy.

    B.why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    The failure to improve significantly the relative economic position of the poorest income group has become a less recognized problem for many developed countries. As many researchers, economists try to find solution to the problem as it seems as though gaining employment is the only source of income for the poor because unemployment is becoming the only social problem hindering development.
    Question
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Answer
    Yes,Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care also these Wealthy societies have better equipment that improves health and make life easier.
    There’s a saying that says health is wealth.

    But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Yes better health also help spur successful development. This occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school .

    Question
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Answer
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.
    Poverty can affect children’s cognitive development, and those living in poverty are over three times more likely to suffer from mental health problems. … Most individual long-term conditions are more than twice as common i
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness

    what is needed to address these problems?

    Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems. Develop policies and rules that support individual and community health efforts. Enforce laws, rules and regulations that protect public health and the environment and ensure safety.

  50. Avatar Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi says:

    Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi 2018/241841 6.) The following are some of the most influential theories of development: modernization, dependency, world-
    systems and globalization. Yes, they are compatible. Underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon. 7.) The following are the constraints that hold back accelerated growth: Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade. 8.) Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women. when there is improvement in the status of women, there is a general development as there will become an increase in the labour force and this would create wages for the women thereby increasing their well being as they are now financially able to fend for themselves. 9.) The following are causes of extreme poverty: inequality and marginalisation, conflict, hunger, malnutrition, poor healthcare systems, poor hygiene. The most effective policies to eradicate poverty are: ■ better lives and livelihoods for families;
    ■ more stable income and productive employment;
    ■ fair rules of the game and fundamental rights in the world of work;
    ■ voice through organization, mobilization and empowerment;
    ■ more stability and peace in local communities;
    ■ basic rights and social protection for those working in the informal economy
    and bridges towards the formal economy;
    ■ social institutions where voices of the poor are heard and develop out of
    ownership and participation through dialogue;
    ■ increased wage and self-employment through access to financial services,
    skills development and training;
    ■ policies to take children out of child labour and into school and to end
    forced labour;
    ■ an end to discrimination against the poor, especially girls and women, who
    are most vulnerable and least protected;
    ■ healthier and safer workplaces and homes; and
    ■ more opportunities to develop initiative, creativity and entrepreneurship 10.) It doesn’t make sense for people to still involve themselves in bearing so many children especially considering the continuous increase in population. This will just continue to put the country in deeper poverty level. 11.) A large population in a developing country would always result to unemployment and underemployment as there is now an excess supply of labour over its demand. People keep moving to urban areas because they believe there is more hope for work there than in rural areas. 12.) Better health spurs development as it’s only when one is healthy that one can work and then earn health. Development doesn’t just look at one’s economic status but rather a general view of one’s well being. When one is healthy, it shows an atom of development as well. 13.) Poor public health services hinder development as it means there is poor avenue for treating sick citizens which in return causes a drop in development as output tends to fall. The government should focus more on training more skilled personnel rather than building hospitals and buying machines as these capitals can depreciate if no one is available to make use of them.

  51. Avatar EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

    NAME::EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE

    REG NO:: 2018/251024

    DEPARTMENT;: ECONOMICS

    LEVEL::300 LEVEL

    EMAIL:: sopuluchukwuluke@gmail.com

    COURSE:: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    ASSIGNMENT
    1..1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES

    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    In Europe, the process of primitive accumulation involved the creation of wage labour, which migrated from the rural hinterland to the industrial regions. The eventual triumph of capitalism will depend largely on the historical conditions, which either promote or retard the development of a market economy. Marx also stressed other factors: the influx of precious metals from the “new world”, the slave trade and the growth of merchant capital (Braudel, 1984). The original Marxian theory had envisaged that capitalism would eventually become the dominant economic system on a world scale. The dynamic “inner laws” of capital, driven by the profit motive and accumulation, attracts into the ambit of world trade, all other pre-capitalist societies.

    Marx’s earlier writings on colonialism focused on British colonial policy in India. By the nineteenth century, the British East India company had ceased to be profitable as a solely mercantilist enterprise and became a publicly-listed company. As merchant capital, its role in India was wholly destructive because it failed to create the conditions for the growth of capitalism. As soon as it became a capitalist enterprise, however, it acquired the role of industrial capital and began to sow the seeds of capitalist enterprise in India itself.

    2..Inefficiency
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    Inefficiency
    X inefficiency can arise when there is a lack of competition in a market. It is primarily associated with inefficient management, where average cost is above its minimum. Competition is limited in many developing economies, and resources are often allocated by government. This means that inefficient management is common.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.

    3..Traditionally, women were considered to be full-time homemakers. Their responsibilities were to take care of their children and family. They didn’t have any role in the household earning. Over the years, the roles of women have changed. Here we are going to discuss it.

    Child-bearing role

    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.

    Education

    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.

    Outside activities

    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.

    Workplace

    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities. The percentage of the part-time job is more in case of women. Women are still often seen in the caring or teaching sector. But now more women are entering the male-dominated sectors like politics, the legal system, etc. as well. More women are occupying senior management positions.

    Fighting for rights

    Women now have a voice, unlike before. Families are no more male-dominated. Like men, women also make major life decisions. Women have stood against dowry and domestic violence. Even in the workplace, they fight against sexual abuse and equality. Child marriage is being stopped in many communities.

    Men now play a role in child raising and household activities just like women. Both men and women now share their responsibilities both home and outside. Women now stand against any discrimination and torture. There have been lots of gender-issue related movements and many social organizations now fight for women’s rights. Women are now getting power even in rural areas. In many countries now women are the head of the state. Education has made women independent and they are no longer dependent on men to lead their lives.

    Business laws have changed to allow more women in the workplace and giving them a comfortable environment to work in. Women can now stand tall like men and get equal opportunities in everything.

    4i..1. Government Corruption

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.

    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.

    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.

    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.

    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.

    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.

    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.
    4ii..1. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    2. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.

    4. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.

    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.

    5i..Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    5ii..Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies.

    6..
    Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs
    G S Fields. J Dev Econ. 1975 Jun.
    Show details

    Cite

    Abstract
    PIP: A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected–a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban “murky sector,” preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover–and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy’s production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a first best solution can be achieved by means of a variety of alternative tax or subsidy schemes, none of which require migration restriction. This analysis suggests 3 additional policy variables, beyond those considered by either pair, which might be expected to have an important effect on the volume of unemployment and underemployment in LDCs: a smoothly functioning labor exchange would reduce the incentive to remain unemployed while searching for a superior job; the size of the educational system would also influence the amount of unemployment; and it is job hiring in the modern sector, more than the number of jobs, which primarily influences workers’ locational decisions.

    7i..Studies have shown a positive correlation between good health and higher income. That is people who earn more money tend to have less disease and better health, overall. Poor health and higher rates of disease are associated more with those in lower income groups.

    Those living in low-income households are less likely to have health insurance or access to medications and treatments that can treat chronic health conditions. Low-income families also have less access to preventative and specialty care. Even after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, 27 million Americans remain uninsured (Khullar 2018).

    Even mental health has been found to be affected by income with families that earn less than $35,000 reporting feeling nervous four times as often as families that earn more than $100,000 annually (Woolf 2015).

    Perhaps the most striking statistics around health and wealth are those related to life expectancy. Since the 1970s, those in the higher end of the tax bracket have seen their life expectancies increase by more than 6 years, while those in the lower end have seen an increase of only 1.3 years (Woolf 2015). In fact, a study found that citizens living just 350 miles apart in some US cities have drastically different life expectancies. In McDowell County, West Virginia, men can expect to live to age 64, and in Fairfax, Virginia, men can expect to live to age 82 (Weng 2013).

    It’s no surprise that individuals with higher income can afford gym memberships and have more time for improving their physical health. Higher paying careers are also more likely to provide comprehensive health insurance. We also know that nutritious food, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, cost more than calorie-dense, inexpensive, ready-to-eat meals.
    7ii..Many people talk about the risks associated with being unhealthy rather than the benefits of being healthy. Being unhealthy, as we know, can cause a variety of nutrition and obesity-related health diseases. Chronic unhealthy habits result in 700,000 deaths in the US each year.

    How come there’s less talk about the benefits of doing your body right? What does it offer you on a long-term basis? Keep reading to find out.

    1. Fights Disease

    Working out and eating right are a powerful duo when it comes to the longevity of health because it helps the body prevent disease. Health complications such as cancer, diabetes, or heart failure are all linked to poor health choices and a sedentary lifestyle.

    While having a family history of a particular disease increases the chances you contract a disease, it is often the choices you make that either mark its appearance or makes it worse.

    Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables equips the body with the antioxidants and fiber it needs to flush toxins to keep the cells healthy. Any exercise helpful overall body health, especially the heart.

    2. Builds Confidence

    You gain a new level of confidence when you work out on a regular basis. Strength training, walking, running, dancing, or swimming may initially seem troublesome, tiring, or hard for some.

    However, after time the challenges and pain become worth it as you begin to enjoy it while seeing your body change in the process.

    8i.. Login

    
    HEALTH POLICY BRIEF CULTURE OF HEALTH
    Health, Income, & Poverty: Where We Are & What Could Help
    Dhruv Khullar Dave A. Chokshi
    Strong evidence linking income and health suggests that policies promoting economic equity may have broad health effects.
    OCTOBER 4, 2018 DOI: 10.1377/hpb20180817.901935

    ABOUT
    Key Points
    Income is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality across the income distribution, and income-related health disparities appear to be growing over time.

    Income influences health and longevity through various clinical, behavioral, social, and environmental mechanisms. Isolating the unique contribution of income to health can be difficult because this relationship intersects with many other social risk factors.

    Poor health also contributes to reduced income, creating a negative feedback loop sometimes referred to as the health-poverty trap.

    Income inequality has grown substantially in recent decades, which may perpetuate or exacerbate health disparities.

    Policy initiatives that supplement income and improve educational opportunities, housing prospects, and social mobility—particularly in childhood—can reduce poverty and lead to downstream health effects not only for low-income people but also for those in the middle class.

    Poverty has long been recognized as a contributor to death and disease, but several recent trends have generated an increased focus on the link between income and health. First, income inequality in the United States has increased dramatically in recent decades, while health indicators have plateaued, and life expectancy differences by income have grown. Second, there is growing scholarly and public recognition that many nonclinical factors—education, employment, race, ethnicity, and geography—influence health outcomes. Third, health care payment and delivery system reforms have encouraged an emphasis on addressing social determinants of health, including income.

    In this brief, we review the evidence supporting the income-health relationship and the likely mechanisms through which income affects health. We then discuss the growing importance of this association, given widening income inequality, and discuss policy levers that might help reduce income-related health disparities.

    Income And Health—The Evidence
    Economic inequality is increasingly linked to disparities in life expectancy across the income distribution, and these disparities seem to be growing over time. In the 1970s, a sixty-year-old man in the top half of the income distribution could expect to live 1.2 years longer than a man in the bottom half. By the turn of the century, he could expect to live 5.8 years longer.

    A landmark study by Raj Chetty and colleagues found that since 2001, life expectancy has increased by about 2.5 years for the top 5 percent of the income distribution, but there have been no gains for those in the bottom 5 percent. Men in the top 1 percent of the income distribution can now expect to live fifteen years longer than those in the bottom 1 percent. For women, the difference is about ten years—an effect equivalent to that of a lifetime of smoking.

    While stark disparities in mortality along the economic gradient understandably capture our attention, we should not overlook substantial income-related differences in morbidity. The United States has among the largest income-based health disparities in the world: Poor adults are five times as likely as those with incomes above 400 percent of the federal poverty level to report being in poor or fair health.

    In a nearly stepwise fashion, low-income Americans have higher rates of physical limitation and of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and other chronic conditions, compared to higher-income Americans. Americans living in families that earn less than $35,000 a year are four times as likely to report being nervous and five times as likely to report being sad all or most of the time, compared to those living in families earning more than $100,000 a year. These disparities emerge early in life and can be transmitted across generations. For the 6.8 million children living in deep poverty (those with family incomes of less than half of poverty), there are adverse consequences across the life course related to nutrition, environmental exposures, chronic illness, and language development.

    It is important to clearly distinguish between income and wealth. This brief focuses on income, which refers to the sum of wages, salaries, and other earnings in a given time period. By contrast, wealth encompasses the total value of assets and debts held by a person or family. Compared to income, wealth is harder to study and more unequally distributed, and it may be more important for health disparities that persist over generations.
    8ii..Protect Against Environmental Health Hazards

    Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.

    Prepare and Respond To Emergencies

    Preparing and responding to emergencies means engaging in activities that prepare public health departments to respond to events and incidents and assist communities in recovery, such as providing leadership for public health preparedness activities within a community; developing, exercising and periodically reviewing response plans for public health threats; and developing and maintaining a system of public health workforce readiness, deployment, and response.

  52. Avatar Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    ame: Udeze Obianuju Charity
    Reg No: 2018/244283
    Department: Education Economics

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible? Is development an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer: The most influential theories of development are as follows
    1. Modernisation theory
    2. Dependency theory
    3. Feminist theory
    Modernisation theory: the modernization theory deals with or focuses on two categories of societies in the world, the traditional and the modern societies. The traditional societies have a lot of beliefs, values and norms that prevent their development. The aim of modernisation theory is to improve the standard of living of inferior societies.
    Criticisms of modernisation theory are:
    1. No country has developed as a result of following modernisation theory.
    2. They believe that traditional values are inferior to the westerners.
    3 . They believe in helping traditional societies to develop in western way to thereby giving opportunities for the westerners to develop more.
    4. It has ecological limitations. Modernisation project such as forestry and mining often lead to the destruction of environment.
    These failures of modernization theory led to the postulation of dependency theory.
    Dependency Theory: this theory states that the underdevelopment of the developing states are not naturally inherited rather it was imposed by the very development of industralised nations. The criticisms of this theory are:
    1. What is called dependent interstate relations are actually interdependent relations.
    2. The subject matter of dependency theory is narrow because it focuses on economic factors only.
    Feminist theory: this theory focuses on the role of women as a key to development. It focuses on the centrality of gender in shaping every aspect of social life.
    The theories are not compatible because they dealt with different things. The modernisation theory dealt with the fact that different cultural beliefs, norms and values prevented development while dependency theory believe that nations developed as a result of their dependency on each other and the feminist theory believe that development bcomes as a result of equality of genders.

    Development is an internally induced phenomenon.
    Question 7. What constraints mostly hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions.
    Answer: the constraints to accelerated growth are:
    1. Productive, allocative and social inefficiency.
    2. Imbalances in the sense that Soo many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors of the economy with little growth.
    3. Lack of capital.
    4. Corruption
    5. High population growth rate.

    Question 8. How can improvement in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer: the roles on women on development are
    1. Women aid stability which is essential for development.
    2. They are educators.
    3. They are a source of social transformation. In order words they are caretakers.

    Question 9. What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer: the causes of extreme poverty are:
    1. Overpopulation
    2. Unemployment
    3. Inflation
    4. Inefficient utilization of available scarce resources.
    5. Lack of capital and qualified management or entrepreneur.
    The most effective policies for improving the poorest of the poor are:
    1. Job creation policies.
    2. Early child education
    3. Increase in minimum wage.
    4. Improved medical services.

    Question 10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Answer: rapid population growth are threatening to economic development because it will lead to increased unemployment and per capital income of that nation. It leads to hunger and starvation. It can also lead to increase in the number of uneducated members in the society.

    Question 11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Answer: the causes of unemployment are
    1. Lack of jobs.
    2. Excessive rural to urban migration.
    3. Lack of proper training.
    4. Inadequate social amenities.
    5. Lack of proper education.

    People continue to migrate to the cities because they desire better jobs, better education and also for adventure purposes but little did they know that there is no there there in the cities.

    Question 12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Answer: yes better health helps to spur successful development because it is only a healthy person that can work efficiently and effectively and make positive contributions to economic growth. Onces many people are healthy and working, the economy will be progressing. Also health is wealth in itself.
    Question 13. What is the impact of the poor public health on the prospects of development and what is needed to address these problems?
    Answer: the impact of poor public health are that it can lead to high death rate without a corresponding increase in birth rate, dropping out of jobs, increase in the number of sick people, etc.
    What is needed to address the problem are:
    1. Good hospitals.
    2. Good medical facilities.
    3. Employment of qualified medical personnels.
    4. Proper hygiene is also very necessary.

  53. Avatar Stephen Faith Kuranen says:

    Name: Stephen Faith Kuranen.
    Reg.no: 2018/242333.
    Department: Economics.
    Course: Departmental Economics (Eco 361).
    Clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    Q6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer: Theories of Economic development are
    • The linear-stages of growth model.
    • Theories and patterns of structural changes.
    • The international dependence revolution.
    • The neoclassical, free-market counter-revolution. (1)linear-stages-of-growth model, (2) theories and patterns of structural change, (3)
    historically been followed by the more developed countries. In recent years, an eclectic approach has emerged that draws
    on all of these classic theories.
    Theorists of the 1950s and 1960s viewed the process of development as a series
    and mixture of saving, investment, and foreign aid were all that was necessary to
    enable developing nations to proceed along an economic growth path that had
    the international-dependence revolution, and (4) the neoclassical, free-market
    of successive stages of economic growth through which all countries must pass. It
    was primarily an economic theory of development in which the right quantity
    became synonymous with rapid, aggregate economic growth.
    It was more radical and more political. It viewed underdevelopment in terms of
    opportunities, and to reduce income inequalities. These and other egalitarian objectives competing schools of thought. The first, which focused on theories and patterns of changes were to be achieved within the context of a growing economy, but economic function of inefficient public enterprises. Failure to develop, according to this theory, is structural change, used modern economic theory and statistical analysis in any stages and structural change models.They Intended to emphasize external and internal institutional and political constraints
    growth per second was not given the exalted status accorded to it by the linear
    neoclassical (sometimes called neoliberal) counterrevolution in economic thought
    developing country must undergo if it is to succeed in generating and sustaining
    attempt to portray the internal process of structural change that a “typical” development not due to exploitive external and internal forces as expounded by dependence economic rigidities, and the resulting proliferation of dual economies and dual so throughout much of the 1980s and 1990s, a fourth approach prevailed. Theorists rather, it is primarily the result of too much government intervention and regulation of the economy. Today’s eclectic approach draws on all of these societies both within and among the nations of the world. Dependence theories on economic development. Emphasis was placed on the need for major new development.
    This linear-stages approach was largely replaced in the 1970s by two companies
    policies to eradicate poverty, to provide more diversified employment opportunities, rapid economic growth. The second, the international-dependence revolution, emphasized the beneficial role of free markets, open economies, and the privatization, international and domestic power relationships, institutional and structural economic perspectives, and we will highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the economy. Underdevelopment is either internally or externally depending on the phenomenon, but in this case it’s externally (international) why because the we are not in unity and peace with ourselves, lack helping each other to grow and the rest of them. After more than a half century of experience with attempting to encourage
    modern development, we have learned that development is both possible and
    extremely difficult to achieve.

    Q7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    ° Poverty.
    ° Corruption.
    ° Bad Leadership.
    ° Unemployment.
    ° Dispute among others on different issues.
    introducing the problem that despite significant improvements over the past half century, extreme poverty remains widespread in the economy often these impoverished people suffer from undernutrition and poor health, have little or no literacy, live in environmentally degraded meager living on small and marginal farms (or as day laborers) or in dilapi 40% of the world’s population—live on less than $2 a day. As you will see in per day at 2005 U.S. purchasing power parity, and some 2.6 billion—close to developing world. An estimated 1.374 billion people live on less than $1.25 areas, have little political voice, are socially excluded, and attempt to earn a dated urban slums.
    Thus many developing countries that had experienced relatively high
    rates of economic growth by historical standards discovered that such growth
    often brought little in the way of significant benefits to their poor.
    we are assuming that social welfare depends positively on the level of income per capita but negatively on poverty and negatively on the level of inequality, as these terms have just been defined.

    Q8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Answer: There is this quote that says women are only for the houses and kitchens but also the Nations at large. The roles of women are primarily recognized in the social, political, economic, cultural and religious spheres. In these spheres, when they are to possess efficient skills and abilities, so they are able to render their participation in an effectual manner. In addition to the skills and abilities, it is vital for women to generate awareness in terms of the factors influencing their participation. Empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices. There are lots of beneficial impact when there are gender inequality in a developed country e.g USA, China, India and the rest of them even in some countries in Africa are seeing the improvements in the status of women in development prospects.

    Q9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Answer: More than 10% of the world’s population lives in extreme poverty. approximately 800 million people in the world, it’s their reality. 11% of the world’s population is living in extreme poverty, which is defined as surviving on only $1.90 a day.
    1. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food.
    2. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs.
    3. Conflict.
    CONFLICT can cause poverty i