Eco. 361—23-8-2021 (Online Discussion Quiz 3–More Vital Questions to Budding Economists)

Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

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  1. MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI says:

    NAME: MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI
    REG. NO.: 2018/242336
    DEPARTMENT: ECOMOMICS
    ECO. 361: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS I
    Online Discussion Quiz 3–More Vital Questions to Budding Economists
    Clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Structuralism and linear stages of growth model are the most influential theories of development. They are compatible because they are both concerned with restructuring the economy in such a way that lead to industrialization and economic development.
    Underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon because most factors which lead to the issue of underdevelopment in developing countries are locally or internally generated. Some of these factors may be as a result of the following:
    Government policies
    The People’s Culture
    Climate and Geography of the country
    Resource Availability etc.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following are the factors that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    Culture of the people
    Government policies
    Poor utilization of resources
    Lack of Infrastructure
    Insecurity

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    A popular cliché notes that when you empower a man, you empower an individual; when you empower a woman, you empower a nation. Improving the role and status of women yields the highest return on all development investments. Reducing the role and the status of women who are in active labour force, for example, may lead to reduction in total household expenditure, government tax revenues, private businesses and personal savings; and hence the resources available for a successful development. These conditions outlined above may combine to stifle economic growth and development. So in a society where there is an improvement in the role and status of women, there is bound to be unprecedented economic growth and development.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Some of the causes of extreme poverty include:
    Corrupt Government
    Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    Poor Access to Education
    Poor Access to Healthcare
    Effective policies for Improving the lives of the poorest of the poor among others are:
    Equality and Representation for all
    Increased Access to Education
    Micro-financing
    Job Creation
    Access to Healthcare
    Economic Security

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is a huge threat to economic progress and development in developing countries. Taking the situation in Nigeria as a case study; the country is in a period of economic decline, still the population is growing at an alarming rate. In this scenario, the economy has to cater to much more people than it is able to sustain. This situation threatens economic progress in the sense that exceeding the carrying capacity of the economy will act as a drag to any plan for economic progress.

    No, it does not make sense to have large families in face of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Because having large families in this situation can be detrimental to the economy. For instance, there will be an increase in unemployment rate leading to an increase in crime rate. The two factors come about as a result of having large families in poverty stricken economies. These further acts as a drag on any economic progress and development.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    There is so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries because these twin variables-unemployment and underemployment-are the main distinguishing features of developing economies; they are also prevalent in developing economies because of the bad state of the economy in these states.
    Why people from rural areas migrate to the cities is because they feel that there are numerous employment opportunities in the cities. But the number of people moving to the cities for employment is more than than the number of cities that absorb this labour and also, the number of job opportunities in the cities are limited. This causes an imbalance which leads to various socio-economic difficulties in the cities. The rural areas are therefore, a source of unlimited labour to the cities. Economically, such labour will be cheap and this also leads to unemployment and underemployment typical of most cities in developing countries.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Yes, better health help spur successful development. In an economy where the citizens are healthy, successful development can be attained. Because when any of the citizens get sick, they are sure that they will be properly taken care of in well funded and well equipped public health care facilities and also, a healthy person will be able to think of ways to develop the economy since there is no need to worry about his health.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  2. Joseph chinonso Lucky 2018/241859 says:

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    *Answer.
    Modernization theory: is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    *Answer.
    * Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.
    * Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    * Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.
    *Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.
    *Absence of a developed legal system
    In many developing economies there is an absence of a developed or appropriate legal system in the following areas:

    Property rights are not protected
    The right to start a business is limited to a small section or a favoured elite
    Consumer rights are not protected
    Employment rights do not exist
    Competition law is limited or absent.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    *Answer
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes. As a study from the IMF shows, policies that improve access to educational opportunities and finance for women can contribute to a reduction in inequality and an increase in economic growth for the developing country. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    *Answer.
    – unemployment.
    – poor health care centers.
    – lack of infrastructure.
    – poor education.
    – weak institutions.
    – insecurity.
    Policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor includes;
    – affordable, high-quality child care and early education.
    – Create jobs
    – Raise the minimum wage
    – Social Security
    – construction of roads and other infrastructure.
    – negative income tax system.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    *Answer
    Large families do not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity and threatens economic progress because of the following reasons;
    1. Population reduces the Rate of Capital Formation:
    In underdeveloped countries, the composition of population is determined to increase capital formation. Due to higher birth rate and low expectation of life in these countries, the percentage of dependents is very high. Nearly 40 to 50 per cent of the population is in the non-productive age group which simply consumes and does not produce anything.

    In under developed countries, rapid growth of population diminishes the availability of capital per head which reduces the productivity of its labour force. Their income, as a consequence, is reduced and their capacity to save is diminished which, in turn, adversely affects capital formation.
    2. Higher Rate of Population requires more Investment:
    In economically backward countries, investment requirements are beyond its investing capacity. A rapidly growing population increases the requirements of demographic investment which at the same time reduces the capacity of the people to save.

    This creates a serious imbalance between investment requirements and the availability of investible funds. Therefore, the volume of such investment is determined by the rate of population growth in an economy. Some economists have estimated that for maintaining the present level of per capita income, 2 per cent to 5 per cent of national income must be invested if population grows at 1 per cent per annum.

    In these countries, population is increasing at the rate of about 2.5 per cent per annum and 5 per cent to 12.5 per cent of their national income and hence the entire investment is absorbed by demographic investment and nothing is left for economic development. These factors are mainly responsible for stagnation in such economies.
    3. It reduces per Capita Availability of Capital:
    The large size of population also reduces per capita availability of capital in less developed countries. This is true in respect of underdeveloped countries where capital is scarce and its supply is inelastic. A rapidly growing population leads to a progressive decline in the availability of capital per worker. This further leads to lower productivity and diminishing returns.
    4. Adverse Effect on per Capital Income:
    Rapid growth of population directly effects per capita income in an economy. Up to ‘income optimizing level’, the growth of population increases per capita income but beyond that it necessarily lowers the same. In a sense, so long as the rate of population growth is lower than the per capita income, rate of economic growth will rise but if population growth exceeds the rate of economic growth, usually found in the case of less developed countries, per capita income must fall.
    5. Large Population creates the Problem of Unemployment:
    A fast growth in population means a large number of persons coming to the labour market for whom it may not be possible to provide employment. In fact, in underdeveloped countries, the number of job seekers is expanding so fast that despite all efforts towards planned development, it has not been possible to provide employment to all. Unemployment, underemployment and disguised employment are common features in these countries. The rapidly rising population makes it almost impossible for economically backward countries to solve their problem of unemployment.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    *Answer..
    – lack of infrastructure.
    – Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital
    – few or no industry.
    – unemployment
    The major reason why people continue to migrate to the cites from rural area even when their chances of finding jobs are very slim is…;
    – Enlightenment and employment opportunity.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    *Answer.
    Acquiring optimum health is paramount to sustain an enjoyable and long-term lifestyle. Wealth is a major supporter for optimum health because it gives you the financial freedom to make healthy choices and avail of any existing health and fitness resources. Unfortunately, in our market place today, the healthier food choices are more expensive than the damaging processed varieties. Fitness, sports and recreational supplies and equipment can also carry hefty prices. As a result, those who experience lack of wealth have limited access to most average and higher level resources that support a healthy lifestyle.
    At some point in our lives we will be forced to deal with known or unexpected health issues. In many cases these issues may be extremely costly and not all health insurance coverage includes all expenses. When dealing with any health issues, it’s important that all focus and energy is invested into the recovery process and not consumed by the stress and anxiety of dealing with any financial strain due to the lack of money.
    For those who experience wealth, they are not concerned with the expenses of treatments, medications, travel and accommodations if needed or any other required expenses. Unfortunately, for those who experience the lack of money, these expenses become a major distraction and in many cases, it becomes a serious limitation.
    And yes, health helps to spur success development.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    *Answer.
    – underproduction.
    – wide spread of infection and diseases.
    – increase in mortality rate.
    – poverty.
    Things needed to address this issues includes;
    – Formulating health improvement policies.
    – establishment of more health care centers
    – and employment or health experts.

  3. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg no: 2018/241847

    6a. Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism

    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Mercantilism held that a nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of capital, represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state. It emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance (maximising exports and minimising imports) as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a positive trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs and subsidies to home industries were advocated. Mercantilist development theory also advocated colonialism.

    Economic Nationalism

    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.

    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model

    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    This theory modifies Marx’s stages theory of development and focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development.[4] The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five consecutive stages of development that all countries must go through during the process of development. These stages are “the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption”[18] Simple versions of the Harrod–Domar model provide a mathematical illustration of the argument that improved capital investment leads to greater economic growth.

    Structural-Change Theory

    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    Structural-change theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a “more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.” There are two major forms of structural-change theory: W. Lewis’ two-sector surplus model, which views agrarian societies as consisting of large amounts of surplus labor which can be utilized to spur the development of an urbanized industrial sector, and Hollis Chenery’s patterns of development approach, which holds that different countries become wealthy via different trajectories. The pattern that a particular country will follow, in this framework, depends on its size and resources, and potentially other factors including its current income level and comparative advantages relative to other nations.

    6b. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent
    There are two theories on the causes of undevelopment: the internal causation and external causation theories. Proponents of “internal causation theory” assume that a nation’s lack of development is a result from its failure to use its resources to stimulate modern economic growth. The reason of underdevelopment is derived from society’s failure to establish required products.
       External factors are the foundation for the underdevelopment in most developing countries which are still hindering development by allowing more developed countries to exploit them. Even though internal adjustments must also take place in order to see development, the external factors must change first allowing for internal adjustments.

    7. The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment.

    Population

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    Corruption

    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Inadequate financial markets

    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    8.  Enhancing women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.

    9. Although there are many causes of poverty in Nigeria, some of the main culprits are calamitous weather, weak infrastructure and gender inequality that prevents women from contributing to the economy. One of the factors that generate poverty is the prevalence of natural disasters.

    1. Government Corruption

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.

    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.

    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000. With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    Inequality and marginalisation
    Conflict
    Hunger, malnutrition
    Poor healthcate systems
    Poor Access to water, sanitation and hygiene
    Climate change
    Lack of education
    Poor infrastructure
    Lack of Government support
    Solutions to Poverty
    1. EQUALITY AND REPRESENTATION FOR ALL

    One of the main causes of extreme poverty is marginalization — the systemic barriers that lead to groups of people going without representation in their communities. In order for a community or country to work its way out of poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. 

    2. BUILDING RESILIENCE — CLIMATE AND OTHERWISE…

    Poverty is most likely to occur when there is a high combination of marginalization and risk — with risk being its own combination of a person or group’s level of vulnerability and the hazards they face.

    4. INCREASE ACCESS TO EDUCATION

    According to UNESCO, if all students in low-income countries had just basic reading skills (nothing else), an estimated 171 million people could escape extreme poverty. If all adults completed secondary education, we could cut the global poverty rate by more than half. Education develops skills and abilities, corrects some of the imbalances that come out of marginalization, and decreases both risk and vulnerability. 

    5. IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER

    Simply eating three meals a day and getting a healthy amount of calories and nutrients can go a long way to addressing the cycle of poverty. When a person doesn’t have enough to eat, they lack the strength and energy needed to work. Contaminated water can lead to debilitating illnesses. 

    What’s more, improving access to clean water can mean that those who live in rural communities (often women and girls — see our first point on marginalization and equality) will save time walking to their nearest water point. Current estimates suggest that women and girls collectively spend 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water.

    6. END WAR AND CONFLICT 

    No war means that budgets allocated to cover the cost of conflict can be used to deliver public services. It also reduces risks faced by the most vulnerable communities, and ensures that goals towards equality and inclusion can be maintained. 
    Policies to tackle poverty
    In summary, to reduce poverty, government policies could include:

    • Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.

    • Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages

    • Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.

    • Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare

    10. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.  Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly, the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which places as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources. Rapid growth of population is largely responsible for the perpetuation of vicious circle of poverty in underdeveloped countries. On account of rapid growth of population people are required to spend a major part of their income on bringing up their children.

    Thus savings and rate of capital formation remain low, reduction in per capita income, rise in general price level leading to sharp rise in cost of living. No improvement in agricultural and industrial technology, shortage of essential commodities, low standard of living, mass unemployment etc. As a result the entire economy of an underdeveloped country is surrounded by the vicious circle of poverty.

    11.  Keynes analyzed the cyclical type of unemployment and asserted that it was caused by deficiency of aggregate demand. The nature of unemployment in developing countries is quite different; rather than being cyclical it is of chronic and long-term nature.

    It is now almost universally recognized that the chronic unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited.

    This has resulted in surplus labour which is manifested in the existence of huge magnitude of underemployment or disguised unemployment and open unemployment in both the rural and urban areas.

    Capital as the major bottleneck to growth of employment was made popular by Harrod-Domar model of economic growth in which capital accumulation plays a pivotal role and according to which rate of growth of output depends upon the proportion of national income saved, divided by the capital-output ratio (g = s/v, where g stands for growth rate, s for the proportion of income saved and v for the capital-output ratio).

    12.  health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. This indirect impact is easier
    to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of
    them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences

    13. Ill health, in turn, is a major cause of poverty. This is partly due to the costs of seeking health care, which include not only out-of-pocket spending on care (such as consultations, tests and medicine), but also transportation costs and any informal payments to providers. It is also due to the considerable loss of income associated with illness in developing countries, both of the breadwinner, but also of family members who may be obliged to stop working or attending school to take care of an ill relative. In addition, poor families coping with illness might be forced to sell assets to cover medical expenses, borrow at high interest rates or become indebted to the community.

    Solutions to tackle poor public health
    • Reducing the direct cost of care at the point of service, e.g. through reducing/abolishing user fees for the poor or expanding health insurance to the poor (including coverage, depth and breadth).

    • Increasing efficiency of care to reduce total consumption of care, e.g. by limiting “irrational drug prescribing,” strengthening the referral system, or improving the quality of providers (especially at the lower level).

    • Reducing inequalities in determinants of health status or health care utilization, such as reducing distance (through providing services closer to the poor), subsidizing travel costs, targeted health promotion, conditional cash transfers.

    • Expanding access to care by using the private sector or public-private partnerships.

    Assure an Adequate Local Public Health Infrastructure

    Assuring an adequate local public health infrastructure means maintaining the basic capacities foundational to a well-functioning public health system such as data analysis and utilization; health planning; partnership development and community mobilization; policy development, analysis and decision support; communication; and public health research, evaluation and quality improvement.

    Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior

    Promoting healthy communities and healthy behaviors means activities that improve health in a population, such as investing in healthy families; engaging communities to change policy, systems or environments to promote positive health or prevent adverse health; providing information and education about healthy communities or population health status; and addressing issues of health equity, health disparities, and the social determinants of health.

    Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease

    Preventing the spread of infectious disease means preventing diseases that are caused by infectious agents, such as by detecting acute infectious diseases, assuring the reporting of infectious diseases, preventing the transmission of disease, and implementing control measures during infectious disease outbreaks.  

    Protect Against Environmental Health Hazards

    Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.

    Prepare and Respond To Emergencies

    Preparing and responding to emergencies means engaging in activities that prepare public health departments to respond to events and incidents and assist communities in recovery, such as providing leadership for public health preparedness activities within a community; developing, exercising and periodically reviewing response plans for public health threats; and developing and maintaining a system of public health workforce readiness, deployment, and response.

    Assure Health Services

    Assuring health services means engaging in activities such as assessing the availability of health-related services and health care providers in local communities; identifying gaps and barriers; convening community partners to improve community health systems; and providing services identified as priorities by the local assessment and planning process.

  4. Ogbonna Collins Chinedu says:

    NAME: OGBONNA COLLINS CHINEDU
    DEPARTMENT: PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
    REG.NO.:2020/243305

    (1) Deductive Methods and
    (2) Inductive Method

    Deductive Method of Economic Analysis
    Deductive method is known as the analytical abstract a priori method. Here starts with certain formal data and assumptions. Then by logical reasoning we arrive at certain conclusion

    The principal steps in process of economics generalisation

    (a)observation:this means that before any theorist or analyst must start generalizing any problem he/she must first of all have idea of what it is.
    (b) Assumption making and technical terms:this is to define precisely and unambiguously the various technical terms to be used in the analysis.
    instance and testing by means of further observations.
    (c)Deductive reasoning:this provides us with hypotheses or generalizations. If the hypotheses are tested and verified with relevance to facts, we have valid economic laws.

    Advantages of Deductive Method of Economic Analysis

    1. Deductive method is exceedingly simple. For example, the law that the utility derived by an individual from a commodity goes on diminishing with every successive addition is a self-evident truth from which we may draw many logical conclusions.
    2. Deductive method obviates the necessity of experimentation. Economics being a social science, experimentation may not be available as in the case of physics or chemistry. So, the next best alternative to experiment is deductive reasoning. According to Boulding this method of deductive reasoning is the method of intellectual experiment.

    3. The deductive method results in accuracy and exactness in generalization, because of logical reasoning. The method gives a very high standard of precision in abstract economic reasoning.

    Disadvantages of Deductive Method of Economic Analysis

    1. Deduction is based mainly on assumptions which are perfectly valid. If assumptions are wrong, generalizations made on the basis of wrong assumptions will be imperfect and invalid.

    2. In deduction there is too much of abstraction and economists by means of their intellectual exercises produce only “intellectual toys” having little connection with reality.

    3. Deductive generalizations started on wrong premises will be dangerous when such generalization claim universal validity.

    Inductive Method of Economic Analysis:
    In this method, economists proceed from a practical angle to problems of science to reduce the gulf between theory and practice. Induction is done by two forms, viz. experimentation and statistical form. Facts are collected first, arranged and conclusions are drawn. Then these general conclusions are further verified with reference to actual facts.

    The inductive method is generally associated with the statistical form of inductions. The statistical approach has a larger field in economic investigations than the method of experimentation. Further, the method of statistical induction is indispensable for the formulation of economic policy. Malthus presented his famous theory of population only after studying the facts of population in various countries; He then used statistics to support his theory.

    Advantages of Inductive Method of Economic Analysis

    1. It is highly practical add realistic as it describes things as they are.

    2. It is helpful in verifying the conclusions of the deductive method.

    3. Economic laws under this method are not universal but valid only under certain conditions.

    Disadvantages of Inductive Method of Economic Analysis.

    1. When the investigators lack a balanced judgement there is the risk of drawing hurried conclusions based on inadequate and irrelevant facts and data.

    2. Collection of facts in the inductive process is a highly complex and complicated job warranting extraordinary understanding to alienate economic from non-economic factors.

    3. Mere induction alone will not deliver goods unless it is supplemented by means of deductive reasoning. Without deduction, the inductive method would result in producing only a mass of unrelated and unconnected facts.

    NOTE: Deductive or Inductive?
    From the above discussion, we can infer that there is no point in pleading one method against the other. The two methods have to be made use of or blended to achieve the required objective. The two methods, deductive and inductive, are not competitive, but complementary in nature helping the investigators.

  5. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 6 : Development theories :

    1. Modernization theory :

    Is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    2. Structuralism :

    Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.

    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.

    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.

    3. Dependency theory :

    It is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.
    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    4. The basic needs model :

    It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.
    Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers.[14] There have been also many critics of the basic needs approach. It would lack theoretical rigour, practical precision, be in conflict with growth promotion policies, and run the risk of leaving developing countries in permanent turmoil.

    5. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor:

    classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.

    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    6. Postdevelopment theory is a school of thought which questions the idea of national economic development altogether.

    According to postdevelopment scholars, the goal of improving living standards leans on arbitrary claims as to the desirability and possibility of that goal. Postdevelopment theory arose in the 1980s and 1990s.

    According to postdevelopment theorists, the idea of development is just a ‘mental structure’ (Wolfgang Sachs) which has resulted in a hierarchy of developed and underdeveloped nations, of which the underdeveloped nations desire to be like developed nations.[15] Development thinking has been dominated by the West and is very ethnocentric, according to Sachs. The Western lifestyle may neither be a realistic nor a desirable goal for the world’s population, postdevelopment theorists argue. Development is being seen as a loss of a country’s own culture, people’s perception of themselves and modes of life. According to Majid Rahnema, another leading postdevelopment scholar, things like notions of poverty are very culturally embedded and can differ a lot among cultures. The institutes which voice the concern over underdevelopment are very Western-oriented, and postdevelopment calls for a broader cultural involvement in development thinking.

    Postdevelopment proposes a vision of society which removes itself from the ideas which currently dominate it. According to Arturo Escobar, postdevelopment is interested instead in local culture and knowledge, a critical view against established sciences and the promotion of local grassroots movements. Also, postdevelopment argues for structural change in order to reach solidarity, reciprocity, and a larger involvement of traditional knowledge.

    II. Development theories are compatible because they involve one another in other to achieve the desired objectives.

    III. Development is externally induced phenomena :

    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    NO. 7 Constraints to accelerated growth :

    1. Lack of interaction between the government and society:

    The problem is standing in the first row, among other basic economic problems facing Nigeria. The government will not be able to manage its economic, political, and social affairs without fostering interaction between it and the private sector and state civil society. Therefore, the government should include processes and mechanisms for citizens and groups to articulate their interests, mediate their differences, and work together.
    Good leadership will provide an enabling environment for people to enjoy quality governance and justice. Good governance starts with us; we are also responsible for this situation in the country.

    2. Corruption :

    Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.
    Being the oil giant, which runs on the grease of politics, Nigeria could be characterized as a wealthy nation staying afloat on oil. However, the problem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.

    3. Macroeconomy :

    The lack of consistency and the politicians’ greed are among the causes of the hemorrhage in the economy. Every administration, which comes on board, sets up a new policy initiative instead of working on the previous one. Consequently, Nigeria has a series of inefficient and poorly executed policies.
    In 2003, the federal government, under the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo established the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
    This programme headed by the former CBN governor, Prof Charles Soludo, was aimed towards sustainable growth and poverty reduction in the country. However, the programme failed to reach its objective.
    The late administration of Umaru Musa Yar’adua discarded the needs of the people. His administration created a plan to convert Nigeria into one of the top 20 biggest global economies by 2020.

    So, this program, which now seems to be dead, has gulped a considerable sum of money, which could have been used to solve some of the political and social-economic challenges facing Nigeria at the time.

    4. Poor human development :

    In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.

    5. Nature of the market :

    A lack of authentic competition in the system is among the problems facing the economy. Market forces guide actual capitalistic economics. The self-regulating character of the market defines where one works and lives, how much one earns, and what he/she can buy.
    By the way, each economy needs some form of government interference. But we are not talking about a monopoly. Good market governance must work hand in hand with healthy competition. Unfortunately, Nigeria is not among the countries where these two exist in one dimension. In Nigeria, the federal government has a valid monopoly of setting the price of products and other services and goods. In 2016, the federal government randomly increased the cost of fuel without paying attention to the negative distributive effects on the Nigerian economy. Although in the early part of 2020, the price of petroleum was reduced.

    6. Education and university systems :
    These days, corruption has also spread to the Nigerian educational system, especially in universities. Professors are used to taking money from students in exchange for good marks.
    Some students even say that they have to bribe university executives to have their exam results submitted and compiled for the National Youth Service Corps.
    Not too long ago at the Rivers State University, a renowned professor was sacked for extorting money from his students to improve their grades. This is a true reflection of the state of things in most universities across the country today.

    The higher institutions and universities in this country are not in shape. The facilities that are needed to adequately teach students so that they can be useful to companies after graduation are missing. Too much theory in our educational institutions and a total lack of practice is a big issue.

    7. Environment and health issues :

    The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.

    N0. 8

    Women development impact on economy :

    Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth.

    1. Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.

    2. Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development:

    GoalsAnd economic empowerment is also a right. There is no quick fix: women’s economic empowerment takes sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment from all development actors. Donors can also increase their investment.

    3. Economically empowered women foster a sense of identity :

    In Moldova, a country that gained independence only a generation ago and still struggles with its place in a complex geopolitical environment, citizens are striving to develop locally-made products that could reach similar renown and serve as points of collective pride. Empowering women-led and women-founded enterprises in the apparel sector has helped Moldova take a step in that direction. Joining together under the brand Din Inima: Branduri de Moldova (From the Heart: Brands of Moldova), women entrepreneurs have taken Moldovan-made apparel from a low-cost and low-quality necessity into a runway-worthy product, visibly increasing consumer loyalty and pride in locally-made apparel. Clothing will, of course, not single-handedly strengthen national identity, but the apparel sector’s success has helped foster a sense of national pride and cohesion. Aspiring entrepreneurs and artisans now have a model to draw from as they seek to make a name for Moldovan products globally.

    4. Economically empowered women, with a strong sense of community, can also be an important piece of the puzzle to countering violent extremism :
    In a place like the Pankisi Gorge area of Georgia, inhabited largely by minority ethnic groups, creating economic opportunity for women allows them to pass on values of inter-ethnic trust and community identity to their children, laying the foundation for the development of a more resilient and stable community.

    5. Economically empowered women serve as climate-change-adaptation champions:

    Adapting to climate change requires a willingness to do things differently than they have been done before and an ability to forego short-term gains in favor of long-term ones. In Morocco, women entrepreneurs have demonstrated these traits, recognizing success in their ventures and serving as climate change champions. When soil degradation and water scarcity made it increasingly difficult to make a living in Moroccan agricultural communities, Moroccan women spearheaded shifts in agricultural practices. Women producers switched from growing water-intensive traditional crops to less water-intensive medicinal and aromatic plants; they also began using renewable energy sources. The women are now securing a more sustainable income stream for their families and preventing further desertification through more efficient use of resources. Their entrepreneurial ability to adapt has allowed these women to help their families and help the planet.

    6. Economically empowered women shift gender norms :

    It’s human nature: the first time we see something we deem odd, we stop, stare, and gossip about it to our neighbors. The second time we see it, we shake our head and sigh. The third time, we simply shrug our shoulders and move on; what was once odd has become normal. In Bangladesh’s staunchly patriarchal society, historically, women have been discouraged from working outside of the home. But, women pioneers in the dairy sector are now taking on roles such as mobile input providers and artificial inseminators, which is contributing to a shift in gender norms. Women working in these positions have improved daily milk production, increased household incomes, earned women respect for their technical competence, and begun normalizing women’s work outside the home.

    7. Economically empowered women contribute to better health and nutrition outcomes :

    Increasing women’s incomes improves food security for children, by increasing the quantity, diversity, and nutrition value of food consumed in households. The same principle applies for women’s and children’s health; in numerous development contexts, a woman will have a hard time taking a day off and travelling to a distant clinic for services while her overwhelming concern remains how to feed her children. When a woman’s livelihood becomes stable because she learns to grow a more profitable crop or obtains financing to expand her business from a local village savings and lending association, she is able to afford more diverse, nutritious foods and take time off of work to seek health care for herself and for her family.
    This week, as we continue to explore the meaning of economic empowerment, I am reminded of a woman who grows flowers in western Georgia. Combining her horticultural skills with business acumen, she ingeniously leveraged existing transportation networks, societal trust, and established relationships to grow her business, including using the ubiquitous marshrutka (public minibus) network to distribute fresh flowers around the region. Her bravery and ingenuity, and the bravery and ingenuity of all other women entrepreneurs, are an inspiration. Much progress remains to be made in the years to come, but it’s certain that supporting women such as these in their endeavors is not only the right thing to do – it’s the smart thing to do.

    NO. 9

    Causes of extreme poverty :

    1. Government Corruption :

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure :

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education :

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare :

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.
    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.
    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.

    NO. 10

    large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :

    A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.

    1. Increase in crime rate.

    2. High cost of living.

    3. Scarcity of food and water.

    4. General inflation.

    5. Poor health facilities.

    6. Underemployment.

    7. Unemployment.

    NO. 11

    Reasons for much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world :

    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital :

    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.
    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive :

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land :

    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.

    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation :

    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation :

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.

    II. Why people migrate to cities :

    1. For better quality of life.

    2. Quality health care delivery.

    3. Availability of infrastructural amenities.

    4. For better business opportunities.

    5. To access higher education qualification.

    N0. 12

    Yes, better health spur successful development.
    Because, in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.

    1. It increase life expectancy.

    2. Higher productivity.

    3. Improved quality of human life.

    4. Increase in labour force.

    5. Enhanced human capital development.

    N0. 13

    Impact of poor public health on development :

    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    1. Reduces labour force.

    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.

    3. Decrease in productivity.

    4. Reduces life expectancy.

    5. Decrease in human capital development.

    II. Solutions to the problems :

    1. High investment in the health sector.

    2. Increase in health care infrastructures.

    3. Better health care equipments.

    4. Employment of qualified medical practitioners.

    5. Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  6. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS :

    NO. 6 : Development theories :

    1. Modernization theory :

    Is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    2. Structuralism :

    Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.

    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.

    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.

    3. Dependency theory :

    It is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.
    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    4. The basic needs model :

    It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries. It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.
    Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers.[14] There have been also many critics of the basic needs approach. It would lack theoretical rigour, practical precision, be in conflict with growth promotion policies, and run the risk of leaving developing countries in permanent turmoil.

    5. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor:

    classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.

    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    6. Postdevelopment theory is a school of thought which questions the idea of national economic development altogether.

    According to postdevelopment scholars, the goal of improving living standards leans on arbitrary claims as to the desirability and possibility of that goal. Postdevelopment theory arose in the 1980s and 1990s.

    According to postdevelopment theorists, the idea of development is just a ‘mental structure’ (Wolfgang Sachs) which has resulted in a hierarchy of developed and underdeveloped nations, of which the underdeveloped nations desire to be like developed nations.[15] Development thinking has been dominated by the West and is very ethnocentric, according to Sachs. The Western lifestyle may neither be a realistic nor a desirable goal for the world’s population, postdevelopment theorists argue. Development is being seen as a loss of a country’s own culture, people’s perception of themselves and modes of life. According to Majid Rahnema, another leading postdevelopment scholar, things like notions of poverty are very culturally embedded and can differ a lot among cultures. The institutes which voice the concern over underdevelopment are very Western-oriented, and postdevelopment calls for a broader cultural involvement in development thinking.

    Postdevelopment proposes a vision of society which removes itself from the ideas which currently dominate it. According to Arturo Escobar, postdevelopment is interested instead in local culture and knowledge, a critical view against established sciences and the promotion of local grassroots movements. Also, postdevelopment argues for structural change in order to reach solidarity, reciprocity, and a larger involvement of traditional knowledge.

    II. Development theories are compatible because they involve one another in other to achieve the desired objectives.

    III. Development is externally induced phenomena :

    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    NO. 7 Constraints to accelerated growth :

    1. Lack of interaction between the government and society:

    The problem is standing in the first row, among other basic economic problems facing Nigeria. The government will not be able to manage its economic, political, and social affairs without fostering interaction between it and the private sector and state civil society. Therefore, the government should include processes and mechanisms for citizens and groups to articulate their interests, mediate their differences, and work together.
    Good leadership will provide an enabling environment for people to enjoy quality governance and justice. Good governance starts with us; we are also responsible for this situation in the country.

    2. Corruption :

    Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.
    Being the oil giant, which runs on the grease of politics, Nigeria could be characterized as a wealthy nation staying afloat on oil. However, the problem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.

    3. Macroeconomy :

    The lack of consistency and the politicians’ greed are among the causes of the hemorrhage in the economy. Every administration, which comes on board, sets up a new policy initiative instead of working on the previous one. Consequently, Nigeria has a series of inefficient and poorly executed policies.
    In 2003, the federal government, under the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo established the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
    This programme headed by the former CBN governor, Prof Charles Soludo, was aimed towards sustainable growth and poverty reduction in the country. However, the programme failed to reach its objective.
    The late administration of Umaru Musa Yar’adua discarded the needs of the people. His administration created a plan to convert Nigeria into one of the top 20 biggest global economies by 2020.

    So, this program, which now seems to be dead, has gulped a considerable sum of money, which could have been used to solve some of the political and social-economic challenges facing Nigeria at the time.

    4. Poor human development :

    In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.

    5. Nature of the market :

    A lack of authentic competition in the system is among the problems facing the economy. Market forces guide actual capitalistic economics. The self-regulating character of the market defines where one works and lives, how much one earns, and what he/she can buy.
    By the way, each economy needs some form of government interference. But we are not talking about a monopoly. Good market governance must work hand in hand with healthy competition. Unfortunately, Nigeria is not among the countries where these two exist in one dimension. In Nigeria, the federal government has a valid monopoly of setting the price of products and other services and goods. In 2016, the federal government randomly increased the cost of fuel without paying attention to the negative distributive effects on the Nigerian economy. Although in the early part of 2020, the price of petroleum was reduced.

    6. Education and university systems :
    These days, corruption has also spread to the Nigerian educational system, especially in universities. Professors are used to taking money from students in exchange for good marks.
    Some students even say that they have to bribe university executives to have their exam results submitted and compiled for the National Youth Service Corps.
    Not too long ago at the Rivers State University, a renowned professor was sacked for extorting money from his students to improve their grades. This is a true reflection of the state of things in most universities across the country today.

    The higher institutions and universities in this country are not in shape. The facilities that are needed to adequately teach students so that they can be useful to companies after graduation are missing. Too much theory in our educational institutions and a total lack of practice is a big issue.

    7. Environment and health issues :

    The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.

    N0. 8

    Women development impact on economy :

    Economic empowerment is the capacity of women and men to participate in, contribute to and benefit from growth processes in ways that recognise the value of their contributions, respect their dignity and make it possible to negotiate a fairer distribution of the benefits of growth.

    1. Economic empowerment increases women’s access to economic resources and opportunities including jobs, financial services, property and other productive assets, skills development and market information.

    2. Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and for achieving the Millennium Development:

    GoalsAnd economic empowerment is also a right. There is no quick fix: women’s economic empowerment takes sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment from all development actors. Donors can also increase their investment.

    3. Economically empowered women foster a sense of identity :

    In Moldova, a country that gained independence only a generation ago and still struggles with its place in a complex geopolitical environment, citizens are striving to develop locally-made products that could reach similar renown and serve as points of collective pride. Empowering women-led and women-founded enterprises in the apparel sector has helped Moldova take a step in that direction. Joining together under the brand Din Inima: Branduri de Moldova (From the Heart: Brands of Moldova), women entrepreneurs have taken Moldovan-made apparel from a low-cost and low-quality necessity into a runway-worthy product, visibly increasing consumer loyalty and pride in locally-made apparel. Clothing will, of course, not single-handedly strengthen national identity, but the apparel sector’s success has helped foster a sense of national pride and cohesion. Aspiring entrepreneurs and artisans now have a model to draw from as they seek to make a name for Moldovan products globally.

    4. Economically empowered women, with a strong sense of community, can also be an important piece of the puzzle to countering violent extremism :
    In a place like the Pankisi Gorge area of Georgia, inhabited largely by minority ethnic groups, creating economic opportunity for women allows them to pass on values of inter-ethnic trust and community identity to their children, laying the foundation for the development of a more resilient and stable community.

    5. Economically empowered women serve as climate-change-adaptation champions:

    Adapting to climate change requires a willingness to do things differently than they have been done before and an ability to forego short-term gains in favor of long-term ones. In Morocco, women entrepreneurs have demonstrated these traits, recognizing success in their ventures and serving as climate change champions. When soil degradation and water scarcity made it increasingly difficult to make a living in Moroccan agricultural communities, Moroccan women spearheaded shifts in agricultural practices. Women producers switched from growing water-intensive traditional crops to less water-intensive medicinal and aromatic plants; they also began using renewable energy sources. The women are now securing a more sustainable income stream for their families and preventing further desertification through more efficient use of resources. Their entrepreneurial ability to adapt has allowed these women to help their families and help the planet.

    6. Economically empowered women shift gender norms :

    It’s human nature: the first time we see something we deem odd, we stop, stare, and gossip about it to our neighbors. The second time we see it, we shake our head and sigh. The third time, we simply shrug our shoulders and move on; what was once odd has become normal. In Bangladesh’s staunchly patriarchal society, historically, women have been discouraged from working outside of the home. But, women pioneers in the dairy sector are now taking on roles such as mobile input providers and artificial inseminators, which is contributing to a shift in gender norms. Women working in these positions have improved daily milk production, increased household incomes, earned women respect for their technical competence, and begun normalizing women’s work outside the home.

    7. Economically empowered women contribute to better health and nutrition outcomes :

    Increasing women’s incomes improves food security for children, by increasing the quantity, diversity, and nutrition value of food consumed in households. The same principle applies for women’s and children’s health; in numerous development contexts, a woman will have a hard time taking a day off and travelling to a distant clinic for services while her overwhelming concern remains how to feed her children. When a woman’s livelihood becomes stable because she learns to grow a more profitable crop or obtains financing to expand her business from a local village savings and lending association, she is able to afford more diverse, nutritious foods and take time off of work to seek health care for herself and for her family.
    This week, as we continue to explore the meaning of economic empowerment, I am reminded of a woman who grows flowers in western Georgia. Combining her horticultural skills with business acumen, she ingeniously leveraged existing transportation networks, societal trust, and established relationships to grow her business, including using the ubiquitous marshrutka (public minibus) network to distribute fresh flowers around the region. Her bravery and ingenuity, and the bravery and ingenuity of all other women entrepreneurs, are an inspiration. Much progress remains to be made in the years to come, but it’s certain that supporting women such as these in their endeavors is not only the right thing to do – it’s the smart thing to do.

    NO. 9

    Causes of extreme poverty :

    1. Government Corruption :

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure :

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. Poor Access to Education :

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. Poor Access to Healthcare :

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.
    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    At the surface, these problems can seem daunting and unsolvable. But the first step to crafting sustainable solutions is understanding the contours of the problem. By understanding the causes of poverty in Nigeria, organizations like UNICEF and WHO have started various initiatives to strengthen the economic, education, and health care infrastructure in Nigeria, as well as reduce government corruption.
    Working hand in hand with international partners, Nigeria is continuously demonstrating its commitment to crafting a better future for its impoverished citizens.

    NO. 10

    large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :

    A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.

    1. Increase in crime rate.

    2. High cost of living.

    3. Scarcity of food and water.

    4. General inflation.

    5. Poor health facilities.

    6. Underemployment.

    7. Unemployment.

    NO. 11

    Reasons for much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world :

    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital :

    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.
    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive :

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land :

    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.

    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation :

    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.

    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation :

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities. The general perception, as existed in the first three five year plans in India (1951-65) as well as in the theoretical models of growth for dualistic economies such as Lewis “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” was that agriculture already contained surplus labour and it was required to withdraw this surplus labour from agriculture and employ them in the modern industrial sector. By the mid-sixties it was realised that not to speak of employing new entrains to the labour force year after year, the modern industrial sector could not absorb productivity even a fraction of the then existing unemployed persons in the foreseeable feature.

    II. Why people migrate to cities :

    1. For better quality of life.

    2. Quality health care delivery.

    3. Availability of infrastructural amenities.

    4. For better business opportunities.

    5. To access higher education qualification.

    N0. 12

    Yes, better health spur successful development.
    Because, in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.

    1. It increase life expectancy.

    2. Higher productivity.

    3. Improved quality of human life.

    4. Increase in labour force.

    5. Enhanced human capital development.

    N0. 13

    Impact of poor public health on development :

    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    1. Reduces labour force.

    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.

    3. Decrease in productivity.

    4. Reduces life expectancy.

    5. Decrease in human capital development.

    II. Solutions to the problems :

    1. High investment in the health sector.

    2. Increase in health care infrastructures.

    3. Better health care equipments.

    4. Employment of qualified medical practitioners.

    5. Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  7. Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem REG NO: 2018/241844 says:

    Name: Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem
    REG NO: 2018/241844
    Department : Economics
    6)Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Yes they are compatible.
    Well, taking Nigeria as a case study, i would say that underdevelopment is internally induced. This is due to high level of corruption, embezzlement and other form of economically deterimental behaviours.

    7) The educational level of the people. In a situation where the majority of the population of the citizens are uneducated, then no matter how much help they are given they cannot maintain accelated.
    Also Bad Leadership style has a thing or two to do with the holding back of accelerated growth. Because in a situation where the leaders of a nation mismanage its resources then they are bound to not only slow down the accelerated growth.
    We also have the problem of lack of protection of infant industries in the country. If infant industries are not protected and foreign companies are left to dump their goods into the country. The infant industries will fail and this would cripple that sector of the economy.

    8) Women are key and vital in every family and nation. They have been in charge of not only giving birth to children and taking care of them as mothers, but also in charge of the overall running of the household for generations.
    This being said when the roles of women are improved and women are allowed to purse careers of their chosing. Then we would see fresh and brilliant ideas brought to light, we would also have a larger more effiecient labour force. Thirdly, it would provide for great models for our sisters and daughters to look up to. Women such as Okonji Iweala, Late. Prof. Dora Akunyuli have served as great role models for young Nigerian girls for decades.

    9)High rate of corruption.
    Poor Healthcare services
    Weak Educational system and institutes
    Lack of Infrastructure.
    The above are some of the causes of extreme poverty in my country.
    There are some policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor.
    For example, Access to free education. There have been moves to create schools in Northern Nigeria. These schools have been built and tuition made free for them, in order to reduce level of illiteracy in the country. Because we all know that the value of education can not be overstated or over emphasized.

    10) Rapid population growth threaten the economic progress of developing nations when the population growth is tending to overpopulation. However in a situation where the country in question is under developed and its resources under utilized. A rapid population growth would be welcomed and appreciated. Because as the country tends towards optimum population, and reasources properly utilized, the economy of the nation would flourish.
    I don’t believe that large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Now let me explain my reason with an real life example,
    If we look into the society of the people living in Northern Nigeria, whom are mostly Hausa and fulani people, who most are Islamic people whose religion permits marriage of a man to more than one woman, leading to raising of large families in the society.
    Which has brought about alot of societal problems for them, like, high rate of beggars, hawkers, Crime, etc. This is due to the fact that, in a typical large family catering for the needs of every member of the family is difficult, and this is made evem more difficult when the families are in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.

    11) Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment.
    When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.

    12) There are a few reason why i believe that better health also help spur successful development in societies with wealthier people.
    First of all, it is a well known fact that rich people try their very best to stay healthy all the time, with proper dieting and exercise.
    Secondly, in a situation where people are taking good care of their health, they will fall sick less times in a year.
    And with this, the government expenditure on the health sector can be reduced and money can be channelee to other sectors which leads to successful development.

    13) The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development cannot be overstated.
    When the health sector is crippled, then everyother sector is not safe. Matter of fact the whole economy is in trouble.
    Because a good numnber of the population would be dying frequently of illnesses that could have been treated easily in a place of good public health  or spending alot of time in the hospital, time that otherwise would have been spent working, creating value and improving the nation’s economy.
    Funding, The government should not only fund the health care sector, i believe they should also put in a check system that would make sure that funds sent into the health sector is properly managed and good medical equipments are bought.
    The government should also build more hospitals and employ more doctors.

  8. Olendi Nkiru precious says:

    Name; Olendi Nkiru precious
    Dept: combine social science (Economic /psychology )
    Reg No; 2018/243187
    course ;Eco 361
    An Assignment (quiz 3)

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The Answers
    No 6
    Thre Modernization theory is one of the most influential theories.
    It analyses the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors.
    Hence Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    7. Some of the causes of extreme poverty are unemployment, high population, illiteracy, capitalism, high healthcare cost and lack of government support. Some of the factors that limit economic growth includes ;for example, Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarrelling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    secondly Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    Thirdly, bad governance, for instance Nigeria and extra

    8. The fact that women constitute half the entire population of the country makes empowering them to be an active part of all development initiatives in the country a compelling circumstance.
    Women are key agents for development. They play a catalytic role towards achievement of transformational economic, environmental and social changes required for sustainable development. But limited access to credit, health care and education are among the many challenges they face. These are further aggravated by the global food and economic crises and climate change. Empowering them is essential, not only for the well-being of individuals, families and rural communities, but also for overall economic productivity, given women’s large presence in the agricultural workforce worldwide.
    UN Women supports the leadership and participation of rural women in shaping laws, policies and programmes on all issues that affect their lives, including improved food and nutrition security, and better rural livelihoods. Training equips them with skills to pursue new livelihoods and adapt technology to their needs.
    Women play a key role in food production and form a large proportion of the agricultural work force globally.
    Given equal resources, women could contribute much more. FAO estimates that if women farmers (43 per cent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries) had the same access as men, agricultural output in 34 developing countries would rise by an estimated average of up to 4 per cent. This could reduce the number of undernourished people in those countries by as much as 17 per cent, translating to up to 150 million fewer hungry people.
    According to new estimates, about 870 million people, or one in eight worldwide, did not consume enough food on a regular basis to cover their minimum dietary energy requirements over the period 2010 to 2012. The vast majority live in developing countries.
    Many of the world’s most poor are women. Poverty eradication is a key challenge for rural women. New poverty estimates from the World Bank show that the proportion of people living on less than USD 1.25 a day fell from 47 per cent in 1990 to 22 per cent in 2010, across every developing region. Yet, 1.2 billion people are still living in extreme poverty.

    9.. Living on less than $2 a day feels like an impossible scenario, but’s a reality for around 600 million people in our world today. Approximately 8% of the global population lives in extreme poverty, commonly defined as surviving on only $1.90 a day, or less
    There is some good news: In 1990, that figure was 1.8 billion people, so serious progress has been made. While many wonder if we can really end extreme poverty, we at Concern believe the end is not only possible — but possible within our lifetimes. There’s no “magic bullet” solution to poverty, but understanding its causes is a good first step.
    Some of the major causes of poverty that can be tackled includes :
    LACK OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or healthcare, or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.
    LACK OF JOBS OR LIVELIHOODS
    This might seem like a no-brainer: Without a job or a livelihood, people will face poverty. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change) and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals puts increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonial rule while conflict over land has forced people away from their source of income and food. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty.
    LACK OF RESERVES
    People living in extreme poverty usually don’t have these means available. This means that, when a risk turns into a disaster, they turn to negative coping mechanisms, including pulling children out of school to work (or even marry), and selling off assets to buy food. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.
    CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade.
    Many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living — for example, Malawi is 80% agrarian. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when climate change or natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.
    LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here.
    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty.
    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty.
    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.
    How can we eradicate extreme poverty?
    Keeping markets open to exports from poorer countries is fundamental—probably more fundamental than providing development money. When I hear of proposals to close borders and close markets, I think: that will do more damage than not funding aid. I hope we don’t make those kinds of mistakes. But policy makers in the rich world are under a lot of pressure.
    Higher-income countries can also use their influence to put emphasis on issues that we know are not always embraced at the country level. For example, we have very strong evidence that gender equality matters for development. Poverty reduction is strongly associated with women’s achieving greater political and social voice and equal access to economic opportunities. Gender equality does not come automatically with development. We have to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method so that countries will embrace it.
    We have to keep reminding ourselves of two things: it is unacceptable in a world with the kind of wealth that we have that almost a billion people live on less than $1.90 a day.
    And while this challenge is daunting, it is not hopeless. We have made enormous progress. We need to keep the focus. Wealthier countries can be very generous at times, and then when things get difficult, they lose focus. Right now, it is asking a lot of higher-income countries to keep putting money into development. But it is critical that we do so.

    10..
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    11. The majority of migrants worldwide, about 763 million, move within their own countries rather than abroad. A large share of migrants come from rural areas. They move from one rural area to another or from rural to urban areas. People decide to migrate for many reasons. Individuals and families consider factors such as risks, aspirations and socio-economic conditions. For many, migration is a way to cope with unemployment, food insecurity, poverty, or vulnerability to climate change. For others, it is an effective livelihood diversification strategy to adapt to the seasonality of agriculture. In recent years, demographic forces, globalization and climate change have been increasing the pressure to migrate both within and across countries.
    Migration poses challenges and opportunities for food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development. For instance, losses in human capital and agricultural labour may have negative impacts on crop production and food availability. On the other hand, people who migrate may be able to escape poor living conditions, reduce pressure on resources in the places they leave behind and support rural areas of origin through transfer of skills, know-how and remittances to family back home. Furthermore, migrant workers play an essential role in agri-food systems and ensuring food supplies. Fostering rural-urban socio-economic linkages; enhancing and diversifying employment opportunities in agri-food systems and green sectors, especially for women and youth; helping the poor to better manage risks through social protection; and leveraging remittances for investments in the rural sector can be effective strategies for improving livelihoods, increasing resilience and addressing the adverse drivers of migration. At the same time, it is key to facilitate better mobility between rural and urban areas, and between sectors of the economy to enhance the benefits of migration and its contribution to agriculture, rural development and climate adaptation.
    12. Substantial evidence links greater wealth with better health. Longitudinal studies have documented strong, pervasive links between income and multiple health indicators across the life span. Although the relationship between wealth and health has been less frequently studied, a growing body of evidence reveals that greater levels of wealth also predict better health outcomes.

    In 2007, a systematic review of 29 studies found that people with greater wealth generally live longer and have lower rates of chronic disease and better functional status throughout life. More recent studies have found longitudinal associations between greater wealth and many favorable health outcomes, including lower mortality, higher life expectancy, and decreased risks of some diseases.
    Economic growth appears to lead to large health gains, particularly at low levels of economic development. In this case, an improvement in health enhances labour productivity and leads to gains in economic growth. Nevertheless, improved health outcomes alone are not sufficient for sustained high economic growth.

    13. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development. At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth (Ruger et al., 2006). The main factors of human capital, health and education, are placed on the top in the development of a country. The investments in health and education fields would accelerate the economic development. As long as individuals of a country are healthy, their contribution to production and growth would increase.

    REFERENCES
    Baran P.A. (1973), The Political Economy of Growth, Penguin, London.
    Baran P.A., & Sweezy P. (1975), Monopoly Capital, Penguin, London.
    Braudel F. (1984), Perspective of the World, Vol. 1, 2 & 3, W. Collins, London.
    Bukharin N. (1978), Imperialism and World Economy, Monthly Review Press, New York.
    Emmanuel A., (1972), Unequal Exchange: A Study of the Imperialism of Trade, Monthly Review Press, New York.
    Hilferding R. (1981), Finance Capital, Routledge & Keagan Paul, London.
    Hobson J.A. (1902), Imperialism: A Study, James Pott & Co., New York.
    Lenin V.I. (1996 [1916], Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism, Pluto Press, London.
    Lewis W.A. (1956), “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour”, Manchester School, No.22.
    Luxemburg R. (1971), The Accumulation of Capital, Routledge & Keagan Paul, London.
    Marx K. (1853), “The British Rule in India”, in Marx and Engels: Selected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow (1977), pp. 488-94.
    Myrdal G. (1957) Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions, Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd., London.
    Wallerstein I. (1979) The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge University Press, London.

  9. Machi Chinedu Clement says:

    Name- MACHI CHINEDU CLEMENT
    Reg. No. 2018/242796
    Dept: ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

    NO. 6A
    Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism

    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Mercantilism held that a nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of capital, represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state. It emphasized the maintenance of a high positive trade balance (maximizing exports and minimizing imports) as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a positive trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs and subsidies to home industries were advocated. Mercantilist development theory also advocated colonialism.

    ECONOMIC NATIONALISM

    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.

    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.

    LINEAR STAGES OF GROWTH MODEL

    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    This theory modifies Marx’s stages theory of development and focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development.[4] The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five consecutive stages of development that all countries must go through during the process of development. These stages are “the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption”[18] Simple versions of the Harrod–Domar model provide a mathematical illustration of the argument that improved capital investment leads to greater economic growth.

    STRUCTURAL-CHANGE THEORY

    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    Structural-change theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a “more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.” There are two major forms of structural-change theory: W. Lewis’ two-sector surplus model, which views agrarian societies as consisting of large amounts of surplus labor which can be utilized to spur the development of an urbanized industrial sector, and Hollis Chenery’s patterns of development approach, which holds that different countries become wealthy via different trajectories. The pattern that a particular country will follow, in this framework, depends on its size and resources, and potentially other factors including its current income level and comparative advantages relative to other nations.

    No. 6B
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent
    There are two theories on the causes of undevelopment: the internal causation and external causation theories. Proponents of “internal causation theory” assume that a nation’s lack of development is a result from its failure to use its resources to stimulate modern economic growth. The reason of underdevelopment is derived from society’s failure to establish required products.
    External factors are the foundation for the underdevelopment in most developing countries which are still hindering development by allowing more developed countries to exploit them. Even though internal adjustments must also take place in order to see development, the external factors must change first allowing for internal adjustments.

    7. The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:
    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    LACK OF REAL CAPITAL
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment.

    POPULATION

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    CORRUPTION

    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    INADEQUATE FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    8. Enhancing women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.

    9. Although there are many causes of poverty in Nigeria, some of the main culprits are calamitous weather, weak infrastructure and gender inequality that prevents women from contributing to the economy. One of the factors that generate poverty is the prevalence of natural disasters.

    1. GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.

    When government officials engage in this kind of corruption, the poor and underserved populations within Nigeria are inevitably hurt. If these large sums of money stopped going into government officials’ pockets, the Nigerian government could use that money to build up the country’s infrastructure—electricity, roads, running water and more.

    2. LACK OF ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.

    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances. Setting up economic structures that empower Nigerian people is vital to combating poverty within the country.

    3. POOR ACCESS TO EDUCATION

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation. Education gives many the skills they need to enter the workforce and escape impoverishment, and the lack of educational opportunity is one of the truly devastating causes of poverty in Nigeria.

    4. POOR ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000. With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. Improving Nigerians’ access to healthcare is an essential step to reduce the amount of poverty in Nigeria.
    Inequality and marginalisation
    Conflict
    Hunger, malnutrition
    Poor healthcate systems
    Poor Access to water, sanitation and hygiene
    Climate change
    Lack of education
    Poor infrastructure
    Lack of Government support
    Solutions to Poverty
    1. EQUALITY AND REPRESENTATION FOR ALL

    One of the main causes of extreme poverty is marginalization — the systemic barriers that lead to groups of people going without representation in their communities. In order for a community or country to work its way out of poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society.

    2. BUILDING RESILIENCE — CLIMATE AND OTHERWISE…

    Poverty is most likely to occur when there is a high combination of marginalization and risk — with risk being its own combination of a person or group’s level of vulnerability and the hazards they face.

    4. INCREASE ACCESS TO EDUCATION

    According to UNESCO, if all students in low-income countries had just basic reading skills (nothing else), an estimated 171 million people could escape extreme poverty. If all adults completed secondary education, we could cut the global poverty rate by more than half. Education develops skills and abilities, corrects some of the imbalances that come out of marginalization, and decreases both risk and vulnerability.

    5. IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER

    Simply eating three meals a day and getting a healthy amount of calories and nutrients can go a long way to addressing the cycle of poverty. When a person doesn’t have enough to eat, they lack the strength and energy needed to work. Contaminated water can lead to debilitating illnesses.

    What’s more, improving access to clean water can mean that those who live in rural communities (often women and girls — see our first point on marginalization and equality) will save time walking to their nearest water point. Current estimates suggest that women and girls collectively spend 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water.

    6. END WAR AND CONFLICT

    No war means that budgets allocated to cover the cost of conflict can be used to deliver public services. It also reduces risks faced by the most vulnerable communities, and ensures that goals towards equality and inclusion can be maintained.
    Policies to tackle poverty
    In summary, to reduce poverty, government policies could include:

    • Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.

    • Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages

    • Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.

    • Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare

    10. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly, the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which places as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources. Rapid growth of population is largely responsible for the perpetuation of vicious circle of poverty in underdeveloped countries. On account of rapid growth of population people are required to spend a major part of their income on bringing up their children.

    Thus savings and rate of capital formation remain low, reduction in per capita income, rise in general price level leading to sharp rise in cost of living. No improvement in agricultural and industrial technology, shortage of essential commodities, low standard of living, mass unemployment etc. As a result the entire economy of an underdeveloped country is surrounded by the vicious circle of poverty.

    11. Keynes analyzed the cyclical type of unemployment and asserted that it was caused by deficiency of aggregate demand. The nature of unemployment in developing countries is quite different; rather than being cyclical it is of chronic and long-term nature.

    It is now almost universally recognized that the chronic unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited.

    This has resulted in surplus labour which is manifested in the existence of huge magnitude of underemployment or disguised unemployment and open unemployment in both the rural and urban areas.

    Capital as the major bottleneck to growth of employment was made popular by Harrod-Domar model of economic growth in which capital accumulation plays a pivotal role and according to which rate of growth of output depends upon the proportion of national income saved, divided by the capital-output ratio (g = s/v, where g stands for growth rate, s for the proportion of income saved and v for the capital-output ratio).

    12. health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact health has on education. This indirect impact is easier
    to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of
    them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences

    13. Ill health, in turn, is a major cause of poverty. This is partly due to the costs of seeking health care, which include not only out-of-pocket spending on care (such as consultations, tests and medicine), but also transportation costs and any informal payments to providers. It is also due to the considerable loss of income associated with illness in developing countries, both of the breadwinner, but also of family members who may be obliged to stop working or attending school to take care of an ill relative. In addition, poor families coping with illness might be forced to sell assets to cover medical expenses, borrow at high interest rates or become indebted to the community.

    Solutions to tackle poor public health
    • Reducing the direct cost of care at the point of service, e.g. through reducing/abolishing user fees for the poor or expanding health insurance to the poor (including coverage, depth and breadth).

    • Increasing efficiency of care to reduce total consumption of care, e.g. by limiting “irrational drug prescribing,” strengthening the referral system, or improving the quality of providers (especially at the lower level).

    • Reducing inequalities in determinants of health status or health care utilization, such as reducing distance (through providing services closer to the poor), subsidizing travel costs, targeted health promotion, conditional cash transfers.

    • Expanding access to care by using the private sector or public-private partnerships.

    ASSURE AN ADEQUATE LOCAL PUBLIC HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE

    Assuring an adequate local public health infrastructure means maintaining the basic capacities foundational to a well-functioning public health system such as data analysis and utilization; health planning; partnership development and community mobilization; policy development, analysis and decision support; communication; and public health research, evaluation and quality improvement.

    PROMOTE HEALTHY COMMUNITIES AND HEALTHY BEHAVIOR

    Promoting healthy communities and healthy behaviors means activities that improve health in a population, such as investing in healthy families; engaging communities to change policy, systems or environments to promote positive health or prevent adverse health; providing information and education about healthy communities or population health status; and addressing issues of health equity, health disparities, and the social determinants of health.

    PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

    Preventing the spread of infectious disease means preventing diseases that are caused by infectious agents, such as by detecting acute infectious diseases, assuring the reporting of infectious diseases, preventing the transmission of disease, and implementing control measures during infectious disease outbreaks.  

    PROTECTION AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARD
    Protecting against environmental health hazards means addressing aspects of the environment that pose risks to human health, such as monitoring air and water quality, developing policies and programs to reduce exposure to environmental health risks and promote healthy environments, and identifying and mitigating environmental risks such as foodborne and waterborne diseases, radiation, occupational health hazards, and public health nuisances.

    PREPARE AND RESPOND TO EMERGENCIES

    Preparing and responding to emergencies means engaging in activities that prepare public health departments to respond to events and incidents and assist communities in recovery, such as providing leadership for public health preparedness activities within a community; developing, exercising and periodically reviewing response plans for public health threats; and developing and maintaining a system of public health workforce readiness, deployment, and response.

    ASSURE HEALTH SERVICES

    Assuring health services means engaging in activities such as assessing the availability of health-related services and health care providers in local communities; identifying gaps and barriers; convening community partners to improve community health systems; and providing services identified as priorities by the local assessment and planning process.

  10. Name: Ugwueze Martha Chioma
    Reg no:2018/247847
    Dept: Economics
    Course code:Eco 361
    Assignment
    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS :

    (6)Development theories
    include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism

    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Mercantilism held that a nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of capital, represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state. It emphasised the maintenance of a high positive trade balance (maximising exports and minimising imports) as a means of accumulating this bullion. To achieve a positive trade balance, protectionist measures such as tariffs and subsidies to home industries were advocated. Mercantilist development theory also advocated colonialism.

    Economic Nationalism

    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.

    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model

    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    This theory modifies Marx’s stages theory of development and focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development.[4] The linear-stages-of-growth model posits that there are a series of five consecutive stages of development that all countries must go through during the process of development. These stages are “the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption”[18] Simple versions of the Harrod–Domar model provide a mathematical illustration of the argument that improved capital investment leads to greater economic growth.

    Structural-Change Theory

    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    Structural-change theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a “more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.” There are two major forms of structural-change theory: W. Lewis’ two-sector surplus model, which views agrarian societies as consisting of large amounts of surplus labor which can be utilized to spur the development of an urbanized industrial sector, and Hollis Chenery’s patterns of development approach, which holds that different countries become wealthy via different trajectories. The pattern that a particular country will follow, in this framework, depends on its size and resources, and potentially other factors including its current income level and comparative advantages relative to other nations.

    -Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent
    There are two theories on the causes of undevelopment: the internal causation and external causation theories. Proponents of “internal causation theory” assume that a nation’s lack of development is a result from its failure to use its resources to stimulate modern economic growth. The reason of underdevelopment is derived from society’s failure to establish required products.
    External factors are the foundation for the underdevelopment in most developing countries which are still hindering development by allowing more developed countries to exploit them. Even though internal adjustments must also take place in order to see development, the external factors must change first allowing for internal adjustments.
    etc.

    (7)the constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The following are the factors that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions:
    Culture of the people
    Government policies
    Poor utilization of resources
    Lack of Infrastructure
    Insecurity

    8). When we enhance women’s participation in development is essential not only for achieving social justice but also for reducing poverty. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.
    (9) causes of extreme poverty:
    -Corruption
    -Lack of economic infrastructure
    -poor access to education
    -poor access to healthcare
    citizens.
    Effective policies for improving the life of the poorest include:
    -Equality and representation for all
    -Job creation
    -Access to education
    -Economic security
    -Access to health care
    (10) large family does not make economic sense for the following reasons :

    A large family size will bring about overuse of public facilities. It will also increase government expenses on the provision of amenities. It can bring about overuse of land resources which will definitely affect the economy of the nation. It brings about increase in crime rate because of care for a large population.

    -Increase in crime rate.
    -High cost of living.
    -Scarcity of food and water.
    -General inflation.
    -Poor health facilities.
    -Unemployment.

    (11) Reasons for much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world :
    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital :
    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capitaI in relation to the needs of the growing labour force. In the modern world, man by himself can hardly produce anything. Even the primitive man needed some elementary tools like the bow and arrow to engage in hunting for the earning of his livelihood.
    With the growth of technology and specialisation, he needs much more capital with which to engage in the productive activity. If he is an agriculturist, he needs a piece of land and also a plough, a pair of oxen, seeds and some foodgrains and other necessities of life to sustain himself during the period of sowing to the reaping of the harvest. In the industrial sector, he needs factories to work in and machines to work with. All these aids to production belong to the community’s stock of capital.

    2. Use of Capital Intensive :

    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods indpstries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available. Even before 1991, under the industrial policy resolution 1956, the development of consumer goods industries were left open for the private sector.
    However, private sector prefers to invest in highly capital-intensive plants and equipment on the basis of technology developed in labour- scarce western countries. It is argued by them the alternative labour-intensive techniques have low productivity and low-surplus-generating capacity. However, the important reason for the use of capital-intensive techniques has been the availability of cheap capital.

    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land :

    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.

    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation :
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organised sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days. Labour-legislation is so much rigid that it is even difficult to close down the unit and quit the industry. Thus, this excessively protective labour-legislation induces private entrepreneurs to prefer the maximum use of capital in place of labour.
    Why People Migrate To Cities :

    1. For better quality of life.

    2. Quality health care delivery.

    3. Availability of infrastructural amenities.

    4. For better business opportunities.

    5. To access higher

    (12) There are a few reason why i believe that better health also help spur successful development in societies with wealthier people.
    First of all, it is a well known fact that rich people try their very best to stay healthy all the time, with proper dieting and exercise.
    Secondly, in a situation where people are taking good care of their health, they will fall sick less times in a year.
    And with this, the government expenditure on the health sector can be reduced and money can be channelee to other sectors which leads to successful development.

    (13)the impact of poor health on development:
    Impact of poor health on development:
    Poor health can limits one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities,inhibit educational atttainment and also less to medical debt and bankruptcy.

  11. Onuoha Ikenna Michael - 2018/241860 says:

    Name: Onuoha Ikenna Michael
    Reg. No: 2018/241860
    Department: Economics

    1. The theories of economic development although having their lapses capture and give insight to the basic stages and process of a country’s economic development and what determines its growth. Underdevelopment is an economic situation resulting from both internal and external factors, which includes high birth rates, low level of consumption, low level of per capita, dependency on foreign economies for capital goods, foreign loans and debts, all of which shows low growth in GDP.

    2. A constraint on the capital stock and human capital formation in an economy can hinder its accelerated growth given that they are major determinants of economic growth and development. Without them, there can be no increase in output or income per capita.

    3. An active participation of women in an economy brings greater productivity to that economy as the rate of returns on women’s education is higher than that of men’s in most developing countries, which results in greater labour force participation. This participation also goes a long way to breaking or alleviating that burden of poverty mostly bared by women in less developed countries.

    4. Extreme poverty as defined by the international community is living below $1.90 a day. This seems to be major factor affecting or causing underdevelopment in most less developed countries. Since it is not a problem peculiar to one country alone but rather a global issue, policies have been put in place as a measure to eradicate or dampen its presence, and most notable of this is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) adopted by the UN in 2000 along with 7 other goals.

    5. With a constant rise in the world population annually, projections have been made regarding the estimated world population in years to come and its effects on developed economies. There are however various policies to apply if at all it should pose a threat to their economy and its progress. Such measures include persuasion by the government to have smaller families, enhance family planning programs, manipulating economic incentives and disincentives by eliminating or reducing maternity leaves and benefits. Given the presence of poverty and financial insecurity, it wouldn’t make any sense to have large families as there isn’t sufficient level of income which can cater for the basic needs of the entire family.

    6. Unemployment in a developing country arises as a result of lack of capacity to produce and effective demand to spur up consumption in the economy. Underemployment surfaces as a result of the population outgrowing the rate of growth of the country’s capital stock. Now, in developing countries where there is a situation of rural-urban migration, such influx is caused by the presence of industries and technologies in the cities, which attracts people to migrate to the cities in search for higher paying jobs, but this creates an imbalance as not all of them can find any job to do.

    7. Health is an important factor in human capital formation as with greater health combined with education, higher productivity and income are possible. Healthy children are more successful in school as they learn more efficiently. Health is also an important factor in school attendance and this is why various governments focus on developing health policies to ensure that health care is assessable and affordable.

    8. The underlying impact of poor public health on the development of a country can be seen in the relationship between health, education and income. With greater health capital a return to investments in education may improve as health is an important factor in school attendance and the learning process, and a return to investment in education increases productive efficiency and this contributes greatly to development. If there were to be a lapse in the health care or sector, it would affect the investment in education and also the productive efficiency. Such lapses can be handled through measures and policies of the government by making adequate provision for health care in the country.

  12. Unegbu Ben Isochukwu says:

    Name:- Unegbu Ben Isochukwu
    Reg No:- 2016/235317
    Gmail:- benisochukwu@gmail.com

    NO. 6 : Development theories :
    Structuralism :
    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.
    This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.
    Is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries.

    The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI).

    The basic needs model :
    It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.
    It was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries.

    Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor:
    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    NO. 7 Constraints to accelerated growth :

    1. Lack of interaction between the government and society:
    Good leadership will provide an enabling environment for people to enjoy quality governance and justice. Good governance starts with us; we are also responsible for this situation in the country.
    Therefore, the government should include processes and mechanisms for citizens and groups to articulate their interests, mediate their differences, and work together.
    The problem is standing in the first row, among other basic economic problems facing Nigeria.

    2. Nature of the market :
    A lack of authentic competition in the system is among the problems facing the economy. Market forces guide actual capitalistic economics. The self-regulating character of the market defines where one works and lives, how much one earns, and what he/she can buy. By the way, each economy needs some form of government interference. But we are not talking about a monopoly. Good market governance must work hand in hand with healthy competition. Unfortunately, Nigeria is not among the countries where these two exist in one dimension. In Nigeria, the federal government has a valid monopoly of setting the price of products and other services and goods.

    3. Environment and health issues :
    The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    As a study from the IMF shows, policies that improve access to educational opportunities and finance for women can contribute to a reduction in inequality and an increase in economic growth for the developing country. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Some of the causes of extreme poverty include:
    Poor Access to Healthcare
    Effective policies for Improving the lives of the poorest of the poor among others are:
    Access to Healthcare
    Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    Poor Access to Education
    Equality and Representation for all
    Increased Access to Education
    Micro-financing
    Job Creation

    Poor Access to Education
    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.
    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria. Terrorist groups such as Boko Haram that vilify Western education further exasperate the situation.

    Poor Access to Healthcare
    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000. With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty. 

    Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    Female entrepreneurship and autonomy can provide financial stability to entire families and, by extension, larger communities. Another one of the main causes of poverty in Nigeria is the simple fact that many Nigerians, especially in rural communities, do not have the means to escape their circumstances.

    Solutions to Poverty
    END WAR AND CONFLICT 
    No war means that budgets allocated to cover the cost of conflict can be used to deliver public services. It also reduces risks faced by the most vulnerable communities, and ensures that goals towards equality and inclusion can be maintained. 

    IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY AND ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER
    Simply eating three meals a day and getting a healthy amount of calories and nutrients can go a long way to addressing the cycle of poverty. When a person doesn’t have enough to eat, they lack the strength and energy needed to work. Contaminated water can lead to debilitating illnesses. 
    What’s more, improving access to clean water can mean that those who live in rural communities (often women and girls — see our first point on marginalization and equality) will save time walking to their nearest water point.

    BUILDING RESILIENCE — CLIMATE AND OTHERWISE.
    Poverty is most likely to occur when there is a high combination of marginalization and risk — with risk being its own combination of a person or group’s level of vulnerability and the hazards they face.

    10) Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.  Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly, the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which places as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources. Rapid growth of population is largely responsible for the perpetuation of vicious circle of poverty in underdeveloped countries. On account of rapid growth of population people are required to spend a major part of their income on bringing up their children.

    Thus savings and rate of capital formation remain low, reduction in per capita income, rise in general price level leading to sharp rise in cost of living. No improvement in agricultural and industrial technology, shortage of essential commodities, low standard of living, mass unemployment etc. As a result the entire economy of an underdeveloped country is surrounded by the vicious circle of poverty.

    11) It is now almost universally recognized that the chronic unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labour force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited.
    Capital as the major bottleneck to growth of employment was made popular by Harrod-Domar model of economic growth in which capital accumulation plays a pivotal role and according to which rate of growth of output depends upon the proportion of national income saved, divided by the capital-output ratio (g = s/v, where g stands for growth rate, s for the proportion of income saved and v for the capital-output ratio).

    12) There are a few reason why i believe that better health also help spur successful development in societies with wealthier people.
    First of all, it is a well known fact that rich people try their very best to stay healthy all the time, with proper dieting and exercise.
    Secondly, in a situation where people are taking good care of their health, they will fall sick less times in a year.
    And with this, the government expenditure on the health sector can be reduced and money can be channelee to other sectors which leads to successful development.

    N0. 13

    Impact of poor public health on development :

    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    1. Reduces labour force.

    2. Decrease in quality of human life to contributes to economic development.

    3. Decrease in productivity.

    4. Reduces life expectancy.

    5. Decrease in human capital development.

    II. Solutions to the problems :

    1. High investment in the health sector.

    2. Increase in health care infrastructures.

    3. Better health care equipments.

    4. Employment of qualified medical practitioners.

    5. Public enlightenment on better public health care maintenance.

  13. Nweke Chidera Philomina 2018/242345 says:

    Nweke Chidera Philomina
    2018/242345
    Economics
    nweke165@gmail.com
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors. The Rostow model has serious flaws, of which the most serious…

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    1. Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.

    2. Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Traditionally, women were considered to be full-time homemakers. Their responsibilities were to take care of their children and family. They didn’t have any role in the household earning. Over the years, the roles of women have changed. Here we are going to discuss it.

    a. Child-bearing role

    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.

    b. Education

    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.

    c. Outside activities

    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.

    d. Workplace

    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities. The percentage of the part-time job is more in case of women. Women are still often seen in the caring or teaching sector. But now more women are entering the male-dominated sectors like politics, the legal system, etc. as well. More women are occupying senior management positions.

    e. Fighting for rights

    Women now have a voice, unlike before. Families are no more male-dominated. Like men, women also make major life decisions. Women have stood against dowry and domestic violence. Even in the workplace, they fight against sexual abuse and equality. Child marriage is being stopped in many communities.

    Men now play a role in child raising and household activities just like women. Both men and women now share their responsibilities both home and outside. Women now stand against any discrimination and torture. There have been lots of gender-issue related movements and many social organizations now fight for women’s rights. Women are now getting power even in rural areas. In many countries now women are the head of the state. Education has made women independent and they are no longer dependent on men to lead their lives.

    Business laws have changed to allow more women in the workplace and giving them a comfortable environment to work in. Women can now stand tall like men and get equal opportunities in everything.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Poverty rarely has a single cause. A range of factors including rising living costs, low pay, lack of work, and inadequate social security benefits together mean some people do not have enough resources.
    WORKLESSNESS
    Since 2006, there has been a 60 per cent rise in the number of people moving repeatedly between work and unemployment.

    66 per cent of children in families with no working adults are in poverty.

    People who are not working overwhelmingly want to work, but face barriers to employment. Principally these are ill-health and childcare, but also caring responsibilities for family members.

    HIGH COSTS AND INADEQUATE BENEFITS
    In-work benefits, such as universal credit, are currently insufficient to overcome these labour market challenges and keep people out of poverty.

    In addition, the very high costs of housing and childcare increase families’ risk of poverty. It is generally accepted that where people are out of work or don’t earn enough money, the social security system should provide a safety net to prevent them falling into poverty. Unfortunately this is not the case.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment is caused by various reasons that come from both the demand side, or employer, and the supply side, or the worker.

    Demand-side reductions may be caused by high interest rates, global recession, and financial crisis. From the supply side, frictional unemployment and structural employment play a great role.
    In the world, three out of four people living in poverty and suffering from hunger live in rural areas. This data, released by FAO, emphasizes the extent of rural poverty, caused by factors such as lack of employment and opportunities, limited access to services and infrastructure, and conflicts over natural resources and land. Added to these circumstances are the adverse effects of climate change, which aggravate alarming phenomena such as the exhaustion of natural resources, deforestation, soil erosion, a decline in crop yields, or the loss of agrobiodiversity.

    This set of unfavorable conditions causes significant migratory flows to cities, especially of young people seeking new income and employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration in Central America has contributed to the population growth of cities, and the region is today the second in the world to register the highest and fastest urbanization rates, with an average growth rate of 3.8 during the last two decades. Likewise, according to World Bank forecasts, by 2050 the region will have doubled its urban population, mainly due to rural migrants who come to the cities in search of economic opportunities and access to basic services.

    The migratory movement towards urban areas implies a transformation process that causes a decrease of income generation and employment in agriculture. This leads to less labor participation in the primary sector, which can cause a reduction in agricultural production and threaten food security in some territories.

    Thus, for example, the countryside may lack a young and dynamic workforce, also registering an ageing population, which can compromise a sufficient and varied food production. In rural areas of Mexico, for example, the migration of young people, and the consequent decrease in the fertility rate, has caused a variation among the population groups: while in 2005 there were 21 adults over 60 years for every 100 children, predictions indicate that by 2051 there will be 167 older adults for every 100 children.

    Likewise, the increase in urban poverty responds to the abundant migratory flows to cities: migrants may not find work in urban areas (although the search for employment opportunities was the reason for mobilizing),and this generates a vicious circle of scarcity and needs.

    The high percentages of informal work in the region also indicate a lack of social protection, which aggravates the situations of poverty and precariousness of internal migrants. Another factor that highlights the difficult living conditions of rural migrants in cities is that, due to limited economic resources, this population often lives in informal settlements, which are home to around 29% of the urban population in Central America. These settlements are usually located in areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as floods, landslides and earthquakes. This shows how rural migration, also fostered by the effects of climate change, needs special attention to avoid a reproduction of existing vulnerabilities.

    Furthermore, while conflicts over natural resources can provoke rural migration, migrants find new forms of violence in cities. In the Northern Triangle of Central America, violence is a mainly urban phenomenon, aggravated by causes such as poverty, segregation, inequality and lack of opportunities. Farmers in poverty conditions and unemployed people can be new victims of criminal groups in cities. This situation can cause new migratory flows of people who migrated to the cities and, as they do not find an adequate situation, they decide to migrate abroad.

    Hence, rural-urban migration has crucial implications not only for rural, but also urban development and sustainability. For example, current challenges such as urban overpopulation or the loss of traditional crops and agrobiodiversity depend directly on rural migratory flows. To resolve these issues, it is necessary to draw attention to their roots: the countryside and migration.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Health is an important factor as you can’t do anything if you don’t have a proper health. No matter if you are rich, if you are on bed rest forever even if you are rich, it won’t matter. We know that Health is wealth so if you have a good health, you can work hard and get successful in your life and take your nation forward. Proper Health ensures that you are fit and proper to accept any challenge and fight it accordingly. So health plays a vital role in framing future and development too.
    .
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    Issues
    Low health standards
    Lack of fertile fields for agriculture
    Lack of contraceptives
    Vaccination refusal
    Excessive use of vehicles
    Excessive consumption
    Poverty
    Lack of education
    Political goals
    Industry goals
    Lack of exercise
    Unhealthy food
    Bribing
    Alcohol
    Tobacco
    Illegal drugs
    Low health standards
    One cause for public health issues is low healthcare standards in many countries.

    This problem is especially severe in third world countries which are usually quite poor and do not have advanced public healthcare infrastructures like in the Western world.

    If people get sick in those countries, they usually have to pay part of the whole treatment costs by themselves.

    Many people are not able to afford those treatment costs and therefore may suffer from adverse consequential issues in the future or may even die from diseases.

    Moreover, in many countries, not only health insurance is a big issue.

    Also, the quality of medical treatment itself is far from optimal.

    Many hospitals are overcrowded and have not enough stuff to deal with the number of people who urgently need treatment.

    Some hospitals do not even have air conditioning which makes situations worse since if people suffer from high fever and there is no air condition, they may suffer from circulatory collapse.

    This is especially true for countries with high air temperature and high levels of moisture in the air.

    Lack of fertile fields for agriculture
    In many countries, there is a lack of fertile fields.

    Since farmers often have to rely on crop yields as their single source of income, a lack of fertility of their fields may threaten their livelihood.

    Making things worse, this problem will likely be even more severe in the future.

    Due to climate change, average air temperature will increase over time.

    This may lead to the problem of water scarcity.

    Areas that already currently suffer from water shortages will be quite helpless in the future and may be forced to leave their homes since they will no longer be able to harvest enough crops from their fields due to water shortages.

    Lack of contraceptives
    In some countries, there may also be a lack of contraceptives or at least a lack of understanding of how important contraceptives really are to regulate the number of children.

    A lack of contraceptives not only leads to a high number of children per household which in turn may lead to poverty for each individual. It may also lead to a spread of serious diseases like HIV.

    Vaccination refusal
    Many people, even in developed countries are still quite skeptic about the use of vaccines.

    They think that vaccines are either unnecessary or even harmful.

    Therefore, many people refuse vaccines for their children.

    This behavior may harm their children through diseases and may also harm other people since children carrying diseases are likely to infect other people.

    Excessive use of vehicles
    Our excessive use of vehicles also contributes to public health issues.

    In the Western world, almost every household has at least one car. Some households even have two or more motor vehicles.

    The use of motor vehicles which run by fossil fuels is quite harmful to our environment since it implies the emission of several harmful substances, including greenhouse gases which contribute to the global warming problem.

    The use of motor vehicles also decreases the local air quality since the particulate matter issue is exacerbated.

    Excessive consumption
    Since the industrial revolution period, worldwide consumption levels skyrocketed.

    This is due to the fact that with the help of machines, we are now able to produce large quantities of goods with a low unit price.

    This development of consumption behavior has severe economic downsides.

    In order to be able to meet the demand for material things, we have to extract large amounts of resources out of the ground.

    This can lead to a depletion of resources.

    Moreover, in the production process, harmful gases like CO2 and methane are emitted into the earth, contributing to the global warming problem.

    Global warming in turn can lead to the destruction of living spaces for many people and is also like to lead to water shortages and food scarcity.

    Poverty

    Many people, especially in developing countries, suffer from extreme poverty.

    They are often not even able to afford basic items like enough food and drinks.

    This in turn often leads to diseases since their immune system is weakened due to their poor living conditions and malnutrition.

    Lack of education
    A lack of education also contributes to several public health issues.

    The level of education significantly determines a person’s attitude towards life.

    This includes his or her consumption behavior as well as their social behavior.

    A lack of education will likely lead to a state where people do not care at all about their environmental behavior since they simply do not comprehend how their daily actions affect our environmental system.

    A lack of education also contributes to public health issues since uneducated people are likely to drink and smoke and therefore suffer from the adverse health effects regarding this behavior.

    Political goals
    When it comes to public health issues, political goals are another important factor.

    In an ideal world, politicians should strive for the improvement of the life quality of people in their countries.

    However, in many countries, political goals and private goals diverge significantly.

    There are countries where dictators try to keep people poor and uneducated in order to sustain their reign.

    Dictators know quite well that people may overthrow them if they have the opportunity to do so.

    Thus, it is in a dictator’s interest to assure his reign, even if this means that most of the local population will have to suffer.

    Industry goals
    There is also a divergence between social and company goals.

    Since companies usually strive to maximize profits, this may come on the cost of our global society.

    For example, industries may strive to produce large quantities of goods in order to maximize their profits.

    This also leads to large amounts of emissions and all kinds of other pollution.

    It also contributes to global warming.

    Our society will suffer from the adverse consequences of this profit-maximizing behavior, however, firms do not have an incentive to stop it.

    Thus, if there is not enough regulation, industries are likely to impose negative externalities on the public which will in turn lead to severe public health issues.

    Lack of exercise
    In the last decades, we have seen a significant shift from physical to mental work.

    Since our daily life is centered around our jobs, many people sit in offices the whole day.

    This change in working conditions is likely to lead to obesity and other health issues if people do not work in order to mitigate the related health problems.

    Thus, a lack of exercise and physical work may also lead to several public health issues.

    Unhealthy food
    Another factor that significantly contributes to public health issues is our attitude towards food.

    Many people consume large amounts of fast food and other unhealthy stuff.

    This leads to obesity and may also shorten life expectancy since unhealthy food can also lead to heart attacks, strokes or other serious health issues.

    Many people may not even be aware of the adverse effects which are implied through an unhealthy nutrition behavior.

    These people are at great risk for public health issues and also their children may suffer from adverse health consequences.

    Bribing
    Bribing can also lead to public health issues. In many countries, politicians, police officers and other officials can be bribed in order to get building permissions or other amenities.

    This means that people with money may be able to influence political decisions in their favor.

    On the flip side, this means that poor people may suffer even more since they are not able to influence the decision processes at all.

    They may even lose all their belongings and their livelihood due to bribing.

    Thus, bribing can play a crucial role in the context of public health issues.

    Alcohol
    Alcohol is a quite serious cause of public health issues. In many countries and cultures, alcohol is propagated as harmless substance for partying purposes.

    However, alcohol is one of the most harmful drugs. In fact, many studies found that alcohol can be considered the most harmful drugs if we add not only private, but also social adverse effects.

    The interesting part of these findings is that nobody seems to be eager to talk about this issue.

    Alcohol is still quite accepted in many cultures and therefore alcohol abuse is on a daily basis.

    According to the WHO, around 3 million people die from the harmful use of alcohol each year.

    Thus, alcohol can be regarded as an extremely dangerous drug that causes massive adverse health effects, also it is often belittled by ignorant people.

    Tobacco
    Tobacco is another legal drug that imposes massive adverse effects on our public health system.

    According to the WHO, 8 million people die from the effects of tobacco use each year.

    Therefore, tobacco can be regarded as the most dangerous drug in terms of deaths per year worldwide.

    Although quite accepted in many societies, tobacco plays a major role in the development of lung cancer and other serious diseases and therefore contributes to public health issues in a severe manner.

    Illegal drugs
    There are many illegal drugs that may also cause some health issues.

    Although hyped in the media, the number of death from illegal drugs is quite low compared to the number of death from legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco.

    Therefore, although illegal drugs are not that important for public health compared to legal drugs, they still impose significant costs on our public health system.

    Effects of Public Health Problems
    Alcohol-related effects
    Tobacco-related effects
    Drug-related effects
    Obesity
    Malnutrition
    Mental issues
    Air pollution
    Global warming
    Lack of access to basic care
    Non-communicable diseases
    Antimicrobial resistance
    Pandemics
    HIV
    Dengue fever
    High-threat pathogens
    Alcohol-related effects
    The excessive use of alcohol is responsible for a significant number of deaths each year.

    It can also lead to several serious health issues, including cirrhosis of the liver.

    Alcohol also increases aggression level for most people which also increases the probability of brawls and their adverse effects.

    Thus, alcohol can have serious adverse effects on individuals as well as on public health.

    Tobacco-related effects
    Tobacco also leads to serious public health effects.

    Tobacco is the most dangerous drug in terms of fatalities per year.

    Moreover, tobacco also leads to high social costs since the treatment of lung diseases can be quite costly and these costs are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    Therefore, the use of tobacco can lead to several private as well as public health issues.

    Drug-related effects
    Illegal drugs can also cause several adverse health conditions.

    This may come in the form of serious diseases like HIV or also from overdoses.

    Although illegal drugs cause significantly fewer fatalities per year compared to legal drugs like alcohol or tobacco, illegal drugs still pose serious public health issues since people addicted to these substances are likely to suffer in a dramatic manner.

    Obesity
    Obesity is a major public health issue in our current society.

    This is due to the fact that people mainly sit around the whole day, starring at their computer and waiting until the day is over and they can go home and watch their favorite serious on their couch.

    Moreover, many people eat quite unhealthily.

    This combination of low levels of exercise and unhealthy food leads to obesity for many people.

    Obesity in turn can lead to serious health conditions and affect people not only physically, but also mentally.

    Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is a huge public health issue, especially in poor developing countries. In these countries, people usually have many children.

    However, many children need many resources in order to grow healthy.

    Poor families are often not able to provide enough food and minerals to their children, which results in malnutrition.

    Malnutrition can in turn lead to a weak immune system and may even lead to death.

    Mental issues
    Public health issues can also include mental issues.

    Since we are affected by so many impressions today, our brains may not be able to deal with all of them.

    There are many people who report that they feel burned out.

    The number of people suffering from mental illness increased drastically over the last decades.

    If our society and our value system continue to value excessive mental work, chances are that the number of mentally sick people will continue to increase in the future.

    Air pollution
    Air pollution can also be regarded as public health issue since it contributes to all kinds of diseases.

    These diseases are likely to lead to high health costs in return which are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    Global warming
    Global warming is another issue that can be caused by public health issues.

    A major factor for global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases.

    These gases are emitted in industrial processes, but also through the daily use of our cars.

    Lack of access to basic care
    Many people worldwide lack access to basic care.

    This includes basic things like sufficient food and drinks but also includes basic supply with healthcare items.

    The lack of access to these basic items is usually due to the fact that many people around the world are quite poor and are not able to afford these basic daily life items.

    Non-communicable diseases
    Non-communicable diseases are diseases that are not transmissible directly from one person to another.

    Examples for those kinds of diseases are autoimmune diseases, heart attacks or diabetes.

    These diseases are often related to our consumption behavior.

    For example, type 2 diabetes is often caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of sugar and a low level of physical activity.

    Non-communicable diseases cause serious health conditions for a large number of people worldwide.

    Antimicrobial resistance
    In mainstream medicine, antibiotics are often prescribed in an excessive way.

    However, the excessive use of antibiotics can lead to antimicrobial resistance.

    This means that certain bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.

    This in turn may lead to an increase in fatalities since antibiotics will no longer work to cure certain diseases.

    Pandemics
    Some public health issues may also lead to pandemics.

    Pandemics are likely to spread in regions where living and health conditions are quite basic.

    Poor people will not be able to fight these pandemics in a sufficient way, which may lead to the death of many people worldwide.

    HIV
    HIV is a big problem worldwide. HIV is often transmitted through sexual intercourse.

    HIV is a serious disease that takes away the lives of many people.

    It is especially harmful in countries which do not have proper HIV treatment.

    These people will usually have quite low life expectancies.

    Thus, HIV can be regarded as a serious public health issue.

    It is often caused by a lack of education or the unwillingness to use contraceptives.

    Dengue fever
    Dengue fever is transmitted by mosquitos. It is a severe disease that causes many fatalities per year.

    Especially in poor countries with low healthcare standards, Dengue fever has extreme adverse impacts.

    High-threat pathogens
    High-threat pathogens like Ebola can often spread in countries with low health standards.

    They are known to cause a high number of deaths.

    High-threat pathogens are likely to spread across country borders and thus may affect large areas and large numbers of people.

    Solutions to the Public Health Problem
    Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    Improve health standards
    Improve research
    Transnational support
    Reduction in consumption
    Recycle and reuse
    Reduce corruptive actions
    Promote vaccinations
    Education and research
    Convince others
    Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.

    This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.

    Improve health standards
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.

    It should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.

    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.

    Improve research
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.

    Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.

    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.

    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.

    Transnational support
    It is crucial that rich developed countries support poor developing countries financially but also in terms of sharing their research findings in order to fight public health issues.

    By doing so, we will spread knowledge and research advancements in all parts of the world, which in turn likely leads to an increase in overall health standards and to more effective treatment of diseases.

    Reduction in consumption
    Some public health issues are caused by our excessive consumption behavior.

    This is especially true for the global warming issue.

    The production and also the disposal or our goods lead to a huge level of greenhouse gas emission which in turn contributes to global warming.

    Global warming is a serious contributor to public health issues.

    It leads to water shortage for many people and may also destroy the livelihood of many people.

    Therefore, we should reduce our consumption in order to reduce our adverse impact.

    Recycle and reuse
    Another measure to mitigate public health issues is to recycle and reuse our material belongings more efficiently.

    Since our consumption level has a big effect on public health issues, we have to ensure that we use our resources in an efficient way in order to reduce the adverse effects.

    Thus, this could mean that you give away your old but yet working stuff or that you at least recycle it in an effective manner.

    Reduce corruptive actions
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.

    Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.

    Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.

    Promote vaccinations
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.

    This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.

    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

    Education and Research
    Education is crucial for solving problems.

    This is also true for the mitigation of public health issues.

    We have to teach children as well as grownups about the adverse consequences and how we can mitigate them.

    By doing so, people will be more aware of their behavior and are likely to behave in a way that contributes to a reduction in public health issues.

    Moreover, extensive research is necessary in order to fight public health issues.

    This may also include genetic engineering to mitigate the spread of some kinds of diseases.

    Convince others
    Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem.

    However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.

    Tell your family and friends about the issue regarding public health and how they can contribute to its reduction.

    Conclusion
    Public health issues are a serious environmental problem.

    There are many causes of public health problems that can be altered by our daily behavior.

    For example, reducing the consumption of alcohol or tobacco would be a first step in order to mitigate adverse effects on your private health.

    Moreover, you can also take several measures that address the public health issue in a global context, for example through a reduction in your consumption behavior.

    If everyone makes a small contribution, together we can have a big impact in order to mitigate the public health problem.

  14. Alaka Joshua Chiagozikam says:

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors. The Rostow model has serious flaws, of which the most serious…

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    1. Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.

    2. Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Traditionally, women were considered to be full-time homemakers. Their responsibilities were to take care of their children and family. They didn’t have any role in the household earning. Over the years, the roles of women have changed. Here we are going to discuss it.

    a. Child-bearing role

    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.

    b. Education

    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.

    c. Outside activities

    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.

    d. Workplace

    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities. The percentage of the part-time job is more in case of women. Women are still often seen in the caring or teaching sector. But now more women are entering the male-dominated sectors like politics, the legal system, etc. as well. More women are occupying senior management positions.

    e. Fighting for rights

    Women now have a voice, unlike before. Families are no more male-dominated. Like men, women also make major life decisions. Women have stood against dowry and domestic violence. Even in the workplace, they fight against sexual abuse and equality. Child marriage is being stopped in many communities.

    Men now play a role in child raising and household activities just like women. Both men and women now share their responsibilities both home and outside. Women now stand against any discrimination and torture. There have been lots of gender-issue related movements and many social organizations now fight for women’s rights. Women are now getting power even in rural areas. In many countries now women are the head of the state. Education has made women independent and they are no longer dependent on men to lead their lives.

    Business laws have changed to allow more women in the workplace and giving them a comfortable environment to work in. Women can now stand tall like men and get equal opportunities in everything.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Poverty rarely has a single cause. A range of factors including rising living costs, low pay, lack of work, and inadequate social security benefits together mean some people do not have enough resources.
    WORKLESSNESS
    Since 2006, there has been a 60 per cent rise in the number of people moving repeatedly between work and unemployment.

    66 per cent of children in families with no working adults are in poverty.

    People who are not working overwhelmingly want to work, but face barriers to employment. Principally these are ill-health and childcare, but also caring responsibilities for family members.

    HIGH COSTS AND INADEQUATE BENEFITS
    In-work benefits, such as universal credit, are currently insufficient to overcome these labour market challenges and keep people out of poverty.

    In addition, the very high costs of housing and childcare increase families’ risk of poverty. It is generally accepted that where people are out of work or don’t earn enough money, the social security system should provide a safety net to prevent them falling into poverty. Unfortunately this is not the case.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment is caused by various reasons that come from both the demand side, or employer, and the supply side, or the worker.

    Demand-side reductions may be caused by high interest rates, global recession, and financial crisis. From the supply side, frictional unemployment and structural employment play a great role.
    In the world, three out of four people living in poverty and suffering from hunger live in rural areas. This data, released by FAO, emphasizes the extent of rural poverty, caused by factors such as lack of employment and opportunities, limited access to services and infrastructure, and conflicts over natural resources and land. Added to these circumstances are the adverse effects of climate change, which aggravate alarming phenomena such as the exhaustion of natural resources, deforestation, soil erosion, a decline in crop yields, or the loss of agrobiodiversity.

    This set of unfavorable conditions causes significant migratory flows to cities, especially of young people seeking new income and employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration in Central America has contributed to the population growth of cities, and the region is today the second in the world to register the highest and fastest urbanization rates, with an average growth rate of 3.8 during the last two decades. Likewise, according to World Bank forecasts, by 2050 the region will have doubled its urban population, mainly due to rural migrants who come to the cities in search of economic opportunities and access to basic services.

    The migratory movement towards urban areas implies a transformation process that causes a decrease of income generation and employment in agriculture. This leads to less labor participation in the primary sector, which can cause a reduction in agricultural production and threaten food security in some territories.

    Thus, for example, the countryside may lack a young and dynamic workforce, also registering an ageing population, which can compromise a sufficient and varied food production. In rural areas of Mexico, for example, the migration of young people, and the consequent decrease in the fertility rate, has caused a variation among the population groups: while in 2005 there were 21 adults over 60 years for every 100 children, predictions indicate that by 2051 there will be 167 older adults for every 100 children.

    Likewise, the increase in urban poverty responds to the abundant migratory flows to cities: migrants may not find work in urban areas (although the search for employment opportunities was the reason for mobilizing),and this generates a vicious circle of scarcity and needs.

    The high percentages of informal work in the region also indicate a lack of social protection, which aggravates the situations of poverty and precariousness of internal migrants. Another factor that highlights the difficult living conditions of rural migrants in cities is that, due to limited economic resources, this population often lives in informal settlements, which are home to around 29% of the urban population in Central America. These settlements are usually located in areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as floods, landslides and earthquakes. This shows how rural migration, also fostered by the effects of climate change, needs special attention to avoid a reproduction of existing vulnerabilities.

    Furthermore, while conflicts over natural resources can provoke rural migration, migrants find new forms of violence in cities. In the Northern Triangle of Central America, violence is a mainly urban phenomenon, aggravated by causes such as poverty, segregation, inequality and lack of opportunities. Farmers in poverty conditions and unemployed people can be new victims of criminal groups in cities. This situation can cause new migratory flows of people who migrated to the cities and, as they do not find an adequate situation, they decide to migrate abroad.

    Hence, rural-urban migration has crucial implications not only for rural, but also urban development and sustainability. For example, current challenges such as urban overpopulation or the loss of traditional crops and agrobiodiversity depend directly on rural migratory flows. To resolve these issues, it is necessary to draw attention to their roots: the countryside and migration.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Health is an important factor as you can’t do anything if you don’t have a proper health. No matter if you are rich, if you are on bed rest forever even if you are rich, it won’t matter. We know that Health is wealth so if you have a good health, you can work hard and get successful in your life and take your nation forward. Proper Health ensures that you are fit and proper to accept any challenge and fight it accordingly. So health plays a vital role in framing future and development too.
    .
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    Issues
    Low health standards
    One cause for public health issues is low healthcare standards in many countries.

    This problem is especially severe in third world countries which are usually quite poor and do not have advanced public healthcare infrastructures like in the Western world.

    If people get sick in those countries, they usually have to pay part of the whole treatment costs by themselves.

    Many people are not able to afford those treatment costs and therefore may suffer from adverse consequential issues in the future or may even die from diseases.

    Moreover, in many countries, not only health insurance is a big issue.

    Also, the quality of medical treatment itself is far from optimal.

    Many hospitals are overcrowded and have not enough stuff to deal with the number of people who urgently need treatment.

    Some hospitals do not even have air conditioning which makes situations worse since if people suffer from high fever and there is no air condition, they may suffer from circulatory collapse.

    This is especially true for countries with high air temperature and high levels of moisture in the air.

    Lack of fertile fields for agriculture
    In many countries, there is a lack of fertile fields.

    Since farmers often have to rely on crop yields as their single source of income, a lack of fertility of their fields may threaten their livelihood.

    Making things worse, this problem will likely be even more severe in the future.

    Due to climate change, average air temperature will increase over time.

    This may lead to the problem of water scarcity.

    Areas that already currently suffer from water shortages will be quite helpless in the future and may be forced to leave their homes since they will no longer be able to harvest enough crops from their fields due to water shortages.

    Lack of contraceptives
    In some countries, there may also be a lack of contraceptives or at least a lack of understanding of how important contraceptives really are to regulate the number of children.

    A lack of contraceptives not only leads to a high number of children per household which in turn may lead to poverty for each individual. It may also lead to a spread of serious diseases like HIV.

    Vaccination refusal
    Many people, even in developed countries are still quite skeptic about the use of vaccines.

    They think that vaccines are either unnecessary or even harmful.

    Therefore, many people refuse vaccines for their children.

    This behavior may harm their children through diseases and may also harm other people since children carrying diseases are likely to infect other people.

    Excessive use of vehicles
    Our excessive use of vehicles also contributes to public health issues.

    In the Western world, almost every household has at least one car. Some households even have two or more motor vehicles.

    The use of motor vehicles which run by fossil fuels is quite harmful to our environment since it implies the emission of several harmful substances, including greenhouse gases which contribute to the global warming problem.

    The use of motor vehicles also decreases the local air quality since the particulate matter issue is exacerbated.

    Excessive consumption
    Since the industrial revolution period, worldwide consumption levels skyrocketed.

    This is due to the fact that with the help of machines, we are now able to produce large quantities of goods with a low unit price.

    This development of consumption behavior has severe economic downsides.

    In order to be able to meet the demand for material things, we have to extract large amounts of resources out of the ground.

    This can lead to a depletion of resources.

    Moreover, in the production process, harmful gases like CO2 and methane are emitted into the earth, contributing to the global warming problem.

    Global warming in turn can lead to the destruction of living spaces for many people and is also like to lead to water shortages and food scarcity.

    Poverty

    Many people, especially in developing countries, suffer from extreme poverty.

    They are often not even able to afford basic items like enough food and drinks.

    This in turn often leads to diseases since their immune system is weakened due to their poor living conditions and malnutrition.

    Lack of education
    A lack of education also contributes to several public health issues.

    The level of education significantly determines a person’s attitude towards life.

    This includes his or her consumption behavior as well as their social behavior.

    A lack of education will likely lead to a state where people do not care at all about their environmental behavior since they simply do not comprehend how their daily actions affect our environmental system.

    A lack of education also contributes to public health issues since uneducated people are likely to drink and smoke and therefore suffer from the adverse health effects regarding this behavior.

    Political goals
    When it comes to public health issues, political goals are another important factor.

    In an ideal world, politicians should strive for the improvement of the life quality of people in their countries.

    However, in many countries, political goals and private goals diverge significantly.

    There are countries where dictators try to keep people poor and uneducated in order to sustain their reign.

    Dictators know quite well that people may overthrow them if they have the opportunity to do so.

    Thus, it is in a dictator’s interest to assure his reign, even if this means that most of the local population will have to suffer.

    Industry goals
    There is also a divergence between social and company goals.

    Since companies usually strive to maximize profits, this may come on the cost of our global society.

    For example, industries may strive to produce large quantities of goods in order to maximize their profits.

    This also leads to large amounts of emissions and all kinds of other pollution.

    It also contributes to global warming.

    Our society will suffer from the adverse consequences of this profit-maximizing behavior, however, firms do not have an incentive to stop it.

    Thus, if there is not enough regulation, industries are likely to impose negative externalities on the public which will in turn lead to severe public health issues.

    Lack of exercise
    In the last decades, we have seen a significant shift from physical to mental work.

    Since our daily life is centered around our jobs, many people sit in offices the whole day.

    This change in working conditions is likely to lead to obesity and other health issues if people do not work in order to mitigate the related health problems.

    Thus, a lack of exercise and physical work may also lead to several public health issues.

    Unhealthy food
    Another factor that significantly contributes to public health issues is our attitude towards food.

    Many people consume large amounts of fast food and other unhealthy stuff.

    This leads to obesity and may also shorten life expectancy since unhealthy food can also lead to heart attacks, strokes or other serious health issues.

    Many people may not even be aware of the adverse effects which are implied through an unhealthy nutrition behavior.

    These people are at great risk for public health issues and also their children may suffer from adverse health consequences.

    Bribing
    Bribing can also lead to public health issues. In many countries, politicians, police officers and other officials can be bribed in order to get building permissions or other amenities.

    This means that people with money may be able to influence political decisions in their favor.

    On the flip side, this means that poor people may suffer even more since they are not able to influence the decision processes at all.

    They may even lose all their belongings and their livelihood due to bribing.

    Thus, bribing can play a crucial role in the context of public health issues.
    Alcohol
    Alcohol is a quite serious cause of public health issues. In many countries and cultures, alcohol is propagated as harmless substance for partying purposes.

    However, alcohol is one of the most harmful drugs. In fact, many studies found that alcohol can be considered the most harmful drugs if we add not only private, but also social adverse effects.

    The interesting part of these findings is that nobody seems to be eager to talk about this issue.

    Alcohol is still quite accepted in many cultures and therefore alcohol abuse is on a daily basis.

    According to the WHO, around 3 million people die from the harmful use of alcohol each year.

    Thus, alcohol can be regarded as an extremely dangerous drug that causes massive adverse health effects, also it is often belittled by ignorant people.

    Tobacco
    Tobacco is another legal drug that imposes massive adverse effects on our public health system.

    According to the WHO, 8 million people die from the effects of tobacco use each year.

    Therefore, tobacco can be regarded as the most dangerous drug in terms of deaths per year worldwide.

    Although quite accepted in many societies, tobacco plays a major role in the development of lung cancer and other serious diseases and therefore contributes to public health issues in a severe manner.

    Illegal drugs
    There are many illegal drugs that may also cause some health issues.

    Although hyped in the media, the number of death from illegal drugs is quite low compared to the number of death from legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco.

    Therefore, although illegal drugs are not that important for public health compared to legal drugs, they still impose significant costs on our public health system.

    Effects of Public Health Problems
    Alcohol-related effects
    The excessive use of alcohol is responsible for a significant number of deaths each year.

    It can also lead to several serious health issues, including cirrhosis of the liver.

    Alcohol also increases aggression level for most people which also increases the probability of brawls and their adverse effects.

    Thus, alcohol can have serious adverse effects on individuals as well as on public health.

    Tobacco-related effects
    Tobacco also leads to serious public health effects.

    Tobacco is the most dangerous drug in terms of fatalities per year.

    Moreover, tobacco also leads to high social costs since the treatment of lung diseases can be quite costly and these costs are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    Therefore, the use of tobacco can lead to several private as well as public health issues.

    Drug-related effects
    Illegal drugs can also cause several adverse health conditions.

    This may come in the form of serious diseases like HIV or also from overdoses.

    Although illegal drugs cause significantly fewer fatalities per year compared to legal drugs like alcohol or tobacco, illegal drugs still pose serious public health issues since people addicted to these substances are likely to suffer in a dramatic manner.

    Obesity
    Obesity is a major public health issue in our current society.

    This is due to the fact that people mainly sit around the whole day, starring at their computer and waiting until the day is over and they can go home and watch their favorite serious on their couch.

    Moreover, many people eat quite unhealthily.

    This combination of low levels of exercise and unhealthy food leads to obesity for many people.

    Obesity in turn can lead to serious health conditions and affect people not only physically, but also mentally.

    Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is a huge public health issue, especially in poor developing countries. In these countries, people usually have many children.

    However, many children need many resources in order to grow healthy.

    Poor families are often not able to provide enough food and minerals to their children, which results in malnutrition.

    Malnutrition can in turn lead to a weak immune system and may even lead to death.

    Mental issues
    Public health issues can also include mental issues.

    Since we are affected by so many impressions today, our brains may not be able to deal with all of them.

    There are many people who report that they feel burned out.

    The number of people suffering from mental illness increased drastically over the last decades.

    If our society and our value system continue to value excessive mental work, chances are that the number of mentally sick people will continue to increase in the future.

    Air pollution
    Air pollution can also be regarded as public health issue since it contributes to all kinds of diseases.

    These diseases are likely to lead to high health costs in return which are often borne by the taxpayer through health insurance schemes.

    Global warming
    Global warming is another issue that can be caused by public health issues.

    A major factor for global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases.

    These gases are emitted in industrial processes, but also through the daily use of our cars.

    Lack of access to basic care
    Many people worldwide lack access to basic care.

    This includes basic things like sufficient food and drinks but also includes basic supply with healthcare items.

    The lack of access to these basic items is usually due to the fact that many people around the world are quite poor and are not able to afford these basic daily life items.

    Non-communicable diseases
    Non-communicable diseases are diseases that are not transmissible directly from one person to another.

    Examples for those kinds of diseases are autoimmune diseases, heart attacks or diabetes.

    These diseases are often related to our consumption behavior.

    For example, type 2 diabetes is often caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of sugar and a low level of physical activity.

    Non-communicable diseases cause serious health conditions for a large number of people worldwide.

    Antimicrobial resistance
    In mainstream medicine, antibiotics are often prescribed in an excessive way.

    However, the excessive use of antibiotics can lead to antimicrobial resistance.

    This means that certain bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.

    This in turn may lead to an increase in fatalities since antibiotics will no longer work to cure certain diseases.

    Pandemics
    Some public health issues may also lead to pandemics.

    Pandemics are likely to spread in regions where living and health conditions are quite basic.

    Poor people will not be able to fight these pandemics in a sufficient way, which may lead to the death of many people worldwide.

    HIV
    HIV is a big problem worldwide. HIV is often transmitted through sexual intercourse.

    HIV is a serious disease that takes away the lives of many people.

    It is especially harmful in countries which do not have proper HIV treatment.

    These people will usually have quite low life expectancies.

    Thus, HIV can be regarded as a serious public health issue.

    It is often caused by a lack of education or the unwillingness to use contraceptives.

    Dengue fever
    Dengue fever is transmitted by mosquitos. It is a severe disease that causes many fatalities per year.

    Especially in poor countries with low healthcare standards, Dengue fever has extreme adverse impacts.

    High-threat pathogens
    High-threat pathogens like Ebola can often spread in countries with low health standards.

    They are known to cause a high number of deaths.

    High-threat pathogens are likely to spread across country borders and thus may affect large areas and large numbers of people.

    Solutions to the Public Health Problem
    Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    Improve health standards
    Improve research
    Transnational support
    Reduction in consumption
    Recycle and reuse
    Reduce corruptive actions
    Promote vaccinations
    Education and research
    Convince others
    Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.

    This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.

    Improve health standards
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.

    It should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.

    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.

    Improve research
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.

    Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.

    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.

    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.

    Transnational support
    It is crucial that rich developed countries support poor developing countries financially but also in terms of sharing their research findings in order to fight public health issues.

    By doing so, we will spread knowledge and research advancements in all parts of the world, which in turn likely leads to an increase in overall health standards and to more effective treatment of diseases.

    Reduction in consumption
    Some public health issues are caused by our excessive consumption behavior.

    This is especially true for the global warming issue.

    The production and also the disposal or our goods lead to a huge level of greenhouse gas emission which in turn contributes to global warming.

    Global warming is a serious contributor to public health issues.

    It leads to water shortage for many people and may also destroy the livelihood of many people.

    Therefore, we should reduce our consumption in order to reduce our adverse impact.

    Recycle and reuse
    Another measure to mitigate public health issues is to recycle and reuse our material belongings more efficiently.

    Since our consumption level has a big effect on public health issues, we have to ensure that we use our resources in an efficient way in order to reduce the adverse effects.

    Thus, this could mean that you give away your old but yet working stuff or that you at least recycle it in an effective manner.

    Reduce corruptive actions
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.

    Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.

    Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.

    Promote vaccinations
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.

    This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.

    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

    Education and Research
    Education is crucial for solving problems.

    This is also true for the mitigation of public health issues.

    We have to teach children as well as grownups about the adverse consequences and how we can mitigate them.

    By doing so, people will be more aware of their behavior and are likely to behave in a way that contributes to a reduction in public health issues.

    Moreover, extensive research is necessary in order to fight public health issues.

    This may also include genetic engineering to mitigate the spread of some kinds of diseases.

    Convince others
    Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem.

    However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.

    Tell your family and friends about the issue regarding public health and how they can contribute to its reduction.

    Conclusion
    Public health issues are a serious environmental problem.

    There are many causes of public health problems that can be altered by our daily behavior.

    For example, reducing the consumption of alcohol or tobacco would be a first step in order to mitigate adverse effects on your private health.

    Moreover, you can also take several measures that address the public health issue in a global context, for example through a reduction in your consumption behavior.

    If everyone makes a small contribution, together we can have a big impact in order to mitigate the public health problem.

  15. Michael-Atu ifunanya says:

    Michael-Atu ifunanya
    2018/243767
    Economics Education

    No6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible?
    Ans: Modernization and structuralism development theory are the most influential theories of development. They are compatible because modernization is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place and structuralism also is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy.
    Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    UNDERDEVELOPMENT is viewed as an externally induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system.

    No7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Ans: Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.

    No8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Ans: The Role of Women as Caretakers: Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.
    The Role of Women as Educators: The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living. It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.
    The Role of Women in the Workforce: Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.
    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers: Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    No9: What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    CONFLICT
    LACK OF EDUCATION
    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE
    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    CLIMATE CHANGE
    What policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    1. Sustained economic growth: The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment: Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes: Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. Increasing benefits to the poor: Means-tested benefits involve increasing welfare benefits to those on low incomes. For example, universal tax credit, food stamps or child benefit.

    No10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity? Through the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, intellectuals were roughly divided between the followers of Malthus and the followers of Marx. Crudely stated, Malthusians believed that high rates of population growth condemned societies to more or less permanent states of underdevelopment and that only by breaking the iron linkage of high fertility to poverty could real improvements in standards of living be achieved. Marx, on the other hand, argued that high fertility was a symptom, not a cause, of poverty and said that only by bringing about a radical transformation in the underlying causes of poverty would living standards rise and birth rates begin to fall.

    No11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    According to them, the basic cause of unemployment in developing countries is deficiency of the availability of essential consumer goods, often called wage good. Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy.
    Why do people migrate to cities? Employment opportunity are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunity, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster, and sometimes crop failure force villagers to migrate to the cities.

    No12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Yes because the positive impact that health has on development occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rate and improved learning among schools.

    No13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Poor public health slows development, reduces labour force, wide spread of infection and diseases, underproduction, increase in mortality rate, poverty, Decrease in human capital development.
    What is needed to address these problems;
    Promote Healthy Communities and Healthy Behavior
    Formulating health improvement policies.
    Prevent the Spread of Communicable Disease
    Establishment of more health care centers
    Assure Health Services
    Employment or health experts.

  16. Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara says:

    UKWUMA IFUNANYA CLARA
    2018/243088
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    ECO 361 ASSIGNMENT
    QUESTION ONE
    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories. The approach will be eclectic in the sense that each theory will be examined in terms of its insights into the development process as well as its major weaknesses.

    1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES

    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    2. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES

    The failure of capitalism to encourage economic development in the former colonial regions as Marx had envisaged, gave rise to the neo-Marxian theories of underdevelopment. Despite the diversity of views within the neo-Marxian paradigm, there is a consensus that the modern capitalist system can be divided into an advanced “centre” or metropolis, and an underdeveloped “periphery”. The causes of this underdevelopment become the central focus of analysis. Lenin and Bukharin’s theories of imperialism provide the initial inspiration for this revival of interest. Another important source has been Rosa Luxemburg’s The Accumulation of Capital, in which she poses the problem of the “realisation” of surplus value from Marx’s reproduction schemes in volume 2 of Capital. Luxemburg posed the problem in terms of the relationship between the capitalist and non-capitalist sectors of the economy and argued that capitalism required the non-capitalist sector as an outlet for its surplus in order to expand.

    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.

    3. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM

    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    The neocolonial dependence model is basically a Marxist approach. It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. UNDERDEVELOPMENT IS THUS AN EXTERNALLY INDUCED PHENOMENON . Developing countries are destined to be the sweatshops of the rich nations (through their multinationals for example) and depend on developed nations for manufacturing goods that are high-value-added. Many developing countries were forced to become exporters of primary commodities by their colonial masters. Many of these countries still depend on primary commodities after independence. However, with average prices of primary commodities falling substantially (by half in many cases) since 1950s, dependence on primary commodities export is impoverishing to these countries. The economies of Zambia and Nigeria had been negatively affected by falling prices for their commodities exports. However, countries like Thailand and Malaysia who used to depend heavily on tin, rubber and palm oil are able to diversified into manufacturing exports. These countries went on to develop strong manufacturing sector.

    QUESTION TWO
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:

    1. Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    2. Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    3. A rapidly growing or declining population.
    4. Lack of financial capital.
    5. Lack of human capital.
    6. Poor governance and corruption.
    7. Missing markets.
    8. Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    9. Barriers to trade.

    QUESTION THREE
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Women’s empowerment can be defined to promoting women’s sense of self-worth, their ability to determine their own choices, and their right to influence social change for themselves and others.

    It is closely aligned with female empowerment – a fundamental human right that’s also key to achieving a more peaceful, prosperous world.

    In Western countries, female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of the women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19th and early 20th century where suffrage was a key feature. The second wave of the 1960s included the sexual revolution and the role of women in society. Third wave feminism is often seen as beginning in the 1990s.

    Women’s empowerment and promoting women’s rights have emerged as a part of a major global movement and is continuing to break new ground in recent years. Days like International Women’s Empowerment Day are also gaining momentum.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes.

    Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential. contributing their skills to the workforce and can raise happier and healthier children.

    QUESTION FOUR
    What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Here, we look at some of the top causes of poverty around the world.They are :
    1. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food.
    2. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs.
    3. Conflict
    4. Inequalities
    5. Poor education
    6. Lack of infrastructure
    7. Limited capacity of the government
    8. Climate change.

    Effective ways of improving the lives of the poorest of poor includes:
    1. Create jobs
    2. Raise the minimum wage
    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    4. Support pay equity
    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    6. Establishdable, high-quality child care and early
    education.

    QUESTION FIVE
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth threatens the economic progress of developing countries.
    FAMILY SIZE AND POVERTY
    The world’s poorest countries tend to have the largest family sizes and fertility rates. When people have no economic security and cannot rely on their government and a social safety net, they often have children to ensure they will be looked after when they are older. Where child mortality is high, there is an even greater impetus to have more children. Those circumstances can lead in turn to a culture which values high family size.

    This understandable human impulse can contribute to a vicious cycle. Poor families with large numbers of dependent children may perceive the need to take children out of education early, or marry off their daughers young. They will also often live in deprived communities where access to modern family planning is limited. All these factors combine to keep family sizes high, perpetuating the cycle.

    What applies to families, applies also to nations. In poorer countries, providing jobs, infrastructure, health services and education to a constantly growing population can be an impossible task. In the worst cases, even food can be impossible to supply. In countries with very high population growth, huge numbers of dependent children in comparison to economically productive adults create a further burden. In sub-Saharan Africa, the median age of the entire population is just 19 years old. In Niger, the country with the world’s highest fertility rate, the median age is just 15.3 years.
    In contrast, countries which have been successful in bringing down their fertility rates, have moved out of poverty more quickly.

    QUESTION SIX
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    Causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing world includes:

    1. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital
    2. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques
    3. Inequitable Distribution of Land
    4. Rigid Protective Labour Legislation
    5. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment
    Generation
    6. Lack of Infrastructure

    Agyemang (2013) summarized the major causes of rural –urban migration in Nigeria. He noted that different motives account for rural-urban migration amongst rural dwellers. These include the following:

    1. Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    2. Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    3. Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    4. Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    5. The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

    QUESTION SEVEN
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Health is a direct source of huma welfare and also an instrument for raising income levels. The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school .It ensures a productive human resource of the country. a healthy population also ensures more working days. This means that generation of work would be more. health also means mental health.
    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth.

    QUESTION EIGHT
    What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Public health issues can be defined as problems related to the overall health of our global population.
    In contrast to healthcare, public health is not focused on single patients but rather on the health of whole populations.
    There are several threats regarding public health to our nowadays society.
    Solutions to the Public Health Problem includes:
    1. Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.

    2. Improve health standards
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.It should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.
    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.

    3. Improve research
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.
    Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.
    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.
    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.

    4. Transnational support
    It is crucial that rich developed countries support poor developing countries financially but also in terms of sharing their research findings in order to fight public health issues.
    By doing so, we will spread knowledge and research advancements in all parts of the world, which in turn likely leads to an increase in overall health standards and to more effective treatment of diseases.

    5. Reduction in consumption
    Some public health issues are caused by our excessive consumption behavior.This is especially true for the global warming issue.
    The production and also the disposal or our goods lead to a huge level of greenhouse gas emission which in turn contributes to global warming.
    Global warming is a serious contributor to public health issues.It leads to water shortage for many people and may also destroy the livelihood of many people.
    Therefore, we should reduce our consumption in order to reduce our adverse impact.

    6. Recycle and reuse
    Another measure to mitigate public health issues is to recycle and reuse our material belongings more efficiently.Since our consumption level has a big effect on public health issues, we have to ensure that we use our resources in an efficient way in order to reduce the adverse effects.Thus, this could mean that you give away your old but yet working stuff or that you at least recycle it in an effective manner.

    7. Reduce corruptive actions
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.

    8. Promote vaccinations
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.
    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

    9. Education and Research
    Education is crucial for solving problems.This is also true for the mitigation of public health issues.We have to teach children as well as grownups about the adverse consequences and how we can mitigate them.
    By doing so, people will be more aware of their behavior and are likely to behave in a way that contributes to a reduction in public health issues.Moreover, extensive research is necessary in order to fight public health issues.
    This may also include genetic engineering to mitigate the spread of some kinds of diseases.

    10. Convince others
    Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem.However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.
    Tell your family and friends about the issue regarding public health and how they can contribute to its reduction.

  17. Onah Amarachi Jane says:

    Name: Onah Amarachi Jane
    Reg no:2018/246265
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    a. Theory of Modernization.
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values.Modernization theory observes traditions and pre-existing institutions of so-called “primitive” societies as obstacles to modern economic growth. Modernization which is forced from outside upon a society might induce violent and radical change, but according to modernization theorists it is generally worth this side effect. Critics point to traditional societies as being destroyed and slipping away to a modern form of poverty without ever gaining the promised advantages of Modernization.
    b. Dependency theory.
    Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. 
    c Theory of world systems.
    World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)is a multidisciplinary approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis.”World-system” refers to the inter-regional and transnational division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries, and the periphery countries.Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production, and the rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and extraction of raw materials.World-Systems Theory can be useful in understanding world history and the core countries’ motives for imperialization and other involvements like the US aid following natural disasters in developing Central American countries or imposing regimes on other core states.With the interstate system as a system constant, the relative economic power of the three tiers points to the internal inequalities that are on the rise in states that appear to be developing.
    d. Theory of globalization.
    In terms of the globalization process that is taking place under current worldwide economic conditions, two main topics in international political economy are: (a) the structure of the international economic system; and (b) how this structure has changed (2). They can be addressed through the application of the theory of globalization from the development perspective. This globalization approach suggests that the structure of the global system, and the roles that countries play within the international division of trade and labor, is crucial in understanding a wide array of social, political, and economic changes within particular countries. The basic claim is that international connections, roles, and relationships are important variables in any analysis which tries to explain various dimensions of development -economic growth, for example- trade, financial links and communications among countries.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    a.Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    b.Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    c.A rapidly growing or declining population.
    d.Lack of financial capital.
    e. Lack of human capital.
    f.Poor governance and corruption.
    g.Missing markets.
    h.Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    i.Barriers to trade.
    j. Inadequate financial markets.
    k.Corruption.
    l. Absence of property rights.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    The roles of women are primarily recognized in the social, political, economic, cultural and religious spheres. In these spheres, when they are to possess efficient skills and abilities, so they are able to render their participation in an effectual manner. In addition to the skills and abilities, it is vital for women to generate awareness in terms of the factors influencing their participation. Possessing information regarding these factors also enables them in overcoming the barriers that may arise within the course of performance of roles. When women are performing various types of roles, they need to ensure that they work effectively towards promoting well-being of their family and community. In other words, they need to ensure that their contribution in beneficial to the individuals. 

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    a.Increase rate of rising population:
    In the last 45 years, the population has increased at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.
    b. Less productivity in agriculture:
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. The very reason for poverty in the country is this factor only.
    c. Less utilization of resources:
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.
    d. A short rate of economic development:
    In India, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.
    e. Increasing price rise:
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    f. Unequal distribution of income:
    If you simply increase the production or do a checking on population cannot help poverty in our country. We need to understand that inequality in the distribution of income and concentration of wealth should be checked. The government can reduce inequality of income and check the concentration of wealth by pursuing suitable monetary and price policies.
    g. The problem of distribution:
    The distribution channel should be robust in order to remove poverty. Mass consumption of goods and food grains etc. should be distributed first among the poor population. Present public distribution system must be re-organised and extended to rural and semi-urban areas of the country.
    h.Provision for minimum requirements of the poor:
    The government should take care of the minimum requirements, like drinking water, primary medical care, and primary education etc. of the poor. 
    The solutions are thus:
    i.Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.
    ii.Raise the minimum wage
    Raising the minimum wages of workers can improve the living standard of the people there reducing poverty.
    iii. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship.
    iv.Establish work schedules that work
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.
    v.Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.
    Large families make an economic sense of poverty cause due to overpopulation unemployment rate would be high thereby posing a threat to financial security cause as it is said and I quote” an idle mind is a devil’s workshop”. Lack of employment encourages criminal activities in the country and also it boost the underground economy.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    There are high level of unemployment and underemployment in the developing world especially in the city cause those in the rural area tend to migrate to the city with the aim of looking for greener pastures.whereby many people migrate, the labor force become very low cause many hands are willing to work but there is no employment and it also give some lucky ones the chance of being employed even though they are underemployed thereby making the town economy dwindle at times.
    People continue to migrate Even when the chance of getting a job in the city is slim cause they feel that even if there is no jobs man go hustle as they say and also they feel that there is no opportunity in the rural area where one can make money or have an income.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. “HEALTH IS WEALTH” a healthy nation is wealthy and a wealthy nation is successful cause the labor force are not faced with illness that will lead to a reduction of their production or output thereby boosting the GDP of that particular country.Economic growth appears to lead to large health gains, particularly at low levels of economic development. In this case, an improvement in health enhances labour productivity and leads to gains in economic growth. Nevertheless, improved health outcomes alone are not sufficient for sustained high economic growth.

    13. What is the impact of public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    One is that increasing incomes cause improved population health. But the relationship might also be a result of confounding variables that affect both incomes and health. Potential confounding factors are, inter alia, the availability and use of advanced technologies, the population’s level of education, governance and institutional quality, and individuals’ rate of time preference, a taste parameter that determines the extent to which individuals make provisions for the future. firstly, growth may affect the consumption of health-relevant commodities. Importantly, growth may improve nutrition through an increase in the consumption of nutritious foods. Well-nourished individuals are in turn in a better position to resist bacterial diseases and have better prospects to recover from illnesses. Increasing incomes can lead to an increase in consumption of calories and micronutrients, which is particularly beneficial for better health outcomes in developing countries. People may invest in curative as well as preventative health goods as well as other health-relevant goods as a result of higher incomes. Secondly, economic growth may affect the supply side of health if it allows governments to increase spending on effective public health services and complements in the production of health (such as improved transportation infrastructure).
    What is needed to address the problem of public health are as follows:
    i.Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.
    This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.
    ii.Improve health standards
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.
    it should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.
    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.
    iii.Improve research
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.
    Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.
    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.
    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.
    iv.Reduce corruptive actions
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.
    Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.
    Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.
    v.Promote vaccinations
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.
    This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.
    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

  18. Obi Chiedozie Joseph says:

    Name: Obi Chiedozie Joseph
    Registration number: 2018/241868
    Department: Economics
    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    ANSWERS
    6. Four common theories of development economics include the theory of mercantilism, the position of nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and the structural-change theory. These theories are compatible for me because they show their ideologies from a position of strength the pace of development and otherwise.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    In the study of international political economy, the concept of “hegemony” has acquired a strategic meaning. Whether implicitly or explicitly, the term applies to one country or a group of nation-states, which form a dominant power bloc within a definite hierarchy of nation-states. In the “world system” literature this configuration is viewed as a zero-sum game between the dominant core, satellite and peripheral states (Wallerstein, 1979 & 2003). A more sophisticated theory of Unequal Exchange was developed by Arghiri Emmanuel (1972), who argued that the international division of labor dictates that the poorer countries produce mostly commodities but high-wage countries produce manufactured goods. Unequal exchange is not so much a consequence of differences in productivity between countries but by the fact that wages are lower precisely because these countries have been designated by the international division of labor to specialize in the production of commodities.

    From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterized by a core/periphery configuration (Lewis, 1956). One of the seminal theories of this process of circular and cumulative causation was developed by Gunnar Myrdal who argued that capital movements tend to increase regional inequality by concentrating in the more developed regions (Myrdal, 1957). These are identified as the centrifugal, “spread effects” caused by economic expansion in the core regions which diffuse technology, capital investment and a modern infrastructure to the outlying, less developed hinterlands: “In the centers of expansion, increased demand will spur investment, which in turn will increase incomes and demand and cause a second round of investment and so on. Saving will increase as a result of higher incomes but will tend to lag behind investment in the sense that the supply of capital will steadily meet the brisk demand for it” (Myrdal, 1957, p.28). However, the opposite logic of cumulative causation is evident in the less developed regions. These are identified as the “backwash effects” which merely reinforce the structural and socio-economic disadvantages of these regions

    7. Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.

    The constraints on development include:

    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    A rapidly growing or declining population.
    Lack of financial capital.
    Lack of human capital.
    Poor governance and corruption.
    Missing markets.
    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    Barriers to trade.
    Inefficiency
    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    ‘X’ Inefficiency
    X inefficiency can arise when there is a lack of competition in a market. It is primarily associated with inefficient management, where average cost is above its minimum. Competition is limited in many developing economies, and resources are often allocated by government. This means that inefficient management is common.

    Social inefficiency
    Social inefficiency exists when social costs do not equate with social benefits. This can arise when externalities are not taken into account. For example, under-spending on education creates social inefficiency. Some of these inefficiencies are the result of the economy not allowing market forces to operate, while others are the result of market failures. Negative externalities like pollution are often largely uncontrolled in less developed parts of the world, and this imposes a constraint on the sustainability of development.

    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following:

    Low growth
    Growth is not sufficient to allow scarce financial resources to be freed up for non-current expenditure.

    Lack of savings
    A general lack of savings is often seen as the key reason why financial capital is in short supply. High interest rates to encourage saving will, of course, deter investment.

    Debts
    In the case of public sector funding, spare public funds are often used to repay previous debts, so there are fewer available funds for capital investment by government. This is often called the problem of debt overhang. The recent sovereign debt crisis has highlighted the problems faced by countries with large public debts, and how such debts limit the ability of government to inject spending into a developing economy.

    Crowding out
    In addition, because many developing economies have large public sectors, private investment may be crowded out by public sector borrowing. This means that a government may borrow from local capital markets, if indeed they exist, which causes a relative shortage of capital and raises interest rates.

    Absence of credit markets
    Finally, there is an absence of credit markets in many developing economies, and this discourages both lenders and borrowers. Credit markets often fail to form because of the extremely high risks associated with lending in developing countries. This is one reason for the importance of micro-finance initiatives commonly found across India, Pakistan and some parts of Africa.

    Corruption
    Some developing economies suffer from corruption in many different sectors of their economies. Corruption comes in many forms, including the theft of public funds by politicians and government employees, and the theft and misuse of overseas aid. Bribery is also alleged to be a persistent threat, and tends to involve the issuing of government contracts. In some developing economies, bribery is the norm, and this seriously weakens the operation of the price mechanism.

    Inadequate financial markets
    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    Low risk individuals and firms are deterred from borrowing, and a lemons problem arises, with only high risk individuals and firms choosing to borrow. Thus, the credit market in developing economies is under-developed or completely missing, with few wishing to borrow, and with those who wish to lend expecting high loan defaults and hence charging very high interest rates.

    Insurance markets
    In a similar way to credit markets, insurance markets may be under-developed, with few insurers willing to accept ‘bad’ risks. Insurance charges (premiums) will be driven up, and potential entrepreneurs may be deterred from taking out insurance, or will be unwilling to take uninsured risks. The result is that new businesses may fail to develop.

    The principal – agent (landlord – tenant) problem
    In agriculture in particular, the principal-agent problem existing between landlord (principal) and worker (agent) creates asymmetric information and moral hazard. Workers may not bother to work hard. With low pay rates, the risks of being caught ‘shirking’ are small – the loss of pay is not a significant enough incentive to work hard and efficiently.

    Absence of property rights
    In many developing economies it is not always clear who owns property, especially land. Given this there is no incentive to develop the land because of the free-rider problem.

    Absence of a developed legal system
    In many developing economies there is an absence of a developed or appropriate legal system in the following areas:

    Property rights are not protected
    The right to start a business is limited to a small section or a favoured elite
    Consumer rights are not protected
    Employment rights do not exist
    Competition law is limited or absent
    Under-investment in human capital
    Human capital development requires investment in education. Education is a merit good, and the long term benefit to society is often considerably under-perceived, and therefore, under-consumed.

    For many in developing economies, the return on human capital development is uncertain compared to the immediate return from employment on the land. Therefore, there is little incentive to continue in full-time education.

    The solution is to reduce information failure by promoting the benefits of education and using the market system to send out effective signals to encourage people to alter their behaviour. For example, loans, grants and aid can be made conditional upon funds being allocated to provide ‘free’ education and books, or to fund teacher training, or to raise the wages of teachers so that more will train in the future.

    Over exploitation of environment and non-renewable resources
    The long term negative effect of the excessive use of resources may be less clear than the short term benefit. This means that there is a tendency for countries not to conserve resources. However, this can have an adverse effect on growth rates in the future.

    Too many resources
    Evidence suggests that some countries with the greatest scarce resources do not necessarily exploit them effectively, and may fail to develop fully. This might be because over-abundance creates a kind of Dutch disease – a complacency which can exist when a country has high quantities of valuable resources. This means that there is a tendency to squander any comparative advantage, and the potential benefits of the resources are lost.

    Over-abundance creates a disincentive to be efficient – the reverse of what has happened to Japan, which has very limited oil reserves, and needs to be efficient in the production of manufactures to enable it to import the oil it needs.

    One issue is that the allocation of property rights may be difficult when resources are so vast. Furthermore, there are likely to be inefficiencies associated with government failure as government attempts to dominate the economy and the exploitation of resources.

    Protectionism
    One significant constraint on the economic prosperity of less developed countries is the protectionism adopted by some developed one. Developed counties can impose tariffs, quotas, and other protectionist measures individually, or more commonly as a member of a trading bloc.

    8. Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women, the representative of Singapore said this morning. He was addressing the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural), as it continued its general debate on the advancement of women and the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. He said economic globalization increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities, thus allowing more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality. The representative of the Bahamas said although many governments and the United Nations were confronting severe economic and budgetary restraints, there must be innovative ways to fund women’s programmes, and strengthen institutions and mechanisms. The Organization’s hiring freeze should not be an excuse for inaction. Education and training programmes for boys, girls and adults were needed to eliminate a gender-segregated labour market, according to the representative of Denmark. His Government had introduced vocational courses for women within traditionally male-dominated areas and for men in traditionally female-dominated fields. Several other speakers this morning stressed the importance of women’s full participation in development. The representative of Sierra Leone said due to sociocultural beliefs, religious practices and the gender-biased interpretation of laws, women in developing countries suffered unequal treatment, rights and opportunity. Literacy was a high priority, because other initiatives, including political, economic and cultural sensitization, could be easily implemented if women were literate. Statements were also made by Barbados, Iran, Israel, Ghana, Marshall Islands, Kyrgyz Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Bahrain, Russian Federation, United Arab Emirates and the Niger. Representatives from the World Bank, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) also addressed the Committee. The Committee will meet again at 3 p.m. this afternoon to continue its general debate on the advancement of women and the implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women.
    Committee Work Programme

    The Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) met this morning to continue its discussions on the advancement of women and the implementation

    Third Committee – 2 – Press Release GA/SHC/3367 15th Meeting (AM) 28 October 1996

    of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995). (For background, see Press Release GA/SHC/3365 of 24 October.)

    Statements

    BETTY RUSSELL (Barbados) said her country’s Bureau of Women’s Affairs had been actively involved with other government ministries, major statutory corporations, private-sector organizations and non-governmental organizations in implementing relevant sections of the national Strategic Plan of Action and the policy and initiative section on the strengthening of family life and the status of women. The Bureau had begun updating the national policy statement on women. Gender awareness was central to all parts of the national plan of action. Her Government was particularly mindful of women’s role in sustainable development, including food production and the educational sector. It also subscribed to the views, expressed earlier this year, by the Commission on the Status of Women on the need for poverty eradication and to combat globally the feminization of poverty.

    Barbados had been working closely with the countries of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) on the advancement of women, she continued. Last October, it had participated in the first subregional activity with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) — a Caribbean follow-up meeting to the Beijing Conference. Her Government strongly supported a recommendation for an information kit to promote gender awareness which would include information on key terms such as unpaid work, and a profile of regionally agreed codes and legislation on gender issues. Such a kit would be extremely useful to new ministries and administration heads responsible for women’s affairs. Continuing information and evaluation on gender awareness was crucial to continuity in the development of gender equality between men and women.

    BENNY KIMBERG (Denmark) said his Government attached the highest importance to the implementation of the commitments it willingly accepted in Beijing. In April 1996 the Danish Government presented a plan of action for the national and international follow-up to the Beijing Conference. The general approach of the plan was based on the mainstreaming of the gender perspective in all policies and planning. The Denmark platform also addressed the issue of the policy on development cooperation with an overall objective of gender-specific poverty eradication. Any work on poverty eradication was to be based on the differing roles and needs of men and women. All the numerous recommendations of the Beijing Platform for Action would be fully implemented into Denmark’s development cooperation, including both political dialogue with the recipient countries and the planning and implementation of specific aid activities.

    Education and training programmes for boys, girls and adults were needed to eliminate a gender-segregated labour market, he said. His Government had introduced training programmes and introductory vocational courses for women within traditionally male-dominated areas and for men in traditionally female- dominated fields.

    Under the broader theme of violence against women, he said the Danish Government had placed special emphasis on female genital mutilation as a subject of concern. Denmark had hosted a well attended, international seminar on this issue in Copenhagen in May 1995. As a result of this seminar, guidelines for the prevention of female genital mutilation through development assistance were established and published.

    YATIMAN YUSOF (Singapore) said as a small country with no natural

    Third Committee – 3 – Press Release GA/SHC/3367 15th Meeting (AM) 28 October 1996

    resources, Singapore had to depend, among other things, on two factors to succeed. First, it had to tap into the global economic network. Second, it had to develop its human resource to its fullest potential. Only by developing women’s full potential to benefit from the economic globalization could the well-being of society be enhanced. The issue of gender equality was therefore an end in itself and also a means to an end. Globalization brought direct foreign investment, expanded job opportunities and thus allowed more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality.

    He said women in Singapore were given equal access to education, training and health-care services and the Government advocated an equal opportunity employment policy for both sexes in all sectors based on the principle of meritocracy. The literacy rate of Singapore women aged 15 years and over was currently almost 90 per cent and there was virtually equal enrolment in schools. Some 43 per cent of women in tertiary institutions were female and they were also entering disciplines previously dominated by men, such as engineering, business studies, accountancy, science and technology. The Government had also implemented various programmes, such as child-care facilities and subsidy schemes, special tax benefits and a wide range of community-based activities and programmes to support working mothers. Singapore had been ranked twenty-ninth out of 174 countries on the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Index and thirtieth out of 137 countries in the Gender-related Development Index. However, economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but economic growth could only be sustained if matched by advances in gender equality.

    FATEMEH HASHEMI BAHREMANI (Iran) said the world was facing a moral crisis caused by centuries of tyranny, injustice and bankrupt moral values, as well as indifference and inaction in granting women’s inherent rights. The advancement of women was considered among the main elements for social development because it played a vital role in economic, social, cultural and political development. Ensuring that women enjoy all human rights was an essential precondition for development, because women’s issues affected all of society. The successful advancement of women’s rights should address three integrated areas: family, society and the State. In the process of implementing such a programme, respect for each country’s moral, cultural and religious values should also be respected.

    Iran’s experiences in the advancement of women had been built on the basis of the Islamic tenets following the Islamic Revolution, she said. The Government had endeavoured to improve women’s status in all aspects during the past 18 years. Women were participating in all economic, social and political activities, including in the national decision-making process as members of parliament, advisers and under-secretaries to the president and ministers. A women’s council, a policy-making body for women’s issues, had been established in order to further the status of women. Work had been carried out in health services as well, and as a result women’s life expectancy had increased and birth mortality had been reduced.

    LEEORA KIDRON (Israel) said that the Beijing Platform for Action should be known by as many people as possible to ensure its fullest implementation. In the last year, non-governmental organizations and government offices and agencies in Israel had conducted meetings and conferences to bring the message of Beijing to a wide audience. The Committee of Women’s Organizations had established three working groups of experts and non-governmental organization representatives to evaluate the situation of Israeli women in the areas of poverty, health and the environment.

    9. 1. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food

    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home, while over 800 million suffer from hunger. You might think that poverty causes hunger and prevents people from accessing clean water (and you would be right!), but hunger and water insecurity are also big reasons why people struggle to escape extreme poverty.

    If a person doesn’t get enough food, they simply don’t have the strength and energy needed to work, while lack of access to food and clean water can also lead to preventable illnesses like diarrhea. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or spend what little money remains on medicine, it drains already vulnerable populations of money and assets, and can knock a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    Even if clean water sources are available, they’re often located far from poor, rural communities. This means that women and girls collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    2. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs

    This might seem a bit like a “no brainer.” Without a job or a way to make money, people will face poverty. But it’s easy to assume that if someone wants a job, they could have one. That just isn’t true, particularly in developing and rural parts of the world. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change), and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals is putting increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonialism — while conflict over land disputes has forced people from the land they relied upon for food and money. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty. While inconsistent work and low paying jobs can land a family in poverty, absolutely no work means that a family can’t get by without assistance.

    3. Conflict

    Conflict can cause poverty in several ways. Large scale, protracted violence that we see in places like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroy infrastructure, and cause people to flee, forcing families to sell or leave behind all their assets. In Syria, around 70% of the entire population now lives below the poverty line — this in a country where extreme poverty was once very rare. Women often bear the brunt of conflict: during periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women are particularly vulnerable in these kinds of conflicts, too, as they often become the targets of sexual violence while fetching water or working alone in the fields.

    4. Inequality

    There are many different types of inequality in the world, from economic to social inequalities like gender, caste systems, or tribal affiliations. But no matter the inequality, it generally means the same thing: unequal or no access to the resources needed to keep or lift a family out of poverty.

    Sometimes inequalities are obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle — for example, the voices of certain people or groups might not be heard in community meetings, meaning they don’t get a say in important decisions. Regardless, these inequalities mean that the people affected don’t have the tools they desperately need to get ahead, and for already vulnerable families, this can mean the difference between being poor or living in extreme poverty.

    5. Poor education

    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. And why is that? There’s a lot of barriers stopping children from going to school. Many families can’t afford to send their children to school and need them to work. More still don’t see a benefit in educating girls. Education is often referred to as the great equalizer, and that’s because education can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. And, with even more education, world poverty could be cut in half.

    6. Climate change

    You might be stunned to learn that the World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next ten years. As it is, climate events like drought, flooding, and severe storms disproportionately impact communities already living in poverty. Why? Because many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    7. Lack of infrastructure

    Imagine that you have to go to work, or to the store, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impassable. What would you do then? A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living “off the grid” means the inability to go to school, work, or market to buy and sell goods. Traveling farther distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. Isolation limits opportunity, and without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    8. Limited capacity of the government

    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty if something goes wrong. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.

    9. Lack of reserves

    People living in poverty don’t have the means to weather the storms of life. So when there is a drought, or conflict, or illness, there is little money saved or assets on hand to help. In Ethiopia for example, repeated cycles of drought have caused harvest after harvest to fail, causing a widespread hunger crisis. To cope, families will pull their children from school, and sell off everything they own to eat. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.
    Policies or ways to reduce poverty include:1. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    2. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    3. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.

    4. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.

    5. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.

    6. Establish work schedules that work
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.

    7. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.

    Boosting investments in Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant, as well as passing the Strong Start for America’s Children Act—which would invest in preschool, high-quality child care for infants and toddlers, and home-visiting services for pregnant women and mothers with infants—will help more struggling families obtain the child care they need in order to work and improve the future economic mobility of America’s children.

    8. Expand Medicaid
    Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table. Having health coverage is also an important buffer against the economic consequences of illness and injury; unpaid medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy. Studies link Medicaid coverage not only to improved health, improved access to health care services, and lower mortality rates, but also to reduced financial strain.

    9. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry
    The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. Today, more than 1.5 million Americans are behind bars in state and federal prisons, a figure that has increased fivefold since 1980. The impact on communities of color is particularly staggering: One in four African American children who grew up during this era of mass incarceration have had a parent incarcerated.

    Mass incarceration is a key driver of poverty. When a parent is incarcerated, his or her family must find a way to make ends meet without a necessary source of income Additionally, even a minor criminal record comes with significant collateral consequences that can serve as lifelong barriers to climbing out of poverty. For example, people with criminal records face substantial barriers to employment, housing, education, public assistance, and building good credit. More than 90 percent of employers now use background checks in hiring, and even an arrest without a conviction can prevent an individual from getting a job. The “one strike and you’re out” policy used by public housing authorities makes it difficult if not impossible for individuals with even decades-old criminal records to obtain housing, which can stand in the way of family reunification. Furthermore, a lifetime ban—for individuals with felony drug convictions—on receiving certain types of public assistance persists in more than half of U.S. states, making subsistence even more difficult for individuals seeking to regain their footing, and their families.

    10. Large families make absolutely no economic sense because the resulting effect is just more spending, more costs incurred, less output and leads to environmental problems like overpopulation, overcrowding and other congesting economic problems.

    11. Unemployment is higher in the developing nations as well as underdevelopment because the jobs available are way less than the number of people available and willing to work.
    People in the rural areas migrate to the urban areas and as such, they know nothing of their employment chances and they believe that they are going to their land of ” greener pastures” and as such, things would be better off for them. it is as a result of their own naivety amidst other ignorant factors they possess.

    12. Health is wealth they say, as a result a healthy nation is a capable nation and as such, with the right amount of available healthcare and a sustainable one at that, it should imply a successful and sustainable economic development of a nation.

    13. Good policies to be made include free and compulsory health check ups
    Improving healthcare facilities, etc.

  19. Nnamani chidimma Esther says:

    Name: Nnamani Chidimma Esther
    Reg num: 2018/243795
    Department: Economics
    Assignment on Eco 361

    1a) Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible?
    Development Theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches.
    The main aspects of the four major theories of development: modernization, dependency, worldsystem and globalization.
    According to the modernization theory, modern societies are more productive, children are better educated, and the needy receive more welfare. Modernization is a progressive process which in the long run is not only inevitable but desirable.
    Dependency is a double-edge sword that can either promote or demote the status of the dependent. The case of the dependency relationship between less advanced countries (LACs) and most industrialized countries (MICs) is a pertinent example that explains the attitude developed by each party to situate and maintain itself in its current status to be classified as underdeveloped, developing or develop. Dependency involves some sort of reliance of an economic agent on another through which the power of the dependent party is reinforced or weakened owing to its ability or inability to take advantage of the dependence relationship.
    The world-systems theory considers trade mechanisms, it distinguishes between the direct transactions, which are those who have a greater, more significant and immediate effect on a country; and those operations which are indirect trade transactions, such as future trade stipulations, and the speculations on transportation costs, combustibles prices, and forecasts on agricultural crops, when they depend on weather conditions to obtain their productivity and yield.
    The theory of globalization coincides with several elements from the theory of modernization. One aspect is that both theories consider that the main direction of development should be that which was undertaken by the United States and Europe. These schools sustain that the main patterns of communication and the tools to achieve better standards of living originated in those more developed areas. On this point it is important to underline the difference between the modernization perspective and the globalization approach. The former follows a more normative position -stating how the development issue should be solved-, the latter reinforces its character as a “positive” perspective, rather than a normative claim

    1b) Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.
    2) What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Peoples’ belief or tradition: most people might not want development because they are afraid that their culture or tradition will be destroyed.
    Literacy: The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    3) How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    w. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over US$6 trillion, recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15% of GDP.
    4) What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    -Poverty can be caused by so many things:
    Gender inequality, conflict, hunger, malnutrition, poor healthcare systems, little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, climate, lack of education, poor public works and infrastructure etc.
    4b) To reduce poverty, government policies could include:
    1. Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.
    2. Minimum wages. Regulation of labor markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    3. Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    4. Direct provision of goods/services – subsidized housing, free education and healthcare.

    5) Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    The effect of population growth can be positive or negative depending on the circumstances. A large population has the potential to be great for economic development: after all, the more people you have, the more work is done, and the more work is done, the more value (or, in other words, money) is created.
    Large families don’t make sense in an environment with widespread poverty and financial insecurity because such families will be malnourished, uneducated and will sometimes have low self-esteem.

    6) Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    Unemployment and underemployment in less developing countries like Nigeria is that as compared with the magnitude of population and labor force there is limited availability of capital or complementary resources which include land, factories, machines, tools and implements-the means with which labor produces.
    Now, if the population grows faster than the stock of capital of a country, the entire addition to the labor force cannot be absorbed in productive employment because not enough instruments of production would be there to employ them. Since in less developed countries, the stock of capital has not been growing at a rate fast enough to keep pace with the growth of population, the ability to offer productive employment is very limited. This has resulted in surplus labor which is manifested in the existence of huge magnitude of under-employment or disguised unemployment and open unemployment in both the rural and urban areas.
    People travel to the city even when they know that their chances of getting jobs are slim is because even if they don’t get jobs, they can at least enjoy some benefits that is in the cities like good road, good healthcare, clean water and they are hopeful of getting jobs someday.
    7) Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Illness typically leads to increased household
    expenditures on health services and goods, and may also reduce time spent producing income that
    allows them to consume market goods. In response to this change in income and/or expenditure,
    households may reduce their consumption of non-health goods and/or liquidate household
    savings or assets (and by so doing diminish their opportunities to generate the stock of financial
    and physical capital that will enable it to maintain or increase its consumption possibilities in the
    future). Furthermore, ill-health can interfere with the consumption of non-market activities (e.g.
    WHO guide to identifying the economic consequences of disease and injury

    giving up unpaid housework or leisure time to look after a sick household member) and of course
    reduces the stock of health itself.

    8) What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Just like the saying; health is wealth. Poor public health will surely be a setback on development, it takes a healthy and mentally sound worker to be efficient in his work and when half of the public health is poor it will surly affect the rate of development in the economy
    This problem can be solved by providing good health care and a conducive living environment.

  20. Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    2018/246412
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    ECO 361

    ASSIGNMENTS:
    (6):. Which are the influential theories of development and are they compatible? is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    (7):. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    (8):. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    (9):. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    (10):. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing Nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    (11):. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    (12):. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    (13):. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?.

    DISCUSSIONS;
    (6):

    WHAT IS A THEORY:
    When you have a theory, you have a set of beliefs or principles that might not be proven yet. … A theory is a set of accepted beliefs or organized principles that explain and guide analysis and one of the ways that theory is defined is that it is different from practice, when certain principles are tested.

    WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT THEORY:
    Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. … Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities.

    THE MOST INFLUENCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY ARE AND WHETHER THEY ARE COMPATIBLE: Development is defined by Todaro and Smith as a multi-dimensional processthat involves major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as economic growth, reduction of inequality, and eradication of absolute poverty. Most scholars propounded theories concerning development, how it is achieved and how it is impeded.These theories are the Modernization theory, the Dependency theory and the Feminist theory.The modernization theory elaborates on two main categories of societies in world, namely the traditional and modern societies. Theorists argue that the traditional societies are entangled by norms, beliefs and values which are hindering their development process. Thereforethey must adapt the modern style of living, thus concentrate on accumulation of capital and industrialization. In essence, this theory seeks to improve the standard of living of inferior societies, that is,improves the economic growth of supposed traditional societies to acquire basic and secondary necessities of life, by introducing modern technology and economic strategy to the third world. Modernization theorist, Rostow, also proposed swift machineries of transition for traditional societies to develop; these are preparation to take-off, take-off, drive to maturity and the period of mass consumption. These transitional path processes put traditional societies on the development path. Again, the theory succeeds in the idea that the norms, values and beliefs of a society can affect the social change of that society.
    Despite the advantages attributed to the theory, it has weaknesses which must be addressed. Firstly, the theory seeks to entail only the economic and concrete industrial growth of the third world countries. The theory lacks Amartya’s view of development, which states that “development can be seen as the process of expanding the freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen,1999). To Sen, development entails freedom, liberty, and self esteem of humanity which areneglected by the theory.Secondly, the modernization theory posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern countries. It fails to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.Lastly, Wallerstien pointed out that the theory creates dependency and exploitation of the third world countries. The theory neglects the social and cultural structure of the third world countries and imposes on the poor, ethnocentric processes to develop. The dependency theory on the other hand opposes the modernization theory. Its main argument is that, the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor countries to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.It was a great analysis done by Frank A. Gunder by being able to debunk the weak, non historical and ethnocentric issues propounded by the modernization theory (Webster 1984).Also, Gunder succeeded in pointing out the economic inequalities among the developed and the developing countries, as well as the rampant internal inequalities in the various periphery countries and the exploitation of economic surplus developing countries during colonialism.
    Again, the theory posits an essence emphasis on the fact that development is not mainly based on the cultural values but rather, the economic and social structures and procedures.Dependency theory incurs some weaknesses. Frank failed to exhibit the specific and key dependency of the less developed countries on the metropolis, he merely stated that poor countries depend on rich countries with no specific clarification. The theory downplays internal development. It promotes the idea that indigenous industries cannot develop by it productivity which is not true. Moreover, the theory refuses to point out how the developed countries get access to the economic surplus of the third world countries.The feminist theory of development has its main argument being that, women have a great influence in development therefore must be empowered to partake in decision making and its implementation. This theory plays much role in the building of women capacity and capabilities as development is concerned. Also feminists were able to bring awareness of gender inequalities among societies and engaged in massive activities to emancipate women. Feminists succeeded in propounding theories namely, Women in Development (WID) and Woman and development (WAD) to promote equity.Despite feminists’ achievement on the theory, they seemed to address the interest of females instead of addressing issues concerned with gender as a whole. This was criticized by the Gender and development theory. Also, upon all the activities and struggle to attain a high standard of living for women, there are still high inequalities among our social world unaddressed. The feminist theory failed to point out the actual actions and procedures which must be taken by the society and men to empower women in development process but just emphasized on why women must be part and neglected the “how”.

    Is an underdevelopment an internally or externally induced phenomenon?:

    Underdevelopment refers to the low level of development characterized by low real per capita income, wide-spread poverty, lower level of literacy, low life expectancy and underutilisation of resources etc. … Such countries are characterised by relative development gap in comparison to developed countries.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    Why underdevelopment is an externally ( internationally) induced phenomenon
    It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.

    (7):

    The most hold back can include; macroeconomic factors that can affect entire economies, including such things as interest rates, inflation rates, and unemployment rates, along with periods of growth and contraction, Inefficiencies within the micro-economy. Imbalances in the structure of the economy. A rapidly growing or declining population. A poor country such as India could not save enough of its annual national income to sustain high rates of investment. The lack of domestic savings was without doubt the most serious constraint to economic growth in the early decades after political independence, the foreign exchange constraint.
    (1) Interlocking Various Circle.
    2. Population Problems
    3. The Difficult of Adapting Western Technology
    4. Lack of Preparation for an Industrial Revolution
    5.The International Context:

    (8):

    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.
    Economic globalization increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities, thus allowing more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality.
    Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women.
    Women comprise a large part of the world’s population and when women’s role and status improve, it impacts development in several ways.

    (9):

    Human Rights define extreme poverty as being characterised by social exclusion and by an accumulation of insecurities in many areas of life: a lack of identity papers, unsafe housing, insufficient food, and a lack of access to health care and to education.
    The causes are;
    Increase rate of rising population: …
    Less productivity in agriculture: …
    Less utilization of resources: …
    A short rate of economic development: …
    Increasing price rise: …
    Unemployment: …
    Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship: …
    Social factors, political regime and dictatorship, western countries and the global order, physical geography diseases.

    Key policies include; boosting social policies, promoting coherence between agriculture and social protection; strengthening the capacity of producer organizations and rural institutions; and increasing investment in rural infrastructure, research and services to create new income generating …
    Minimum wage laws, social security, negative income taxes, and in-kind benefits.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.
    The most effective policy is free market enterprise protected by strict property laws and a powerful judiciary.

    (10):

    YES!
    Rapid population growth threaten economic progress of developing nations:

    Rapid population growth leads to a country with a young average age. Young populations require creation of new infrastructure including shelter, health care, and schools. If the country has the resources to employ their new labor, the population increase can lead to rapid economic growth. If, on the other hand, the country cannot utilize its workforce productively, then unemployment rises, often leading to civil strife and emigration.
    Rapid population growth causes increase in poverty and can also be known from its effect on agriculture. Increase in population raises population pressure on arable land and reduces land-man ratio which causes lower productivity per person and leads to disguised unemployment and poverty.
    Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems.

    No!
    Large families make no economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity, Because large families is not quite encouraged.
    A family is said to be large when it has three children or more.
    The disadvantages of having a large family include financial stress, a missed connection with some of the children and emotional stress put on the family by the problems that others in the unit are experiencing.
    Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described.
    Larger families devote more of their income to necessities and less to luxuries. … Overall, as the number of children grows, families spend a larger share of their income on current consumption, and per capita income declines.

    (11):

    WHAT IS UNEMPLOYMENT:
    The term unemployment refers to a situation when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work.

    WHAT IS UNDEREMPLOYMENT:
    Underemployment is a measure of employment and labor utilization in the economy that looks at how well the labor force is being used in terms of skills, experience, and availability to work. It refers to a situation in which individuals are forced to work in low-paying or low-skill jobs.

    Differences are:
    Underemployment occurs when a job does not use an employee’s full capabilities. … Unemployment is when a person is actively looking for a job but experiences an extended period without getting hired.

    Why there is so much underemployment and unemployment in the developing world especially in the cities:
    If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.

    2. Supply and demand
    Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.

    When certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.

    3. Technological changes
    Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    Low consumer demand creates cyclical unemployment. Companies lose too much profit when demand falls. … The higher unemployment causes consumer demand to drop even more, which is why it’s cyclical. It results in large-scale unemployment.
    Cities unemployment will stay high for at least three to six months because of three reasons–lack of employment opportunities, employers’ hesitation to hire more, and an increased risk-aversion among workers due to the scientific study that has established that the coronavirus is spreading through air.

    (12):

    Whether better health also help spur successful development;
    YES YES!
    Better health helps spur successful development;
    Good health is the state of being vigorous and free from bodily or mental disease. healthiness. physical condition, physiological condition, physiological state – the condition or state of the body or bodily functions. haleness, wholeness – a state of robust good health.
    Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth.
    Studies show this is true for countries as well; health can be a causative factor for the aggregate economic growth of a country. The World Health Organization has estimated that a 10-year increase in average life expectancy at birth is associated with a rise in economic growth of some 0.3-0.4% a year.
    A well-nourished, healthy workforce is a pre-condition for sustainable development. … Nutrition plays a critical role in human resource development since deficiencies in essential nutrients lead to malnutrition, which affects an individual’s mental and physical state, resulting in poor health and poor work performance.
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. … It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth.
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school.

    (13):

    The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development:
    Poor health is a condition of inability to perform physically, mentally or socially of what is required from a person.
    Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases.
    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities which limits development.
    Poor public health can affect children’s cognitive development, and spur mental health problems. … Most individual long-term conditions are more than twice as common in adults from lower socio-economic groups, and mental health problems are much more prevalent which impacts negatively to Development prospects.
    At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic development (Ruger et al., 2006).
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.

    What is needed to address the problems of poor public health:::
    There is a toxic mix of problems including inaccessibility of quality health care, poor hygiene, corruption, malnutrition, lack of access to safe drinking water, poor health infrastructure, fake drugs, insufficient financial investment, and lack of sufficient health personnel.
    What are needed are;
    Living conditions. …
    Urban planning. …
    Revival of rural infrastructure and livelihood. …
    Education. …
    Nutrition and early child development. …
    Social security measures. …
    Food security measures. …
    Other social assistance programs.
    Improve collection and monitoring of health data.
    Improve personnel development in the health care.
    Ensure the provision essential drug availability.
    Improve on immunization programs. Challenges in Africa
    Improve the Doctor-Patient Ratio. …
    Combat the Brain Drain Phenomenon. …
    Better Medical Education. …
    Increase the Budgetary Allocation. …
    Better Collaboration. …
    Improved Coordination. …
    Widespread Public Awareness. …
    Incorporating TechnologyHuman resource development and capacity building
    There are several shortfalls that need to be addressed in the development of human resources for public health services. There is a dire need to establish training facilities for public health specialists along with identifying the scope for their contribution in the field. The Public Health Foundation of India is a positive step to redress the limited institutional capacity in India by strengthening training, research and policy development in public health. Pre service training is essential to train the medical workforce in public health leadership and to impart skills required for the practice of public health. Changes in the undergraduate curriculum are vital for capacity building in emerging issues like geriatric care, adolescent health and mental health. In-service training for medical officers is essential for imparting management skills and leadership qualities. Equally important is the need to increase the number of paramedical workers and training institutes in India. into Healthcare.
    Promote treatment of epidemic diseases.
    Improve food supply and nutrition.

  21. Obeta Princess Oluchi says:

    NAME: Obeta Princess Oluchi
    REG NO: 2018/242409
    DEPARTMENT: Economics

    6. The most influential theories of development are;
    Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be.
    Economic Nationalism
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.
    Linear Stages of Growth Model
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.
    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.
    Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower
    I think they are compatible because they are aimed at economic growth and development.
    7. The constraint that mostly holds back growth rate are
    • 1. Poor Health & Low Levels of Education
    • 2. Lack of Necessary Infrastructure
    • 3. Flight of Capital
    • 4. Political Instability
    • 5. Institutional Framework
    • 6. The World Trade Organization

    8. The improvement on the role and status of women have beneficial impacts on development prospects in that;
    Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. Worldwide experience shows clearly that supporting a stronger role for women contributes to economic growth, it improves child survival and overall family health, and it reduces fertility, thus helping to slow population growth rates. In short, investing in women is central to sustainable development.

    9. Some of the causes of extreme poverty
    – poor access to proper and quality education
    – lack of proper healthcare facilities
    – corrupt government
    – unemployment
    Effective policies for improving the lives of the poor
    – Creation of good paying jobs
    – Easy access to qualitative education
    – Economic stability
    – Equal representation of all
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations
    In under developed countries, rapid growth of population diminishes the availability of capital per head which reduces the productivity of its labor force. Their income, as a consequence, is reduced and their capacity to save is diminished which, in turn, adversely affects capital formation.
    Hence, it is not advisable to have large families in the situation of widespread poverty and financial insecurity.
    11. There is so much unemployment and underemployment in developing world because;
    Many public policies can also discourage the creation of employment, such as a high minimum wage, high unemployment benefits, and a low opportunity cost
    Why people move from rural areas migrate to cities even when their chances of finding a conventional job Is very slim because of the mentality of there being numerous chances of making it in the cities and the number of jobs available in the cities doesn’t measure up to those seeking for it. The rural areas therefore becomes a source of unlimited labor in the cities which invariably makes them cheap and they would be underpaid for their services
    12. Yes, better health help spur successful development. Like the popular saying, health is wealth, therefore in an economy where the citizens are healthy, rapid development can be achieved .
    13.The impact on poor public health on the prospect of development is that at a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth.
    The government can address these problems by the revival of public health regulation through concerted efforts by the government is possible through updation and implementation of public health laws, consulting stakeholders and increasing public awareness of existing laws and their enforcement procedures.

  22. Kalu Melody Chinaza says:

    NAME: KALU MELODY CHINAZA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/245127
    AN ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon
    The most influential or common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.

    Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations.

    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources.

    Economic Nationalism
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.

    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.

    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.

    Linear Stages of Growth Model
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.

    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.

    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.

    Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.

    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.
    I’ll say the underdevelopment is both an internally and externally induced phenomenon. It is internally induced because most of the problems facing an underdeveloped country or continent especially Africa are caused from within. Examples are political uncertainty and civil wars, high levels of illiteracy, customs, beliefs and traditions, etc. And it is externally induced because of the effects of excessive colonialism, too much dependency on foreign nations (excessive importation), brain drain, etc.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Some of the constraints are:
    Conflict and corruption
    Natural capital depletion
    Human capital weakness
    Gender and culture Inequality
    Incomprehensive budget
    Religionization of politics, etc.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    How well a society treats its women is one of the strongest indicators of the success and health of that society. Discrimination against women and girls occurs in many forms — through gender-based violence, economic discrimination, reproductive health inequities, and harmful traditional practices (such as child marriage), to name just a few. Women and girls of all ages have a right to live with dignity, free of cultural oppression.
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition. So, improvements in the role and status of women have beneficial impacts on a country’s development prospects.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The causes of extreme poverty include:
    Harsh climate
    War
    Lack of fertile land
    Political strife
    Government corruption
    Famine
    Disease
    Unfair trade policies
    Poor infrastructures
    Lack of education, etc.
    Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:

    1. Sustained economic growth
    The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth

    2. Reduce Unemployment
    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.

    Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.

    3. Progressive Taxes
    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.

    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is threatening the economic progress of developing nations with Nigeria as an example. And having large families, thereby increasing population growth in the country, does not make economic sense in an environment or country with wide spread poverty and financial insecurity. In fact, it will only increase the economic problems of the nation.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing world include:
    1. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    2. Lack of Infrastructure
    3. Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    4. Inequitable distribution of land
    5. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques
    6. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital etc.
    People continue moving from rural areas to cities because cities often have a better quality of living, and though cost of living is higher in most cities, the trade-off for a better quality of life is worth it for some people. Educational centers are more prevalent and common in urban areas, so for people interested in furthering their education, a city has many more opportunities than rural areas. Social and personal life are two other commonly quoted reasons for moving. Cities provide more opportunities to get out and meet people, such as social clubs, bars, dance clubs and support groups. For people with unique interests, it is easier to find like-minded individuals in urban areas than in isolated rural regions. Some people move to urban areas for personal reasons, such as getting closer to the family or work of a significant other, or to find better opportunities for their children.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But, does better health spur successful development?
    A RESOUNDING YES! The wealth of any nation can be measured by the health status of its citizens. This is in true confirmation of the popular adage which affirms that “Health is Wealth”. Developed countries spend a high proportion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on public health care because they believe that their resident health can serve as a major driver for economic activities and development. Improvements in health care are actually instruments for achieving economic growth and poverty reduction.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Societies with a heavy burden of disease as a result of poor health spending tend to experience a multiplicity of severe impediments to economic development. A better health care does not have to wait for an improved economy; measures to reduce the burden of disease and increase life expectancy will in themselves contribute to creating healthier and richer economies. These measures include: free vaccination, proper drainage system, adequate quarantine facilities, disease prevention and control agencies, etc.

  23. Kalu Melody Chinaza says:

    NAME: KALU MELODY CHINAZA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/245127
    AN ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 361
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon The most influential or common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Mercantilism: Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers. Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations. Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources. Economic Nationalism: Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor. Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries. The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.
    Linear Stages of Growth Model: The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II. This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments. The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.
    Structural-Change Theory: The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one. For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower. I’ll say the underdevelopment is both an internally and externally induced phenomenon. It is internally induced because most of the problems facing an underdeveloped country or continent especially Africa are caused from within. Examples are political uncertainty and civil wars, high levels of illiteracy, customs, beliefs and traditions, etc. And it is externally induced because of the effects of excessive colonialism, too much dependency on foreign nations (excessive importation), brain drain, etc.
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions? Some of the constraints are:
    Conflict and corruption
    Natural capital depletion
    Human capital weakness
    Gender and culture Inequality
    Incomprehensive budget
    Religionization of politics, etc.
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects? How well a society treats its women is one of the strongest indicators of the success and health of that society. Discrimination against women and girls occurs in many forms — through gender-based violence, economic discrimination, reproductive health inequities, and harmful traditional practices (such as child marriage), to name just a few. Women and girls of all ages have a right to live with dignity, free of cultural oppression. Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition. So, improvements in the role and status of women have beneficial impacts on a country’s development prospects.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor? The causes of extreme poverty include: Harsh climate War Lack of fertile land Political strife Government corruption Famine Disease Unfair trade policies Poor infrastructures Lack of education, etc. Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:
    1. Sustained economic growth The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity? Rapid population growth is threatening the economic progress of developing nations with Nigeria as an example. And having large families, thereby increasing population growth in the country, does not make economic sense in an environment or country with wide spread poverty and financial insecurity. In fact, it will only increase the economic problems of the nation.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim? Causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing world include:
    1. Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    2. Lack of Infrastructure
    3. Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    4. Inequitable distribution of land
    5. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques
    6. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital etc.
    People continue moving from rural areas to cities because cities often have a better quality of living, and though cost of living is higher in most cities, the trade-off for a better quality of life is worth it for some people. Educational centers are more prevalent and common in urban areas, so for people interested in furthering their education, a city has many more opportunities than rural areas. Social and personal life are two other commonly quoted reasons for moving. Cities provide more opportunities to get out and meet people, such as social clubs, bars, dance clubs and support groups. For people with unique interests, it is easier to find like-minded individuals in urban areas than in isolated rural regions. Some people move to urban areas for personal reasons, such as getting closer to the family or work of a significant other, or to find better opportunities for their children.
    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But, does better health spur successful development? A RESOUNDING YES! The wealth of any nation can be measured by the health status of its citizens. This is in true confirmation of the popular adage which affirms that “Health is Wealth”. Developed countries spend a high proportion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on public health care because they believe that their resident health can serve as a major driver for economic activities and development. Improvements in health care are actually instruments for achieving economic growth and poverty reduction.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems? Societies with a heavy burden of disease as a result of poor health spending tend to experience a multiplicity of severe impediments to economic development. A better health care does not have to wait for an improved economy; measures to reduce the burden of disease and increase life expectancy will in themselves contribute to creating healthier and richer economies. These measures include: free vaccination, proper drainage system, adequate quarantine facilities, disease prevention and control agencies, etc.

  24. Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam says:

    Name: Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam
    Reg no.: 2018/243754
    department: Economics

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    There are several theories being postulated towards the development of an economy, but of a few are of high influence such as
    a. mercantilism
    b. Economic Nationalism
    c. linear growth model
    d. structural change theory

    mercantilism checks on the view that the prosperity of a nation depends upon its supply of capital, and that the global volume of trade is unchangeable. it pinpoints its existence mainly on the maintenance of a high positive balance of payment. An economy based on this theory is more of a production and export-based economy like that of the Chinese.

    Economic Nationalism is of the idea that favors state interventionism over other market mechanisms, with policies such as domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. The core belief of economic nationalism is that the economy should serve nationalist goals

    Linear growth model focuses on the accelerated accumulation of capital, through the utilization of both domestic and international savings as a means of spurring investment, as the primary means of promoting economic growth and, thus, development. while

    Structural Change Theory deals with policies focused on changing the economic structures of developing countries from being composed primarily of subsistence agricultural practices to being a more modern, more urbanized, and more industrially diverse manufacturing and service economy.

    This 4 theories are in a sense compatible as there have proven to be effective in their own productive ways and as such each aims to achieve optimum development of an economy.

    Underdevelopment is mainly an internally induced phenomenon. external factors may have a few factors to contribute to the underdevelopment of a nation but the main upliftment/upgrading of a nation’s economy rest on the shoulders of that nation. no nation will abandon its own internal problems and affairs and try to help another nation’s underdeveloped problems. if a nation truly wants to develop they should learn the history of China, how they moved from being underdeveloped to being one of the World powers we have today. policy making and implementations, strategic planning and management of resources are of a few important notes for an underdeveloped nation to use and upgrade themselves.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Depending on the local conditions of a given area, we can ascertain the possible constraints on its growth.
    in the Nigeria’s case, there are of a few challenges such as Religious and Traditional Taboos and beliefs, high levels of informality in the economy, Low productivity due to poor human capital development, negative balance of trade, lack of strategic planning and implementations but the most difficult challenge of them all is Corruption.
    Corruption in the sense that those in power and authority tends to enrich themselves the more while not giving a hoot to how bad the economy is. they only care for their selfish gains and desires, therefore leading to mismanagement of public funds and lots of other atrocities.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    I believe in Nigeria we have the Ministry of Women Affairs of which the ministry helps to boost women’s welfare and productivity. given the fact that women contribute a lot to the growth of the economy through their involvement in small and medium enterprises they tend to foster Economic growth and development.
    furthermore, it has been scientifically proven that women are more intelligent than men since they are always filled with bright ideas and given women the chance, they can as well come up with strategic ideas to help boost a nation’s economy.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Using Nigeria as a case study, there are several causes of poverty in the economy such as Government Corruption, lack of good Economic infrastructures, Poor access to Quality education, poor access to healthcare, overpopulation, lack of innovative ideas, government restrictions, low financial capabilities to start up a lucrative business and many more.

    economic growth is the most effective way of improving the lives of the poor. so far in Nigeria, there hasn’t been a very effective policy that might help eradicate poverty in Nigeria. but there are few policies such as health care policy, primary education, agricultural policies, small and medium enterprises policies, family planning etc

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Overpopulation being the condition of being populated with excessively large numbers which exceeds the available resources for that region due to hight rate of natality and low rate of mortality.
    When a nation is overpopulated, the available resources in that nation won’t be available for everyone. and as such it might lead to an increase in crime since everyone would definitely want to eat and survive. overpopulation is actually a cause of poverty and can actually lead to financial insecurity in a Nation.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    The term unemployment refers to a situation when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work while Underemployment is a measure of employment and labor utilization in the economy that looks at how well the labor force is being used in terms of skills, experience, and availability to work. It refers to a situation in which individuals are forced to work in low-paying or low-skill jobs.
    there’s much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world simply because of there are few to none jobs available for the population due to overpopulation, lack of productive industries and scarcity of jobs while there are more than enough manpower ready to work at any point in time.
    most people in the rural area are of the mindset that there’s wealth in the urban regions that’s why they migrate from the rural areas to that if the urban. furthermore, they feel life is easier in the urban regions coz of the availability of essential basic amenities and as such they neglect agricultural potentials which they could have exploited in the rural areas.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    As a popular saying goes “health is wealth”. when a society is healthy, they tend to be more productivities in their activities because when the body is down, the mind goes with it which will definitely lead to little or no productivity.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Most especially in developing countries, poor public health is a major setback to development because these nations have individuals who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger fraction or portion of the population is sick and can’t be efficiently and effectively be revived due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that nation will be at a standstill or slowly progress.

    the possible solutions to these problems are that there should be high investment in the health sector, Better health care equipments, Employment of qualified medical practitioners like the Doctors, Nurses, Surgeons etc, Increase in health care infrastructures, Public knowledge and awareness on better public health care maintenance.

  25. Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu says:

    Name: Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu

    Reg No: 2018/246452

    Email: chineduezeozue@gmail.com

    Assignment Questions:
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Answers:

    6. i. Modernization theory – is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.

    ii. Dependency theory – is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.[10][11]

    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory, which is also reflected in the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, a famous dependency theorist. Wallerstein rejects the notion of a Third World, claiming that there is only one world which is connected by economic relations (World Systems Theory). He argues that this system inherently leads to a division of the world in core, semi-periphery and periphery. One of the results of expansion of the world-system is the commodification of things, like natural resources, labor and human relationships.[12][13]

    iii. Neoclassical development theory – has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.

    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.

    7. SOCIAL OBSTACLES
    Following are the important social obstacles in the way of economic development :

    i. Joint Family System :-
    In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.

    ii. Literacy :-
    The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth. In Indian and Pakistan…

    8. Women’s economic empowerment is central to realizing women’s rights and gender equality. Women’s economic empowerment includes women’s ability to participate equally in existing markets; their access to and control over productive resources, access to decent work, control over their own time, lives and bodies; and increased voice, agency and meaningful participation in economic decision-making at all levels from the household to international institutions.
    Empowering women in the economy and closing gender gaps in the world of work are key to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [1] and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Goal 5, to achieve gender equality, and Goal 8, to promote full and productive employment and decent work for all; also Goal 1 on ending poverty, Goal 2 on food security, Goal 3 on ensuring health and Goal 10 on reducing inequalities.
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes.[2] For example, increasing the female employment rates in OECD countries to match that of Sweden, could boost GDP by over USD 6 trillion,[3] recognizing, however, that. growth does not automatically lead to a reduction in gender-based inequality. Conversely, it is estimated that gender gaps cost the economy some 15 percent of GDP.[4]
    Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to women’s economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girl’s health and wellbeing, as well as their income-generation opportunities and participation in the formal labour market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 per cent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years.[5] But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labour market outcomes.[6]
    Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increasing employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.[7]

    9. i. Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food

    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home, while over 800 million suffer from hunger. You might think that poverty causes hunger and prevents people from accessing clean water (and you would be right!), but hunger and water insecurity are also big reasons why people struggle to escape extreme poverty.

    If a person doesn’t get enough food, they simply don’t have the strength and energy needed to work, while lack of access to food and clean water can also lead to preventable illnesses like diarrhea. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or spend what little money remains on medicine, it drains already vulnerable populations of money and assets, and can knock a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    Even if clean water sources are available, they’re often located far from poor, rural communities. This means that women and girls collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    ii. Little or no access to livelihoods or jobs

    This might seem a bit like a “no brainer.” Without a job or a way to make money, people will face poverty. But it’s easy to assume that if someone wants a job, they could have one. That just isn’t true, particularly in developing and rural parts of the world. Dwindling access to productive land (often due to conflict, overpopulation, or climate change), and overexploitation of resources like fish or minerals is putting increasing pressure on many traditional livelihoods. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for example, most of the population lives in rural communities where natural resources have been plundered over centuries of colonialism — while conflict over land disputes has forced people from the land they relied upon for food and money. Now, more than half of the country lives in extreme poverty. While inconsistent work and low paying jobs can land a family in poverty, absolutely no work means that a family can’t get by without assistance.
    iii. Conflict

    Conflict can cause poverty in several ways. Large scale, protracted violence that we see in places like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroy infrastructure, and cause people to flee, forcing families to sell or leave behind all their assets. In Syria, around 70% of the entire population now lives below the poverty line — this in a country where extreme poverty was once very rare. Women often bear the brunt of conflict: during periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women are particularly vulnerable in these kinds of conflicts, too, as they often become the targets of sexual violence while fetching water or working alone in the fields.

    iv. Inequality

    There are many different types of inequality in the world, from economic to social inequalities like gender, caste systems, or tribal affiliations. But no matter the inequality, it generally means the same thing: unequal or no access to the resources needed to keep or lift a family out of poverty.

    Sometimes inequalities are obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle — for example, the voices of certain people or groups might not be heard in community meetings, meaning they don’t get a say in important decisions. Regardless, these inequalities mean that the people affected don’t have the tools they desperately need to get ahead, and for already vulnerable families, this can mean the difference between being poor or living in extreme poverty.

    v. Poor education

    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. And why is that? There’s a lot of barriers stopping children from going to school. Many families can’t afford to send their children to school and need them to work. More still don’t see a benefit in educating girls. Education is often referred to as the great equalizer, and that’s because education can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. And, with even more education, world poverty could be cut in half.

    vi. Climate change

    You might be stunned to learn that the World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next ten years. As it is, climate events like drought, flooding, and severe storms disproportionately impact communities already living in poverty. Why? Because many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    vii. Lack of infrastructure

    Imagine that you have to go to work, or to the store, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impassable. What would you do then? A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living “off the grid” means the inability to go to school, work, or market to buy and sell goods. Traveling farther distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. Isolation limits opportunity, and without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    viii. Limited capacity of the government

    Many people living in the United States are familiar with social welfare programs that people can access if they need healthcare or food assistance. But not every government can provide this type of help to its citizens — and without that safety net, there’s nothing to stop vulnerable families from backsliding further into extreme poverty if something goes wrong. Ineffective governments also contribute to several of the other causes of extreme poverty mentioned above, as they are unable to provide necessary infrastructure or ensure the safety and security of their citizens in the event of conflict.

    ix. Lack of reserves

    People living in poverty don’t have the means to weather the storms of life. So when there is a drought, or conflict, or illness, there is little money saved or assets on hand to help. In Ethiopia for example, repeated cycles of drought have caused harvest after harvest to fail, causing a widespread hunger crisis. To cope, families will pull their children from school, and sell off everything they own to eat. That can help a family make it through one bad season, but not another. For communities constantly facing climate extremes or prolonged conflict, the repeated shocks can send a family reeling into extreme poverty and prevent them from ever recovering.

    10. Here are 10 steps Congress can take to cut poverty, boost economic security, and expand the middle class.

    i. Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    ii. Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    iii. Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    President Obama and policymakers across the political spectrum have called for boosting the EITC in order to right this wrong. Importantly, this policy change should be combined with a hike in the minimum wage; one is not a substitute for the other.

    iv. Support pay equity
    With female full-time workers earning just 78 cents for every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in half for working women and their families and add nearly half a trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory salary practices would be a key first step.

    v. Provide paid leave and paid sick days
    The United States is the only developed country in the world without paid family and medical leave and paid sick days, making it very difficult for millions of American families to balance work and family without having to sacrifice needed income. Paid leave is an important anti-poverty policy, as having a child is one of the leading causes of economic hardship. Additionally, nearly 4 in 10 private-sector workers—and 7 in 10 low-wage workers—do not have a single paid sick day, putting them in the impossible position of having to forgo needed income, or even their job, in order to care for a sick child. The Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act, or FAMILY Act, would provide paid leave protection to workers who need to take time off due to their own illness, the illness of a family member, or the birth of a child. And the Healthy Families Act would enable workers to earn up to seven job-protected sick days per year.

    vi. Establish work schedules that work
    Low-wage and hourly jobs increasingly come with unpredictable and constantly shifting work schedules, which means workers struggle even more to balance erratic work hours with caring for their families. Ever-changing work schedules make accessing child care even more difficult than it already is and leave workers uncertain about their monthly income. Furthermore, things many of us take for granted—such as scheduling a doctor’s appointment or a parent-teacher conference at school—become herculean tasks. The Schedules That Work Act would require two weeks’ advance notice of worker schedules, which would allow employees to request needed schedule changes. It would also protect them from retaliation for making such requests—and provide guaranteed pay for cancelled or shortened shifts. These are all important first steps to make balancing work and family possible.

    vii. Invest in affordable, high-quality child care and early education
    The lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant costs more than one year of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care assistance reaches only one in six eligible children.

    Boosting investments in Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant, as well as passing the Strong Start for America’s Children Act—which would invest in preschool, high-quality child care for infants and toddlers, and home-visiting services for pregnant women and mothers with infants—will help more struggling families obtain the child care they need in order to work and improve the future economic mobility of America’s children.

    viii. Expand Medicaid
    Since it was signed into law in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to high-quality, affordable health coverage for millions of Americans. However, 23 states continue to refuse to expand their Medicaid programs to cover adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level—making the lives of many families on the brink much harder. Expanding Medicaid would mean more than just access to health care—it would free up limited household income for other basic needs such as paying rent and putting food on the table. Having health coverage is also an important buffer against the economic consequences of illness and injury; unpaid medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy. Studies link Medicaid coverage not only to improved health, improved access to health care services, and lower mortality rates, but also to reduced financial strain.

    ix. Reform the criminal justice system and enact policies that support successful re-entry
    The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country in the world. Today, more than 1.5 million Americans are behind bars in state and federal prisons, a figure that has increased fivefold since 1980. The impact on communities of color is particularly staggering: One in four African American children who grew up during this era of mass incarceration have had a parent incarcerated.

    Mass incarceration is a key driver of poverty. When a parent is incarcerated, his or her family must find a way to make ends meet without a necessary source of income Additionally, even a minor criminal record comes with significant collateral consequences that can serve as lifelong barriers to climbing out of poverty. For example, people with criminal records face substantial barriers to employment, housing, education, public assistance, and building good credit. More than 90 percent of employers now use background checks in hiring, and even an arrest without a conviction can prevent an individual from getting a job. The “one strike and you’re out” policy used by public housing authorities makes it difficult if not impossible for individuals with even decades-old criminal records to obtain housing, which can stand in the way of family reunification. Furthermore, a lifetime ban—for individuals with felony drug convictions—on receiving certain types of public assistance persists in more than half of U.S. states, making subsistence even more difficult for individuals seeking to regain their footing, and their families.

    In addition to common-sense sentencing reform to ensure that we no longer fill our nation’s prisons with nonviolent, low-level offenders, policymakers should explore alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion programs for individuals with mental health and substance abuse challenges. We must also remove barriers to employment, housing, education, and public assistance. A decades-old criminal record should not consign an individual to a life of poverty.

    x. Do no harm
    The across-the-board spending cuts known as sequestration—which took effect in 2013—slashed funding for programs and services that provide vital support to low-income families. Sequestration cost the U.S. economy as many as 1.6 million jobs between mid-2013 and 2014. Some relief was provided this January, when Congress passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014, but many important tools to help low-income individuals and families pave a path to the middle class—such as adult and youth education and training programs, child welfare, and community development programs—were on a downward funding trend even before sequestration took effect.

    As Congress considers a continuing resolution to fund the federal government past October 1 and avoid another government shutdown, it should reject further cuts to programs and services such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, or WIC, which provides vital nutrition assistance to pregnant women and mothers with new babies. Thereafter, Congress should make permanent the important improvements made to the EITC and the Child Tax Credit as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which are set to expire in 2017. And it should avoid additional cuts to vital programs such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP, formerly known as food stamps, which suffered two rounds of deep cuts in 2013 and 2014.

    11. “Companies create jobs. Economic development is therefore the only answer to unemployment.”
    The number one answer to unemployment and underemployment is naturally to increase the number of companies and their size. But developing infrastructure and value chains, improving the business climate, business financing initiatives, and international trade rules are not enough. Companies must be able to fill the positions that they wish to create.

    However, in developing and emerging countries, even more than in developed countries, attempts to match supply and demand of labor seem like a succession of missed opportunities. Many employers give up on the idea of finding profiles corresponding to their needs. On the other hand, many individuals, even those with qualifications, struggle to find employment that matches their aspirations, either due to difficulties in identifying open positions, or the inability to overcome all the obstacles (related to the selection process, perceptions, discrimination, etc.) littering the recruitment process.

    While new digital technologies can make information more accessible, through job boards, for example, they only solve part of the problem. Individuals must be trained, which implies a prior need to strengthen educational systems overall. They must also be prepared and receive support, depending on their level of autonomy, in defining their project and navigating the complex and demanding path to a job that matches their qualifications and aspirations.

    Providing this support and at the same time helping companies define and communicate their recruitment needs are the raisons d’être of public employment services, yet in many countries, these services are still non-existent or inadequate. This is why international donors must support the structuring and capacity-building of public employment services, with a territorial and partnership-based approach, without neglecting the entrepreneurial aspect (since the shortest path to employment sometimes lies in creating your own business).

    “Employment policies are ineffective”
    The governments of developing countries have been quick to point out that even in developed countries, which have invested significant funds in fighting unemployment, it has still not disappeared. Why, then, should funding go to employment policies in countries where public resources are scarce?

    A closer look reveals that developed countries have not abandoned these policies. On the contrary, even very economically liberal countries continue to offer a significant range of employment services through extensive networks: over 600 Jobcentre Plus offices exist in the United Kingdom, for instance, and 2,400 American Job Centers in the United States. In France, Pôle Emploi is a major institution, with a budget of around €5 billion per year excluding unemployment benefits.

    The reason behind the continuation of employment services is simple: there is now a broad consensus on the importance of supporting job seekers. Specifically, to fight what Olivier Blanchard and Lawrence Summers theorized as hysteresis in unemployment in 1986, the idea that the longer an individual remains unemployed, the less likely they are to find employment, due to a twofold effect of stigmatization and disconnection from the business world. However, a study from 2010 states that “benefiting from assistance services has the effect–all other things being equal–of increasing the return to employment. The greater the assistance service, the higher the rate of return to employment.”

    In developing countries, where job markets are particularly tight, special attention must be given to ensuring that these employment services also target employers in order to help them create positions–including in informal businesses, which make up the majority of the economic fabric. The goal is to avoid creating displacement effects for unemployment, from those receiving assistance to those who are not.

    Furthermore, we must remember that every fifteen seconds, somewhere in the world, a person dies of a work accident or occupational disease. Policies that strengthen access to employment must be combined with efforts to raise awareness on decent working conditions.

    According to an independent assessment by the Better Work program, improving the quality of a job reduces employee turnover, increases productivity and improves the quality of the products and services. This was also witnessed by employers in Chad supported by La Maison de la Petite Entreprise. It debunks the common belief that improving working conditions only generates additional costs.

    “Employment policies cost more money than they generate”
    Like policies promoting healthcare and education, employment services have a cost. However, when services for the unemployed and businesses are targeted, relevant and implemented effectively, the return on investment can be huge. There are multiple benefits involved in developing access to employment: economically and socially integrated individuals, an increase in household consumption, growing businesses, additional tax resources for public authorities.

    On the other hand, inaction has a cost, not only societal and political, but also economic: a loss of earnings linked to unused workforce, social assistance expenditure, etc. In Europe, it has been estimated that “NEET” (Not in Employment, Education or Training) youth cost society more than €120 billion per year. What will the cost be tomorrow if nothing is done to increase access to employment for the 20 million young people entering the job market in Africa yearly? The long-awaited “demographic dividend” is now in jeopardy.

    Ensuring access to decent jobs for as many people as possible requires strong responses. Certain African, Asian and Latin American nations have taken inspiring measures, choosing to combine their economic development policies with a strong commitment to employment. This movement must now increase, in keeping with each nation’s unique ambitions and constraints.

    12. There are many links between health and the economy. We’ve known for a long time that richer nations generally have better overall health conditions than do poorer nations—and that, within a country, more affluent individuals have, on average, better health than do poorer individuals. This association has long been thought to reflect a causal link running from income to health—which makes sense for a variety of reasons, including simply that richer countries can afford to spend more on health care.

    But new thinking and evidence—much of it pioneered at HSPH—shows that cause and effect also flow in the other direction: A healthy population spurs economic growth. First, healthier people are more economically productive. Better health also leads to an increase in savings rates—because healthier people expect to live longer and are naturally more concerned with their future financial needs.

    Another bridge between health and the economy is education. Unhealthy children may enter school with physical and cognitive disadvantages, miss more days of school, attend school for fewer years, and learn less when they’re in school. By contrast, healthy children are more likely to be able to take advantage of whatever education is available to them—and a good education has profound economic consequences throughout an individual’s life. These consequences include a higher starting wage and larger salary increases over the course of one’s working life—earnings that ripple out into the larger economy.

    Human health is fundamentally a national asset, which means that spending on the promotion and protection of health is more like a fruitful investment than a consumption expenditure. A 2011 study on the global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases estimated that the five most serious conditions will cost $47 trillion in lost output worldwide over the next two decades. In the U.S., reducing heart disease and cancer alone could save trillions of dollars over that time frame. Investments in public health measures that can avert these diseases (and frequently cost less than treatment) or measures that can better manage these diseases if they do strike, are an essential and highly justifiable way to enhance the value of America’s most important asset: its people.

    13. Disease and poor health represent a great burden to affected individuals. Whilst
    difficult to quantify, the welfare losses to the individual of being severely ill can be
    significant, particularly in those developing regions with limited social security
    provision and health care. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to
    work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a
    more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have
    an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic
    development. The many studies that have attempted to explain cross-country
    differences in economic growth and productivity rates have typically suggested that
    education, trade openness, savings, inflation and the initial level of income are
    amongst the key explanatory variables (Barro, 1991; Mankiw et al., 1992; Barro and
    Sala-i-Martin, 1995; Miller and Upadhyay, 2000). There are good reasons to suggest,
    however, that health is also an important determinant. Lvovsky (2001), for instance,
    estimates that the burden of disease in LDCs, expressed in disability-adjusted life
    years (DALYs) lost per million people, is approximately twice that in developed
    countries.1
    This results from the far higher incidence of disease and malnutrition in
    LDCs compared to developed regions. Whilst the burden of disease may be a function
    of poverty, a high disease burden is also likely to adversely affect a nation’s
    development prospects.
    Comparatively little attention, however, had been paid in the past to the impact of
    poor health, particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), on growth and
    productivity. These issues have begun to be addressed by more recent studies. The
    5
    existing literature includes Wheeler (1980), Knowles and Owen (1995, 1997),
    McCarthy et al. (2000), Gallup and Sachs (2000), Bhargava et al. (2001), Arcand
    (2001), Mayer (2001), McDonald and Roberts (2002) and Webber (2002).2
    Our paper
    differs in two main and significant aspects from this literature. First, whilst existing
    studies mostly focus on life expectancy as a single aggregate measure of health, which
    only captures mortality, we look at three distinct and specific factors affecting health.
    These are malaria, malnutrition and waterborne diseases, all of which affect both
    morbidity and mortality and arguably morbidity in particular.3
    These measures
    capture three of the most serious threats to health in developing regions, another being
    the HIV/AIDS epidemic which remains a topic for future work. Second, the existing
    literature, for example, Wheeler (1980) and Knowles and Owen (1997) studies the
    effect of health on cross-national variation in income levels or economic growth.
    Arcand (2001) who looks at malnutrition and McCarthy et al. (2000) and Gallup and
    Sachs (2000) who look at malaria also estimate the effect of poor health on economic
    growth rates. Instead, we directly estimate the effect of health on total factor
    productivity.
    If a disease has a fatal effect on individuals then it will lower the amount of labour
    supplied. However, in the vast majority of cases, the very common diseases and
    illnesses in the developing world such as undernourishment, malaria and waterborne
    diseases have non-fatal consequences, particularly on adults who participate in the
    labour force. Affected individuals remain in the labour force, but their productivity is
    severely impaired. Infectious diseases such as malaria, for instance, result in recurrent
    debilitating bouts of illness, which prevents individuals from supplying their labour
    productively. Human capital accumulation may also be adversely affected by poor
    6
    health due to the higher levels of school absenteeism amongst those suffering from
    illness. However, as we shall argue in the next section, the economic impact of poor
    health is not restricted to a reduction in the productivity of labour. A high disease
    burden within a country can also have implications for foreign and domestic
    investment, tourism, the internal mobility of labour and land use. As the WHO (2001)
    claims, returns to investment in agriculture, mining, manufacturing and tourism, as
    well as investment in major infrastructure projects, are likely to be depressed by a
    high incidence of illness and disease.
    Our central argument is therefore that poor health affects economic development
    primarily via total factor productivity, not as an additional factor of production or by
    affecting the productivity of one other factor of production only. If so, then including
    health as a direct determinant of growth is conceptually inaccurate since health is
    likely to affect output growth indirectly via total factor productivity. As far as we are
    aware, however, no study has directly examined the impact of poor health on crosscountry aggregate productivity levels. That is the contribution of the present paper.
    We begin by estimating total factor productivity (TFP) from a parsimonious
    production function specification. We then examine the determinants of TFP paying
    particular attention to three key indicators of poor health in LDCs – the proportion of
    undernourished within a country, the incidence of malaria and the incidence of
    waterborne diseases. We examine a variety of functional forms and control for the
    potential endogeneity of poor health.

    Solutions:

    i. Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.

    This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.

    ii. Improve health standards
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.

    It should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.

    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.

    iii. Improve research
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.

    iv. Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.

    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.

    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.

    v. Transnational support
    It is crucial that rich developed countries support poor developing countries financially but also in terms of sharing their research findings in order to fight public health issues.

    By doing so, we will spread knowledge and research advancements in all parts of the world, which in turn likely leads to an increase in overall health standards and to more effective treatment of diseases.

    vi. Reduction in consumption
    Some public health issues are caused by our excessive consumption behavior.

    This is especially true for the global warming issue.

    The production and also the disposal or our goods lead to a huge level of greenhouse gas emission which in turn contributes to global warming.

    Global warming is a serious contributor to public health issues.

    It leads to water shortage for many people and may also destroy the livelihood of many people.

    Therefore, we should reduce our consumption in order to reduce our adverse impact.

    viii. Recycle and reuse
    Another measure to mitigate public health issues is to recycle and reuse our material belongings more efficiently.

    Since our consumption level has a big effect on public health issues, we have to ensure that we use our resources in an efficient way in order to reduce the adverse effects.

    Thus, this could mean that you give away your old but yet working stuff or that you at least recycle it in an effective manner.

    ix. Reduce corruptive actions
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.

    Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.

    Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.

    x. Promote vaccinations
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.

    This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.

    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

    xi. Education and Research
    Education is crucial for solving problems.

    This is also true for the mitigation of public health issues.

    We have to teach children as well as grownups about the adverse consequences and how we can mitigate them.

    By doing so, people will be more aware of their behavior and are likely to behave in a way that contributes to a reduction in public health issues.

    Moreover, extensive research is necessary in order to fight public health issues.

    This may also include genetic engineering to mitigate the spread of some kinds of diseases.

    xii. Convince others
    Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem.

    However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.

    Tell your family and friends about the issue regarding public health and how they can contribute to its reduction.

  26. Oguegbu chiamaka maureen says:

    6)Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Yes they are compatible.
    Well, taking Nigeria as a case study, i would say that underdevelopment is internally induced. This is due to high level of corruption, embezzlement and other form of economically deterimental behaviours.
    7) The educational level of the people. In a situation where the majority of the population of the citizens are uneducated, then no matter how much help they are given they cannot maintain accelated.
    Also Bad Leadership style has a thing or two to do with the holding back of accelerated growth. Because in a situation where the leaders of a nation mismanage its resources then they are bound to not only slow down the accelerated growth.
    We also have the problem of lack of protection of infant industries in the country. If infant industries are not protected and foreign companies are left to dump their goods into the country. The infant industries will fail and this would cripple that sector of the economy.
    8) Women are key and vital in every family and nation. They have been in charge of not only giving birth to children and taking care of them as mothers, but also in charge of the overall running of the household for generations.
    This being said when the roles of women are improved and women are allowed to purse careers of their chosing. Then we would see fresh and brilliant ideas brought to light, we would also have a larger more effiecient labour force. Thirdly, it would provide for great models for our sisters and daughters to look up to.
    9)High rate of corruption.
    Poor Healthcare services
    Weak Educational system and institutes
    Lack of Infrastructure.
    Lack of the management of the resources the country.
    The above are some of the causes of extreme poverty in my country.
    There are some policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor.
    For example, Access to free education. There have been moves to create schools in Northern Nigeria. These schools have been built and tuition made free for them, in order to reduce level of illiteracy in the country. Because we all know that the value of education can not be overstated or over emphasized.
    10) Rapid population growth threaten the economic progress of developing nations when the population growth is tending to overpopulation. However in a situation where the country in question is under developed and its resources under utilized. A rapid population growth would be welcomed and appreciated. Because as the country tends towards optimum population, and resources properly utilized, the economy of the nation would flourish.

    11) Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment.
    When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.
    12) There are a few reason why i believe that better health also help spur successful development in societies with wealthier people.
    First of all, it is a well known fact that rich people try their very best to stay healthy all the time, with proper dieting and exercise.
    Secondly, in a situation where people are taking good care of their health, they will fall sick less times in a year.
    And with this, the government expenditure on the health sector can be reduced and money can be channelee to other sectors which leads to successful development.
    13) The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development cannot be overstated.
    When the health sector is crippled, then everyother sector is not safe. Matter of fact the whole economy is in trouble.
    Because a good numnber of the population would be dying frequently of illnesses that could have been treated easily in a place of good public health or spending alot of time in the hospital, time that otherwise would have been spent working, creating value and improving the nation’s economy.
    Funding, The government should not only fund the health care sector, i believe they should also put in a check system that would make sure that funds sent into the health sector is properly managed and good medical equipments are bought.
    The government should also build more hospitals and employ more doctors.

  27. Oguegbu chiamaka maureen says:

    Name: Oguegbu chiamaka
    REG NO: 2018/242309
    Department : Economics
    6)Four common theories of development economics include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Yes they are compatible.
    Well, taking Nigeria as a case study, i would say that underdevelopment is internally induced. This is due to high level of corruption, embezzlement and other form of economically deterimental behaviours.
    7) The educational level of the people. In a situation where the majority of the population of the citizens are uneducated, then no matter how much help they are given they cannot maintain accelated.
    Also Bad Leadership style has a thing or two to do with the holding back of accelerated growth. Because in a situation where the leaders of a nation mismanage its resources then they are bound to not only slow down the accelerated growth.
    We also have the problem of lack of protection of infant industries in the country. If infant industries are not protected and foreign companies are left to dump their goods into the country. The infant industries will fail and this would cripple that sector of the economy.
    8) Women are key and vital in every family and nation. They have been in charge of not only giving birth to children and taking care of them as mothers, but also in charge of the overall running of the household for generations.
    This being said when the roles of women are improved and women are allowed to purse careers of their chosing. Then we would see fresh and brilliant ideas brought to light, we would also have a larger more effiecient labour force. Thirdly, it would provide for great models for our sisters and daughters to look up to.
    9)High rate of corruption.
    Poor Healthcare services
    Weak Educational system and institutes
    Lack of Infrastructure.
    Lack of the management of the resources the country.
    The above are some of the causes of extreme poverty in my country.
    There are some policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor.
    For example, Access to free education. There have been moves to create schools in Northern Nigeria. These schools have been built and tuition made free for them, in order to reduce level of illiteracy in the country. Because we all know that the value of education can not be overstated or over emphasized.
    10) Rapid population growth threaten the economic progress of developing nations when the population growth is tending to overpopulation. However in a situation where the country in question is under developed and its resources under utilized. A rapid population growth would be welcomed and appreciated. Because as the country tends towards optimum population, and resources properly utilized, the economy of the nation would flourish.

    11) Developing countries all have one major problem in common, “corrupt leaders”. Money that was made in the nation, the leaders take, mismanage and embezzle. And these funds that they embezzle are meant to be put into good use, like improvement of infrastructure and provision of social amenities. Some funds are also intentioned to be used for development of rural areas. Of which doing all these things would lead to creation of employment.
    When funds that were meant to do this are embezzled. Then there would continually be high rate of unemployment, underemployment and rural to urban migration.
    12) There are a few reason why i believe that better health also help spur successful development in societies with wealthier people.
    First of all, it is a well known fact that rich people try their very best to stay healthy all the time, with proper dieting and exercise.
    Secondly, in a situation where people are taking good care of their health, they will fall sick less times in a year.
    And with this, the government expenditure on the health sector can be reduced and money can be channelee to other sectors which leads to successful development.
    13) The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development cannot be overstated.
    When the health sector is crippled, then everyother sector is not safe. Matter of fact the whole economy is in trouble.
    Because a good numnber of the population would be dying frequently of illnesses that could have been treated easily in a place of good public health or spending alot of time in the hospital, time that otherwise would have been spent working, creating value and improving the nation’s economy.
    Funding, The government should not only fund the health care sector, i believe they should also put in a check system that would make sure that funds sent into the health sector is properly managed and good medical equipments are bought.
    The government should also build more hospitals and employ more doctors.

  28. ASOGWA OBIORA says:

    NAME: ASOGWA OBIORA
    REG. NO: 2018/242288
    DEPARTMENT: ECOMOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    The most influential theories of development are as follows:
    Linear Stages of Growth Model
    The linear stages of growth model was adopted to revive the economy of Europe after the first and second World War
    This model is of the opinion that economic growth can only be facilitated through industrialization. The model maintains that local institutions and social attitudes can stand as an obstacle against growth if these factors determine people’s level of savings and investments.
    The linear-stages-of-growth model is of the view that there are stages every country must undergo on the eve of their development. These stages are “the traditional society, the pre-conditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption.
    Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory lays emphasis on the transformation of every structure of the economy of a country that has the target of leading the economy from agrarian to industrialized economy.
    Yes, they are compatible because both of them are emphasis on process or stages of development.

    Underdevelopment is an internally induced phenomenon because most of the causes of the problem of underdevelopment in the third world countries are within the system. The causes are as follows:
    Mismanagement of the scarce resources
    Corruption
    High level of illiteracy
    Low productivity.
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The constraints that most hold back accelerated economic growth, depending on local conditions are as follows:
    Unavailability of socio-economic infrastructural facilities.
    lack of standard education.
    Poor planning.
    Inter-ethnic rivalry.
    Lack of integration as well as constant conflict.
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Improvement in the role and status of women like education of women can enable them earn labor market wage thereby leading to increase in GDP. Giving them the opportunity to participate in politics and governance would also enhance the contribution of their quota in the growth and development of the economy, owing to the fact that what a man can do, a woman can do it even better.
    What are the causes of extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The causes of extreme poverty include:
    favoritism.
    Unequal distribution resources.
    High cost of borrowing investment loan.
    High rate of unemployment.
    Effective policies for Improving the lives of the poorest of the poor among others are:
    Expansionary monetary policy.
    N-power program.
    Student grant.
    Schorlarship.
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Large families is not advisable in economy where there is a widespread poverty and financial insecurity and it also threatens economic progress in the following ways:
    1. Reduction in the Rate of Capital Formation:
    In the developing countries, the population growth is a function capital formation. High birth rate tend to have a negative relationship on capital formation. And most times, greater number of the population fall within dependency ratio.
    In developing countries, rapid growth of population lead to decline in the availability of capital per head which reduces the productivity of its labor force which also affect their income, saving and investment function in a negative direction.
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    lack of infrastructural facilities in the rural areas.
    High chances of survival in the cities.
    Concentration of industries in the cities.
    High rate of unemployment in the rural areas.
    The major reason why people continue to migrate to the cites from rural area even when their chances of finding jobs are very slim are as follows:
    Education and employment opportunites.
    High wage rate in the cities.
    Better job conditions.
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    I can say that better health spur successful development,
    because health has a huge positive impact on the economic growth in the following ways: it help to increase output by enhancing the strength needed for production. It also reduces mortality rate thereby sustaining: labor productivity.
    It increases life expectancy.
    Higher labor productivity.
    Improvement in the quality of life the people.
    Increase in labor force.
    It encourages human capital development.

    Impact of poor public health on development.
    Poor health is capable of lowering aggregate supply in the following ways:
    Reduction in the working population.
    It can hinder the contribution of labor to economic growth and development.
    Reduction in the labor productivity.
    Reduction in the life expectancy.
    Reduction in the human capital development.
    The factors needed to address these issues are as follows:
    High investment in the sophisticated health facilities.
    producing competent health practitioners.
    subsidizing health services.
    Educating the masses on the importance of health services.

  29. Onyemaechi Favour ozioma says:

    Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma
    2018/244292
    Edu/Economics
    Eco 361
    An Assignment: Following From the previous question clearly and convincingly answer the following questions as the special adviser to Mr President on development and employment generation.
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible?. Is underdevelopment an internally ( domestically) or externally (international) induced phenomenon?

    There are four major often competing development theories and each gives a valuable insight and useful perspective on the nature of the development process.
    1. Classic theories of economic development: the classic post _ world war two literature on economic development has been dominanted by four major strands of thoughts:
    a. The linear stage of growth model: this model was largely replaced in the 1970s by 2 competing school of thought, the first which focus on theories and patterns of structural changes.The second, the international dependence revolution was more radical and more political.
    b. Dependence theories tend to emphasise external and internal institutional and political constraint on economic development.
    c. The neoclassical counter-revolution in economic thought emphasis the beneficial role of free market, open economics and the privatization of inefficient public enterprise
    2. Development as growth and the linear stage theories: The most influential and outspoken of the stages of growth model of development was the American economic historian Walt.W.Rostow. According to him the best transition from underdevelopment to development can be described in terms of series of steps or stages through which all countries must proceed. One of the principle strategy of development necessary for any take off was the mobilization of domestic and foreign savings in order to generate sufficient investment to accelerate economic growth.
    3. Structural change models: Structural change theory focus on the mechanism by which under development economics transform their domestic economics structure from a heavy emphasis on traditional subsistence agriculture to a more modern, more urbanized and more industrialized diverse manufacturing and service economy. It employ the tools of neoclassical price and resource allocation theory and modern econometrics to describe how this transformation process take place.
    4.The international dependence revolution: The first major stream which we call the neoclassical dependence model is an indirect outgrowth of Marxist thinking, it attribute the existence and continuance of underdevelopment primarily to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country_ poor country relationships.
    These theories are compatible in the sense that all the theories work hand in hand, complement each other in order to achieve development.
    6b.Underdevelopment according to the international dependency school of thought made by Theotonio DOS Santos said that underdevelopment constitutes a state of backwardness, prior to capitalism which is q consequence if a particular form of capitalism development called dependence capitalism.
    Thus underdevelopment is an externally induced phenomenon but can also be internally induced by lack of education, insufficient investments and savings. This shows that underdevelopment being internally induced lead to externally induced because when there is lack if education, skills, it will make the country to depend on other countries for survival which will keep the country underdeveloped.

    7.What constraint most hold back accerated growth depending on local condition?
    There are a lot of factors that constraint accerated growth:
    a. Lower level of human capital, human capital such as education, health and skills. When there is low skill, poor education and health it can retard growth.
    b.lower level of industrialization: when the Technology and skill content is less advance, it can retard accerated growth.
    c. Mismanagement of resources: when resources are inappropriately used or misdirected it can slow growth.

    8.How can improvement in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?.
    Women plays the Central role in development, globally, women tend to be poorer than men, more deprived in health and education and in freedom in all its forms. For women to make the biggest impact, the society must empower and invest in its women. This would entail increasing female rate in educational and training programme, formal sector employment.The benefit of the educational attainment and financial status of women will always pass to their children and future generations and finally on the society. Improvements on the role of women plays tremendous impact on the development of a nation.

    9. What are the causes extreme poverty and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The incidence of extreme poverty is very uneven around the developing world.
    The causes of absolute poverty are the combination of low capita income and highly unequal distribution of income, the higher the level of per capita income, the lower the number of the absolutely poor.
    9b.There are policies that are effective for improving the poorest.
    a. Redistribution policies geared to reducing income inequality and expanding economic opportunities in order to promote development including income tax policies and publicly financed services.
    b.Comprehensive policy: It is the direct provision of tax_financed public consumption goods and services to the poor e.G public health project, school lunches.
    c. Direct money transfer and subsidized food programs for the rural poor as well as direct government policies to keep the price of essential food stuff lower.
    d. Agricultural development policies represent a crucial strategy for attacking poverty because a fraction of the poor are located in the rural area and engage in agricultural pursuit.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    The population poverty cycle theory is the main argument advanced by economist who hold that too Rapid population growth yield negative economic consequences thus should be a real concern for developing countries. Large family mean greater population growth, higher dependence burden, lower savings, less investment, slower economic growth and ultimately poverty and these can make the large family not to make any headway in an economy.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world especially in the city and why do people continue to migrate to the cites from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    There are so much of unemployment and underemployment because of the following factors:
    a. The unsuitability of Technology: Most low income countries are dual economics having a modern manufacturing, mining, agricultural, transportation and communication sector but organisational methods and ideas, management system, machines. This Technology was designed primarily for an economy with high wages and relatively abundance capital but Technology development for developed countries may not be suitable for developing countries
    b. Price distortion: However even when there is a wide choice of various capital_labour combination, developing countries may not choose labour_intensive method because of factor price distortion that makes wages higher and interest rates and foreign exchange cost lower than market clearing rates.
    11b. Why people continue to migrate when the chances of finding a conventional Job is very slim is because if the migrant anticipate a relatively low probability of finding regular wage employment in the initial period but expect this probability to increase overtime as he is able to broaden his urban contacts, it would be rational for him to migrate as long as the present value of the net stream of expected rural income over the migrant planning horizon exceeds that of the expected rural income, the decision to migrate is justifiable.
    Furthermore, because expected income are defined in terms of both wages and employmt probability, it is possible to have continued migration despite the existence of sizable rates of urban unemployment.

    12.Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successfully development?
    Health is an important factor in school and the formal learning of a child. A longer life raise the return to investment in education; better health and nutrition leads to earlier and longer school enrollment, better school attendance and more effective learning which in the long run will spur development.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?
    Studies shows that healthier people earm higer wages. Poor health affect employment, productivity and wages and very substantially so among the poorest of the poor. This findings magnified the policy priority of health in development not only is Heath a major goal in itself but it has a significant intact on income level as well.

    13b.What is needed to address this problems are:
    a. Non governmental organization should play roles in extending vaccines to remote rural areas.
    b. The government should make more input into health sector by improving on various Heath policies.
    c. The public Heath system should use public funds efficiently and not misdirect them for expensive curative measures for richer patient that are influenced enough to get the right hospital. So often ignored or at best underfund are the cost_ effective preventive health campaign and basic medical care for those not currently attended to by any Heath professional.

    References
    Rostow.Walt.W, The staged of economic growth; A non Communist manifesto,London:: Cambridge University Press: 1960
    Roderick, Dani. ” understanding economic policy reform ” journal of economic literature 34(1996) 9_41
    Harris, John and Michael O. Todaro ” migration, unemployment and development.A two sector analysis “. American economic Review 60(1770): 126_146

  30. NAME: Obiora Chidinma Jennifer
    REG NO:2018/241834
    COURSE:ECO 361[Development Economics]
    DEPT: Economics [major]
    E-MAIL:ceejay.nma@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT
    6. Erikson and Psychosocial theory: Now lets turn to a less controversial psychodynamics theorist, Erik Erikson. Erikson present eight developmental stages that encompasses the entire lifespan. For that reason, Erikson’s psychosocial theory forms the foundation for much of our discussion of psychosocial development. Erikson [1950] proposed a model of life span development that provides a useful guide-line for thinking about the changes we experience throughout life. Erikson broke with Freud’s emphasis on sexuality as the cornerstone of social-emotional development and instead suggested that social relationship fostered development.
    Erikson proposed that each stage of life has a unique challenge or crisis that the person who reaches it must face, referred to as psychosocial crises. According to Erikson, successful development involves dealing with and resolving the goals and demands of each of these psychological crises in a positive way.
    The Erikson psychosocial crisis includes :
    – Trust versus Mistrust [Birth to 12 to 18 months].
    – Autonomy versus shame/doubt [18 months to 3 years].
    – Initiative versus Guilt [ 3 to 6 years].
    – Industry versus Inferiority [6 to 12 years].
    – Identity versus role confusion [ 12 to 18 years].
    – Intimacy versus isolation [19 to 40 years].
    – Generativity versus stagnation [40 to 65 years].
    – Ego integrity versus despair [65 to death].
    ii. Learning theory: also known as behaviorism, is based on the premise that is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. The most famous behaviorist was Burrhus Frederick[B.F.] Skinner [1904-1990]’ who expanded the principles of behaviorism and also brought them to the attention of the public at large. Skinner used the idea of stimulus and response, along with the application of rewards of reinforcements, to train pigeons and other animals. In addition, he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive[skinner,1957,1968, 1972].
    iii. Social learning theory: developed by Albert Bandura [1977], calls our attention to the ways in which many of our actions are not learned through conditioning, as suggested by skinner; rather, they are learned by watching others. Young children frequently learn behaviors through imitation. Especially when children do not know what else to do they learn by modeling or copying the behavior of others.
    b. These three theories are compatible because they deal with association between groups of people
    c. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The ”development of underdevelopment” is therefore systematic and path-dependent.

    7. Using Nigeria as a case study, while Nigeria is known for its oil rich, the reality of the nation is that corruption, unemployment and inequalities have destroyed the nations economic framework, causing it to be the poverty capital of the world but corruption is the major reason why poverty is at high rate in Nigeria.

    8. women empowerment can be defined to promoting women’s sense of self-worth, their ability to determine their own choices, and their right to influence social change for themselves and others.
    In western countries, female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of the women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19th and early 20th century where suffrage was a key feature. The second wave of the 1960s included the sexual revolution and the role of women in society. Third wave Feminism is often seen as beginning in the 1990s.
    Women’s empowerment and promoting women’s rights have emerged as a part of a major global movement and is continuing to break new ground in recent years. Days like international women’s empowerment day are also gaining momentum.
    But despite a great deal of progress, women and girls continue to face discrimination and violence in every part of the world.
    Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential. contributing their skills to the workforce and can raise happier and healthier children. They are also able to help fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large. A key part of this empowerment is through education. Girls who are educated can pursue meaningful work and contribute to their country’s economy later in life. They are also four time’s less likely to get married young when they have eight years education, meaning that they and their families are healthier. Finally, Empowering girls is the key to economic growth, political stability and social transformation.

    9. Poverty rarely has a single cause but the range of factors includes:
    – Rising living cause.
    – low pay.
    – lack of work.
    – inadequate social security.
    ii. – Invest in girls education.
    – Invest in health and wellbeing.
    -Expand economic opportunities and embrace technology

    10.The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously agreed that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. The theory was simple given that there is a fixed quantity of land ,population growth will eventually reduce the amount of resources that each individual can consume, ultimately resulting in disease, starvation, and war. The way to avoid such fortunate outcomes was moral constraint [i.e. refraining from too many children].
    ii. yes, the reason is that large families tend to be poor especially in India where more than half of the population is considerably poor as a result of their size. thus, also reduces their income gap and standard of living.

    11. – Business cycle.
    – Supply and demand.
    – Technological changes.
    ii. Certain immigrant groups, such as those with low levels of education, experience extremely high rates of unemployment, especially during recessions. The unemployment rates of immigrants cam be higher in countries that have more rigid labor market regulations and institutions.

    12. A Healthier labor force will suffer less debility and disability and will work more steadily and disability and will work more effectively and more steadily resulting in increased productivity and rising per capital income.

    13. Poverty can affect children’s cognitive development, and those living in poverty are over three times more likely to suffer from mental health problems. Most individual long-term conditions are more than twice as common in adults from lower socio-economic groups, and mental health problems are much more prevalent.
    ii.- Investing in education: One of the most important ways to improve health in developing countries is by educating citizens. educating people enables them to obtain safer jobs, increased health literacy, take preventive healthcare measures, avoid risker health behaviors and demand better-quality health services.
    – Increasing health benefits for the poor: Poorer countries receive much lower health benefits than richer countries. In developing areas, the poor are subjected to higher risk of contradicting diseases and lower access to healthcare.
    – Promoting primary and essential healthcare: A way to improve health in developing countries involves governments providing cost-effective health packages for everyone. An example of this would be Ethiopia and Malawi, where governments have focused on achieving universal vaccine coverage, developing cleaner water supplies and creating better sanitation practices.
    REFERENCES:
    https://www.ppesydney.net
    https://www.borgenmagazine.com
    https://www.worldvision.com.au
    https://www.weforum.org

  31. Name: OBODOAGU SOMTOCHUKWU LILIAN
    Reg.Number: 2018/242452
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 361
    Assignment
    (6)which are the most influential theories of development and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    There are four main theories of development but modernization theory is the most influential theories of development and it is compatible, modernization theory is used to analyse the processes in which modernization in society take place.This theory looks at which aspect of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development.The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspect that can lead to modernization of traditional or backward societies. This theory also states that technological advancement and economic change can lead to change in moral and cultural values.
    The French sociologist Emile Durkhem stressed the interdependence of institution in a society and the way in which they interact with cutural and social unity.so the work of division is f labor in the society was very influential.
    Underdevelopment is externally induced phenomenon because it says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country- poor country relationship. Developed nation’s are intentionally exploitative neglectful towards developing countries. Therefore underdevelopment is thus externally induced ,so the development of undevelopment is therefore systematic and path-dependent.
    (7)what constraints most back accelerated growth depending on local conditions?
    (a)Population: population is considerable constraints on economic growth, either and most commonly, because there is too high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine or diseases.
    (b)Literacy: the literacy rate is very low in the underdeveloped countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth
    (c)Imbalance: not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth for some developing economies,too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential.
    (d) Inefficiency within the microeconomic
    (e)poor governance and corruption

    (8)How can improvement in the role and status of women have especially beneficial impact on development prospects.Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. So therefore the improvement in the role and status of women have a great beneficial impact in development prospects.
    (9)what are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor.
    The causes of extreme poverty includes:
    1. Government Corruption

    Since its founding, government corruption has plagued Nigeria. This corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    2. Lack of Economic Infrastructure

    An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.
    3. Poor Access to Education

    Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.

    These problems are especially profound in the northern, more rural parts of Nigeria.
    4. Poor Access to Healthcare

    Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.

    With such a low density of medical care available, many people in Nigeria either go completely without medical care or without enough medical care. But sickness is costly, and oftentimes can trap people into never-ending cycles of poverty.
    There are so many policies which have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor.
    (1)Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.
    (2)Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    (3)Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    (4)Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare
    (10)Rapid population growth threatening
    the economic progress of developing nation? Do large families make economics sense in an environment of widespread poverty and finance insecurity.
    According to Malthusian theory, a high population growth is associated with food problem, i.e., malnutrition and hunger but Bloom and freeman (1998) differ with the theory noting that food problem is more of a problem of poverty and inadequate income than a matter of high population growth. The population and food problem can be solved when income is enough to buy adequate food as prices provide adequate incentives to produce. On the other hand, developing economies would have to export more, receive foreign aid or borrow overseas to meet their increased demand for food by increased imports. A high rate of population growth not only has an adverse impact on improvement in food supplies, but also intensifies the constraints on development of savings, foreign exchange, and human resources.
    No, large families does not make any economics sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity,as a result of widespread of poverty where by lack of infrastructure, unemployment , low productivity, and the rest of them that lead to low standard of living, so large families in a widespread poverty and insecurity do not in any way contribute to economic development.
    (11)why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Already acute urban problems risk spiralling out of control if the trend toward higher unemployment and underemployment among city dwellers is not reversed, the International Labour Organization warns in a new report. Endnote1

    At the beginning of the decade, one-third of the world’s urban population, approximately 400 million people, were living in poverty, with lack of productive employment as one of the most direct causes, says ILO. By the year 2000, the ranks of the urban poor are expected to have swelled to as many as one billion people. In absolute terms, Asia represents the largest concentrations of urban poverty in the world. In the developing world, African cities have the highest percentage of poverty, with 41 per cent of the urban population living below the poverty line.
    People continue to migrate to cities from rural area for employment opportunity .In spite of the problems caused by rapid urbanization, cities are rightly regarded as centres of productivity and engines of economic growth. For the location of large-scale industry there are few alternatives that can provide the same economic benefits as cities. Urban environments also provide more scope and opportunity for introducing new skills, ambitions, values and standards. Urban centres make a disproportionate contribution to Gross Domestic Product.
    (12)wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care.but does better health also spur successful development.
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.good health is beneficial to economic development because if the man is healthy than only they can do the best use of economic development.
    (13)what is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth .
    * Monitor health status to identify community health problems.
    * Diagonise and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community.
    * Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
    * Provide community partnerships to identify and solve health problems.
    * Develop policies and rules that support individual and community health efforts.
    * Enforce laws, rules and regulations that protect public health and the environment and ensure safety.
    * Link people to needed medical and mental health services and assure the provisions of health care when not otherwise available.
    * Assure a competent workforce within the health care industry and public health departments.

  32. Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    2018/244287
    Education/Economics
    Eco 361
    Development Economics

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.

     1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    2. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.

    3. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterised by a core/periphery configuration (Lewis, 1956). One of the seminal theories of this process of circular and cumulative causation was developed by Gunnar Myrdal who argued that capital movements tend to increase regional inequality by concentrating in the more developed regions (Myrdal, 1957). These are identified as the centrifugal, “spread effects” caused by economic expansion in the core regions which diffuse technology, capital investment and a modern infrastructure to the outlying, less developed hinterlands: “In the centres of expansion, increased demand will spur investment, which in turn will increase incomes and demand and cause a second round of investment and so on. Saving will increase as a result of higher incomes but will tend to lag behind investment in the sense that the supply of capital will steadily meet the brisk demand for it” (Myrdal, 1957, p.28). However, the opposite logic of cumulative causation is evident in the less developed regions. These are identified as the “backwash effects” which merely reinforce the structural and socio-economic disadvantages of these regions.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    Inefficiency

    Productive inefficiency

    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency

    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    Imbalances

    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital

    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.
    The Role of Women as Caretakers

    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    The Role of Women as Educators

    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    The Role of Women in the Workforce

    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.

    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers

    Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT

    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING

    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    There is some good news: In 1990, that figure was 1.8 billion people, so serious progress has been made. While many wonder if we can really end extreme poverty, we at Concern believe the end is not only possible — but possible within our lifetimes. There’s no “magic bullet” solution to poverty, but understanding its causes is a good first step. Here are 11 of those causes, fully revised for 2020. 

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. 

    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.

    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home. This means that people (which is to say, women and girls) collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    Contaminated water can also lead to a host of waterborne diseases, ranging from the chronic to the life-threatening. Poor water infrastructure — such as sanitation and hygiene facilities — can compound this, or create other barriers to escaping poverty, such as keeping girls out of school during menstruation. 

    CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade. 

    Many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living  — for example, Malawi is 80% agrarian. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when climate change or natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here. 

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty. 

    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. 

    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    9b.Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment and Underemployment in some country seems lower than other ones. The amount of working population of a nation or city goes a long way to determine the growth of the sectors of economic which are household, business and government. Developing countries such as most African countries and Asia face a large decline in employment and human resources. The following can cause unemployment and underemployment in this places mentioned;

    Migration: We find out that people want to by all means meet or make ends meet. For such reason they leave there comfort no matter how little or much for better lives. Their new environment as results face congestion wherein they are few company and firms that need the service of this ones. The same persons make not meet the qualifications of the firm especially if the people are coming a rural setting with no experience with such duty they want to engage in.

    Government decision: When the government of a particular area focuses development and growth in a particular area, say the capital of the nation or city, they try to improve the economic base forgetting other part of the country that needs these decision, the people from the latter leave to the former to be a part of the growth, abandoning other essential part or area where their should be an even development.

    Citizen’s contribution.
    Level or age for employment.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    The issue of health is a vital one, some people are capable of paying for the fares to have a better treatment concerning an health issue and defection in a part of the world. Most Nigerians are flown out of the country when they are facing such. For so doing the receiving country would by all means try to improve it health sector to accommodate other foreigners coming to get treated. The government of India has over the years built a good and reliable health system in order to increase it revenue and by so doing development is taking place in the health sector. Successful development lies in the cost or positive decision taken by the government of the country in question. Developing a place means making it better for human habitation. So human would want to be safe and in environment where they dwell in.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The impact of bad governance in a country is loss and abuse of human right, disrespect for the rule of law and so on. The impact of poor public health is most likely going to end up with a increase in the amount of death. The public are faced with extravagant cost of treatment by private health company or firm. The citizens who cannot afford it have a choice than to refer to the poor public health status, and the inability of the poor health status causes it citizen to lose there hope in them.
    Solution to this problem are numerous but few has been pointed out as most suitable:
    Improved Health facility and personnel.
    Partnership with foreign countries.
    Creation of research institutions.
    Workshops and conference on health issues either yearly, monthly or seasons.

  33. Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    2018/244287
    Education/Economics
    ECO 361

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.

     1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    2. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.

    3. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterised by a core/periphery configuration (Lewis, 1956). One of the seminal theories of this process of circular and cumulative causation was developed by Gunnar Myrdal who argued that capital movements tend to increase regional inequality by concentrating in the more developed regions (Myrdal, 1957). These are identified as the centrifugal, “spread effects” caused by economic expansion in the core regions which diffuse technology, capital investment and a modern infrastructure to the outlying, less developed hinterlands: “In the centres of expansion, increased demand will spur investment, which in turn will increase incomes and demand and cause a second round of investment and so on. Saving will increase as a result of higher incomes but will tend to lag behind investment in the sense that the supply of capital will steadily meet the brisk demand for it” (Myrdal, 1957, p.28). However, the opposite logic of cumulative causation is evident in the less developed regions. These are identified as the “backwash effects” which merely reinforce the structural and socio-economic disadvantages of these regions.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    Inefficiency

    Productive inefficiency

    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency

    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    Imbalances

    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital

    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.
    The Role of Women as Caretakers

    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    The Role of Women as Educators

    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    The Role of Women in the Workforce

    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.

    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers

    Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT

    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING

    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    There is some good news: In 1990, that figure was 1.8 billion people, so serious progress has been made. While many wonder if we can really end extreme poverty, we at Concern believe the end is not only possible — but possible within our lifetimes. There’s no “magic bullet” solution to poverty, but understanding its causes is a good first step. Here are 11 of those causes, fully revised for 2020. 

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. 

    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.

    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home. This means that people (which is to say, women and girls) collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    Contaminated water can also lead to a host of waterborne diseases, ranging from the chronic to the life-threatening. Poor water infrastructure — such as sanitation and hygiene facilities — can compound this, or create other barriers to escaping poverty, such as keeping girls out of school during menstruation. 

    CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade. 

    Many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living  — for example, Malawi is 80% agrarian. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when climate change or natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here. 

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty. 

    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. 

    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    9b.Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment and Underemployment in some country seems lower than other ones. The amount of working population of a nation or city goes a long way to determine the growth of the sectors of economic which are household, business and government. Developing countries such as most African countries and Asia face a large decline in employment and human resources. The following can cause unemployment and underemployment in this places mentioned;

    Migration: We find out that people want to by all means meet or make ends meet. For such reason they leave there comfort no matter how little or much for better lives. Their new environment as results face congestion wherein they are few company and firms that need the service of this ones. The same persons make not meet the qualifications of the firm especially if the people are coming a rural setting with no experience with such duty they want to engage in.

    Government decision: When the government of a particular area focuses development and growth in a particular area, say the capital of the nation or city, they try to improve the economic base forgetting other part of the country that needs these decision, the people from the latter leave to the former to be a part of the growth, abandoning other essential part or area where their should be an even development.

    Citizen’s contribution.
    Level or age for employment.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    The issue of health is a vital one, some people are capable of paying for the fares to have a better treatment concerning an health issue and defection in a part of the world. Most Nigerians are flown out of the country when they are facing such. For so doing the receiving country would by all means try to improve it health sector to accommodate other foreigners coming to get treated. The government of India has over the years built a good and reliable health system in order to increase it revenue and by so doing development is taking place in the health sector. Successful development lies in the cost or positive decision taken by the government of the country in question. Developing a place means making it better for human habitation. So human would want to be safe and in environment where they dwell in.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The impact of bad governance in a country is loss and abuse of human right, disrespect for the rule of law and so on. The impact of poor public health is most likely going to end up with a increase in the amount of death. The public are faced with extravagant cost of treatment by private health company or firm. The citizens who cannot afford it have a choice than to refer to the poor public health status, and the inability of the poor health status causes it citizen to lose there hope in them.
    Solution to this problem are numerous but few has been pointed out as most suitable:
    Improved Health facility and personnel.
    Partnership with foreign countries.
    Creation of research institutions.
    Workshops and conference on health issues either yearly, monthly or seasons.

  34. Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    2018/244287
    Education/Economics
    ECO 361

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.

     1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    2. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.

    3. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterised by a core/periphery configuration (Lewis, 1956). One of the seminal theories of this process of circular and cumulative causation was developed by Gunnar Myrdal who argued that capital movements tend to increase regional inequality by concentrating in the more developed regions (Myrdal, 1957). These are identified as the centrifugal, “spread effects” caused by economic expansion in the core regions which diffuse technology, capital investment and a modern infrastructure to the outlying, less developed hinterlands: “In the centres of expansion, increased demand will spur investment, which in turn will increase incomes and demand and cause a second round of investment and so on. Saving will increase as a result of higher incomes but will tend to lag behind investment in the sense that the supply of capital will steadily meet the brisk demand for it” (Myrdal, 1957, p.28). However, the opposite logic of cumulative causation is evident in the less developed regions. These are identified as the “backwash effects” which merely reinforce the structural and socio-economic disadvantages of these regions.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    Inefficiency

    Productive inefficiency
    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency
    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    Imbalances
    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population
    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital
    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.

    The Role of Women as Caretakers
    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    The Role of Women as Educators
    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    The Role of Women in the Workforce
    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.

    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers
    Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    There is some good news: In 1990, that figure was 1.8 billion people, so serious progress has been made. While many wonder if we can really end extreme poverty, we at Concern believe the end is not only possible — but possible within our lifetimes. There’s no “magic bullet” solution to poverty, but understanding its causes is a good first step. Here are 11 of those causes, fully revised for 2020. 

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION
    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. 

    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.

    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home. This means that people (which is to say, women and girls) collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    Contaminated water can also lead to a host of waterborne diseases, ranging from the chronic to the life-threatening. Poor water infrastructure — such as sanitation and hygiene facilities — can compound this, or create other barriers to escaping poverty, such as keeping girls out of school during menstruation. 

    CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade. 

    Many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living  — for example, Malawi is 80% agrarian. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when climate change or natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here. 

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty. 

    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. 
    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    9b.Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment and Underemployment in some country seems lower than other ones. The amount of working population of a nation or city goes a long way to determine the growth of the sectors of economic which are household, business and government. Developing countries such as most African countries and Asia face a large decline in employment and human resources. The following can cause unemployment and underemployment in this places mentioned;

    Migration: We find out that people want to by all means meet or make ends meet. For such reason they leave there comfort no matter how little or much for better lives. Their new environment as results face congestion wherein they are few company and firms that need the service of this ones. The same persons make not meet the qualifications of the firm especially if the people are coming a rural setting with no experience with such duty they want to engage in.

    Government decision: When the government of a particular area focuses development and growth in a particular area, say the capital of the nation or city, they try to improve the economic base forgetting other part of the country that needs these decision, the people from the latter leave to the former to be a part of the growth, abandoning other essential part or area where their should be an even development.
    Citizen’s contribution.
    Level or age for employment.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    The issue of health is a vital one, some people are capable of paying for the fares to have a better treatment concerning an health issue and defection in a part of the world. Most Nigerians are flown out of the country when they are facing such. For so doing the receiving country would by all means try to improve it health sector to accommodate other foreigners coming to get treated. The government of India has over the years built a good and reliable health system in order to increase it revenue and by so doing development is taking place in the health sector. Successful development lies in the cost or positive decision taken by the government of the country in question. Developing a place means making it better for human habitation. So human would want to be safe and in environment where they dwell in.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The impact of bad governance in a country is loss and abuse of human right, disrespect for the rule of law and so on. The impact of poor public health is most likely going to end up with a increase in the amount of death. The public are faced with extravagant cost of treatment by private health company or firm. The citizens who cannot afford it have a choice than to refer to the poor public health status, and the inability of the poor health status causes it citizen to lose there hope in them.
    Solution to this problem are numerous but few has been pointed out as most suitable:
    Improved Health facility and personnel.
    Partnership with foreign countries.
    Creation of research institutions.
    Workshops and conference on health issues either yearly, monthly or seasons.

  35. Ogbonna Loveth Nnedinso says:

    Ogbonna Loveth Nnedinso
    2018/248354
    Combined social sciences
    Economics/political science
    Eco 361
    Assignment
    6.Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Answer
    The most influential theories of development are Mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model and structural-change theory and they are compatible because they all work towards improving the economy of the state.
    Though underdevelopment can be both internally and externally induced, I will say it’s mostly internal because most of the factors that cause a nation not to develop are mostly internal or domestic. Using Nigeria as a case study though the colonialists contributed to the nation’s underdevelopment in the early days of the nation, the major cause of of their underdevelopment now is from both the rulers and the ruled and that’s why some philosophers will say that Africa underdeveloped Africa. So for me I would say that underdevelopment is INTERNALLY induced.
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Development constraints: inefficiency in the micro economy
    Illiteracy: Poor access to education
    Lack of economic infrastructures
    Population problems
    Difficulty in adapting to western technology
    Lack of preparation for an industrial revolution.
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    How well a society treats its women is one of the strongest indicators of the success and health of that society. Discrimination against women and girls occurs in many forms — through gender-based violence, economic discrimination, reproductive health inequities, and harmful traditional practices (such as child marriage), to name just a few. Women and girls of all ages have a right to live with dignity, free of cultural oppression. In some societies they see women as weaker creations and believes that men are superior therefore are qualified to be the leaders. In decision making women are left out and are expected to remain on the kitchen produce children and take care of the home. When women who are the core foundation of the nation’s development is looked down on and not given the right to express themselves it affects the development of that nation negatively.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    The causes of extreme poverty include: Harsh climate,War,lack of fertile land,Political strife Government corruption Famine Disease Unfair trade policies Poor infrastructures Lack of education, etc. Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:
    1. Sustained economic growth: Promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US.
    2. Reduce Unemployment: Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty.
    3. Progressive Taxes: Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is threatening the economic progress of developing nations with Nigeria as an example. And having large families, thereby increasing population growth in the country, does not make economic sense in an environment or country with wide spread poverty and financial insecurity. In fact, it will only increase the economic problems of the nation. Families that can not even afford three square meal go ahead to produce plenty children that they can’t take care of.
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment is higher in the developing nations as well as underdevelopment because the jobs available are way less than the number of people available and willing to work. People in the rural areas migrate to the urban areas and as such, they know nothing of their employment chances and they believe that they are going to their land of ” greener pastures” and as such, things would be better off for them. it is as a result of their own naivety amidst other ignorant factors they possess.
    12. Wealthier nation’s are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But does better health spur successful development?.
    Yes better health improves the level of development of a state Like the popular saying, health is wealth, therefore in an economy where the citizens are healthy, rapid development can be achieved .
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?.
    The impact on poor public health on the prospect of development is that at a societal level, when the people’s health condition are poor they spend most of their earnings in treatment therefore leading to lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth.
    The government can address these problems by the revival of public health regulation through concerted efforts by the government is possible through updation and implementation of public health laws, consulting stakeholders and increasing public awareness of existing laws and their enforcement procedures.

  36. Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram says:

    Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram
    2018/241843
    Economics
    Eco 361 Assignment
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    There are four major theories, they are:
    Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Economic Nationalism
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    Linear Stages of Growth Model
    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    Structural-Change Theory
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    The above stated laws are compatible.
    Internal factors that hinder development are corruption, national disasters, infrastructure, internal conflicts. Nigeria has has most of this factors in the country ranging from the very bad government to the ethnic conflicts hindering the country’s development. So it can be said that underdevelopment in Nigeria is internally induced.
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Economic challenge can be at a city, regional, or country level. Here are some examples of economic growth challenges that past participants have worked on during the program.
    • High rates of unemployment or underemployment
    • Increasing inequality, with many not being included in the growth process
    • High rates of poverty and low growth
    • Volatile growth dependent on one source
    • Disruption of major economic activities due to the pandemic, e.g. tourism
    • Lack of fiscal space to save jobs and address pandemic
    • Macroeconomic instability and recurrent balance of payments shocks
    • Low productivity due to poor human capital development
    • Skills mismatch between skills you have and the jobs you want to create
    • Lack of quality jobs; high levels of informality in the economy
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    When more women work, economies grow. Women’s economic empowerment boosts productivity, increases economic diversification and income equality in addition to other positive development outcomes. More hands, labor and more as ideas as women could see things from a different point of view. Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increasing employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    Government Corruption Corruption is one of the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. Government officials often take payments from oil companies that are supposed to go into public trusts—payments that can often total more than $1 billion—and instead siphon that money into their own personal bank accounts.
    Lack of Economic Infrastructure An infrastructure that supports economic growth at every level is essential to pull people out of poverty. In Nigeria, economic infrastructure includes things like access to micro-credit that help farmers invest in their crops and entrepreneurs lift their businesses off the ground. Micro-credit is an especially important tool for Nigerian women working to escape poverty.

    Poor Access to Education Economic infrastructure is not the only infrastructure that is lacking in Nigeria. Currently, a lack of a robust educational system underserves many of the poorest Nigerians. 10.5 million Nigerian children do not attend school at all, and 60% of those children are girls.

    Poor Access to Healthcare Nigeria might be the most populous country in Africa, but they are running low on healthcare professionals. The current ratio of nurses, midwives and doctors to patients is 1.95 to 1,000.
    Some policies effective for improving lives are:
    Minimum wage laws Minimum wage laws require all employers to pay their employees a minimum amount of wage that is determined by the government. The idea behind minimum wage laws is to help the working poor without directly increasing government spending.
    Social Security Social security refers to several different government benefits, such as income support, tax credits, social welfare, or unemployment benefits. A countries social security system is another option the government has to reduce poverty by supplementing the incomes of low-income families and individuals.
    Negative Income Tax Negative income taxes are essentially a subsidy for individuals with a low income (i.e., they pay a negative tax). This works well in a progressive tax system, where individuals with a higher income also pay a more significant percentage of their income in taxes. A part of those additional tax revenues can be used to subsidize individuals and families with a low income.
    In-Kind Benefits In-kind benefits are a non-cash alternative to regular benefits. The idea behind this is to provide low-income families and individuals directly with access to certain goods and services they need most to increase their standard of living. For instance, there are a large number of charities (government and non-government) that provide food, shelter, or clothing for those most in need.
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Yes, rapid growth is a threat to economic growth. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In a situations where the available mouths remain unfed bringing more does not make much sense. Large families are not a very wise path with the rate of poverty in the country
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital:
    The major cause of unemployment and underemployment in underdeveloped countries like India is the deficiency of the stock of capital in relation to the needs of the growing labour force.
    Use of Capital Intensive Techniques:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment has been the use of capital-intensive techniques of production, even in consumer goods industries where alternative labour-intensive techniques are available.
    Inequitable Distribution of Land:
    Another cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like India is inequitable distribution of land so that many agricultural households have no adequate access to land which is an important asset for agricultural production and employment.
    Rigid Protective Labour Legislation:
    Another reason for the slow growth of employment in the organized sector has been the existence of unduly rigid protective labour legislation which makes it very difficult to retrench a worker who has been employed for 240 days.
    Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation:
    An important factor responsible for slow growth of employment opportunities is the neglect of agriculture for generating employment opportunities.
    Lack of Infrastructure:
    We have explained above lack of physical capital with which labour is equipped for productive employment as the cause of unemployment prevailing in the developing countries like Nigeria.
    People still move from village to cities notwithstanding the the slim chances of getting of getting a job in hope that they could make a better living frequent better schools and get more comfortable lifestyle
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. Health is also an inalienable human right according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as good health allows people to reach their full potential, children to be better able to learn, workers to be more productive and parents to care for their children better.
    It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth. Good health is also essential for the stability of entire regions, as pandemics, which transcend borders, can have severe social and economic impacts on families and communities, and can put increased pressure on health systems. When everyone is healthy full productive capability is achieved and therefore the economy will grow and be better.
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    it is possible to identify a number of ways in which ill-health could negatively influence the choices and preferences upon which different economic agents seek to maximize utility. The specific channels through which these consequences of disease or injury impact households, firms and governments.
    Households: The impact of ill-health on a household can be measured in terms of its impact on the consumption of non-health goods and services (market and non market), leisure, health status – which represent the essential components of welfare, as explained above – or in terms of the overall change in welfare.
    Firms: Ill-health can reduce the productivity and efficiency of a firm, which may negatively affect its earnings and profits, its ability to invest profits into new capital accumulation and thereby reduce the wealth or consumption possibilities of its owners.
    Government: Governments essentially produce public goods and redistribute income, although the definition of what constitutes a public good is often very broad. Illness in its employees can reduce the output of public goods or increase the cost of producing them in the same way as with firms. The government will have to spend more on the health sector so as to make the economy better, this increases government expenditure.

  37. Okafor Ifunanya Chioma says:

    Name: Okafor Ifunanya Chioma

    Reg number: 2018/241851

    Department: Economics

    Eco 361 Assignment.

    Email:ifunanya.okafor.241851@unn.edu.ng

    6.Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    A.Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies.

    B.Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy.

    C.Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of disliking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”,

    D.The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in 1976, mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries.

    E.Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics.

    6B. It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.

    Imbalances in the structure of the economy.

    A rapidly growing or declining population.

    Lack of financial capital.

    Lack of human capital.

    Poor governance and corruption.

    Missing markets.

    Over-exploitation of environmental capital.

    Barriers to trade.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    The empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status is a highly important end in itself. In addition, it is essential for the achievement of sustainable development. In all parts of the world, women are facing threats to their lives, health and well- being as a result of being overburdened with work and of their lack of power and influence. In most regions of the world, women receive less formal education than men, and at the same time, women’s own knowledge, abilities and coping mechanisms often go unrecognized. The power relations that impede women’s attainment of healthy and fulfilling lives operate at many levels of society, from the most personal to the highly public. Achieving change requires policy and programme actions that will improve women’s access to secure livelihoods and economic resources, alleviate their extreme responsibilities with regard to housework, remove legal impediments to their participation in public life, and raise social awareness through effective programmes of education and mass communication. In addition, improving the status of women also enhances their decision-making capacity at all levels in all spheres of life, especially in the area of sexuality and reproduction. This, in turn, is essential for the long- term success of population programmes. Experience shows that population and development programmes are most effective when steps have simultaneously been taken to improve the status of women.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    1. Lack of good jobs/job growth
    This is the first reason a lot of people think about. When you don’t have a good job, you aren’t getting any income to provide your basic needs. Even in nations like the United States where many people do have jobs, those jobs aren’t paying enough. According to the Economic Policy Institute, large groups of workers with full-time, year-round employment are still below federal poverty guidelines.

    #2: Lack of good education
    The second root cause of poverty is a lack of education. Poverty is a cycle and without education, people aren’t able to better their situations. According to UNESCO, over 170 million people could be free of extreme poverty if they only had basic reading skills. However, in many areas of the world, people aren’t getting educated. The reasons vary. Often times, families need kids to work, there aren’t schools close by, or girls aren’t being educated because of sexism and discrimination.

    #3: Warfare/conflict
    Conflict has a huge impact on poverty. In times of war, everything stops. Productivity suffers as well as a country’s GDP. It’s very difficult to get things going again as foreign businesses and countries won’t want to invest. For families and individuals, war and conflict can make it impossible to stay in one place. It’s also very common for women to become the primary breadwinners, and they deal with many barriers like sexual violence and discrimination.

    #4: Weather/climate change
    According to the World Bank, climate change has the power to impoverish 100 million people in the next decade or so. We know climate change causes drought, floods, and severe storms, and that can take down successful countries while pulling poor ones down even further. Recovering is extremely difficult, as well, especially for agricultural communities where they barely have enough to feed themselves, let alone prepare for the next harvest year.

    #5: Social injustice
    Whether it’s gender discrimination, racism, or other forms of social injustice, poverty follows. People who are victims of social injustice struggle with getting a good education, the right job opportunities, and access to resources that can lift them out of poverty.Groups like women, religious minorities, and racial minorities are the most vulnerable.

    #6: Lack of food and water
    Without access to basic essentials like food and water, it’s impossible to get out of poverty’s cycle. Everything a person does will be about getting food and water. They can’t save any money because it all goes towards their daily needs. When there isn’t enough sustenance, they won’t have the energy to work. They are also way more likely to get sick, which makes their financial situation even worse.

    #7: Lack of infrastructure
    Infrastructure includes roads, bridges, the internet, public transport, and more. When a community or families are isolated, they have to spend a lot of money, time, and energy getting to places. Without good roads, traveling takes forever. Without public transport, it may be next to impossible to get a good job or even to the store. Infrastructure connects people to the services and resources they need to better their financial and life situation, and without it, things don’t get better.

    #8: Lack of government support
    To combat many of the issues we’ve described, the government needs to be involved. However, many governments are either unable or unwilling to serve the poor. This might mean failing to provide (or cutting) social welfare programs, redirecting funds away from those who need it, failing to build good infrastructure, or actively persecuting the population. If a government fails to meet the needs of the poor, the poor will most likely stay that way.

    #9: Lack of good healthcare
    People who are poor are more likely to suffer from bad health, and those with bad health are more likely to be poor. This is because healthcare is often too expensive or inaccessible to those who need it. Without money for medicine and treatment, the poor have to make really tough decisions, and usually essentials like food take priority.

    #10: High costs of living

    Effective Solutions are to put the above problems in place.

    A.Creating Jobs
    B.Improving health care services
    C.Good education
    D.Provision of infrastructure among others.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility.In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    Firstly, the increased population which leads to higher unemployment rates. As the number of people who are looking for jobs is increasing, it is more difficult to arrange jobs for all these huge numbers of workers. In this situation the demand for work will be more than the available occupations. This will result in increased number of unemployed individuals.

    Secondly,There is a global rapid technological change which plays a big role in the increased unemployment problem. Many jobs which were handled by hands are being done by different machines and technology nowadays which leads to unemployment.

    The third cause of unemployment is lack of education or skills for employment. This happens when the qualifications of a person are not sufficient to meet his job responsibilities.

    B. People still migrate to the urban areas regardless of a slim chance because of a better life and social amenities like good road, electricity, hospitals, schools, clean water and others. These things are better in the urban areas than the rural areas. And also there are more opportunities in the urban areas even if it means be underemployed.

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    The main factors of human capital, health and education, are placed on the top in the development of a country. The investments in health and education fields would accelerate the economic development. As long as individuals of a country are healthy, their contribution to production and growth would increase. In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health is an important determinant of economic development; a healthy population means higher productivity, thus higher income per head. The importance of human capital to economic growth cannot be over emphasized, because it serves as a catalyst to economic development. Better health is central to human happiness and well-being. It also makes an important contribution to economic progress, as healthy populations live longer, are more productive, and save more.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth. Poor health can make households property exhausted, indebted, and reduce their essential consumption because people with poor health are not only having productivity and income losses, but also out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses for needed healthcare services.
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development. Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities, inhibit educational attainment, and lead to medical debt and bankruptcy.

    B.  i. State health insurance

    Policy makers and political actors need to devise health care reforms to address the lack of social and financial protection for the poor and vulnerable populations. Part of this reform is the expansion of the NHIS. States should be mandated to provide health insurance coverage to all residents.

         ii. State funded private health insurance

    While the mandatory CBHI scheme is being scaled-up as a supplementary measure, state governments should enrol poor residents in a private health insurance plan and bear the responsibility of paying the monthly premium per person to Health Maintenance Organisations (HMOs). It is not enough to have a national health insurance policy, it is important to ensure that health insurance coverage is provided to the poor and most vulnerable populations as a matter of the human right to health.

       iii. Prioritising children and vulnerable populations

    Although the NHIS Act made provision for children, who constitute the largest population in Nigeria [30], many children still have to pay for health care services in spite of being born into poor families that do not have the ability to pay for health care services and suffer financial hardship as a consequence. The free health policies and exemption mechanisms provided by some states, targeted at children, pregnant women and the elderly, are not social and financial risk protection policies, as these groups are largely responsible for the cost of health care with the free health care programme barely covering their basic health care services.

       iv. Universal Health Care

    Another way of providing social and financial risk protection for poor and vulnerable populations is by establishing a legislative framework for a UHC scheme and setting aside funds for it. Evidence from Thailand has shown the effect of UHC schemes through PHC on expanding access to health care for the poor and vulnerable populations. UHC schemes have also been proven to improve the utilisation of health care services and health status.

       v. Financing and coverage

    Political actors, policy makers and all stakeholders in the health sector should establish a government funded social and financial risk protection scheme through a general tax financing system for the poor and vulnerable, and invest in basic infrastructure for health care in rural areas for quality health care service delivery. UHC schemes are important in addressing the problem of poor coverage, limited access to health care, and poor quality of health care services.

     vi. Law
    Nigeria is yet to adopt innovative ways to protect the poor and vulnerable populations against financial risk of ill health. It is important to guarantee by law the right to health care of all citizens in Nigeria. Although the National Health Act (NHA) that was signed into law in 2014 stated that all Nigerians are entitled to basic minimum package of health care services, it is not clear if the provisions made in the NHA are capable of achieving UHC in Nigeria. In addition, the NHA is yet to be implemented over two years after its signage into law.

  38. Amahiri Uchenna Catherine says:

    Amahiri uchenna Catherine
    2018/250139
    Economics/political science
    Eco 361
    amahiriuchenna@gmail.com
    6)What are the most influential theories of development & are they compatible?Is underdevelopment an internally or externally induced phenomenon.
    Modernization theory:
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.
    The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies.
    Dependency theory :
    Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be “dependent development”, i.e., it does not have an internal domestic dynamic in the developing country and thus remains highly vulnerable to the economic vagaries of the world market. Dependency thinking starts from the notion that resources flow from the ‘periphery’ of poor and underdeveloped states to a ‘core’ of wealthy countries, which leads to accumulation of wealth in the rich states at the expense of the poor states. Contrary to modernization theory, dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy, while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market.

    Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations, without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy. When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core’s influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system, but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system.

    In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory, which is also reflected in the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, a famous dependency theorist. Wallerstein rejects the notion of a Third World, claiming that there is only one world which is connected by economic relations (World Systems Theory). He argued that this system inherently leads to a division of the world in core, semi-periphery and periphery. One of the results of expansion of the world-system is the commodification of things, like natural resources, labor and human relationships.
    Neoclassical development theory:
    Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor, classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Classical economists argued – as do the neoclassical ones – in favor of the free market, and against government intervention in those markets. The ‘invisible hand’ of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936.
    Neoclassical development theory became influential towards the end of the 1970s, fired by the election of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in 1980. From the beginning of the 1980s, neoclassical development theory really began to roll out.
    They all compatible because they all work together to develop the world, and to achieve a goal of developing underdeveloped world.

    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic. It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced phenomenon.
    7)what constraints most hold back accelerated growth depending on local conditions.
    Conflict and corruption
    Corrupt government
    Poor or no access to education
    Lack of infastructure
    8)How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    The role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development because is fundamental to economic development . This paper attempts to point out the need to empower women for economic development. Evidence has shown that-women perform enormous tasks in their families and the society at large. Unfortunately, they have been oppressed and relegated to the background. Women have not been fully involved in decision making to enable them contribute their own quota in national development. Their problems have not been addressed in spite of roles they play in productive activities. Statistics have shown that women are yet to attain a stable threshold for personal well-being for gainful economic activity. Inaccessibility to health, education and participation in the planning process have hindered women development. It has also been seen that invisibility is an obstacle hindering women from realizing their full potential. Violence and abuse of women have also posed a great threat to development. It is recommended that appropriate laws matched with proper implementation should be enacted to maximize women’s’ full potential and place them rightly in the sphere of human development. Integrated faming system as well as microfinance interventions will empower and stimulate women to achieve food security and foster national development.
    9)What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    1)Increase rate of rising population:
    In the last 45 years, the population has rised at the whopping rate of 2.2% per annum. An average of approx. 17 million people are added every year to the population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.
    2. Less productivity and capital in agriculture:
    In agriculture, the productivity level is very low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc.
    3. Less utilization of resources:
    Underemployment and veiled unemployment of human resources and less utilization of resources have resulted in low production in the agricultural sector. This brought a downfall in their standard of living.
    4. A short rate of economic development:
    In Nigeria, the rate of economic development is very low what is required for a good level. Therefore, there persists a gap between the level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.
    5. Increasing price rise:
    Poor is becoming poorer because of continuous and steep price rise. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
    6. Unemployment:
    One of the main causes of poverty is the continuous expanding army of unemployed in our country. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
    Improvements in progressive minimum wage is an effective for improving the lives of poor and also creating jobs for the unemployed.
    10)Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.
    11)Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    1) Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    2. Lack of Infrastructure
    3. Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    4. Inequitable distribution of land
    5. Use of Capital Intensive Techniques
    6. Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital.
    People decide to migrate for many reasons. Individuals and families consider factors such as risks, aspirations and socio-economic conditions. For many, migration is a way to cope with unemployment, food insecurity, poverty, or vulnerability to climate change.
    Educational purposes people move from the village to city to get quality education and also further their education and also to get more knowledge of the advanced world.
    12)Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But, does better health spur successful development?
    Yes a good Health is extremely important, invaluable and indispensable.
    A Healthy body paves the way for a healthy mind. When the mind is at peace a lot can be achieved in terms of name, fame and money. Having excessive wealth without good health is of no use.
    No amount of wealth will be able to bring back a broken limb or handicap. At best wealth can only get the best treatments but cannot give back healthy body. With a healthy body even impossible feats seem easy. When you are healthy you will be fit to do things so you will be wealthy.
    13)What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Countries with a mighty burden of disease as a result of poor health spending tend to experience a multiplicity of severe impediments to economic development. A better health care does not have to wait for an improved economy; measures to reduce the burden of disease and increase life expectancy will in themselves contribute to creating healthier and richer economies. These measures include: free vaccination, proper drainage system, adequate quarantine facilities, disease prevention and control agencies, etc.

  39. ONYEZOR JESSICA says:

    NAME: ONYEZOR JESSICA NGOZICHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/249716

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    The most influential theories of development include mercantilism, nationalism, the linear stages of growth model, and structural-change theory.
    Yes, they are compatible because they are all concerned with transforming the economy in a way that will lead to industrialization and economic development.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path – dependent.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    The constraints on accelerated growth, depending on local conditions includes;
    -Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    -Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    -A rapidly growing or declining population.
    -Lack of financial capital.
    -Lack of human capital.
    -Poor governance and corruption.
    -Missing markets.
    -Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    -Barriers to trade

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Improvements in the role and status of women can have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects in three main ways:
    -With women now representing 40 percent of the global labor force and more than half the world’s university students, overall productivity will increase if their skills and talents are used more fully. For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural output in developing countries could increase by as much as 2.5 to 4 percent. Elimination of barriers against women working in certain sectors or occupations could increase output by raising women’s participation and labor productivity by as much as 25 percent in some countries through better allocation of their skills and talent .
    -Greater control over household resources by women, either through their own earnings or cash transfers, can enhance countries’ growth prospects by changing spending in ways that benefit children. Evidence from countries as varied as Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and the United Kingdom shows that when women control more household income, either through their own earnings or through cash transfers, children benefit as a result of more spending on food and education
    -Empowering women as economic, political, and social actors can change policy choices and make institutions more representative of a range of voices. In India, giving power to women at the local level led to greater provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Some of the causes of extreme poverty are;
    1. Inadequate food and poor or limited access to clean water- relocation in search of food and clean water drains limited resources, causing the poor to get poorer as they seek basic necessities for survival.
    2. Inadequate, limited or poor access to healthcare – unhealthy people work less, are less productive and place demands on an already over-burdened healthcare system. This cycle causes affected people to stay poor.
    3. Unequal distribution of resources – disparities in the distribution of resources causes systemic poverty while those with more resources get wealthier and better access to services.
    4. Discrimination, inequality – individuals treated less favorably because of any kind of discrimination, bias or prejudice get lesser access to opportunities to get out of poverty.
    5. Poor education – poorly educated individuals get limited opportunities to succeed in a dynamic work environment. Illiteracy fosters poverty.
    6. Poor governance, corruption, and poor infrastructure – keep the governed locked out of opportunities, wealth and resources, and denies them ready access to essential goods and services.
    The policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor are;
    -Minimum wage laws
    It require all employers to pay their employees a minimum amount of wage that is determined by the government. The idea behind minimum wage laws is to help the working poor without directly increasing government spending. Labor unions are some of the most influential advocates of minimum wages. They often try to establish a minimum wage for their members.
    -Social Security
    Social security refers to several different government benefits, such as income support, tax credits, social welfare, or unemployment benefits. A countries social security system is another option the government has to reduce poverty by supplementing the incomes of low-income families and individuals.
    -Negative Income Tax
    Negative income taxes are essentially a subsidy for individuals with a low income (i.e., they pay a negative tax). This works well in a progressive tax system, where individuals with a higher income also pay a more significant percentage of their income in taxes. A part of those additional tax revenues can be used to subsidize individuals and families with a low income.
    -In-Kind Benefits
    In-kind benefits are a non-cash alternative to regular benefits. The idea behind this is to provide low-income families and individuals directly with access to certain goods and services they need most to increase their standard of living. For instance, there are a large number of charities (government and non-government) that provide food, shelter, or clothing for those most in need.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    No, Large families make no economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. Rapid population growth is likely to reduce per capita income growth and well-being, which tends to increase poverty. In densely populated poor nations with pressure on land, rapid population growth increases landlessness and hence the incidence of poverty. The adverse effects of rapid population growth on child health, and possibly on education, will likely increase poverty in the next generation.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    The basic cause of unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, is the deficiency of the availability of essential consumer goods, often called wage goods. Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy.
    There are different and other motives that accounts for rural-urban migration amongst rural dwellers. These include the following:
    -Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    -Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    -Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    -The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Yes, better health also help spur successful development. The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Poor public health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic growth and development.
    To address these problems, we need to Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems. Develop policies and rules that support individual and community health efforts. Enforce laws, rules and regulations that protect public health and the environment and ensure safety.

  40. Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    Economics/Education
    2018/244287
    Eco 361
    Development Economics

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    There are numerous, competing theories that inform the study of development economics. We will examine three major theories.

     1. CLASSICAL MARXIAN THEORIES
    Although there does not exist a systematic Marxian theory of development, the theory is implicit in Marx’s study of the laws of motion of the capitalist mode of production in his 3 volumes of Capital. Marx traces the development of the capitalist mode of production from the pre-capitalist era of feudalism. Capitalism first emerged in Europe and was imposed, often violently, on other regions of the world. Earlier mercantilist forms of outright plunder and violent expropriation of land gave rise to the process of “primitive accumulation”. However, Marx argues that the prospects for the development of capitalism crucially depend upon the pre-existing modes of production. He supports this thesis by comparing feudalism with what he describes as the “Asiatic” societies. Whereas the dissolution of feudalism was favourable for the expansion of capitalism in Europe, the opposite is the case in Asia. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land.

    2. NEO-MARXIAN THEORIES
    Perhaps the most influential of the neo-Marxian current has been Paul Baran’s seminal work, The Political Economy of Growth. In Paul Baran’s analysis, the causes of underdevelopment are attributed to the legacy of imperialism. To highlight this hypothesis, Baran compares the Indian economy, which had been dominated by British colonialism, with the Japanese experience, which had been relatively free from foreign domination. He then analyses the “distortions” caused by colonialism and argues that foreign outlets for investment were essentially governed by the problem of “surplus absorption” within the imperialist centres. Baran’s analysis also prefigured the “dependency” theorists by asserting that these former colonies are condemned as suppliers of commodities for the world market. The failure to develop a domestic market and the growth of luxury consumption by the privileged oligarchy or the “comprador class,” merely perpetuates this underdevelopment. Baran’s central argument was that economic development was not possible under these conditions of neo-colonialism.

    3. DEPENDENCY AND THEORIES OF DUALISM
    Dependency theorists assign a modernising role for post-colonial states to induce the process of development. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    From a historical perspective, capital accumulation has been governed by the law of uneven development. The spatial dimension of economic development has been characterised by a core/periphery configuration (Lewis, 1956). One of the seminal theories of this process of circular and cumulative causation was developed by Gunnar Myrdal who argued that capital movements tend to increase regional inequality by concentrating in the more developed regions (Myrdal, 1957). These are identified as the centrifugal, “spread effects” caused by economic expansion in the core regions which diffuse technology, capital investment and a modern infrastructure to the outlying, less developed hinterlands: “In the centres of expansion, increased demand will spur investment, which in turn will increase incomes and demand and cause a second round of investment and so on. Saving will increase as a result of higher incomes but will tend to lag behind investment in the sense that the supply of capital will steadily meet the brisk demand for it” (Myrdal, 1957, p.28). However, the opposite logic of cumulative causation is evident in the less developed regions. These are identified as the “backwash effects” which merely reinforce the structural and socio-economic disadvantages of these regions.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Development constraints
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve.
    Inefficiency

    Productive inefficiency

    Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer.

    Allocative inefficiency

    When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.

    Imbalances

    Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities.

    In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.

    Population

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows:

    At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases.

    The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.

    Lack of real capital

    Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.
    The Role of Women as Caretakers

    Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life.

    The Role of Women as Educators

    The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living.

    It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school.  The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity.

    The Role of Women in the Workforce

    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.

    The Role of Women as Global Volunteers

    Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT

    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING

    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    There is some good news: In 1990, that figure was 1.8 billion people, so serious progress has been made. While many wonder if we can really end extreme poverty, we at Concern believe the end is not only possible — but possible within our lifetimes. There’s no “magic bullet” solution to poverty, but understanding its causes is a good first step. Here are 11 of those causes, fully revised for 2020. 

    INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process — especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle. 

    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list — a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty. 

    CONFLICT
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line. 

    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable. 

    HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause — and maintainer — of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work). 

    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%. 

    POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN
    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal — especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.

    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.

    LITTLE OR NO ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE
    Currently, more than 2 billion people don’t have access to clean water at home. This means that people (which is to say, women and girls) collectively spend some 200 million hours every day walking long distances to fetch water. That’s precious time that could be used working, or getting an education to help secure a job later in life.

    Contaminated water can also lead to a host of waterborne diseases, ranging from the chronic to the life-threatening. Poor water infrastructure — such as sanitation and hygiene facilities — can compound this, or create other barriers to escaping poverty, such as keeping girls out of school during menstruation. 

    CLIMATE CHANGE
    Climate change creates hunger, whether through too little water (drought) or too much (flooding), and its effects contribute to the cycle of poverty in several other ways including disproportionately affecting women, creating refugees, and even influencing conflict. One World Bank estimates that climate change has the power to push more than 100 million people into poverty over the next decade. 

    Many of the world’s poorest populations rely on farming or hunting and gathering to eat and earn a living  — for example, Malawi is 80% agrarian. They often have only just enough food and assets to last through the next season, and not enough reserves to fall back on in the event of a poor harvest. So when climate change or natural disasters (including the widespread droughts caused by El Niño) leave millions of people without food, it pushes them further into poverty, and can make recovery even more difficult.

    LACK OF EDUCATION
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here. 

    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty. 

    POOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 
    Imagine that you have to go to work, but there are no roads to get you there. Or heavy rains have flooded your route and made it impossible to travel. A lack of infrastructure — from roads, bridges, and wells, to cables for light, cell phones, and internet — can isolate communities living in rural areas. Living off the grid often means living without the ability to go to school, work, or the market to buy and sell goods. Traveling further distances to access basic services not only takes time, it costs money, keeping families in poverty. 

    Isolation limits opportunity. Without opportunity, many find it difficult, if not impossible, to escape extreme poverty.

    9b.Create jobs
    The best pathway out of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels, we must create 5.6 million new jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources; renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We should also build on proven models of subsidized employment to help the long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

    In addition, the extension of federal unemployment insurance would have created 200,000 new jobs in 2014, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Indeed, every $1 in benefits that flows to jobless workers yields more than $1.50 in economic activity. Unfortunately, Congress failed to extend federal unemployment insurance at the end of 2013, leaving 1.3 million Americans and their families without this vital economic lifeline.

    Raise the minimum wage
    In the late 1960s, a full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would be $10.86 per hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Raising the minimum wage to $10.10 per hour and indexing it to inflation—as President Barack Obama and several members of Congress have called for—would lift more than 4 million Americans out of poverty. Nearly one in five children would see their parent get a raise. Recent action taken by cities and states—such as Seattle, Washington; California; Connecticut; and New Jersey—shows that boosting the minimum wage reduces poverty and increases wages.

    Increase the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless workers
    One of our nation’s most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC, helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including 3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers is less than one-tenth that awarded to workers with two children.

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Unemployment and Underemployment in some country seems lower than other ones. The amount of working population of a nation or city goes a long way to determine the growth of the sectors of economic which are household, business and government. Developing countries such as most African countries and Asia face a large decline in employment and human resources. The following can cause unemployment and underemployment in this places mentioned;

    Migration: We find out that people want to by all means meet or make ends meet. For such reason they leave there comfort no matter how little or much for better lives. Their new environment as results face congestion wherein they are few company and firms that need the service of this ones. The same persons make not meet the qualifications of the firm especially if the people are coming a rural setting with no experience with such duty they want to engage in.

    Government decision: When the government of a particular area focuses development and growth in a particular area, say the capital of the nation or city, they try to improve the economic base forgetting other part of the country that needs these decision, the people from the latter leave to the former to be a part of the growth, abandoning other essential part or area where their should be an even development.

    Citizen’s contribution.
    Level or age for employment.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    The issue of health is a vital one, some people are capable of paying for the fares to have a better treatment concerning an health issue and defection in a part of the world. Most Nigerians are flown out of the country when they are facing such. For so doing the receiving country would by all means try to improve it health sector to accommodate other foreigners coming to get treated. The government of India has over the years built a good and reliable health system in order to increase it revenue and by so doing development is taking place in the health sector. Successful development lies in the cost or positive decision taken by the government of the country in question. Developing a place means making it better for human habitation. So human would want to be safe and in environment where they dwell in.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The impact of bad governance in a country is loss and abuse of human right, disrespect for the rule of law and so on. The impact of poor public health is most likely going to end up with a increase in the amount of death. The public are faced with extravagant cost of treatment by private health company or firm. The citizens who cannot afford it have a choice than to refer to the poor public health status, and the inability of the poor health status causes it citizen to lose there hope in them.
    Solution to this problem are numerous but few has been pointed out as most suitable:
    Improved Health facility and personnel.
    Partnership with foreign countries.
    Creation of research institutions.
    Workshops and conference on health issues either yearly, monthly or seasons.

  41. Osike Solomon Ugochukwu says:

    Name : Osike Solomon Ugochukwu
    Reg. No. 2018/242458
    Department: Economics

    Question 6
    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Answer

    Several school (theorist) of economic development emerged and the three building blocks of most growth model are:
    * The production function
    * The saving function and,
    * The labor supply function (related to population growth)
    Below are the most influential theories:

    1. The Harrod-Domar Model(Theory)
    The Harod -Domar theory delineates a functional economic relationship in which the growth rate of gross domestic product (g) depends directly on the national savings ratio(s) and inversely on national capital/output ratio so that it is written as g=s\k.
    The Harrod-Domar model in the early post war times was commonly used by developing countries in economic planning with a target growth rate, the required savings rate is known if the country is not capable of generating as justification or an excuse from international agency can be established.

    2. The Exogenous Growth Theory ( or Neoclassical growth model).
    The exogenous growth theory of Robert solow and others places emphasis on the role of the technological change.
    Unlike the Harrod-Domar Model, the savings rate will only determine the level of income but not the rate of growth.
    The source of growth measurement obtained from this model highlights the relative importance of capital accumulation ( as in the Harrod-Domer model) and technological change ( as in the neoclassical model)in economic growth.

    3. The Endogenous Growth Model ( or New Growth Model).
    The Endogenous growth model attempt to explain a greater proportion of observed growth as well as why different countries experiences different growth rates. One version of this model introduces the role of human capital.

    4.Surplus Labour Theory.
    This Model is a classical model because it uses the classical assumption of subsistence wage .
    Here it is understood that the development process is triggered by the transfer of surplus labour in the traditional sector to the modern sector in which some significant economic activities has already begun.

    These theories are compatible because they have similarities and they all aim at development.
    Under development is an internally (domestivally)induced phenomenon but can also be influenced by external factors.

    Question 7

    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Answer

    1.Corruption :

    Corruption is a global menace, but Nigeria suffers most of all. People are starting to see that this nation has a corrupt culture. For many years, Nigeria has earned a considerable sum of money from the rock-tar, which has gone down the cesspool that was created by corruption.
    Being the oil giant, which runs on the grease of politics, Nigeria could be characterized as a wealthy nation staying afloat on oil. However, the problem is that money from oil does not flow to the people.
    The top public officials are wealthy because they hide behind the falsehood that public money belongs to no one. The national news is full of information on how public officials are buying million-dollar mansions and accumulating stolen public funds in financial establishments abroad.

    2.Poor human development :

    In general, human resources play a significant role in the success or failure of any nation or organization. Most of the problems facing the Nigerian economy reflect the bad quality of the nation’s economic health and human development.
    This is a situation that has been abandoned for many years. The problems facing educational institutions directly influence the issues in the country’s economy. The situation will continue to be terrible if the nation remains on the same undeveloped level as it is now.

    3. Environment and health issues :

    The health and environmental standards of the country are in deplorable condition. In 2015, Amnesty International announced that Nigeria experiences hundreds of oil spills annually in the Niger Delta, mainly because of sabotage, pipe erosion, and uncaring attitude by oil firms. This is also responsible for the hike in oil prices.
    Oil spills wilt the soil nutrients and other essential elements. This weakening can damage the communities that farm and fish in the Niger Delta and the general economy.
    Litters and waste products are strewn all over the streets and roads in Nigeria. Improperly disposed rubbish promotes the spread of diseases, and this will end up affecting the Nigerian economy.
    Another main problem facing the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.

    4. INADEQUATE FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Missing markets usually arise because of information failure. Because of asymmetric information lenders in credit markets may not be aware of the full creditworthiness of borrowers. This pushes up interest rates for all borrowers, even those with a good credit prospect.

    5. POPULATION

    Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries.

    Question 8

    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Answer

    Improving the role and status of women yields the highest return on all development investments. Reducing the role and the status of women who are in active labour force, for example, may lead to reduction in total household expenditure, government tax revenues, private businesses and personal savings; and hence the resources available for a successful development. These conditions outlined above may combine to stifle economic growth and development. So in a society where there is an improvement in the role and status of women, there is bound to be unprecedented economic growth and development. Providing women and girls with more educational opportunities contributes to: “reductions in fertility rates and increases in labour force participation rates, and in which thereby better quality of human capital of the future economy and generations.”
    Giving women greater economic empowerment means enabling women to increase their right to economic resources and their control over meaningful decisions that benefit themselves, their households and their communities. These include the right to control their own time, their income and access to participation in existing markets equally. Greater empowerment improves their well-being and economic status.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes.

    Question 9

    What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    Answer

    Some of the causes of extreme poverty are listed below:
    1. Illiteracy
    2. Corruption
    3.Conflict
    4. Poor Infrastructures and public works
    5. poor health care system

    Some of the policies that have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor are as follows:

    1.Equality and Representation for all
    2.Sustained Economic growth
    3.Increasing benefits to the poor
    4.Progressive taxes
    5.Job Creation
    6.Access to Healthcare
    7.Economic Security.

    Question 10

    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    Answer

    Rapid population growth is a huge threat to economic progress and development in developing countries. This situation threatens economic progress in the sense that exceeding the carrying capacity of the economy will act as a drag to any plan for economic progress. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. 
    Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.

    Question 11

    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    Answer

    There is so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries because these twin variables-unemployment and underemployment-are the main distinguishing features of developing economies; they are also prevalent in developing economies because of the bad state of the economy in these states.
    Why people from rural areas migrate to the cities is because they feel that there are numerous employment opportunities in the cities. But the number of people moving to the cities for employment is more than than the number of cities that absorb this labour and also, the number of job opportunities in the cities are limited. This causes an imbalance which leads to various socio-economic difficulties in the cities. The rural areas are therefore, a source of unlimited labour to the cities. Economically, such labour will be cheap and this also leads to unemployment and underemployment typical of most cities in developing countries.

    Question 12

    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Answer

    Health helps to help spur successful development because in instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. “HEALTH IS WEALTH” a healthy nation is wealthy and a wealthy nation is successful cause the labor force are not faced with illness that will lead to a reduction of their production or output thereby boosting the GDP of that particular country.Economic growth appears to lead to large health gains, particularly at low levels of economic development. In this case, an improvement in health enhances labour productivity and leads to gains in economic growth. 

    Question 13

    What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    Answer
    We all know that a healthy nation is a wealthy nation, and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health.

  42. UNADIKE FABIAN says:

    NAME : UNADIKE FABIAN CHINEMEZU
    REG NO : 2018/249698

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    The four most influential theories of development are; modernization, dependency, world- systems and globalization. Yes, they are compatible. Their main aim is the principal theoretical explanations to interpret development efforts carried out especially in the developing countries.
    Underdevelopment is externally induced. Underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    -Public borrowing
    -Trade deficit
    -Military expenditures
    -The low level of technological innovation -Population
    -Political turbulences and corruption
    Additionally, public debt, military spending and political instability obstruct accelerated growth in the short run.

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    Improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects, reducing household poverty, increasing economic growth and productivity, and increasing efficiency. Economies thrive when everyone has equal access to them. These programs and activities help break biases and barriers, and enable women to participate fully and freely in the economy.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    The root causes of extreme poverty are;
    a. Government Corruption
    b. Lack of Economic Infrastructure
    c. Poor Access to Education
    d. Poor Access to Healthcare

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    No, large families does not make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity. It leads to lack of food, and as the rate of growth of population exceeds the rate of production, economic development is hampered. Population growth causes a disproportionate negative impact on the environment. Problems of population size and growth, resource utilization and depletion, and environmental deterioration must be considered jointly and on a global basis.

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    There are many factors that cause unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities. Following are a few of the most common causes:
    a. Business cycle
    One of the main reasons for underemployment is the business cycle the economy currently operates in. If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.
    b. Supply and demand
    Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.
    c. Technological changes
    Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    People continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim due to other factors which include, inequitable land distribution, environmental degradation, high vulnerability to natural disasters, violent conflicts, better education opportunities,diverse services, and less social discrimination in the cities.

    12. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    Yes, Better health also help spur successful development. The role of health in economic development is analyzed via two channels: the direct labor productivity effect and the indirect incentive effect. The labor productivity hypothesis asserts that individuals who are healthier have higher returns to labor input.

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    The impact of poor public health on the prospects for development: A high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    Solutions to the Public Health Problem
    -Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
    -Improve health standards
    -Improve research
    -Transnational support
    -Reduction in consumption
    -Recycle and reuse
    -Reduce corruptive actions
    -Promote vaccinations
    -Education and research
    -Convince others

  43. Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina says:

    Name: Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina
    Reg no: 2018/246451
    Course: Eco 361
    Department: Economics

    Question 6
    Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon
    Answer
    There are four major influential theories of development:
    a.Mercantilism:
    Mercantilism is thought to be one of the earliest forms of development economics that created practices to promote the success of a nation. It was a dominant economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The theory promoted augmenting state power by lowering exposure to rival national powers.
    Like political absolutism and absolute monarchies, mercantilism promoted government regulation by prohibiting colonies from transacting with other nations.
    Mercantilism monopolized markets with staple ports and banned gold and silver exports. It believed the higher the supply of gold and silver, the more wealthy it would be. In general, it sought a trade surplus (exports greater than imports), did not allow the use of foreign ships for trade, and it optimized the use of domestic resources.

    b.Economic Nationalism:
    Economic nationalism reflects policies that focus on domestic control of capital formation, the economy, and labor, using tariffs or other barriers. It restricts the movement of capital, goods, and labor.
    Economic nationalists do not generally agree with the benefits of globalization and unlimited free trade. They focus on a policy that is isolationist so that the industries within a nation are able to grow without the threat of competition from established companies in other countries.
    The economy of the early United States is a prime example of economic nationalism. As a new nation, it sought to develop itself without relying so much on outside influences. It enacted measures, such as high tariffs, so its own industries would grow unimpeded.

    c.Linear Stages of Growth Model:
    The linear stages of growth model was used to revitalize the European economy after World War II.
    This model states that economic growth can only stem from industrialization. The model also agrees that local institutions and social attitudes can restrict growth if these factors influence people’s savings rates and investments.
    The linear stages of growth model portrays an appropriately designed addition of capital partnered with public intervention. This injection of capital and restrictions from the public sector leads to economic development and industrialization.

    d.Structural-Change Theory:
    The structural-change theory focuses on changing the overall economic structure of a nation, which aims to shift society from being a primarily agrarian one to a primarily industrial one.
    For example, Russia before the communist revolution was an agrarian society. When the communists overthrew the royal family and took power, they rapidly industrialized the nation, allowing it to eventually become a superpower.

    6b. Is underdevelopment an internally or externally induce phenomenon?
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent.

    Question 7
    What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    Some of the constraints are:
    a.Conflict and corruption
    b.Natural capital depletion
    c.Human capital weakness
    d.Gender and culture Inequality
    e.Incomprehensive budget
    f.Religionization of politics, etc.

    Question 8
    How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    In our society, the males of the family dominate the family. Most of the decisions with respect to the family are taken by the makes. The women of the family are not allowed to speak in public. They were considered as depended on the husband. But we should not forget that our society comprises of 50% female population. We cannot ignore them. Improvements in the role and status of women have positive impact on the development prospects. They can take steps in the betterment of the women if they get change in the administration.

    Question 9
    What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    a. INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION:
    “Inequality” is an easy, but sometimes misleading term used to describe the systemic barriers leaving groups of people without a voice or representation within their communities. For a population to escape poverty, all groups must be involved in the decision-making process especially when it comes to having a say in the things that determine your place in society. Some of these may be obvious, but in other situations, it can be subtle.
    Gender inequality, caste systems, marginalization based on race or tribal affiliations are all economic and social inequalities that mean the same thing: Little to no access to the resources needed to live a full, productive life. When combined with different combinations of vulnerability and hazards which comprise the rest of this list, a marginalized community may become even more vulnerable to the cycle of poverty.

    b.CONFLICT:
    Conflict is one of the most common forms of risk driving poverty today. Large-scale, protracted violence that we’ve seen in areas like Syria can grind society to a halt, destroying infrastructure and causing people to flee (often with nothing but the clothes on their backs). In its tenth year of conflict, Syria’s middle class has been all but destroyed, and over 80% of the population now lives below the poverty line.
    But even small bouts of violence can have huge impacts on communities that are already struggling. For example, if farmers are worried about their crops being stolen, they won’t invest in planting. Women also bear the brunt of conflict, which adds a layer of inequality to all conflict: During periods of violence, female-headed households become very common. And because women often have difficulty getting well-paying work and are typically excluded from community decision-making, their families are particularly vulnerable.

    c.HUNGER, MALNUTRITION, AND STUNTING:
    You might think that poverty causes hunger (and you would be right!), but hunger is also a cause and maintainer of poverty. If a person doesn’t get enough food, they’ll lack the strength and energy needed to work (or their immune system will weaken from malnutrition and leave them more susceptible to illness that prevents them from getting to work).
    The first 1,000 days of a child’s life (from womb to world) are key to ensuring their future health and likelihood of staying out of poverty. If a mother is malnourished during pregnancy, that can be passed on to her children, leading to wasting (low weight for height) or stunting (low height for age). Child stunting, both physical and cognitive, can lead to a lifetime of impacts: Adults who were stunted as children earn, on average, 22% less than those who weren’t stunted. In Ethiopia, stunting contributes to GDP losses as high as 16%.

    d.POOR HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS — ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN:
    Extreme poverty and poor health often go hand in hand. In countries where health systems are weak, easily preventable and treatable illnesses like malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections can be fatal especially for young children. And when people must travel far distances to clinics or pay for medicine, it drains already vulnerable households of money and assets, and can tip a family from poverty into extreme poverty.
    For some women, pregnancy and childbirth can be a death sentence. In many of the countries where Concern works, access to quality maternal healthcare is poor. Pregnant and lactating mothers face a multitude of barriers when seeking care, from not being allowed to go to a clinic without a male chaperone to receiving poor or even abusive care from a doctor. This is especially true for adolescent girls aged 18 and under, leaving mothers-to-be and their children at increased risk for disease and death.

    e.LACK OF EDUCATION:
    Not every person without an education is living in extreme poverty. But most of the extremely poor don’t have an education. There are many barriers to education around the world, including a lack of money for uniforms and books, a bias against girls’ education, or many of the other causes of poverty mentioned here.
    But education is often referred to as the great equalizer, because it can open the door to jobs and other resources and skills that a family needs to not just survive, but thrive. UNESCO estimates that 171 million people could be lifted out of extreme poverty if they left school with basic reading skills. Poverty threatens education, but education can also help end poverty.

    9b.what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    -Creating jobs
    -Raise the minimum wages
    -Increase in affordable, high quality child care and early education
    -Provide paid leave and paid sick days

    Question 10
    Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment.

    Question 11
    Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    According to them, the basic cause of unemployment in developing countries is the deficiency of the availability of essential consumer goods, often called wage goods. Given the real wage rate, a particular number of people can be employed in the economy, depending upon the supply of wage-goods in the economy.
    -Lack of the stock of physical capital
    -Use of capital intensive techniques
    11b.why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    Pull factors include the chance of a better job, better access to education and services, a higher standard of living. These factors have contributed to millions of people in LEDCs moving to cities in LEDCs, creating mass urbanization.

    Question 12
    Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and healthcare. But, does better health spur successful development?
    Absolutely yes!
    In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.

    Question 13
    What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.
    These problems can be addressed by;
    -Improving health standards
    -Improving research
    -Transnational support
    -Reducing corruptive actions
    -Promote vaccinations
    -Education and research

  44. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com
    QUESTIONS:
    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    ANSWERS:
    6) Structuralism and linear stages of growth model are the most influential theories of development. They are compatible because they are both concerned with restructuring the economy in such a way that lead to industrialization and economic development.
    *Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.
    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.
    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.
    Underdevelopment is both an internally and externally induced phenomena. This is because there are both internal and external factors that cause underdevelopment. Some of the internal factors are:
    * Government policies
    * Corrupt government officials
    * Inadequate use of natural resources
    * Lack of natural resources in some countries
    * Insecurity
    e.t.c.
    Some external factors are:
    * unfavorable Policies of international Economic Institutions e.g WTO, World Bank e.t.c.
    #The Linear Stages of Growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan of the US which was used to rehabilitate Europe’s economy after the Post-World War II Crisis. The linear stages of growth models are the oldest and most traditional of all development plans. It was an attempt by economists to come up with a suitable concept as to how underdeveloped countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America can transform their agrarian economy into an industrialized one.
    The most popular of the linear stage models are Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model and the Harrod-Domar Growth Model. Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model: This approach was formulated by American Economist Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003). He argued in his model that the transition into development occurs in a series of stages. Each stage can only be reached through the completion of the previous stage. He asserts that all developed countries have gone through these stages and developing countries are in one of these stages. These stages are as follows:
    The Traditional Society: this is mostly a backward society with no access to science and technology where most of its resources are dedicated to agricultural use. Agricultural productivity is mostly at the subsistence level and there is limited market interaction.
    Preparatory Stage: here, there is an expansion in output which extends beyond agricultural produce to manufactured goods. As a result of better savings and investment in education there is more knowledge surrounding the use of technology in various sectors of the economy. In this stage there are lower levels of market specialization
    Take-off stage: at this stage revolutionary changes occur in both agriculture and industry to attain a self-sustaining economic growth. There is greater urbanization and rise in human capital accumulation.
    Drive to maturity: this stage takes place after a long period of time. The population involved in agriculture declines while industry becomes more diverse. Overall income per capita increases. The rate of savings and investments is such that it can automatically sustain economic growth.
    Stage of Mass Consumption: at this stage a country’s demand shifts from food, clothing and other basic necessities to demand for luxuries. To satisfy these needs new industries involve their selves in mass production to match consumption.
    Harrod-Domar Growth Model: This model was developed independently by Roy F. Harrod in 1939 and Evsey Domar in 1946.The Harrod-Domar model is an early post-Keynesian model of economic growth. It is used in development economics to explain an economy’s growth rate in terms of the level of saving and productivity of capital (Todaro & Smith, 2009). The Harrod-Domar Model is based on a linear function and can also be referred to as the AK model where A is a constant and K is capital stock. This model shows how sufficient investment through savings can accelerate growth. Investments generate income and supplements productivity of the economy by increasing the capital stock. The Harrod-Domar model is based on the following assumptions:
    Laissez-faire; where there is no government intervention
    A closed economy; no participation in foreign trade
    Capital goods do not depreciate as they possess a boundless timeline
    Constant marginal propensity to save
    Interest rate remains unchanged, etc.
    7)The following are the factors that hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions:
    *Culture of the people
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Insecurity
    *Government policies
    *Poor utilization of resources
    8) Improvements in the role and status of women has so many benefits on Development prospects.
    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.
    The theme for International Women’s Day 2019 “Think equal, build smart, innovate for change,” was chosen to identify innovative ways to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, accelerating the 2030 Agenda, building momentum for the effective implementation of the new U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Of course, women’s opportunities still lag behind those of men worldwide. But, the historic and current role of women is indisputable.
    “When women are empowered and can claim their rights and access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economies grow, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations.”
    – Michelle Bachelet, Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women
    All of the things listed above are benefits we get from improving the roles and status of women in the society and by improving their roles, we will experience rapid development.
    9) The causes of poverty may vary with respect to nation, region, and in comparison with other countries at the global level. Yet, there is a commonality amongst these causes. Philosophical perspectives, and especially historical perspectives, including some factors at a micro and macro level can be considered in understanding these causes.
    There are behavioral, structural and political theories on the causes of poverty: “Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.”
    Types of poverty
    #Absolute poverty is a lack of basic necessities, based on a set income level. Per World Bank guidelines, people living on less than $1.90 a day are considered to be living in extreme poverty. This generally applies to people in low income countries. For lower middle-income countries, the delineation is $3.20 a day. For upper middle income nations, the delineation is $5.50 a day. These delineated standards account for differences in economies, since a poor household in a rich economic bloc is substantially more economically privileged than one in an economically deprived bloc. Thus, a discussion of poverty in an advanced economy has to take into account that absolute poverty might not be readily applicable to people in that economy.
    #Relative poverty refers to individuals or entities that do not meet minimum standards versus others in the same area, place and time. A lot of poorer economies can have both absolute and relative poverty affecting its respective people. Relative poverty generally exists more in advanced economies.
    MICRO AND MACRO CAUSES OF POVERTY
    MICRO LEVEL
    The International Food Study Institute had a brief on a collection of extensive studies that analyzed the causes of poverty, with analysis of household data and review of empirical findings in 20 countries. Some of the major causes of poverty, with historical perspective, were noted as follows:
    the inability of poor households to invest in property ownership.
    limited/poor education leading to fewer opportunities.
    limited access to credit, in some cases—creating more poverty via inherited poverty.
    the systematic exclusion of ethnic minorities, ethnic castes, tribes, women and people with disabilities from participating in fair economic enterprise and access to institutions/markets. This exclusion generated a cycle and persistence of poverty.[11]
    Other Micro level causes Edit
    War, crime and violence are some primary causes of poverty noted.[12] In 39 countries (since 2000), where political violence and organized crime historically thrived, the poverty level was twice that in countries with less reported war, crime and violence.[12]
    Unemployment – in half a dozen countries, where young people joined gangs and rebel groups (a factor leading to poverty), two thirds of the respondents (in a survey) reported that unemployment and slim opportunities were the main reasons in the promotion of poverty.[13]
    MACRO LEVEL
    *Colonialism
    Economists Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson maintain that poverty is associated with colonialism.The effects of colonialism left behind institutions that were new, alien and unsustainable. The lack of continuity in these foreign institutions, left entirely in the untrained hands of the prior colonized populace, tended to generate poverty in the communities.
    *Climate change
    -Regionally
    According to an article by Giovetti and McConville, climate change may cause poverty via the following, especially in highly indebted countries:
    *limit agriculture and food sources – in poorer nations, limited agricultural produce/food threatens survival and strains resources, a catalyst for poverty.
    *threaten education – changes in climate cause destruction of property (schools) and cause labor shifts that occur as children are removed from school. This roll over effect causes systemic poverty, since poor education equates to poorer economic opportunities.
    precipitate refugee migration – refugee migrations in search of food, water and safety tax environments with overcrowding, helps promote poor hygiene and gender based violence (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    threaten public health by creating less pure air, limited drinking water and poor sanitation, with poorer communities suffering more (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    The World Bank affirms that, without much needed intervention, climate change could cause more than 100 million people, world-wide, to plunge into poverty by 2030. By 2050, regional areas like Latin America, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa could trigger migratory patterns potentially impacting over 143 million people.
    Notable primary causes of poverty:
    *Inadequate food and poor or limited access to clean water relocation in search of food and clean water drains limited resources (especially in poor economies), causing the poor to get poorer as they seek basic necessities for survival.
    Inadequate, limited or poor access to healthcare * unhealthy people work less, are less productive and place demands on an already over-burdened healthcare system. This cycle causes affected people to stay poor.
    *Unequal distribution of resources – disparities in the distribution of resources causes systemic poverty while those with more resources get wealthier and better access to services.[15]
    *Discrimination, inequality (racial/gender and other biases) – individuals treated less favorably because of any kind of discrimination, bias or prejudice get lesser access to opportunities to get out of poverty.
    *Poor education – poorly educated individuals get limited opportunities to succeed in a dynamic work environment. Illiteracy fosters poverty.
    *Climate change, damage to ecosystems and environmental degradation – floods, droughts and storms cause food/water shortages, aggravates basic survival and causes migrations that create a cycle of poverty.
    *Poor governance, corruption, and poor infrastructure – keep the governed locked out of opportunities, wealth and resources, and denies them ready access to essential goods and services.
    *Conflict – particularly affects women in poorer economies. National or regional violence/unrest disrupts society and generates greater poverty in impacted areas.
    *Debt – on a micro level, as evidenced in advanced economies, causes poverty as more people without money/resources borrow more to either live within or outside their financial means. On a macro or national level (or even regional level), multilateral lending institutions create unfavorable conditions or terms of debt repayment to poorer economies, leading to greater burden of repayment that affects the masses.
    *Unemployment or little to no access to livelihoods – without money from employment, individuals and communities suffer poverty as a direct causation.
    *Concentration of land ownership – equates to unequal distribution of resources.
    *World hunger
    *Overpopulation- can taxes limited resources and can cause environmental degradation. Different schools of thought present varied perspectives.
    Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:
    1. Sustained economic growth The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.
    10)Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    11)some causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries/world are listed below:
    *Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    *Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    * Inequitable distribution of land
    *Use of Capital Intensive Techniques e.t.c.
    Reasons for rural urban migration:
    Rural-urban migration may be occasioned by voluntary forces or involuntary forces. Involuntary or forced migration is migration that takes place when the migrant has no choice on whether to move or not. Examples include ethno-religious crises, conflicts and wars, political strife, family and land disputes, conflicts with neighbours etc. Voluntary migration is movement done by choice (Lykke, 2002). Factors responsible for voluntary rural-urban migration include urban job opportunities, better housing conditions, rural land tenure and inheritance patterns, better education opportunities, better health services, extreme poverty etc. Oftentimes, rural dwellers see and hear success stories about people that left the community, moved to cities and are supposedly ‘doing well’. This acts as incentives for out-migration especially among youths.
    Various studies have been carried out on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration. While some of these studies related the causes of rural-urban migration to discriminatory government policies in favour of urban development, response to disparities in income, employment and other socio-economic amenities available within the urban and rural areas, with the urban areas being privileged, others related it to spontaneous, emotional, structural, traditional and some other factors. In a cross sectional study of causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Borno State: A case of Maiduguri metropolis, Gimba and Kumshe (2012) found that the major causes of rural-urban migration are search for better education, employment, and business opportunities; while others include: poverty, unemployment, famine, and inadequate social amenities in the rural areas. Study carried out by (Adewale, 2006) reveals that various factors could predispose a certain rural population to migration, which might be due to crisis, ethno-religious conflicts and wars etc. Agyemang (2013) summarized the major causes of rural –urban migration in Nigeria. He noted that different motives account for rural-urban migration amongst rural dwellers. These include the following:
    Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.
    12) In order to explain the relationship between health and economic growth, it is necessary to understand the concept of health in a broad sense. Health is not only the absence of illnesses; it is also the ability of people
    to develop to their potential during their entire lives. In that sense, health is an asset individuals possess, which has intrinsic value (being healthy is a very important source of well-being) as well as instrumental value. In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production
    losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible
    due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health.
    In sum, health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact
    health has on education. This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor
    to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences .
    The results of historical studies suggest a very strong relationship between health and economic growth. Robert W. Fogel finds that between one third and one half of England’s economic growth in the past 200 years is due to improvements in the population’s food consumption. In this sense, we can say health help spur development.
    13) A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  45. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com
    QUESTIONS:
    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    ANSWERS:
    6) Structuralism and linear stages of growth model are the most influential theories of development. They are compatible because they are both concerned with restructuring the economy in such a way that lead to industrialization and economic development.
    *Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.
    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.
    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.
    Underdevelopment is both an internally and externally induced phenomena. This is because there are both internal and external factors that cause underdevelopment. Some of the internal factors are:
    * Government policies
    * Corrupt government officials
    * Inadequate use of natural resources
    *Lack of natural resources in some countries e.t.c.
    Some external factors are:
    * unfavorable Policies of international Economic Institutions e.g WTO, World Bank e.t.c.
    #The Linear Stages of Growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan of the US which was used to rehabilitate Europe’s economy after the Post-World War II Crisis. The linear stages of growth models are the oldest and most traditional of all development plans. It was an attempt by economists to come up with a suitable concept as to how underdeveloped countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America can transform their agrarian economy into an industrialized one.

    The most popular of the linear stage models are Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model and the Harrod-Domar Growth Model. Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model: This approach was formulated by American Economist Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003). He argued in his model that the transition into development occurs in a series of stages. Each stage can only be reached through the completion of the previous stage. He asserts that all developed countries have gone through these stages and developing countries are in one of these stages. These stages are as follows:

    The Traditional Society: this is mostly a backward society with no access to science and technology where most of its resources are dedicated to agricultural use. Agricultural productivity is mostly at the subsistence level and there is limited market interaction.
    Preparatory Stage: here, there is an expansion in output which extends beyond agricultural produce to manufactured goods. As a result of better savings and investment in education there is more knowledge surrounding the use of technology in various sectors of the economy. In this stage there are lower levels of market specialization
    Take-off stage: at this stage revolutionary changes occur in both agriculture and industry to attain a self-sustaining economic growth. There is greater urbanization and rise in human capital accumulation.
    Drive to maturity: this stage takes place after a long period of time. The population involved in agriculture declines while industry becomes more diverse. Overall income per capita increases. The rate of savings and investments is such that it can automatically sustain economic growth.
    Stage of Mass Consumption: at this stage a country’s demand shifts from food, clothing and other basic necessities to demand for luxuries. To satisfy these needs new industries involve their selves in mass production to match consumption.
    Harrod-Domar Growth Model: This model was developed independently by Roy F. Harrod in 1939 and Evsey Domar in 1946.The Harrod-Domar model is an early post-Keynesian model of economic growth. It is used in development economics to explain an economy’s growth rate in terms of the level of saving and productivity of capital (Todaro & Smith, 2009). The Harrod-Domar Model is based on a linear function and can also be referred to as the AK model where A is a constant and K is capital stock. This model shows how sufficient investment through savings can accelerate growth. Investments generate income and supplements productivity of the economy by increasing the capital stock. The Harrod-Domar model is based on the following assumptions:

    Laissez-faire; where there is no government intervention
    A closed economy; no participation in foreign trade
    Capital goods do not depreciate as they possess a boundless timeline
    Constant marginal propensity to save
    Interest rate remains unchanged, etc.
    7)The following are the factors that hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions:
    *Culture of the people
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Insecurity
    *Government policies
    *Poor utilization of resources
    8) Improvements in the role and status of women has so many benefits on Development prospects.
    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.
    The theme for International Women’s Day 2019 “Think equal, build smart, innovate for change,” was chosen to identify innovative ways to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, accelerating the 2030 Agenda, building momentum for the effective implementation of the new U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Of course, women’s opportunities still lag behind those of men worldwide. But, the historic and current role of women is indisputable.
    “When women are empowered and can claim their rights and access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economies grow, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations.”
    – Michelle Bachelet, Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women
    All of the things listed above are benefits we get from improving the roles and status of women in the society and by improving their roles, we will experience rapid development.
    9) The causes of poverty may vary with respect to nation, region, and in comparison with other countries at the global level. Yet, there is a commonality amongst these causes. Philosophical perspectives, and especially historical perspectives, including some factors at a micro and macro level can be considered in understanding these causes.
    There are behavioral, structural and political theories on the causes of poverty: “Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.”
    The causes of poverty may vary with respect to nation, region, and in comparison with other countries at the global level. Yet, there is a commonality amongst these causes. Philosophical perspectives, and especially historical perspectives, including some factors at a micro and macro level can be considered in understanding these causes.
    There are behavioral, structural and political theories on the causes of poverty: “Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.”
    Types of poverty
    #Absolute poverty is a lack of basic necessities, based on a set income level. Per World Bank guidelines, people living on less than $1.90 a day are considered to be living in extreme poverty. This generally applies to people in low income countries. For lower middle-income countries, the delineation is $3.20 a day. For upper middle income nations, the delineation is $5.50 a day. These delineated standards account for differences in economies, since a poor household in a rich economic bloc is substantially more economically privileged than one in an economically deprived bloc. Thus, a discussion of poverty in an advanced economy has to take into account that absolute poverty might not be readily applicable to people in that economy.
    #Relative poverty refers to individuals or entities that do not meet minimum standards versus others in the same area, place and time. A lot of poorer economies can have both absolute and relative poverty affecting its respective people. Relative poverty generally exists more in advanced economies.
    MICRO AND MACRO CAUSES OF POVERTY
    MICRO LEVEL
    The International Food Study Institute had a brief on a collection of extensive studies that analyzed the causes of poverty, with analysis of household data and review of empirical findings in 20 countries. Some of the major causes of poverty, with historical perspective, were noted as follows:
    the inability of poor households to invest in property ownership.
    limited/poor education leading to fewer opportunities.
    limited access to credit, in some cases—creating more poverty via inherited poverty.
    the systematic exclusion of ethnic minorities, ethnic castes, tribes, women and people with disabilities from participating in fair economic enterprise and access to institutions/markets. This exclusion generated a cycle and persistence of poverty.[11]
    Other Micro level causes Edit
    War, crime and violence are some primary causes of poverty noted.[12] In 39 countries (since 2000), where political violence and organized crime historically thrived, the poverty level was twice that in countries with less reported war, crime and violence.[12]
    Unemployment – in half a dozen countries, where young people joined gangs and rebel groups (a factor leading to poverty), two thirds of the respondents (in a survey) reported that unemployment and slim opportunities were the main reasons in the promotion of poverty.[13]
    MACRO LEVEL
    *Colonialism
    Economists Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson maintain that poverty is associated with colonialism.The effects of colonialism left behind institutions that were new, alien and unsustainable. The lack of continuity in these foreign institutions, left entirely in the untrained hands of the prior colonized populace, tended to generate poverty in the communities.
    *Climate change
    -Regionally
    According to an article by Giovetti and McConville, climate change may cause poverty via the following, especially in highly indebted countries:
    limit agriculture and food sources – in poorer nations, limited agricultural produce/food threatens survival and strains resources, a catalyst for poverty.
    threaten education – changes in climate cause destruction of property (schools) and cause labor shifts that occur as children are removed from school. This roll over effect causes systemic poverty, since poor education equates to poorer economic opportunities.
    precipitate refugee migration – refugee migrations in search of food, water and safety tax environments with overcrowding, helps promote poor hygiene and gender based violence (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    threaten public health by creating less pure air, limited drinking water and poor sanitation, with poorer communities suffering more (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    The World Bank affirms that, without much needed intervention, climate change could cause more than 100 million people, world-wide, to plunge into poverty by 2030. By 2050, regional areas like Latin America, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa could trigger migratory patterns potentially impacting over 143 million people.
    Notable primary causes of poverty:
    *Inadequate food and poor or limited access to clean water relocation in search of food and clean water drains limited resources (especially in poor economies), causing the poor to get poorer as they seek basic necessities for survival.
    Inadequate, limited or poor access to healthcare * unhealthy people work less, are less productive and place demands on an already over-burdened healthcare system. This cycle causes affected people to stay poor.
    *Unequal distribution of resources – disparities in the distribution of resources causes systemic poverty while those with more resources get wealthier and better access to services.[15]
    *Discrimination, inequality (racial/gender and other biases) – individuals treated less favorably because of any kind of discrimination, bias or prejudice get lesser access to opportunities to get out of poverty.
    *Poor education – poorly educated individuals get limited opportunities to succeed in a dynamic work environment. Illiteracy fosters poverty.
    *Climate change, damage to ecosystems and environmental degradation – floods, droughts and storms cause food/water shortages, aggravates basic survival and causes migrations that create a cycle of poverty.
    *Poor governance, corruption, and poor infrastructure – keep the governed locked out of opportunities, wealth and resources, and denies them ready access to essential goods and services.
    *Conflict – particularly affects women in poorer economies. National or regional violence/unrest disrupts society and generates greater poverty in impacted areas.
    *Debt – on a micro level, as evidenced in advanced economies, causes poverty as more people without money/resources borrow more to either live within or outside their financial means. On a macro or national level (or even regional level), multilateral lending institutions create unfavorable conditions or terms of debt repayment to poorer economies, leading to greater burden of repayment that affects the masses.
    *Unemployment or little to no access to livelihoods – without money from employment, individuals and communities suffer poverty as a direct causation.
    *Concentration of land ownership – equates to unequal distribution of resources.
    *World hunger
    *Overpopulation- can taxes limited resources and can cause environmental degradation. Different schools of thought present varied perspectives.
    Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:
    1. Sustained economic growth The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.
    10) Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.
    11)some causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries/world are listed below:
    *Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    *Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    * Inequitable distribution of land
    *Use of Capital Intensive Techniques e.t.c.
    Reasons for rural urban migration:
    Rural-urban migration may be occasioned by voluntary forces or involuntary forces. Involuntary or forced migration is migration that takes place when the migrant has no choice on whether to move or not. Examples include ethno-religious crises, conflicts and wars, political strife, family and land disputes, conflicts with neighbours etc. Voluntary migration is movement done by choice (Lykke, 2002). Factors responsible for voluntary rural-urban migration include urban job opportunities, better housing conditions, rural land tenure and inheritance patterns, better education opportunities, better health services, extreme poverty etc. Oftentimes, rural dwellers see and hear success stories about people that left the community, moved to cities and are supposedly ‘doing well’. This acts as incentives for out-migration especially among youths.
    Various studies have been carried out on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration. While some of these studies related the causes of rural-urban migration to discriminatory government policies in favour of urban development, response to disparities in income, employment and other socio-economic amenities available within the urban and rural areas, with the urban areas being privileged, others related it to spontaneous, emotional, structural, traditional and some other factors. In a cross sectional study of causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Borno State: A case of Maiduguri metropolis, Gimba and Kumshe (2012) found that the major causes of rural-urban migration are search for better education, employment, and business opportunities; while others include: poverty, unemployment, famine, and inadequate social amenities in the rural areas. Study carried out by (Adewale, 2006) reveals that various factors could predispose a certain rural population to migration, which might be due to crisis, ethno-religious conflicts and wars etc. Agyemang (2013) summarized the major causes of rural –urban migration in Nigeria. He noted that different motives account for rural-urban migration amongst rural dwellers. These include the following:
    Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.
    12) In order to explain the relationship between health and economic growth, it is necessary to understand the concept of health in a broad sense. Health is not only the absence of illnesses; it is also the ability of people
    to develop to their potential during their entire lives. In that sense, health is an asset individuals possess, which has intrinsic value (being healthy is a very important source of well-being) as well as instrumental value. In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production
    losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible
    due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health.
    In sum, health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact
    health has on education. This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor
    to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences .
    The results of historical studies suggest a very strong relationship between health and economic growth. Robert W. Fogel finds that between one third and one half of England’s economic growth in the past 200 years is due to improvements in the population’s food consumption. In this sense, it is assumed that health is essential for development.
    13) A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  46. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN

    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

    COURSE CODE: ECO 361

    REG NO: 2018/250325

    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com

    QUESTIONS:
    Following from the previous questions, clearly and convincingly answer the following Questions as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Development and Employment Generation.

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS:

    6) Structuralism and linear stages of growth model are the most influential theories of development. They are compatible because they are both concerned with restructuring the economy in such a way that lead to industrialization and economic development*Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country’s economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector, known as import substitution industrialization (ISI). This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods (agricultural and mining products), and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument, which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.[9] The Prebisch–Singer hypothesis states that over time the terms of trade for commodities deteriorate compared to those for manufactured goods, because the income elasticity of demand of manufactured goods is greater than that of primary products. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy.
    Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World, and trade among themselves.
    The roots of structuralism lie in South America, and particularly Chile. In 1950, Raul Prebisch went to Chile to become the first director of the Economic Commission for Latin America. In Chile, he cooperated with Celso Furtado, Aníbal Pinto, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Dudley Seers, who all became influential structuralists.
    Underdevelopment is both an internally and externally induced phenomena. This is because there are both internal and external factors that cause underdevelopment. Some of the internal factors are:
    * Government policies
    * Corrupt government officials
    * Inadequate use of natural resources
    *Lack of natural resources in some countries e.t.c.
    Some external factors are:
    * unfavorable Policies of international Economic Institutions e.g WTO, World Bank e.t.c.

    #The Linear Stages of Growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan of the US which was used to rehabilitate Europe’s economy after the Post-World War II Crisis. The linear stages of growth models are the oldest and most traditional of all development plans. It was an attempt by economists to come up with a suitable concept as to how underdeveloped countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America can transform their agrarian economy into an industrialized one.

    The most popular of the linear stage models are Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model and the Harrod-Domar Growth Model. Rostow’s Stages of Growth Model: This approach was formulated by American Economist Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003). He argued in his model that the transition into development occurs in a series of stages. Each stage can only be reached through the completion of the previous stage. He asserts that all developed countries have gone through these stages and developing countries are in one of these stages. These stages are as follows:

    The Traditional Society: this is mostly a backward society with no access to science and technology where most of its resources are dedicated to agricultural use. Agricultural productivity is mostly at the subsistence level and there is limited market interaction.
    Preparatory Stage: here, there is an expansion in output which extends beyond agricultural produce to manufactured goods. As a result of better savings and investment in education there is more knowledge surrounding the use of technology in various sectors of the economy. In this stage there are lower levels of market specialization
    Take-off stage: at this stage revolutionary changes occur in both agriculture and industry to attain a self-sustaining economic growth. There is greater urbanization and rise in human capital accumulation.
    Drive to maturity: this stage takes place after a long period of time. The population involved in agriculture declines while industry becomes more diverse. Overall income per capita increases. The rate of savings and investments is such that it can automatically sustain economic growth.
    Stage of Mass Consumption: at this stage a country’s demand shifts from food, clothing and other basic necessities to demand for luxuries. To satisfy these needs new industries involve their selves in mass production to match consumption.
    Harrod-Domar Growth Model: This model was developed independently by Roy F. Harrod in 1939 and Evsey Domar in 1946.The Harrod-Domar model is an early post-Keynesian model of economic growth. It is used in development economics to explain an economy’s growth rate in terms of the level of saving and productivity of capital (Todaro & Smith, 2009). The Harrod-Domar Model is based on a linear function and can also be referred to as the AK model where A is a constant and K is capital stock. This model shows how sufficient investment through savings can accelerate growth. Investments generate income and supplements productivity of the economy by increasing the capital stock. The Harrod-Domar model is based on the following assumptions:

    Laissez-faire; where there is no government intervention
    A closed economy; no participation in foreign trade
    Capital goods do not depreciate as they possess a boundless timeline
    Constant marginal propensity to save
    Interest rate remains unchanged, etc.

    7)The following are the factors that hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions:
    *Culture of the people
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Insecurity
    *Government policies
    *Poor utilization of resources

    8) Improvements in the role and status of women has so many benefits on Development prospects.
    Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades.
    The theme for International Women’s Day 2019 “Think equal, build smart, innovate for change,” was chosen to identify innovative ways to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, accelerating the 2030 Agenda, building momentum for the effective implementation of the new U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Of course, women’s opportunities still lag behind those of men worldwide. But, the historic and current role of women is indisputable.
    “When women are empowered and can claim their rights and access to land, leadership, opportunities and choices, economies grow, food security is enhanced and prospects are improved for current and future generations.”
    – Michelle Bachelet, Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women
    All of the things listed above are benefits we get from improving the roles and status of women in the society and by improving their roles, we will experience rapid development.

    9) The causes of poverty may vary with respect to nation, region, and in comparison with other countries at the global level. Yet, there is a commonality amongst these causes. Philosophical perspectives, and especially historical perspectives, including some factors at a micro and macro level can be considered in understanding these causes.
    There are behavioral, structural and political theories on the causes of poverty: “Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.”
    The causes of poverty may vary with respect to nation, region, and in comparison with other countries at the global level. Yet, there is a commonality amongst these causes. Philosophical perspectives, and especially historical perspectives, including some factors at a micro and macro level can be considered in understanding these causes.
    There are behavioral, structural and political theories on the causes of poverty: “Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty.”
    Types of poverty
    #Absolute poverty is a lack of basic necessities, based on a set income level. Per World Bank guidelines, people living on less than $1.90 a day are considered to be living in extreme poverty. This generally applies to people in low income countries. For lower middle-income countries, the delineation is $3.20 a day. For upper middle income nations, the delineation is $5.50 a day. These delineated standards account for differences in economies, since a poor household in a rich economic bloc is substantially more economically privileged than one in an economically deprived bloc. Thus, a discussion of poverty in an advanced economy has to take into account that absolute poverty might not be readily applicable to people in that economy.
    #Relative poverty refers to individuals or entities that do not meet minimum standards versus others in the same area, place and time. A lot of poorer economies can have both absolute and relative poverty affecting its respective people. Relative poverty generally exists more in advanced economies.
    MICRO AND MACRO CAUSES OF POVERTY
    MICRO LEVEL
    The International Food Study Institute had a brief on a collection of extensive studies that analyzed the causes of poverty, with analysis of household data and review of empirical findings in 20 countries. Some of the major causes of poverty, with historical perspective, were noted as follows:
    the inability of poor households to invest in property ownership.
    limited/poor education leading to fewer opportunities.
    limited access to credit, in some cases—creating more poverty via inherited poverty.
    the systematic exclusion of ethnic minorities, ethnic castes, tribes, women and people with disabilities from participating in fair economic enterprise and access to institutions/markets. This exclusion generated a cycle and persistence of poverty.[11]
    Other Micro level causes Edit
    War, crime and violence are some primary causes of poverty noted.[12] In 39 countries (since 2000), where political violence and organized crime historically thrived, the poverty level was twice that in countries with less reported war, crime and violence.[12]
    Unemployment – in half a dozen countries, where young people joined gangs and rebel groups (a factor leading to poverty), two thirds of the respondents (in a survey) reported that unemployment and slim opportunities were the main reasons in the promotion of poverty.[13]
    MACRO LEVEL
    *Colonialism
    Economists Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson maintain that poverty is associated with colonialism.The effects of colonialism left behind institutions that were new, alien and unsustainable. The lack of continuity in these foreign institutions, left entirely in the untrained hands of the prior colonized populace, tended to generate poverty in the communities.
    *Climate change
    -Regionally
    According to an article by Giovetti and McConville, climate change may cause poverty via the following, especially in highly indebted countries:
    limit agriculture and food sources – in poorer nations, limited agricultural produce/food threatens survival and strains resources, a catalyst for poverty.
    threaten education – changes in climate cause destruction of property (schools) and cause labor shifts that occur as children are removed from school. This roll over effect causes systemic poverty, since poor education equates to poorer economic opportunities.
    precipitate refugee migration – refugee migrations in search of food, water and safety tax environments with overcrowding, helps promote poor hygiene and gender based violence (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    threaten public health by creating less pure air, limited drinking water and poor sanitation, with poorer communities suffering more (an environment in which poverty thrives).
    The World Bank affirms that, without much needed intervention, climate change could cause more than 100 million people, world-wide, to plunge into poverty by 2030. By 2050, regional areas like Latin America, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa could trigger migratory patterns potentially impacting over 143 million people.
    Notable primary causes of poverty:
    *Inadequate food and poor or limited access to clean water relocation in search of food and clean water drains limited resources (especially in poor economies), causing the poor to get poorer as they seek basic necessities for survival.
    Inadequate, limited or poor access to healthcare * unhealthy people work less, are less productive and place demands on an already over-burdened healthcare system. This cycle causes affected people to stay poor.
    *Unequal distribution of resources – disparities in the distribution of resources causes systemic poverty while those with more resources get wealthier and better access to services.[15]
    *Discrimination, inequality (racial/gender and other biases) – individuals treated less favorably because of any kind of discrimination, bias or prejudice get lesser access to opportunities to get out of poverty.
    *Poor education – poorly educated individuals get limited opportunities to succeed in a dynamic work environment. Illiteracy fosters poverty.
    *Climate change, damage to ecosystems and environmental degradation – floods, droughts and storms cause food/water shortages, aggravates basic survival and causes migrations that create a cycle of poverty.
    *Poor governance, corruption, and poor infrastructure – keep the governed locked out of opportunities, wealth and resources, and denies them ready access to essential goods and services.
    *Conflict – particularly affects women in poorer economies. National or regional violence/unrest disrupts society and generates greater poverty in impacted areas.
    *Debt – on a micro level, as evidenced in advanced economies, causes poverty as more people without money/resources borrow more to either live within or outside their financial means. On a macro or national level (or even regional level), multilateral lending institutions create unfavorable conditions or terms of debt repayment to poorer economies, leading to greater burden of repayment that affects the masses.
    *Unemployment or little to no access to livelihoods – without money from employment, individuals and communities suffer poverty as a direct causation.
    *Concentration of land ownership – equates to unequal distribution of resources.
    *World hunger
    *Overpopulation- can taxes limited resources and can cause environmental degradation. Different schools of thought present varied perspectives.
    Some policies to improve the lives of the poorest of the poor include:
    1. Sustained economic growth The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth
    2. Reduce Unemployment Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed. Poverty and unemployment are often geographical problems, with depressed areas seeing higher levels of poverty. Policies to overcome geographical poverty could include government subsidies for firms to set up in depressed areas. Also building better infrastructure (transport and communication) in depressed areas can provide an economic stimulus to create new jobs.
    3. Progressive Taxes Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.
    4. National Minimum Wage The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality.

    10) Rapid population growth is one of the major contributing factors to the poverty and under-development of Third World countries–especially African countries, which boast the highest population growth rates in the world. Several factors are responsible for the rapid growth: a drop in mortality rates, a young population, improved standards of living, and attitudes and practices which favor high fertility. Africans view large families as an economic asset and as a symbol of worth and honor, and parents see it as security during old age. The ideal family size in Africa is 5 to 7 children. Because of its complex causes, curbing the rapid growth is not easy. In addition to strategic difficulties, population policies usually meet opposition, often from religious groups. So in order to gain acceptance, population programs need to be integrated with ongoing community development programs. Even though it often engenders opposition, family planning is more crucial then ever, as the rapid population growth continues to create an explosive situation. Rapid growth has led to uncontrolled urbanization, which has produced overcrowding, destitution, crime, pollution, and political turmoil. Rapid growth has outstripped increases in food production, and population pressure has led to the overuse of arable land and its destruction. Rapid growth has also hampered economic development and caused massive unemployment. 45% of Kenya’s labor force is unemployed. Ultimately, rapid growth has undermined the quality of life of people. Society’s responsibility extends beyond simply ensuring the survival of the population. Society must strive to provide people with a good life–one with dignity.

    11)some causes of unemployment and underemployment in the developing countries/world are listed below:
    *Neglect of the Role of Agriculture in Employment Generation
    *Lack of the Stock of Physical Capital
    *Lack of Infrastructure
    *Rigid Protective Labor Legislation
    * Inequitable distribution of land
    *Use of Capital Intensive Techniques e.t.c.
    Reasons for rural urban migration:
    Rural-urban migration may be occasioned by voluntary forces or involuntary forces. Involuntary or forced migration is migration that takes place when the migrant has no choice on whether to move or not. Examples include ethno-religious crises, conflicts and wars, political strife, family and land disputes, conflicts with neighbours etc. Voluntary migration is movement done by choice (Lykke, 2002). Factors responsible for voluntary rural-urban migration include urban job opportunities, better housing conditions, rural land tenure and inheritance patterns, better education opportunities, better health services, extreme poverty etc. Oftentimes, rural dwellers see and hear success stories about people that left the community, moved to cities and are supposedly ‘doing well’. This acts as incentives for out-migration especially among youths.
    Various studies have been carried out on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration. While some of these studies related the causes of rural-urban migration to discriminatory government policies in favour of urban development, response to disparities in income, employment and other socio-economic amenities available within the urban and rural areas, with the urban areas being privileged, others related it to spontaneous, emotional, structural, traditional and some other factors. In a cross sectional study of causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Borno State: A case of Maiduguri metropolis, Gimba and Kumshe (2012) found that the major causes of rural-urban migration are search for better education, employment, and business opportunities; while others include: poverty, unemployment, famine, and inadequate social amenities in the rural areas. Study carried out by (Adewale, 2006) reveals that various factors could predispose a certain rural population to migration, which might be due to crisis, ethno-religious conflicts and wars etc. Agyemang (2013) summarized the major causes of rural –urban migration in Nigeria. He noted that different motives account for rural-urban migration amongst rural dwellers. These include the following:
    Socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their places of origin.
    Poor infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities.
    Search for better economic opportunities such as jobs.
    Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate rural-urban migration.
    The extension of road network from major towns to the peripheral urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

    12) In order to explain the relationship between health and economic growth, it is necessary to understand the concept of health in a broad sense. Health is not only the absence of illnesses; it is also the ability of people
    to develop to their potential during their entire lives. In that sense, health is an asset individuals possess, which has intrinsic value (being healthy is a very important source of well-being) as well as instrumental value. In instrumental terms, health impacts economic growth in a number of ways. For example, it reduces production
    losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children. Health also allows for the use of natural resources that used to be totally or partially inaccessible
    due to illnesses. Finally, it permits the different use of financial resources that might normally be destined for the treatment of ill health.
    In sum, health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts economic growth since aspects such as child health affect the future income of people through the impact
    health has on education. This indirect impact is easier to understand if it is observed on a family level. When a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed, protect and send their children to school. Healthy and well-nourished children will perform better in school and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their children have a high probability of reaching adulthood, in general they will have fewer children and they will be able to invest more in health and education for each of them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor
    to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only asset they have is their body. When they become ill they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences .
    The results of historical studies suggest a very strong relationship between health and economic growth. Robert W. Fogel finds that between one third and one half of England’s economic growth in the past 200 years is due to improvements in the population’s food consumption. In this sense, it has been concluded that health is very essential for development.

    13) A healthy nation is a wealthy nation and any economy that has healthy people is bound to flourish and progress. In developing countries poor public health is a major stumbling block to development because these countries have more sick people who are not adequately taken care of. When a larger portion of the population is sick due to poor public health facilities, then the economic progression of that country will be severely jeopardized.
    There is need for the government in these countries to step up to face this problem of poor public health. The government can do this by:
    Adequately funding public healthcare facilities.
    Sufficiently equipping these healthcare facilities with the necessary medical equipments.
    Enacting effective training programmed for the public health workers.

  47. OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2018/241833
    LEVEL: 300L
    COURSE TITLE: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 1
    COURSE CODE: ECO 361

    QUESTIONS:
    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    10. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    11. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities, and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    12 Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    13. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development, and what is needed to address these problems?

    ANSWERS
    Q6. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors.

    Q7. The constraints on development include:
    a) Inefficiencies within the micro-economy.
    b) Imbalances in the structure of the economy.
    c) A rapidly growing or declining population.
    d) Lack of financial capital.
    e) Lack of human capital.
    f) Poor governance and corruption.
    g) Missing markets.
    h) Over-exploitation of environmental capital.
    i) Barriers to trade.

    Q8. Traditionally, women were considered to be full-time homemakers. Their responsibilities were to take care of their children and family. They didn’t have any role in the household earning. Over the years, the roles of women have changed. Here we are going to discuss it.

    •CHILD-BEARING ROLE
    Women now bear less number of children than they used to before. Most families now have one or two children. They even give birth to a child at a more matured age. Women now have children even without marriage.

    •EDUCATION
    More women are now getting literate and they are also pursuing higher education. This is creating an opportunity for them to work. They are also playing role in family decision making.

    •OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES
    Women are no longer staying home full-time. They are going to the market for doing grocery shopping, paying bills and doing all the works that only men used to do before. They are getting more involved in the outside works.

    •WORKPLACE
    Women have entered the workplace. They also earn for their family just like men. However, the percentage of women in the workplace is still less than that of men as women have to take the major household responsibilities. The percentage of the part-time job is more in case of women. Women are still often seen in the caring or teaching sector. But now more women are entering the male-dominated sectors like politics, the legal system, etc. as well. More women are occupying senior management positions.

    •FIGHTING FOR RIGHTS
    Women now have a voice, unlike before. Families are no more male-dominated. Like men, women also make major life decisions. Women have stood against dowry and domestic violence. Even in the workplace, they fight against sexual abuse and equality. Child marriage is being stopped in many communities.

    Men now play a role in child raising and household activities just like women. Both men and women now share their responsibilities both home and outside. Women now stand against any discrimination and torture. There have been lots of gender-issue related movements and many social organizations now fight for women’s rights. Women are now getting power even in rural areas. In many countries now women are the head of the state. Education has made women independent and they are no longer dependent on men to lead their lives.

    Business laws have changed to allow more women in the workplace and giving them a comfortable environment to work in. Women can now stand tall like men and get equal opportunities in everything.

    Q9. CAUSES OF EXTREME POVERTY
    • Inequality and marginalization
    • Conflict
    •Hunger, malnutrition and stunting
    •Poor healthcare system- Especially for mothers and children
    •Little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene
    •Climate change
    •Lack of education
    •Poor public works and infrastructure
    •Lack of government support
    •Lack of jobs or livelihood
    •Lack of reserves

    POLICES TO REDUCE POVERTY
    In summary, to reduce poverty, government policies could include:

    Means-tested welfare benefits to the poorest in society; for example, unemployment benefit, food stamps, income support and housing benefit.
    Minimum wages. Regulation of labour markets, for example, statutory minimum wages
    Free market policies to promote economic growth – hoping that rising living standards will filter down to the poorest in society.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.

    ECONOMIC POLICIES IN MORE DETAIL
    1. SUSTAINED ECONOMIC GROWTH
    The argument is that promoting economic growth increases total income in society, creating more jobs and income which could be redistributed. In the past 100 years, economic growth has been a major factor in reducing the levels of poverty which were seen in pre-war Britain and the US. However, it is not necessarily the case that income and wealth will trickle down to the poorest. There is a concern that economic growth could widen relative poverty because it benefits the highly skilled and wealthy classes more than those at the bottom. See: Inequality and economic growth

    2. REDUCE UNEMPLOYMENT
    Unemployment is a major cause of poverty because the unemployed have little income, relying on state benefits. Unemployment can be reduced through both supply-side policies, such as free training schemes for those who are structurally unemployed.

    3. PROGRESSIVE TAXES
    Increasing progressive taxes, such as the higher rate of income tax from 40% to 50%, will take more income from those on high-income levels. This enables cuts in regressive taxes (e.g. VAT/Sales tax) and increased welfare benefits which help increase the income of the poor. This can be an effective way to reduce relative poverty.

    4. INCREASING BENEFITS TO THE POOR
    Means-tested benefits involve increasing welfare benefits to those on low incomes. For example, universal tax credit, food stamps or child benefit.

    5. NATIONAL MINIMUM WAGE
    The government could increase the national minimum wage. This is an effective way of increasing the incomes of the low paid and therefore reducing wage inequality. A related concept is the Voluntary Living Wage – an attempt to encourage firms to pay higher wages.

    6. BENEFITS IN KIND.
    These are important public services which are provided free at the point of use (or subsidised). They mainly involve education and health care. Free education enables those from low-income families to gain skills and qualifications which can help lead to better jobs and higher incomes in the future.

    7. UNIVERSAL BASIC INCOME (UBI)
    A universal basic income or citizen’s income involves giving every citizen a weekly benefit – regardless of circumstances and income. The idea is to ensure everyone has a minimum income guarantee, but without any disincentives of losing means-tested benefits from working more.

    Q10. The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since at least 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously argued that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. The theory was simple: given that there is a fixed quantity of land, population growth will eventually reduce the amount of resources that each individual can consume, ultimately resulting in disease, starvation, and war. The way to avoid such unfortunate outcomes was ‘moral restraint’ (i.e. refraining from having too many children). He didn’t foresee the technological advances that would raise agricultural productivity and reduce the toll of infectious diseases—advances that have enabled the world’s population to grow from 1 billion in 1798 to 7.4 billion today.

    Nevertheless, his essential insight that population growth constitutes a potential threat to economic development remained influential and informed international development policy agendas, especially in the 1950s and 1960s—a period marked by unprecedentedly rapid rates of population growth in many developing countries.
    At that time, the general view of economists was that high birth rates and rapid population growth in poor countries would divert scarce capital away from savings and investment, thereby placing a drag on economic development. They hypothesized that larger families have fewer aggregate resources and fewer resources per child. Larger families therefore spread their resources more thinly to support more children. This leaves less for saving and investing in growth-enhancing activities. It also reduces spending on enhancing the economic potential of each child (e.g. through education and health expenditures).

    In the aggregate, these household level consequences of high birth rates were believed to exert a significant negative effect on per capita income growth. This view underpinned the major rise in international funding for family planning in the 1960s and 1970s, with the aim of reducing birth rates and hence rates of population growth.

    Q11. While unemployment and underemployment are still a major concern among many industrialized countries, these issues hit developing countries much harder.
    Mass unemployment and underemployment exacerbate inequalities and fuel a sense of resentment, occasionally leading even to violence. Despite this, the governments of numerous developing countries are slow to develop and implement employment policies matching the challenges.

    WHY DO PEOPLE CONTINUE TO MIGRATE TO THE CITIES FROM RURAL AREAS.
    A Push factor is something that can force or encourage people to move away from an area. Push factors can include faminea, lack of employment opportunities, population growth and over population, and civil war. A Pull factor is one in which encourages people to move to an area. Pull factors include the chance of a better job, better access to education and services, a higher standard of living.

    Q12. Although wealthier is healthier, wealth cannot be understood simply in terms of average income. Second, the effect of average income levels is indirect: higher average incomes may improve public health but only through reduced poverty and improved literacy.

    BUT DOES BETTER HEALTH ALSO HELP SPUR SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT?
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms. For example, it reduces production losses due to worker illness, it increases the productivity of adult as a result of better nutrition, and it lowers absenteeism rates and improves learning among school children.

    Q13. Poor quality health services are holding back progress on improving health in countries at all income levels, according to a new joint report by the OECD, World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank.
    Good health is the foundation of a country’s human capital, and no country can afford low-quality or unsafe healthcare,” World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said. “Low-quality care disproportionately impacts the poor, which is not only morally reprehensible, it is economically unsustainable for families and entire countries. The impact of poor quality care goes well beyond mortality, but can lead to unnecessary suffering, persistent symptoms, loss of function, and a lack of trust in the health system. Other side effects are wasted resources and catastrophic health expenditures.

    WHAT IS NEEDED TO ADDRESS THESE PROBLEMS
    •HIGHER TAXES ON ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO
    One measure to mitigate public health issues is to increase taxes on alcohol and tobacco.
    This tax increase will lead to an increase in prices and people will likely consume less due to this price increase.

    •IMPROVE HEALTH STANDARDS
    In many countries, it is crucial to increase overall health standards.
    It should be assured that everyone who has severe health conditions can be treated appropriately.
    Governments have to make sure that hospitals have enough financial resources and staff to work in an efficient way in order to be able to cure as many people as possible.

    •IMPROVE RESEARCH
    Research is an important measure when it comes to the mitigation of public health issues.
    Advancements in research are the basis for the development of more effective drugs.
    This in turn will lead to better healing chances for patients.
    Moreover, through extensive research, some diseases which are currently incurable may be curable in the future.

    •TRANSNATIONAL SUPPORT
    It is crucial that rich developed countries support poor developing countries financially but also in terms of sharing their research findings in order to fight public health issues.
    By doing so, we will spread knowledge and research advancements in all parts of the world, which in turn likely leads to an increase in overall health standards and to more effective treatment of diseases.

    •REDUCTION IN CONSUMPTION
    Some public health issues are caused by our excessive consumption behavior.
    This is especially true for the global warming issue.
    The production and also the disposal or our goods lead to a huge level of greenhouse gas emission which in turn contributes to global warming.
    Global warming is a serious contributor to public health issues.
    It leads to water shortage for many people and may also destroy the livelihood of many people.
    Therefore, we should reduce our consumption in order to reduce our adverse impact.

    •RECYCLE AND REUSE
    Another measure to mitigate public health issues is to recycle and reuse our material belongings more efficiently.
    Since our consumption level has a big effect on public health issues, we have to ensure that we use our resources in an efficient way in order to reduce the adverse effects.
    Thus, this could mean that you give away your old but yet working stuff or that you at least recycle it in an effective manner.

    •REDUCE CORRUPTIVE ACTIONS
    In order to be able to fight public health issues, we have to reduce corruptive actions.
    Bribing often leads to a state in which a few wealthy people can do whatever they want, while most of the people suffer from severe health conditions due to poverty and a lack of public healthcare services.
    Thus, a reduction in corruptive action levels may also mitigate public health issues to a certain extent.

    •PROMOTE VACCINATIONS
    Another reason for public health issues is that many people refuse vaccinations and also refuse vaccinations for their children.
    This behavior can lead to a spread of diseases.
    By promoting and educating people about the effects of vaccinations, more people may be willing to accept vaccinations and therefore adverse public health effects may be lowered.

    •EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
    Education is crucial for solving problems.
    This is also true for the mitigation of public health issues.
    We have to teach children as well as grownups about the adverse consequences and how we can mitigate them.
    By doing so, people will be more aware of their behavior and are likely to behave in a way that contributes to a reduction in public health issues.
    Moreover, extensive research is necessary in order to fight public health issues.
    This may also include genetic engineering to mitigate the spread of some kinds of diseases.

    •CONVINCE OTHERS
    Your contribution is an important part for solving the public health problem.
    However, by convincing others, you can even make a bigger impact since you can multiply your positive effects.
    Tell your family and friends about the issue regarding public health and how they can contribute to its reduction.
     

  48. Ugochukwu ugonnaya Judith 2018/244297 says:

    Name : Ugochukwu Ugonnaya Judith
    Regno: 2018/244297
    Dept: social science education (education economics)
    1. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compactible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?
    Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of ‘traditional’ or ‘backward’ societies. Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. Sociological and anthropological modernization theory The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim stressed the interdependence of institutions in a society and the way in which they interact with cultural and social unity. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter, who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset, who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland, who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity. Linear stages of growth model The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe’s economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes, especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow’s stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Walt W. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: Traditional society, Preconditions for take-off, Take-off, Drive to maturity, Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally. According to Rostow’s model, a country needed to follow some rules of development to reach the take-off: The investment rate of a country needs to be increased to at least 10% of its GDP, One or two manufacturing sectors with a high rate of growth need to be established, An institutional, political and social framework has to exist or be created in order to promote the expansion of those sectors.
    2. What constraints must hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?
    The pace of development can be slowed down, or even reversed, by various factors affecting the economy. Some of these constraints can be dealt with through economic and social policy, while others may be difficult to resolve. The constraints on development include:
    i. Joint Family System :- In many countries like India and Pakistan this system is still available. All the members of the family live together. Few of them work hard while the others do nothing, except quarreling with one another. So due to this reason national product reduces.
    ii. Literacy :- The literacy rate is very low in the under developed countries. It reduces the rate of economic growth.
    iii. Inefficiency: Producers in less developed countries may not be able to produce at the lowest possible average cost. This may be because of the failure to apply technology to production, using obsolete technology, or because of the inability to achieve economies of scale. Opening up the economy to free trade may help reduce this type of inefficiency, and encourage technology transfer. When developing economies remain closed to competition, when they are dominated by local monopolies, or when production is in the hands of the state, prices might not reflect the marginal cost of production. Opening up the economy to free trade, and privatisation of industry may help promote a more competitive environment, and reduce allocatively inefficiency.
    iv. Imbalance: Not all sectors of an economy are capable of growth. For some developing economies, too many scarce resources may be allocated to sectors with little growth potential. This is especially the case with the production of agriculture and commodities. In these sectors, there is little opportunity for economic growth because the impact of real and human capital development is small, and marginal factor productivity is very low. Failure to allocate scarce resources to where they are most productive can impose a limit on development.
    v. Population: Population is a considerable constraint on economic growth, either, and most commonly, because there is too a high rate of population growth for the country’s current resources, or because the population is growing too slowly or declining as a result of war, famine, or disease. Many economists see population growth as the single biggest issue facing developing countries. The line of argument runs as follows: At first, the take-off phase of development and economic growth creates positive externalities from the application of science and technology to healthcare and education and this leads to a decline in the death rate, but no decline, or even an increase, in the birth rate. Over time life expectancy rises, but the age distribution remains skewed, with an increasing number of dependents in the lower age range. As a result, the number of consumers relative to producers increases. The short-term gains from growth are quickly eroded as GDP per capita actually falls, hence, only when the birth rate falls will GDP per capita rise. In this case, there is a positive role for government in terms of encouraging a lower birth rate.
    vi. Lack of real capital: Many developing economies do not have sufficient financial capital to engage in public or private investment. There are several reasons for this, including the following: low growth, lack of saving, debts, crowding out, etc.
    3. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?
    Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition. Women are the primary caretakers of children and elders in every country of the world. International studies demonstrate that when the economy and political organization of a society change, women take the lead in helping the family adjust to new realities and challenges. They are likely to be the prime initiator of outside assistance, and play an important role in facilitating (or hindering) changes in family life. Rural women play a key role in supporting their households and communities in achieving food and nutrition security, generating income, and improving rural livelihoods and overall well-being. The contribution of women to a society’s transition from pre-literate to literate likewise is undeniable. Basic education is key to a nation’s ability to develop and achieve sustainability targets. Research has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity, enhance the status of girls and women, reduce population growth rates, enhance environmental protection, and widely raise the standard of living. It is the mother in the family who most often urges children of both genders to attend – and stay – in school. The role of women is at the front end of the chain of improvements leading to the family’s, the community’s long-term capacity. Today, the median female share of the global workforce is 45.4 percent. Women’s formal and informal labor can transform a community from a relatively autonomous society to a participant in the national economy. Despite significant obstacles, women’s small businesses in rural developing communities not only can be an extended family’s lifeline, but can form a networked economic foundation for future generations. The role of women in the urban and rural workforce has expanded exponentially in recent decades. The theme for International Women’s Day 2019 “Think equal, build smart, innovate for change,” was chosen to identify innovative ways to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, accelerating the 2030 Agenda, building momentum for the effective implementation of the new U.N. Sustainable Development Goals. Of course, women’s opportunities still lag behind those of men worldwide. But, the historic and current role of women is indisputable. Global Volunteers’ community development work in host countries worldwide strengthens women’s and children’s capacity and supports their sustained health and development. Under the direction of local leaders, our volunteers help ensure academic accessibility, foster parental involvement, offer psycho-social support, provide nutrition and health education, fund girls’ scholarships, construct schools with girls’ bathrooms, tutor literacy, and numeracy, and so much more. Contact us using the form below to learn how you can contribute to this critical agenda.
    4. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?
    i. Unemployment: it is a major factor contributing to poverty in Nigeria. There is a strong correlation between unemployment and poverty. When people are unemployed, their source of livelihood depletes over time. The cost of living becomes high and the standard of living goes down. There are many people in Nigeria who lack the opportunity of being employed. The formal unemployment rate in Nigeria as estimated by the World Bank in 2007 was 4.9 percent and Nigeria ranked 61st across the worlds countries.
    ii. Corruption: Transparency International defines corruption as “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. This has become a common act in Nigeria and it has destabilized the political system drastically. Government funds are being misappropriated on a daily basis by the leaders, who only put the interest of their family and friends at heart while ignoring the masses. The corruption has eaten so deeply into the government and economy that everyone seems to be blinded by it. Corruption has almost become an accepted way of life in Nigeria.
    iii. Inequality: Inequality implies a concentration of a distribution, whether one is considering income, consumption or some other welfare indicators or attributes. There was an increase in income disparity after the economic growth which Nigeria experienced between1965-1975, and this income inequality has increased the dimension of poverty in the country. The income inequality between the people in rural and urban areas in Nigeria is remarkably high, as those who live in the rural areas base all their income on agriculture which is today not a thriving sector in Nigeria as oil has taken over the economy. They do not invest their money to acquire skills as people in the urban areas would and this makes them more vulnerable to poverty and leads to some social and economic problems such as violence, corruption and so on.
    5. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing Nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?
    Underdevelopment, resource scarcity, and environmental degradation are cardinal, even existential, threats to human security. These challenges not only threaten human life and well-being, but also impact the global geopolitical and economic landscape. Chronic underdevelopment condemns more than 1 billion people to lives of poverty, illness, and poor political and economic prospects. Long-term goals of economic and human development are undermined by scarce, unreliable, or unaffordable supplies of vital resources such as food, water, and energy. Climate change threatens to exacerbate the effects of environmental degradation, putting land and livelihoods at grave risk. These challenges are deeply interconnected and global in scope; for developing countries, they can be fatal burdens. Poverty, hunger, and disease feed off each other, plaguing huge numbers of people, while water scarcity and desertification threaten to set back major improvements in development. As rapid population growth strains already scarce natural resources, increasing urbanization puts additional pressure on infrastructures that are already weak. Meanwhile, the looming effects of climate change threaten large populations in vulnerable geographic areas, where natural disasters and environmental damage are likely to dispro￾portionately affect the world’s poor. Large families do not make economic sense in a poverty infested economy.
    6. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?
    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected–a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban “murky sector,” preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover–and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy’s production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a first best solution can be achieved by means of a variety of alternative tax or subsidy schemes, none of which require migration restriction. This analysis suggests 3 additional policy variables, beyond those considered by either pair, which might be expected to have an important effect on the volume of unemployment and underemployment in LDCs: a smoothly functioning labor exchange would reduce the incentive to remain unemployed while searching for a superior job; the size of the educational system would also influence the amount of unemployment; and it is job hiring in the modern sector, more than the number of jobs, which primarily influences workers’ locational decisions.
    7. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?
    Beyond the econometrics, it is interesting to compare the simple association between the health indicators and per capita income. This is expected to yield more insight into the nexus between health and economic growth. The simple association using scatter diagram between the health indicators, per capita income and doctors per capita reveals that:
    • There is a positive relationship between per capita income and life expectancy. At low income levels there is a sharp improvement in health as incomes increase. There is a strong positive relationship between the life expectancy and per capita income up to a threshold per capita income level of about $375. The relationship becomes weak as incomes rise beyond that point, although it remains positive.
    • There is an inverse relationship between income and crude death rate. At a low level of development, crude death rate declines faster, with only a slight improvement in per capita income levels. Nevertheless, progress in reducing death rate slows after a threshold level of about $375.
    • There is a positive relationship between per capita health expenditure and life expectancy. At low expenditure levels there is a sharp improvement in health as expenditure increases.
    • The number of doctors is positively related to life expectancy. At low doctors per capita levels there is a sharp improvement in health as the number of doctors’ per capita increase.
    • There is an inverse relationship between doctors’ per capita and infant mortality rate as well as and doctors per capita and the death rate. The decline in the mortality rate is noted to be faster as the number of doctor increases.
    8. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospect for development, and what is needed to address these problems?
    Social and financial risk protection for poor and vulnerable populations is a major development and policy issue across the globe. There are numerous definitions of social protection. In the context of health, social protection is defined as programmes and measures aimed at removing financial barriers preventing access to health care services and protecting poor and vulnerable populations from the impoverishing effects of medical expenditures. Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC) and the health system goal of ensuring access to quality health care services without suffering financial hardship. Social and financial risk protection can be provided through programmes and measures that are rooted in legislation. Lack of social and financial risk protection leads to high levels of poverty, vulnerability and inequality in health. When the majority of a country’s population encounters the aforementioned problems, governments have to be responsive and design programmes that are rooted in legislation. Since independence in 1960, Nigeria has had a very limited scope of legal coverage for social protection besides over 90% of the Nigerian population being without health insurance coverage. The Nigerian health system has been evolving over the years through health care reforms aiming to address the public health challenges confronting it. This includes: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), National Immunisation Coverage Scheme (NICS), Midwives Service Scheme (MSS).

  49. Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness says:

    Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness
    2081/242393
    Economics

    6. Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system. The “development of underdevelopment” is therefore systemic and path-dependent. It says that underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.

    7. Poor utilization of infrastructure
    Government policies
    Corruption
    Allocation inefficiency

    8. Throughout history, the central role of women in society has ensured the stability, progress and long-term development of nations. Globally, women comprise 43 percent of the world’s agricultural labor force – rising to 70 percent in some countries. For instance, across Africa, 80 percent of the agricultural production comes from small farmers, most of whom are rural women. It’s widely accepted that agriculture can be the engine of growth and poverty reduction in developing nations. Women, notably mothers, play the largest role in decision-making about family meal planning and diet. And, women self-report more often their initiative in preserving child health and nutrition.
    Empowering more women to work, results in better growth of third-world economies. This is because women’s economic empowerment, increases economic diversification, boosts productivity and income equality, resulting in other positive development outcomes.

    9. Poor health services
    Lack of employment opportunities
    Inadequate basic amenities
    Corruption among the government
    Effective policies for improving the lives of the poor are:
    Creation of job opportunities
    Access to health care services
    Social security of the nation
    Provision of public infrastructures like water, light etc by the government

    10. Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies.

    11. The nature of unemployment in under-developed countries is quite different; it is of chronic and long-term nature. It is now almost universally recognised that the chronic unemployment and under-employment in less developed countries are not due to the lack of aggregate effective demand which, according to J.M. Keynes, was responsible for unemployment in developed countries in times of depression. Rather it is stated to be due to the lack of land, capital and other complementary resources in relation to the total population and labour force. In the phenomenon examined by Keynes, not only labour force but also capital equipment were unemployed due to the deficiency of aggregate effective demand. In other words, in the Keynesian scheme, both the labour force and capital equipment were crying out for full employment which could be achieved by raising the level of aggregate monetary expenditure.
    Thus, according to Joan Robinson:
    “Keynes’ theory has little to say, directly, to the under-developed countries, for it was framed entirely in the context of an advanced industrial economy, with highly developed financial institutions and a sophisticated business class. The unemployment that concerned Keynes was accompanied by under-utilisation of capacity already in existence. It had resulted from a fall in effective demand. The unemployment of under-developed economies arises because capacity and effective demand never have been great enough”.

    12. Health affects economic growth directly
    through labor productivity and the economic burden
    of illnesses, for example. Health also indirectly impacts
    economic growth since aspects such as child health
    affect the future income of people through the impact
    health has on education. This indirect impact is easier
    to understand if it is observed on a family level. When
    a family is healthy, both the mother and the father can
    hold a job, earn money which allows them to feed,
    protect and send their children to school. Healthy and
    well-nourished children will perform better in school
    and a better performance in school will positively
    impact their future income. If parents ensure that their
    children have a high probability of reaching adulthood,
    in general they will have fewer children and they will be
    able to invest more in health and education for each of
    them. Additionally, the loss of health affects the poor
    to a greater extent since the main, and at times, only
    asset they have is their body. When they become ill
    they have fewer alternative solutions and suffer greater consequences.

    13. Disease and poor health represent a great burden to affected individuals. Whilst difficult to quantify, the welfare losses to the individual of being severely ill can be significant, particularly in those developing regions with limited social security provision and health care. Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development. The many studies that have attempted to explain cross-country
    differences in economic growth and productivity rates have typically suggested that education, trade openness, savings, inflation and the initial level of income are amongst the key explanatory variables (Barro, 1991; Mankiw et al., 1992; Barro and
    Sala-i-Martin, 1995; Miller and Upadhyay, 2000). There are good reasons to suggest,
    however, that health is also an important determinant. Lvovsky (2001), for instance,
    estimates that the burden of disease in LDCs, expressed in disability-adjusted life
    years (DALYs) lost per million people, is approximately twice that in developed
    countries.1
    This results from the far higher incidence of disease and malnutrition in LDCs compared to developed regions. Whilst the burden of disease may be a function
    of poverty, a high disease burden is also likely to adversely affect a nation’s development prospects.

  50. EKE SUNDAY says:

    EKE SUNDAY
    2018/245405
    ekesunday81@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    ECO 361

    ASSIGNMENTS:
    (6):. Which are the influential theories of development and are they compatible? is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    (7):. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    (8):. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    (9):. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    (10):. Rapid population growth threatening the economic progress of developing Nations? Do large families make economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity?

    (11):. Why is there so much unemployment and underemployment in the developing world, especially in the cities and why do people continue to migrate to the cities from rural areas even when their chances of finding a conventional job are very slim?

    (12):. Wealthier societies are also healthier ones because they have more resources for improving nutrition and health care. But does better health also help spur successful development?

    (13):. What is the impact of poor public health on the prospects for development and what is needed to address these problems?.

    (6):

    WHAT IS A THEORY:
    When you have a theory, you have a set of beliefs or principles that might not be proven yet. … A theory is a set of accepted beliefs or organized principles that explain and guide analysis and one of the ways that theory is defined is that it is different from practice, when certain principles are tested.

    WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT THEORY:
    Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. … Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities.

    THE MOST INFLUENCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY ARE AND WHETHER THEY ARE COMPATIBLE: Development is defined by Todaro and Smith as a multi-dimensional processthat involves major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions, as well as economic growth, reduction of inequality, and eradication of absolute poverty. Most scholars propounded theories concerning development, how it is achieved and how it is impeded.These theories are the Modernization theory, the Dependency theory and the Feminist theory.The modernization theory elaborates on two main categories of societies in world, namely the traditional and modern societies. Theorists argue that the traditional societies are entangled by norms, beliefs and values which are hindering their development process. Thereforethey must adapt the modern style of living, thus concentrate on accumulation of capital and industrialization. In essence, this theory seeks to improve the standard of living of inferior societies, that is,improves the economic growth of supposed traditional societies to acquire basic and secondary necessities of life, by introducing modern technology and economic strategy to the third world. Modernization theorist, Rostow, also proposed swift machineries of transition for traditional societies to develop; these are preparation to take-off, take-off, drive to maturity and the period of mass consumption. These transitional path processes put traditional societies on the development path. Again, the theory succeeds in the idea that the norms, values and beliefs of a society can affect the social change of that society.
    Despite the advantages attributed to the theory, it has weaknesses which must be addressed. Firstly, the theory seeks to entail only the economic and concrete industrial growth of the third world countries. The theory lacks Amartya’s view of development, which states that “development can be seen as the process of expanding the freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen,1999). To Sen, development entails freedom, liberty, and self esteem of humanity which areneglected by the theory.Secondly, the modernization theory posited that the third world countries must admit the development processes of the modern countries. It fails to recognize the fact that one system cannot be adopted by all countries due to the diverse historical and cultural background of the countries.Lastly, Wallerstien pointed out that the theory creates dependency and exploitation of the third world countries. The theory neglects the social and cultural structure of the third world countries and imposes on the poor, ethnocentric processes to develop. The dependency theory on the other hand opposes the modernization theory. Its main argument is that, the persistent increment in industrialization in the developed countries rather equally subject poor countries to underdevelopment as a result of the economic surplus of the poor countries being exploited by developed countries.It was a great analysis done by Frank A. Gunder by being able to debunk the weak, non historical and ethnocentric issues propounded by the modernization theory (Webster 1984).Also, Gunder succeeded in pointing out the economic inequalities among the developed and the developing countries, as well as the rampant internal inequalities in the various periphery countries and the exploitation of economic surplus developing countries during colonialism.
    Again, the theory posits an essence emphasis on the fact that development is not mainly based on the cultural values but rather, the economic and social structures and procedures.Dependency theory incurs some weaknesses. Frank failed to exhibit the specific and key dependency of the less developed countries on the metropolis, he merely stated that poor countries depend on rich countries with no specific clarification. The theory downplays internal development. It promotes the idea that indigenous industries cannot develop by it productivity which is not true. Moreover, the theory refuses to point out how the developed countries get access to the economic surplus of the third world countries.The feminist theory of development has its main argument being that, women have a great influence in development therefore must be empowered to partake in decision making and its implementation. This theory plays much role in the building of women capacity and capabilities as development is concerned. Also feminists were able to bring awareness of gender inequalities among societies and engaged in massive activities to emancipate women. Feminists succeeded in propounding theories namely, Women in Development (WID) and Woman and development (WAD) to promote equity.Despite feminists’ achievement on the theory, they seemed to address the interest of females instead of addressing issues concerned with gender as a whole. This was criticized by the Gender and development theory. Also, upon all the activities and struggle to attain a high standard of living for women, there are still high inequalities among our social world unaddressed. The feminist theory failed to point out the actual actions and procedures which must be taken by the society and men to empower women in development process but just emphasized on why women must be part and neglected the “how”.

    Is an underdevelopment an internally or externally induced phenomenon?:

    Underdevelopment refers to the low level of development characterized by low real per capita income, wide-spread poverty, lower level of literacy, low life expectancy and underutilisation of resources etc. … Such countries are characterised by relative development gap in comparison to developed countries.
    Underdevelopment is viewed as an externally-induced process which is perpetuated by a small but powerful domestic elite who form an alliance with the international capitalist system.
    Underdevelopment is due to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country-poor country relationships. Developed nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful towards developing countries. Underdevelopment is thus externally induced.

    (7)
    The include; macroeconomic factors that can affect entire economies, including such things as interest rates, inflation rates, and unemployment rates, along with periods of growth and contraction, Inefficiencies within the micro-economy. Imbalances in the structure of the economy. A poor country such as India could not save enough of its annual national income to sustain high rates of investment. The lack of domestic savings was without doubt the most serious constraint to economic growth in the early decades after political independence, the foreign exchange constraint.
    (1) Interlocking Various Circle.
    2. Population Problems
    3. The Difficult of Adapting Western Technology
    4. Lack of Preparation for an Industrial Revolution
    5.The International Context:

    (8)
    Economic globalization increased direct foreign investment and expanded job opportunities, thus allowing more women to join the workforce and reach decision-making positions. However, the opportunities for income and employment expansion must be seized to promote sustainable development and gender equality.
    Economic growth did not necessarily ensure gender equality, but it could only be sustained if matched by advances in the status of women.
    Women comprise a large part of the world’s population and when women’s role and status improve, it impacts development in several ways.

    (9)
    Increase rate of rising population: …
    Less productivity in agriculture: …
    Less utilization of resources: …
    A short rate of economic development: …
    Unemployment: …
    Shortage of capital and able entrepreneurship: …
    Social factors, political regime and dictatorship, western countries and the global order, physical geography diseases.

    Key policies include; strengthening the capacity of producer organizations and rural institutions; and increasing investment in rural infrastructure, research and services to create new income generating … social security, negative income taxes, and in-kind benefits.
    Direct provision of goods/services – subsidised housing, free education and healthcare.

    (10)

    Rapid population growth causes increase in poverty and can also be known from its effect on agriculture. Increase in population raises population pressure on arable land and reduces land-man ratio which causes lower growth.
    Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems.

    Large families make no economic sense in an environment of widespread poverty and financial insecurity,
    A family is said to be large when it has four children or more.
    The disadvantages of having a large family include financial stress, a missed connection with some of the children and emotional stress put on the family by the problems that others in the unit are experiencing.
    Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described.
    Larger families devote more of their income to necessities and less to luxuries. … Overall, as the number of children grows, families spend a larger share of their income on current consumption, and per capita income declines.

    (11)

    WHAT IS UNEMPLOYMENT:
    The term unemployment refers to a situation when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work.
    Why there is so much underemployment and unemployment in the developing world especially in the cities:
    If the economy is currently in a recession or economic depression, it is unlikely that organizations will be hiring for many full-time positions.

    2. Supply and demand
    Underemployment also occurs when the supply of workers is greater than its demand. A few reasons can be an increase in population growth or a decrease in the demand for a product.

    When certain industries no longer need workers, people with the skills that match that industry may be forced to accept low-income jobs that don’t fully utilize their skills. For example, the decline of the coal industry has forced many former mining employees to look for work in other industries.

    3. Technological changes
    Sometimes technology takes the job of a worker who would have previously been employed in a position that has since become automated. For example, vending machines have taken the jobs of some cafeteria workers and cashiers, and ATMs have replaced some bank tellers.
    Low consumer demand creates cyclical unemployment. Companies lose too much profit when demand falls. … The higher unemployment causes consumer demand to drop even more, which is why it’s cyclical. It results in large-scale unemployment.
    Cities unemployment will stay high for at least three to six months because of three reasons–lack of employment opportunities, employers’ hesitation to hire more, and an increased risk-aversion among workers due to the scientific study that has established that the coronavirus is spreading through air.

    Why people migrate to cities from rural areas even when there chances of being employed are very slim:
    They see rural areas as a place where old and local people dwell, also they see it as a place where their potentials are limited. They believe that chances of survival is more in the cities.
    They believe city life;
    Firstly, have more chances to develop their career because most big companies locate there and they are always in need of different kinds of people with diverse talents.

    (12)

    Whether better health also help spur successful development;
    Better health helps spur successful development;
    Throughout history, improved health has been one of the main benefits of development. This benefit results partly from an increase in income and partly from scientific progress in the fight against disease and disability. This second factor is increasingly important compared to simple economic growth.
    Studies show this is true for countries as well; health can be a causative factor for the aggregate economic growth of a country. The World Health Organization has estimated that a 10-year increase in average life expectancy at birth is associated with a rise in economic growth of some 0.3-0.4% a year.
    Ensuring the health and well-being of all is essential to poverty eradication efforts and achieving sustainable development, contributing to economic growth and prosperous communities. … It is also a key indicator of a country’s progress: a nation with a healthy population is more likely to experience sustained growth.
    The positive impact that health has on growth and poverty reduction occurs through a number of mechanisms, such as through a reduction of production losses due to fewer worker illnesses, the increased productivity of adults as a result of better nutrition, lower absenteeism rates and improved learning among school.

    (13)
    Poor health is a condition of inability to perform physically, mentally or socially of what is required from a person.
    Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases.
    Poor health can limit one’s ability to work, reduce economic opportunities which limits development.
    Poor public health can affect children’s cognitive development, and spur mental health problems. … Most individual long-term conditions are more than twice as common in adults from lower socio-economic groups, and mental health problems are much more prevalent which impacts negatively to Development prospects.
    At a societal level, poor population health is associated with lower savings rates, lower rates of return on capital, and lower levels of domestic and foreign investment; all of these factors can and do contribute to reductions in economic development (Ruger et al., 2006).
    Individuals suffering from illness may be weak, unable to work or study and generally unable to provide for children and other dependants. At a more aggregated level, however, it seems likely that a high disease burden may have an adverse impact on a country’s productivity, growth and, ultimately, economic development.

    What is needed to address the problems of poor public health:::
    There is a toxic mix of problems including inaccessibility of quality health care, poor hygiene, corruption, malnutrition, lack of access to safe drinking water, poor health infrastructure, fake drugs, insufficient financial investment, and lack of sufficient health personnel.
    What are needed are;
    Living conditions. …
    Urban planning. … infrastructure
    Education. …
    Nutrition and early child development. …
    Social security measures. …
    Food security measures. …
    Other social assistance programs.
    Improve collection and monitoring of health data.
    Ensure the provision essential drug availability.
    Improve on immunization programs. Challenges in Africa
    Improve the Doctor-Patient Ratio. …
    Combat the Brain Drain Phenomenon. …
    Better Medical Education. …
    Increase the Budgetary Allocation. …
    Improved Coordination. …
    Widespread Public Awareness. …
    Incorporating TechnologyHuman resource development and capacity building
    There are several shortfalls that need to be addressed in the development of human resources for public health services. There is a dire need to establish training facilities for public health specialists along with identifying the scope for their contribution in the field. The Public Health Foundation of India is a positive step to redress the limited institutional capacity in India by strengthening training, research and policy development in public health. Preservice training is essential to train the medical workforce in public health leadership and to impart skills required for the practice of public health. Changes in the undergraduate curriculum are vital for capacity building in emerging issues like geriatric care, adolescent health and mental health. Inservice training for medical officers is essential for imparting management skills and leadership qualities. Equally important is the need to increase the number of paramedical workers and training institutes in India. into Healthcare.
    Promote treatment of epidemic diseases.
    Improve food supply and nutrition.

  51. IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS - 2018/242340 says:

    NAME: IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242340
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    6. Which are the most influential theories of development, and are they compatible? Is underdevelopment an internally (domestically) or externally (internationally) induced phenomenon?

    Theories are sets of simplifying assumptions about how the world works that help analysts organize their study of development problems and policies. By working out the logical implications of a theory’s assumptions, analysts can identify many forces that might improve a particular development outcome or many impacts that might follow from a particular policy. But only by bringing theory into contact with reality through empirical research can they learn which of the many theoretically possible causes or effects are likely to be practically important in a particular context.
    The relevant theory is not a single, grand theory that summarizes the entire socioeconomic system in several equations, nor is it a catalogue of disjoint theories addressing miscellaneous development questions. Rather, it is a coherent framework built up from the foundations of microeconomic theory, which guides students in a logical fashion through the study of how people in developing countries make important decisions regarding consumption, time allocation, production, saving, and investment, and of what happens when many such decision makers interact with one another in market and nonmarket settings. The relevant theory relaxes assumptions that are maintained in basic microeconomics courses, acknowledging the potential importance in development studies of transaction and transportation costs, risk, imperfect information, institutional rules and norms, and insights from behavioural economics. While individual components of the theory focus on small subsets of socioeconomic outcomes—such as farm households’ consumption and production choices or market prices—the framework also brings out the relationships among the many components, helping students build bridges from the micro study of choices and the meso study of markets and institutions to a coherent macro understanding of economic growth, poverty reduction, and development more generally. Todaro and Smith (2012) identified four major and often competing development theories. They are:
    i. The linear-stages-of-growth model: In the 1950s and 1960s, theorists viewed the process of development as a series of successive stages of economic growth through which all countries must pass. It was primarily an economic theory of development in which the right quantity and mixture of saving, investment, and foreign aid were all that was necessary to enable developing nations to proceed along an economic growth path that had historically been followed by the more developed countries. Development thus became synonymous with rapid, aggregate economic growth. Examples are Rostow’s Stages of Growth and Harrod-Domar Growth Model
    ii. Theories and patterns of structural change: These theories used modern economic theory and statistical analysis to portray the internal process of structural change that a “typical” developing country must undergo if it is to succeed in generating and sustaining rapid economic growth. Examples include The Lewis Theory of Development and patterns of development
    iii. The international-dependence revolution: This was more radical and more political. It viewed underdevelopment in terms of international and domestic power relationships, institutional and structural economic rigidities, and the resulting proliferation of dual economies and dual societies both within and among the nations of the world. Dependence theories tended to emphasize external and internal institutional and political constraints on economic development. Examples include the neo-colonial dependence model, the false-paradigm model, and the dualistic-development thesis
    iv. The neoclassical, free-market counterrevolution: This neoclassical (sometimes called neoliberal) counterrevolution in economic thought emphasized the beneficial role of free markets, open economies, and the privatization of inefficient public enterprises. Failure to develop, according to this theory, is not due to exploitive external and internal forces as expounded by dependence theorists. Rather, it is primarily the result of too much government intervention and regulation of the economy. An example is Traditional Neoclassical Growth Theory.
    It is not wrong to say that these theories are compatible. Each of these theories are important for policy purposes, depending on the situation a developing country is. Most developing countries are faced with different challenges, some of these challenges cannot be solved by a single theory. Since the aim is to solve problems of underdevelopment, a combination of development theories is fine too.
    It is wrong to conclude generally that problem of underdevelopment is internally induced or externally induced. Whereas dependence theorists (many, but not all, of whom were economists from developing countries) saw underdevelopment as an externally induced phenomenon, neoclassical revisionists (most, but not all, of whom were Western economists) saw the problem as an internally induced phenomenon of developing countries, caused by too much government intervention and bad economic policies. Most developing countries have different structures, these structures and many other things are to be considered before reaching conclusion about whether the problems/challenges faced by developing countries are internally or externally induced.

    7. What constraints most hold back accelerated growth, depending on local conditions?

    Different countries face different binding constraints on achieving faster rates of growth and economic development. A key mission for economic development specialists is to help determine the nature of the constraints for each country. Ricardo Hausmann, Dani Rodrik, and Andrés Velasco (HRV) propose a growth diagnostics decision tree framework for zeroing in on a country’s most binding constraints on economic growth. HRV explain that targeting the most binding constraint has important advantages over other approaches to policy selection. The following are the most binding constraints according to HRV.
    i. Poor geography
    ii. Bad infrastructure
    iii. Low human capital
    iv. Micro risks: property rights, corruption, taxes
    v. Macro risks: financial, monetary, fiscal instability
    vi. Information externalities: “self-discovery”
    vii. Coordination externalities
    viii. Low domestic saving
    ix. Bad international finance
    x. Poor intermediation

    8. How can improvements in the role and status of women have an especially beneficial impact on development prospects?

    – Reduces overpopulation: Improvements in the role of women can help to prevent or manage population explosion. This is another aspect that is plaguing some developing countries. By upgrading the roles of women in the society and engaging them in activities that increases the value of a women beyond common housewives, they take responsibility and support the goal of achieving inclusive economic development.
    – Increased number of educated individuals: The level of human capital in an economy is a function of the level of educated, highly-skilled workers in that economy. To achieve development, high quality education must be embraced. Research has it that the level of literacy attained by women (through formal education) has significant impact on the development of their children. By increasing the role and status of women, they will be encouraged to embrace education and even pass it down to their children, and thus, increase development prospects.
    – Quality workforce in the long run: With increased role and status of women through effective policies that create disincentives to be an illiterate or have an illiterate child, the quality of the labour force will increase in the long run, and thus, the overall productivity of the nation. This will most likely pave way for the attainment of development objectives.

    9. What are the causes of extreme poverty, and what policies have been most effective for improving the lives of the poorest of the poor?

    – Unemployment: This one of the bi