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Eco. 391—20-8-2021(Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research)

 

Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

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  1. MEANING AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH.
    Research may be defined as the creation of new knowledge and use the existing knowledge to a new creative way as to generate new concept,methodology and understanding.
    RESEARCH HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS

    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions.
    5. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    As a special adviser to mr. president, research means the following things to me
    1. My chief tool of analysis so as to enable me give the best advices to mr. president
    2. it serves as my main method of analyzing and drawing accurate conclusions on events, happenings and policies in the country.
    3. research will help me to advice the president on the best strategies to follow in tackling both home and abroad crisis.

    THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    C. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  2. Avatar Ugwuegede Chiamaka Precious says:

    Name: Ugwuegede Chiamaka Precious
    Reg no: 2017/249463
    Dept: Combined Social Sciences (Economics /Geography)
    course Code: Eco 391
    Course Title: Research Methods 1.

    Assignment.

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER:

    As a special Adviser to Mr President on Research and strategy, I would like to define Research as, The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It is the process of discovering new knowledge.
    Research is a studious inquiry or examination in that it involves critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, with its aim being the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions and theories.
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”

  3. Avatar Agboeze lovina chidera says:

    NAME:AGBOEZE LOVINA CHIDERA
    REG NO:2017/249297
    DEPARTMENT:COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/GEOGRAPHY)
    Email:lovinachidera20@gmail.com
    COURSE:RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1 (ECO 391)
    LEVEL:400L

    ASSIGNMENT
    MEANING AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH.
    Research may be defined as the creation of new knowledge and use the existing knowledge to a new creative way as to generate new concept,methodology and understanding.
    The scope of a research explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the study and specifies the parameters within which the study will be operating. Thus, the scope of a study will define the purpose of the study, the population size and characteristics, geographical location, the time period within which the study will be conducted, the theories that the study will focus on, etc.
    As a researcher, you have to be careful when you define your scope or area of focus. Remember that if you broaden the scope too much, you might not be able to do justice to the work or it might take a very long time to complete. Consider the feasibility of your work before you write down the scope. Again, if the scope is too narrow, the findings might not be generalizable.
    For example, your study is about online personal banking, but it will not be possible for you to cover all banks and all individuals who use the online banking system. Therefore, you can maybe specify that your study will cover 100 people of one particular area and examine their use of the online banking system.

  4. Avatar OFODU SANDRA says:

    NAME: OFODU SANDRA CHISOM
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2014/195507
    EMAIL ADDRESS: adaofodu@gmail.com
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: EXTERNAL STUDENT
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS 1

    QUESTION:
    IN THE VIEW OF THE ABOVE ASSERTION AND IN THE LIGHT OF OTHER DEFINITIONS OFFERED BY VARIOUS RESEARCH PUNDITS, CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVICER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    The definition above is one out of the numerous definitions given by various authors. For the purpose of giving more insight of this topic, let us view some of these definitions of ‘Research’ below.

    According to Wikipedia, it is the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge.

    Waltz and Bansell in 1981, defined research as A systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process, employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts.

    Ogunnyi (1992) defines it as A careful or diligent search, studious and critical enquiry and examination aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge.

    The Department of Education and Teanining of the Western Sydney University, defines Research as the Creation of new knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous reseat h to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    According to Madueme (2010), it is A systematic and objective investigation or activity to unravel and provide solutions to unknown phenomena in the environment.

    Some ideas are constant with thse definitions mentioned above. The ideas are
    1: Research is systematic. It follows a guide, a rule, a set of laid out steps.
    2: Research is careful. It should not and cannot be carried out carelessly.
    3: At the end of a research, there is meant to be answers or solutions. An added knowledge.

    Let us break down the word ‘Research’. ‘Re’ is a prefix that means again; anew. It indicates repetition. ‘Search’ is a verb which means to seek or examine carefully, closely or thoroughly, to test and try or to probe.

    These words put together, form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish results which are facts or principles.

    Nworgu (1991), noted that reseat h exists because of man’s curiosity and his inquisitive nature. Man has always searched and will continue to search for facts yet unknown to him; for answers to questions or puzzles yet unsolved. So it is safe to say, that research was born out of man’s curiosity and nature to know more. In our world today, there are still many facts, principles that are unknown and yet to be discovered. This is the reason that research has become rampant and even advancing.

    The investigation called Research, involves the use of various analytical tools and techniques, which includes, the collection of data from different and vital data sources, data analysis and its interpretations. These tools and techniques when used will culminate into the extension of the frontiers of knowledge in any field of study.

    Research is not impulsive. It is not a reflex action. It is not conducted just for its sake or to fulfil some righteousness. Rather, a research is carried out for a purpose it could be, to answer a question, to advance solutions for a problem, to dispute and correct a theory or to improve on the knowledge of the topic being researched.

    As the Special Advicer to Mr President on Research and Strategy, I will define Research as an Indepth examination and investigation conducted with an open and unbiased mind, following a set of systematic steps like data collection, data analysis and interpretation, to provide new facts, to solve new or existing problems, to prove/develop theories and to broaden the bounds of knowledge.

    Thank you Mr President.

  5. Avatar EZEMA CHARITY CHIADIKOBI says:

    NAME: EZEMA CHARITY CHIADIKOBI
    REG NO:2018/245943
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    The given definition that Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws enlightens the fact that research can be seen as an act which helps to Search for information, or knowledge; examination of facts or principles; it can also mean the means of seeking information to certain questions.
    The word RESEARCH has no precised definition as various researchers defined it according to their own perspectives like Creswell J.W (2008) analyzed that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue,
    Martin Shuttleworth (2008) stated Research is any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to Best and Khan (1998), Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possible control of events.
    From a popular japanese Anime called ‘NARUTO’, a character named “Orochimaru” defined research as any critical findings to a particular issue or subject matter in order to get an unknown answer so as to get stronger both physically and mentally.
    All these various definitions are accurate in their respective ways as their all centered on a Keyword; INVESTIGATION.
    To me, Research means the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS AND EXAMPLES
    what is research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    1. Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    2. Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    1. Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    2. Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    3. Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    4. Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    5. Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights

    Eight tips for conducting accurate research
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

    The scope of a study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating.
    Basically, this means that you will have to define what the study is going to cover and what it is focusing on. Similarly, you also have to define what the study is not going to cover. This will come under the limitations. Generally, the scope of a research paper is followed by its limitations.
    As a researcher, you have to be careful when you define your scope or area of focus. Remember that if you broaden the scope too much, you might not be able to do justice to the work or it might take a very long time to complete. Consider the feasibility of your work before you write down the scope. Again, if the scope is too narrow, the findings might not be generalizable.
    Typically, the information that you need to include in the scope would cover the following:
    1. General purpose of the study
    2. The population or sample that you are studying
    3. The duration of the study
    4. The topics or theories that you will discuss
    5. The geographical location covered in the study
    To learn in depth how you can write an engaging Introduction section, check out this course designed exclusively for researchers.

  6. Avatar Selema michael says:

    Name: Selema Michael
    Reg no: 2018/241842
    Department: Economics
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research Is Conducted To…
    *Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    *To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and causal. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways.
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Characteristics of Research:
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    (1)Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    (2)Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    (3)Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    (4)Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    (5)Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    (6)Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    (7)Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    (8)Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

  7. Avatar ASADU EMMANUEL CHIAGOZIEM, 2018/241853, ECONOMICS says:

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

  8. Avatar Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice says:

    Name: Obiesie Mmesoma Rejoice
    Reg. No: 2018/245427
    Department: Economics/Education
    E-mail: obiesiemmesoma@gmail.com
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    Answer
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know. Research is composed of two syllables re and search. “Re” is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again while “search” is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe.
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Research is a systematic, scientific, objective activity, which includes the collection of relevant information, and careful analysis of data, recording and reporting of valid conclusion, that may lead to creation of new knowledge, development of theory, principles, and generalization. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    Research Has the Following Characteristics
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. It creates a path for generating new questions.
    5. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    As A Special Adviser To Mr. President, Research Means The Following Things To Me
    1. My chief tool of analysis so as to enable me give the best advices to mr. president
    2. it serves as my main method of analyzing and drawing accurate conclusions on events, happenings and policies in the country.
    3. research will help me to advice the president on the best strategies to follow in tackling both home and abroad crisis.
    There Are Three Main Purposes Of Research
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    C. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  9. Avatar NWOKE EBERECHI says:

    NAME: NWOKE EBERECHI ANGEL
    REG NO:2018/251570
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    * Identify potential and new customers
    * Understand existing customers
    * Set pragmatic goals
    * Develop productive market strategies
    * Address business challenges
    * Put together a business expansion plan
    * Identify new business opportunities
    The purpose of research includes:

    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  10. Avatar Izueke Chidera Maximilian 2018/246268 says:

    Name : IZUEKE CHIDERA MAXIMILIAN
    REG NO: 2018/246268
    DEPARTMENT : Combined social sciences
    (Economics/political science)
    ANSWERS

    Research as a studious inquiry or examination,especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts,revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new facts and practically application of such new facts and revised theories of law
    For me as a special Adviser to Mr President i will say that

    Research involves ones willingness, A quest to know more about a phenomenon and there by carrying out some methods and procedures of how to achieve this aim.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

    Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    These are some characteristics of research:

    (1) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    (2) The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    (3) Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    (4) There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    (5) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    (6) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    (7) Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  11. Avatar Nwokobia Adaeze says:

    NAME: Nwokobia Adaeze
    REG.NO: 2018/241865
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    EMAIL: nwokobiaadaeze@gmail.com
    Research is systematic process done to find answers for questions or solutions to problems. It involves collecting, organizing and analyzing information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of theories, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, technological, etc.

    Features of research
    1)The research should focus on priority problems.
    2)The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    3)The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    4)The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    5)The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    6)The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    7)The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    8)The research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.
    9)The research should be participatory, involving all parties concerned (from policymakers down to community members) at all stages of the study.
    10)The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.

  12. Avatar Okoye favour says:

    NAME:OKOYE FAVOUR
    REG NO:2018/249186
    Ifyfavourokoye@gmail.com

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    • Identify potential and new customers

    • Understand existing customers

    • Set pragmatic goals

    • Develop productive market strategies

    • Address business challenges

    • Put together a business expansion plan

    • Identify new business opportunities

    What are the characteristics of research?

    • Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    • The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    • Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    • There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    • It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    • It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    • Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

     

    What is the purpose of research?

    There are three main purposes:

    • Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    • Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    • Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  13. Avatar Okoronkwo Uchechukwu David says:

    NAME: OKORONKWO UCHECHUKWU DAVID
    REG: 2017/241455
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: okoronkwo762@gmail.com

    Research is described to be a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive methods in the sense that it analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is carried out to Identify the following, which are; potential and new customers, Understand existing customers, Set pragmatic goals, develop productive market strategies, address business challenges, put together a business expansion plan and identify new business opportunities.
    Also, for a research to be considered good and standard it must follow a systematic approach to capture the accurate data, the researcher needs to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    Analysis must be based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods, while real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There should also be an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it, and without doubt research creates a path for generating new questions.
    The scope of research on the other hand, explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters which the research will be operating.
    Basically, this means that one will have to define what the study is going to cover and what it is focusing on. Similarly, one also have to define what the study is not going to cover.
    As a researcher, one needs to be careful when defining the scope or area of focus. Remember that if you broaden the scope too much, you might not be able to do justice to the work or it might take a very long time to complete and if the scope is too narrow, the findings might not be generalizable.
    Thus, one have to consider the feasibility of the work before writing down the scope.

  14. Avatar IGWILO UGOCHUKWU HENRY says:

    NAME: IGWILO UGOCHUKWU HENRY
    REG NO: 2017/249345
    DEPT; ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY (COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE)
    COURSE: RESEARCH METHOD (ECO 391)

    QUESTION
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER

    First of all, It is paramount that we do a little justice to the key word in this discuss by defining the key word (research); Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.

    Payton (1979) defined it as the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.
    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships
    A research work consists of 2 different methods of carrying it out and that is; inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    THERE ARE CERTAIN THINGS ONE NEED TO LOOK OUT FOR BEFORE A QUEST COULD ACTUALLY BE CALLED A RESEARCH. IT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING:

    1. It is based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable.
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.

    CRITERIA FOR SELECTING GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM MAY INCLUDE THE FACT THAT:

    i) Topic of research selected should be within the range your resources and time
    ii. Data should be accessible.
    iii. Selected research problem should have a solution.
    iv. Research methodology should be manageable and understandable.

    TO CRITICALLY ANALYZE WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO ME AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR. PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY

    Thus, on a personal note and as a special adviser to Mr. President, In giving meaning to the word (research), it can be said to be the systematic, scientific, empirical or generally an organized quest for known or unknown phenomena with the aim of getting something meaningful out of it which could be called result, findings or conclusion

  15. Avatar Igweh Irene chidubem says:

    Name: Igweh Irene Chidubem

    Reg no: 208/241400

    Department: Economics

    Course: Eco 391

    Answer

    The word ” research ” is composed of two syllables “re ” meaning again, anew or repeat and ” search” meaning to examine closely and carefully or to probe together . With this breakdown, we can say that research is the careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts and principles. Research as defined by Crewell J.W “is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information, to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. It consists of three steps; pose a question, collect data to answer the question and present an answer to the question.
    There are some basic concept of research Research undertaken many procedures, it is being done step by step (1)A research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies.
    (2)It uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability.
    (3)A research must be unbiased and objective. It is when the three citeria mentioned above adhered ,enables the process to be called research.
    Therefore research involves the systematic search for knowledge or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish new facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories. Research involves
    R – rationale way of thinking
    E — Expert/ exhaustive thinking
    S — search for solution
    E — exactness
    A — Adequate date and data
    R — relationships among facts, information
    C — careful recording; critical observations
    H — honesty; hardwork

  16. Avatar Igweh Irene chidubem says:

    Name: Igweh Irene Chidubem
    Reg no: 208/241400
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 391
    Answer
    The word ” research ” is composed of two syllables “re ” meaning again, anew or repeat and ” search” meaning to examine closely and carefully or to probe together . With this breakdown, we can say that research is the careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts and principles.
    Research as defined by Crewell J.W “is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information, to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. It consists of three steps; pose a question, collect data to answer the question and present an answer to the question. There are some basic concept of research
    Research undertaken many procedures, it is being done step by step
    (1)A research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies
    (2)It uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability
    (3)A research must be unbiased and objective. It is when the three citeria mentioned above adhered ,enables the process to be called research. Therefore research involves the systematic search for knowledge or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish new facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories.
    Research involves
    R – rationale way of thinking
    E — Expert/ exhaustive thinking
    S — search for solution
    E — exactness
    A — Adequate date and data
    R — relationships among facts, information
    C — careful recording; critical observations
    H — honesty; hardwork

  17. Avatar Ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine says:

    Name: ozoemena Chukwuebuka sabastine
    Reg:no 2017/250816
    Department: economics
    Eco 391 assignment on the meaning and scope of a research
    What is Research
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1.Identify potential and new customers
    2.Understand existing customers
    3.Set pragmatic goals
    4.Develop productive market strategies
    5.Address business challenges
    6.Put together a business expansion plan
    7 Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:
    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Approach used in Unstructure and Structured research Highly structured
    Conducted through questions asking questions by using hypotheses.
    1.Early stages of decision making.
    2.Later stages of decision making.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.
    Types of research methods and example
    what is research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1.One-to-one Interview
    2.Focus Groups
    3.Ethnographic studies
    4.Text Analysis
    5.Case Study
    5.Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include
    1.Survey research
    2.Descriptive research
    3.Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you
    need to support your business decisions.
    Research writing is a very serious business; one that requires being approached with precision. What research really is is building upon collective body of knowledge. This requires a high level of seriousness and uniformity so that things don’t fall into chaos. To be good with research work, one has to learn the accepted methods and processes of documentations. One of such is how to write the scope of your research work which will also be part of your research project work. So this article has been specifically designed to show you how to write a stunning scope of study for your research project work in just a few minutes.

    THE SCOPE OF A RESEARCH
    The scope of study section of your research project work contains the areas to be covered by your work. It delineates the level of the object of study that would be covered by the particular research work so that both the reader and writer have a perspective of what is aimed at and what is to be expected. It is through the content of your scope of study that one can determine whether the aims of the project have been achieved. And owing to the fact that academics is quite boundless, it is very easy for a researcher to delve into the body of knowledge that make up a discipline or even bridge disciplines and get lost in the maze of it all.
    see why the scope of study is very important and should be approached with the clearest terms. The language should be clear and explicit so as to leave out any ambiguousness that would confuse a reader or even derail the researcher’s focus.
    the most part, you have to approach your “Scope of Study” section tactfully. When your research problems implicates the whole discipline say “A Study of African Literature in the 21st Century we will find that the research means studying all of the literary works in all of Africa across all the genres of literature – which is not possible for lack of time and space. Your scope of study comes in here to tailor down the specific areas to focus on so that it shows us the boundaries of your work. In such a case you could pick a work from selected African countries and base your study on them.In writing your scope of study you need to first reiterate the research problem and it’s objectives in clearly formulated sentences. You should state the time frame covered by the research in the case of a historical or philosophical research work. You need to state the extent of your primary and secondary text which is usually relevant in any of the art criticism. You should state also the length of coverage of your data compilation and method of analysis. If the use of questionnaire is made in the research work you should acquaint the readers with the demographics of the participants and how many they are.
    In the last paragraph of your “scope of study” section talk about the structure of the project work. This is best suited for a work without a preface. Discuss the chapter division of your project work and what informs this format of chapters and division.

  18. Avatar IKO GRACE ONU 2011/179787 Mathematics/Economics says:

    Name: lko Grace Onu
    Reg. No. 2011/179787
    Assignment on Eco 391

    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Research is simply a detailed and focused study, using scientific methods, to understand why something happens and/or what its applications are. Research is basically done for two purposes: to understand the world around us or why things or process work the way they do and to understand the applications of results. Furthermore, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives. The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving. Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Reasons Why Research is Important
    No matter what career field you’re in or how high up you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely nec

  19. Avatar iko says:

    Name: lko Grace Onu
    Reg. No. 2011/179787
    Assignment on Eco 391

    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Research is simply a detailed and focused study, using scientific methods, to understand why something happens and/or what its applications are. Research is basically done for two purposes: to understand the world around us or why things or process work the way they do and to understand the applications of results. Furthermore, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges. The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives. The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving. Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
    Reasons Why Research is Important
    No matter what career field you’re in or how high up you are, there’s always more to learn. The same applies to your personal life. No matter how many experiences you have or how diverse your social circle, there are things you don’t know. Research unlocks the unknowns, lets you explore the world from different perspectives, and fuels a deeper understanding. In some areas, research is an essential part of success. In others, it may not be absolutely nec

  20. Avatar Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Name :Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept:Economics
    Reg No:2018/249531
    Eco 391(development research)

    (1)
    The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times.
    The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. •
    Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs.
    The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is an aspect where research is mostly welcomed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and
    can as well examine the implications of each of these alternative.
    Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions. The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence services are matters requiring investigation.
    Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nations’ resources. • Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.
    Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, production and sales. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimization or of profit maximization or the combination of the two called optimization problems.
    Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is concerned with the determination of drives underlying the consumer (market) behaviour. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for business decisions making.
    Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to alter its supply schedule within the bounds of its anticipated capacity. Market analysis has become an essential device of making business policy these days. Business budgeting, which eventually results in a projected profit and loss account, is founded primarily on sales estimates which in turn depend on business research. Once an organization is able to project her sales, efficient production and investment programmes can be planned, this will include the purchasing and financing plans. Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. •
    Research is equally significant for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
    It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also, it has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner.
    Research is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake and knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. “This double emphasis is perhaps especially appropriate in the case of social science.” On the one hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of principles that make possible the understanding and prediction of the whole range of human interactions.
    Objectives of Research :-
    The purpose of any research is to find solutions to problems through the application of scientific procedures.
    The main purpose of research is to find out the truth which is not known and is yet to be revealed.
    Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of groups. These include: •
    To gain acquaintance with a phenomenon or to have understandings into it (studies with this object in mind are tagged exploratory or formativeresearch); •

    To show accurately the features of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this objective are known as descriptiveresearch); •

    To determine the rate at which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this kind of objective in view are known as diagnosticresearch);

    To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between two or more variables (such studies are referred to as hypothesis-testingresearch).

    (2) There are various problem associated with social science research in developing countries which are the following :-
    Lack of communication with the supervisor: A university professor is a busy person. It is important to have guidance on a research project. Poor communication gets on the way of the progress of the research. It is important to communicate with the supervisor to clarify the doubts regarding the research topic, to know what the supervisor expects from you and to learn more about your research topic.

    Time management: Spending ample time in learning the skills and practical implementation consumes a lot of time. In such a scenario, taking out time for intense research and to draft a top-notch research paper becomes impossible.

    Not having a definite deadline: Deadlines are stressful. But not having a deadline can be troublesome during the Ph.D. journey. Deadlines help you get closer to your goals. Many times, Universities fail to implement a due date to submit the research paper, leading to confusion and improper time management among the scholars.

    A quantity of literature: It can be difficult to deal with the quantity of literature that one might have accessed. The literature review is iterative. This involves managing the literature, accessing data that supports the framework of the research, identifying keywords and alternative keywords, as well as constantly looking for new sources.

    Implementing quality of writing within the literature review: A literature review has to go beyond being a series of references and citations. You need to interpret the literature and be able to position it within the context of your study. This requires careful and measured interpretation and writing in which you synthesize and bring together the materials that you have read.

    Insufficient data: Insufficiency of data is a potential problem. Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that researchers may misuse the data provided by them. This affects the purpose of research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance.

    Lack of confidence: Lack of confidence is one of the most common problems among researchers. Researchers with low self-esteem feel less motivated thereby affecting the quality of the work.

    Concern that your focus is either still too broad or too narrow: This concern is inevitable. Be prepared to adapt your research as you look through the literature. This might require you to either increase its focus or narrow down so that the research is manageable. A broad focus for research might be narrowed down by adding an appropriate context or by looking for another variable within the research question or by focusing upon a theoretical viewpoint.

    Library management: Library management and functioning is not satisfactory in many Universities; A lot of time and energy is spent on tracing appropriate books, journals, reports etc. Also, many of the libraries are not able to get copies of new reports and other publications on time.

    Research demands immediate action on the part pf the concerned authorities or personnel at national levels, so as to transform these challenges into major opportunities.

  21. Avatar Akachukwu Christian Nchristonso says:

    Name :Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept:Economics
    Reg No:2018/249531
    Eco 391(development research)

    (1)
    All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for this leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Under this context, the importance of research can better be understood. Explained below are some of the major importance of research :-
    The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times.
    The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. •
    Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs.
    The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is an aspect where research is mostly welcomed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and
    can as well examine the implications of each of these alternative.
    Decision-making may not be a part of research, but research certainly facilitates the decisions of the policy maker. Government has also to chalk out programmes for dealing with all facets of the country’s existence and most of these will be related directly or indirectly to economic conditions. The plight of cultivators, the problems of big and small business and industry, working conditions, trade union activities, the problems of distribution, even the size and nature of defence services are matters requiring investigation.
    Thus, research is considered necessary with regard to the allocation of nations’ resources. • Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.
    Operations research and market research, along with motivational research, are considered crucial and their results assist, in more than one way, in taking business decisions. Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, production and sales. Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost minimization or of profit maximization or the combination of the two called optimization problems.
    Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is concerned with the determination of drives underlying the consumer (market) behaviour. All these are of great help to people in business and industry who are responsible for business decisions making.
    Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult for a firm, or for an industry to alter its supply schedule within the bounds of its anticipated capacity. Market analysis has become an essential device of making business policy these days. Business budgeting, which eventually results in a projected profit and loss account, is founded primarily on sales estimates which in turn depend on business research. Once an organization is able to project her sales, efficient production and investment programmes can be planned, this will include the purchasing and financing plans. Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and scientific decisions. •
    Research is equally significant for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
    It provides the intellectual satisfaction of knowing a few things just for the sake of knowledge and also, it has practical utility for the social scientist to know for the sake of being able to do something better or in a more efficient manner.
    Research is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake and knowledge for what it can contribute to practical concerns. “This double emphasis is perhaps especially appropriate in the case of social science.” On the one hand, its responsibility as a science is to develop a body of principles that make possible the understanding and prediction of the whole range of human interactions.
    Objectives of Research :-
    The purpose of any research is to find solutions to problems through the application of scientific procedures.
    The main purpose of research is to find out the truth which is not known and is yet to be revealed.
    Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of groups. These include: •
    To gain acquaintance with a phenomenon or to have understandings into it (studies with this object in mind are tagged exploratory or formativeresearch); •

    To show accurately the features of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this objective are known as descriptiveresearch); •

    To determine the rate at which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this kind of objective in view are known as diagnosticresearch);

    To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between two or more variables (such studies are referred to as hypothesis-testingresearch).

    (2) there are many problems associated with social science research in developing countries which includes the following:-
    lack of money for well-equipped educational centers:-It is a great challenge for Nigeria since no one can do research without access to research facilities. For many, it seems impossible to work having no specially equipped libraries and laboratories.
    The disinterest of researchers:-Those who search for the easiest and quickest way cannot be called researchers. Unfortunately, many are unwilling to go through thickets of proper writing. Such people are completely unmotivated. This is what gravely complicates the matter
    Lack of money for well-equipped educational centers:- It is a great challenge for Nigeria since no one can do research without access to research facilities. For many, it seems impossible to work having no specially equipped libraries and laboratories.
    The disinterest of researchers:-Those who search for the easiest and quickest way cannot be called researchers. Unfortunately, many are unwilling to go through thickets of proper writing. Such people are completely unmotivated. This is what gravely complicates the matter.
    illiteracy :- Lots of Nigerians are not educated. It is impossible for them to value any findings. Researchers don’t try to impress.
    Instability:-There is no golden standard in Nigeria all researcher would keep to. It can be explained by the frequently changed administration. New authorities bring new programmes, plans, and standards. It makes total disorientation among students and scientists.
    Secrecy:-Data collection is not always easy as it might seem. Ministries don’t want to make much information public. It led to the small information base. The absence of reliable sources makes the process of research writing difficult.

  22. Avatar Obi Chiedozie Joseph says:

    NAME: Obi Chiedozie Joseph
    Department: Economics
    Reg number: 2018/241868
    ASSIGNMENT QUIZ ON ECO 391
    Research to me can be said to mean an inquisitive move made to verify the truth or falsehood entrenched in a particular statement, theory or model. It involves taking different steps towards achieving the main purpose of defining the real situation of a particular statement.
    Research according to the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary is “the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue.(Wikipedia)
    According to Question Pro(questionpro.com), Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  23. Avatar OKONKWO CHIKAODINAKA JUSTINA says:

    NAME: OKONKWO CHIKAODINAKA JUSTINA
    REG NO:2018/242322
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE:ECO391
    EMAIL: okonkwochikaodinaka@gmail.com

    As John W. Best rightly said, “The secret of our cultural development has been research, pushing back the areas of ignorance by discovering new truths, which, in turn, lead to better ways of doing
    things and better products.” to research is a  studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    The Word ‘Research’ is comprises of two words = Re+Search. It means to search again. So research means a systematic investigation or activity to
    gain new knowledge of the already existing facts.
    Research is an intellectual activity.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH:
    The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the
    application of scientific procedure. The main aim of research is to find
    out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.
    Though each research study has its own specific purpose, some general objectives of research below:
    (i) To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formative research studies).
    (ii) To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual,
    situation or a group.(Studies with this object in view are known as
    descriptive research studies).
    (iii) To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with
    which it is associated with something else. (Studies with this object
    in view are known as diagnostic research studies).
    (iv) To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.
    (Such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
    Characteristics of Research:
    Following are the characteristics of research;
    •Research is directed toward the solution of a problem.
    • Research requires expertise.
    • Research emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles, or theories that will be helpful in predicting future
    occurrences.
    •Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidences.
    •Research demands accurate observation and description.
    • Research involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand
    sources or using existing data for a new purpose.
    •Research is characterized by carefully designed procedures that
    apply rigorous analysis.
    •Research involves the quest for answers to un-solved problems.
    •Research strives to be objective and logical, applying every
    possible test to validate the procedures employed the data
    collected and the conclusions reached.
    •Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.
    • Research is carefully recorded and collected.
    • Research sometimes requires courage.
    PROCESSES OF RESEARCH
    Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to
    effectively carry out research. These actions or steps are;
    (i)
    Formulating the Research Problem:At the very outset, the researcher must decide the general area of interest or aspect of a subject matter that he would like to inquire into and then research problem should be formulated.
    (ii) Extensive Literature Survey:Once the problem is formulated the researcher should undertake
    extensive literature survey connected with the problem. For this purpose, the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to academic
    journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc. must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.
    (iii) Developing the Research Hypothesis:After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working hypothesis is tentative
    assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. It’s very important or it provides the focal point for research.
    (iv) Preparing the Research Design:After framing hypothesis we have to prepare a research design i.e. we have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted. The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as efficient as possible yielding maximal information. In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant
    evidence with optimum effort, time and expenditure. But how all these can be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose.
    (v) Determining the Research Design:A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.in census inquiry we involve a great deal of time, money and energy so it it not possible in practice under many circumstances. Sample designs can be
    either probability or non-probability. With probability samples each element has a known probability of being included in the sample but the non-probability samples do not allow the researchers to determine
    this probability.
    (vi) Collecting the Research Data:There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ
    considerably in context of cost, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher. Primary data can be collected either through
    experiment or through survey. In case of survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways;
    By observation,
     Through personal interview,
     Through telephonic interviews,
     By mailing of questionnaires or
     Through schedules.
    (vii) Execution of the Project:Execution of project is a very important step in the research process. If
    the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable .A careful watch should be kept for unanticipated factors in order to keep the survey realistic as much as possible.
    (viii) Analysis of Data:The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical
    inference. Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of various percentages; coefficients etc., by applying various well defined statistical formulae. In the process of analysis, relationships of differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypothesis should be subjected to tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any
    conclusions.

    (ix) Hypothesis Testing:After analyzing the data, the researcher is in a position to test the
    hypothesis, if any, he had formulated earlier. Do the facts support the hypothesis or they happen to be contrary? This is the usual question
    which is to be answered by applying various tests like ‘t’ test, ’F’ test etc. F test have been developed by statisticians for the purpose
    .Hypothesis testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it. If the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, generalizations established on the basis of data may be stated.
    (x) Generalization and Interpretation:If a hypothesis is tested and upheld several times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at generalization i.e. to build a theory. As a matter of fact, the real value of research lies in its ability to arrive at
    certain generalizations. If the researcher had no hypothesis to start
    with, he might seek to explain his findings on the basis of some theory.
    It is known as interpretation.
    (xi) Preparing of the Report or Presentation of the Result:Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. The layout of the report should be as follows; the preliminary pages, the main text and end matter. The preliminary pages carry title,
    acknowledgements and forward and then index. The main text of the report should have introduction, review of literatureand methodology.
    Criteria of Good Research:
    One expects scientific research to satisfy the following criteria:
    therefore The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common
    concepts be used.

  24. Assignment
    Moses Igwe Ozioma
    Economics Dept
    300 level
    Research is the product of curiosity. Research begins when we want to know more about a phenomena. It seeks to advance the body of knowledge and expand understanding. Research is the driver of economic growth and development as it reveals new technologies, answers pressing questions and offers solutions to national problems.

    The United States today is said to have the highest economic growth rate even among the industrialized nations as a result of it’s distinguished policy of devoting a huge percentage of its national income to research and development. Certainly, there seems to be a correlation between research and economic growth. Research helps in the manufacturing of new products, the creation of new jobs and improvement in national welfare.

    THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    C. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  25. Avatar Abalihi Chukwuebuka Ernest says:

    Abalihi chukwuebuka Ernest
    2018/245128
    Eco 391 Assignment
    Economics

    101
    trying to get a hypothesis for a study, the quantitative researcher probably will
    search the literature. Some researchers conduct a pilot study prior to the full
    length research. Such study may involve having one’s friends participate in the
    study and asking them about their impressions of the study. The pilot study may
    even involve having the researcher take the role of a participant.4
    There are substantial differences between the two methods. The
    differences stem primarily from the fact that qualitative methods are not objective.
    Consequently, the non-objective evidence that qualitative researchers consider
    “data” (themes that the investigator senses, the investigator’s subjective
    impressions, etc.) is not what quantitative researchers consider “data.” Given
    the strong tradition of objective methods in psychology and the success of
    quantitative methods in psychology, it is unlikely that qualitative methods will
    replace quantitative methods. 5
    Wilkinson T S had rightly pointed out in his book Methods and tech￾niques of social research. He says The researcher is constantly concerned
    with researching the accepted conclusions of his field, i.e. the theories with
    differing levels fo gernerality and degrees of confirmation existing at a given
    point of time. He does this researching by probing for facts of the empirical
    world that confirm one or several predictions generated by his accepted con￾clusions, his acceptance, a consequence of his assumptions about the correct￾ness of the existing theories.”6
    The research process involves the following steps. Though the step order may
    vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are
    usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
    · Formation of the topic
    · Hypothesis
    · Conceptual definitions
    · Operational definitions
    · Gathering of data
    · Analysis of data
    · Test, revising of hypothesis
    · Conclusion, literation if necessary

    As the special adviser to the president on research, I would say that research is the further inquiry into existing phenomenon and trying to further get insights surrounding the phenomenon these insights could be helpful in designing policies which could be important for nation building and growth.

  26. Avatar Ugwu Cynthia Ugochukwu says:

    NAME:UGWU CYNTHIA UGOCHUKWU
    REG:2018/245470
    DEPT:ECONOMICS MAJOR
    ECO 391 clearly and clinically analyze the statement above and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
    WHAT IS RESEARCH
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcome.
    Research can also be defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Research involves systematic investigation of phenomena, the purpose of which could be for:
    1. Information gathering and/or Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring.
    2.Descriptive: e.g., gathering informations, describing, summarizing Theory testing.
    3.Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations.
    4.Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios. A research strategy is an overall plan for conducting a research study.
    A research strategy guides a researcher in planning, executing, and monitoring the study. … Research methods tell the researcher how to collect and analyse data, e.g. through interviews, questionnaires, or statistical methods.
    WHY RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT FOR STUDENT
    1. A Knowledge Building Tool
    The most prominent reason to engage in research is to enhance your knowledge. Even if you are an expert of your field, there is always more to uncover. If researching about a topic entirely new to you, it will help build your unique perspective about it. The whole process of research opens new doors of learning and literary growth.
    2. Enables Efficient Learning
    Studies reveal that research helps restore and protect memory and enhances mathematic and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it prepares the mind for a better understanding of concepts and theories. A person’s learning capacity is improved and they can perform better in comparison who is reluctant to research.
    4. Helps in Understanding Issues
    It sheds light on problems that have not yet come out in the open. It gives people the opportunity to address issues and answer questions that the society doesn’t respond to.
    5. Provides Truthful Evidence
    The process of research can prove to dispel various myths that have been built up in our minds. They can either develop because of common belief or a wrong resource. Logical and fact-based knowledge is easily accessible if you only reach out to find the truth.
    8. Keeps You Updated on Recent Information
    In various fields, especially ones that are related to science, there are always new discoveries to explore. Research prevents you from remaining behind or have inaccurate information about a topic. You can use the latest knowledge to build upon ideas or talk confidently about a subject if required. Which takes us to the next factor about building credibility.
    A research strategy is an overall plan for conducting a research study. A research strategy guides a researcher in planning, executing, and monitoring the study. … Research methods tell the researcher how to collect and analyse data, e.g. through interviews, questionnaires, or statistical methods.
    In conclusion,Without research any intellectual growth is quite impossible. So as the special adviser to Mr president, a good research will help me figure out the goals and the challenges ahead, support truths, to know and to avoid the mistakes of the previous government.

  27. Avatar Urama Isaac Anenechukwu says:

    NAME : URAMA ISAAC ANENECHUKWU
    REG. NO : 2018/243823
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMIC
    EMAIL : zik.edu.ng@gmail.com
    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT : Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    ANSWERS :
    Research could also be defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Re-search. Research is defined as human
    activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The
    primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the
    development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge
    on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.
    1. Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is regarded as a systematic efforts
    to gain new knowledge. The dictionary meaning of research is “a careful
    investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch
    of knowledge”. Definition of Research Research comprises defining and
    redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,
    organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions;
    and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
    formulating hypothesis.
    2. M Stephenson and D Slesinger defined research in the Encyclopedia
    of Social Sciences as “The manupulation of things, concepts or symbols for the
    purpose of gerneralizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that
    knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”
    3. “Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to
    questions” Systemactic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you
    will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order
    to get the most accurate results.
    Both quantitative and qualitative researchers would agree that not all
    quantitative research is well planned and well executed and it is observed that
    many questionnaires are hastily and poorly written; Some surveys have a 2%
    response rate; and some researchers use convenience rather than random samples.
    One approach to the problem of poor quantitative research is to use qualitative
    research.The qualitative researcher’s solution is to use qualitative methods, such
    as in-depth interviews of individual’s or even reporting the researcher’s own
    conscious experience. Some qualitative researchers use quantitative methods,
    some quantitative researchers use qualitative methods. Most quantitative
    researchers use qualitative methods as exploratory tools. For example, when
    trying to get a hypothesis for a study, the quantitative researcher probably will
    search the literature. Some researchers conduct a pilot study prior to the full
    length research. Such study may involve having one’s friends participate in the
    study and asking them about their impressions of the study. The pilot study may
    even involve having the researcher take the role of a participant.
    4. There are substantial differences between the two methods. The
    differences stem primarily from the fact that qualitative methods are not objective.
    Consequently, the non-objective evidence that qualitative researchers consider
    “data” (themes that the investigator senses, the investigator’s subjective
    impressions, etc.) is not what quantitative researchers consider “data.” Given
    the strong tradition of objective methods in psychology and the success of
    quantitative methods in psychology, it is unlikely that qualitative methods will
    replace quantitative methods.
    RESEARCH IS TARGETED AT THE FOLLOWING
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Forms of Research
    1. Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).
    2. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.
    3. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method.
    4. Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.
    Steps to carrying out a good research

    · Formation of the topic
    · Hypothesis
    · Conceptual definitions
    · Operational definitions
    · Gathering of data
    · Analysis of data
    · Test, revising of hypothesis
    · Conclusion, literation if necessary
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Irrespective of whatever topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.
    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:
    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff
    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP
    the development of HDR training and courses
    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses
    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)
    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:
    scientific and technical information services
    general purpose or routine data collection
    standardisation and routine testing
    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)
    specialised routine medical care
    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright or licensing activities
    routine computer programming, systems work or software maintenance.
    findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    There could be seven identifiable characteristics of a good research which could be seen below;
    1. A good research must be Reliable.
    2. It must be Verifiable.
    3. It must be Replicable
    4. It must be theoretically based
    5. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    6. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    7. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    8. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    9. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    10. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    11. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    To every good research work there is always a purpose, and below are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.
    Types of research methods and examples
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    ▪Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    ▪Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    ▪Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    ▪Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    ▪Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    IN CONCLUSION, A GOOD RESEARCH MUST BE CARRIED OUT WITHIN THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS OF RESEARCH;
    R – rationale way of thinking
    E – expert/exhaustive treatment
    S. – search for solution
    E – exactness
    A. -adequate data and data , analytical analysis
    R. – relationship among facts, information
    C – careful recording, critical observations
    H – honestly; hardworking.

  28. Avatar NGADI GOD'SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM says:

    NAME: NGADI GOD’SPROMISE CHICHOROBIM
    REG NO:2018/242405
    DEPT:ECONOMICS
    COURSE:ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT
    Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER
    As the Special Adviser to Mr president on Reseach and Strategy, j would say that Research is a conscious and planned inquiry into a particular area with the sole aim of acquiring new knowledge and designing a better way of doing things.
    Strategy to me refers to the various methods imployed in carryjngout Research. This methods are a function of certain parameters suchas  Data obtained, scope of the study, population sjze, etc.all these  determines the type of Strategy that would be employed in carryjngout a Research.

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.
    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    ●Rigorous
    ●Systematic
    ●Valid and verifiable
    ●Empirical
    ●Critical
    ●Unbiased and Objective
    We will now examine each of these features below;
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    CRITICAL: The process or procedures for inquiry or investigation must be foolproof such that it will be able to withstand critical scrutiny.
    UNBIASED and OBJECTIVE: This means that each step undertaken by the researcher must be unbiased and every conclusion drawn without introducing sentiments or personal opinion.
    FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research help to fulfill the following functions:
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

  29. Avatar Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer says:

    Name: Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer
    Reg. No: 2018/248241
    Dept: Economics/Psychology

    QUESTION

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER
    Research is the product of curiosity. Research begins when we want to know more about a phenomena. It seeks to advance the body of knowledge and expand understanding. Research is the driver of economic growth and development as it reveals new technologies, answers pressing questions and offers solutions to national problems.

    The United States today is said to have the highest economic growth rate even among the industrialized nations as a result of it’s distinguished policy of devoting a huge percentage of its national income to research and development. Certainly, there seems to be a correlation between research and economic growth. Research helps in the manufacturing of new products, the creation of new jobs and improvement in national welfare.

    Research serves a good number of functions. They include;

    -exploring new facts and concepts about the world around us
    Investigating the relationships between the various phenomena
    -Adding to theoretical knowledge that would be applied for innovation and creation of products and services
    -Solving national problems and challenges

  30. Avatar Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer says:

    Name: Edeh Amarachukwu Jennifer
    Reg. No: 2018/248241
    Dept: Economics/Psychology

    QUESTION

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER
    Research is the product of curiosity. Research begins when we want to know more about a phenomena. It seeks to advance the body of knowledge and expand understanding. Research is the driver of economic growth and development as it reveals new technologies, answers pressing questions and offers solutions to national problems.

    The United States today is said to have the highest economic growth rate even among the industrialized nations as a result of it’s distinguished policy of devoting a huge percentage of its national income to research and development. Certainly, there seems to be a correlation between research and economic growth. Research helps in the manufacturing of new products, the creation of new jobs and improvement in national welfare.

    Research serves a good number of functions. They include;

    -exploring new facts and concepts about the world around us
    Investigating the relationships between the various phenomena
    -Adding to theoretical knowledge that would be applied for innovation and creation of products and services
    -Solving national problems and challenges

  31. Avatar EKE SUNDAY says:

    Name: EKE SUNDAY
    Reg No:2018/245405
    Department: Economics education
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course tittle: Research method in economics
    Assignment:The meaning and scope of Research .CLEARLY AND CRITICALLY
    ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.
    ANWERS,

    The above statements can be critically analyse thus, Research is a systematic and control of inquiry which is directed into solving an identified problems. It therefore provides the basic for improvements and further developments in human knowledge and condition. Indeed research is an indispensable tool for sustainable national developments. In essence , man has always searched and will perhaps continue to search for facts yet unknown to him and for the answeres to the question unanswered. In my own view of research , i can opine that research simply mean the process of finding out the truth with a systematic inquiry.
    The research process involves identifying, locating, assessing, and analyzing the information you need to support your research question, and then developing and expressing your ideas
    The development of a problem statement is the first formal step in identifying the need for research.
    In fact, in some agencies Problem Statements are called Needs Statements. A problem statement
    can be a simple document, but as a minimum should describe the problem, justify why research is
    needed, state what the research should accomplish, what the benefits will be, and, preferably,
    indicate the resources required, and the time available to complete the work.

  32. Avatar ODO ONOCHIE GODSMARK says:

    Odo Onochie Godsmark
    2017/249540
    Economics Department
    Eco 391
    Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.
    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    From the foregoing clarifications above, it is clear that research is a process for collecting, analyzing and interpreting information in order to provide answer(s) to a research question. But for a work to qualify as a research, it must be;
    ●Rigorous
    ●Systematic
    ●Valid and verifiable
    ●Empirical
    ●Critical
    ●Unbiased and Objective
    We will now examine each of these features below;
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    CRITICAL: The process or procedures for inquiry or investigation must be foolproof such that it will be able to withstand critical scrutiny.
    UNBIASED and OBJECTIVE: This means that each step undertaken by the researcher must be unbiased and every conclusion drawn without introducing sentiments or personal opinion.
    FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research help to fulfill the following functions:
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

    After clearly analyzing what research entails according to research pundits, here is what research means to me;
    Research is any planned effort made in finding out solution to a problem or to revise old facts in the light of new information, utilizing scientific methods, processes or procedures to collect data, analyze data and interpret data in order to arrive at a relevant conclusion or provide a workable answer to a Research question.

  33. Avatar Owoh Chiamaka Philia says:

    Name: Owoh Chiamaka Philia
    Reg. No: 2019/247552 (1/3)
    Department: Education/Economics
    Email address: chiamakaphilia195@gmail.com
    Course code: Eco 391
    Course title

    Quiz 1 on Eco 391
    Question:
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    a. Identify potential and new customers
    b. Understand existing customers
    c. Set pragmatic goals
    d. Develop productive market strategies
    e. Address business challenges
    f. Put together a business expansion plan
    g. Identify new business opportunities

    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    6. Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  34. Avatar Nwokolo chibuike Emmanuel says:

    Name:Nwokolo Emmanuel Chibuike.
    Reg no:2018/248270
    Department:Economics Department
    Email:chibuikenwokolo20@gmail.com

    Assignment
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final resul

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    [
    There are three main purposes:

    1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2.Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3.Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Resethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

  35. Avatar Ihekwoaba Alex Ezihe says:

    Ihekwoaba Alex Ezihe
    Reg number;2018/243746

    What is Research?

    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    What is the purpose of research?

    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  36. Avatar Joseph chioma Mercy says:

    Name: Joseph chioma Mercy
    Reg. no. 2018/242205
    Dept. Education/Economics

    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”
    The above definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase knowledge, properly understand some theories and interpret them. It also helps to know how and when to apply the a given theory.
    To my understanding, Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from depression.
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Research is also used to…
    • Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    • To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    • To help generate questions for further inquiries

  37. Avatar Joseph chioma Mercy says:

    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”
    The above definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase knowledge, properly understand some theories and interpret them. It also helps to know how and when to apply the a given theory.
    To my understanding, Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from depression.
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Research is also used to…
    • Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    • To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    • To help generate questions for further inquiries

  38. Avatar Chibugo faith Enyesiobi says:

    Name: Chibugo faith Enyesiobi
    Reg no:2018/247409
    Department:Combined social science
    (Economics and psychology)
    Email: adabeauty940@gmail.com
    Question:Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    Answer
    Re is a prefix meaning again, search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully. Together they form a noun describing a careful systematic patient study and investigation.
    Hyllegard mood and morrow said that the main goal of research is gathering and interpreting information to answer your questions meaning what prompts research are questions
    (Best and Kahn 1998) Research also the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observation that may lead to development and generalizations, principles or theories resulting in predications and possible control of events
    We know there’s also what we call nonresearch which doesn’t follow systematic process
    A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttle worth . In the broadest sense of word, the definition of research includes any gathering of information,data and facts for the advancement of knowledge
    Characteristics of research includes
    1. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    2.Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    3.Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    4. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    5.Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Methods of research
    Qualitative Research gathers data about lived experiences, emotions or behaviours, and the meanings individuals attach to them. It assists in enabling researchers to gain a better understanding of complex concepts, social interactions or cultural phenomena. This type of research is useful in the exploration of how or why things have occurred, interpreting events and describing actions.

    Quantitative Research gathers numerical data which can be ranked, measured or categorised through statistical analysis. It assists with uncovering patterns or relationships, and for making generalisations. This type of research is useful for finding out how many, how much, how often, or to what extent.
    Mixed Methods Research integrates both Qualitative and Quantitative Research. It provides a holistic approach combining and analysing the statistical data with deeper contextualised insights. Using Mixed Methods also enables Triangulation, or verification, of the data from two or more sources.
    Part B: what research means to me
    It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work.
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    It helps us succeed in business.
    It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to think.
    Conducting research doesn’t just arm us with knowledge—it helps teach us how to thin

  39. Avatar Mbaso Raluchi says:

    Mbaso Raluchi
    2018/242437
    mbasoraluchi@gmail.com

    Research would be seen as a studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at discovering and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In the view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy.

    Research is simply the processes undergone to prove a statement, an innovation or an idea. Research is a process because it involves stages, that is, they are procedures to which a research is made.
    The processes of research includes;
    -. Selection of research problems.
    -. Extensive discourse review.
    -. Making hypothesis.
    -. Preparing the research design.
    -. Sampling.
    -. Data collection.
    -. Data analysis.
    -. Hypothesis testing.
    -. Generalization and interpretation.
    -. Preparation of report.

    Selection of research problems
    The selection of a research topic requires a lot of effort. It involves formulating your question that is the topic to be researched on. However, the research topic should be practical, relevant, achievable, and acceptable.
    Extensive discourse review
    Following the selection of research topic is the extensive discourse review, that is the survey of the literature. This step makes the research process more convenient as it involves the availability of written works, academic journals, reports and other texts to be used. This step simply involves getting background information on the topic.
    Making hypothesis
    The creation of the hypothesis is a technical work dependent on the researchers experience. The hypothesis is to draw the positive and negative cause and effect aspects of the problem. Hypothesis narrows down the area of a research and keeps the researcher on the right path. This is simply refining your topic, that is to break down the research topic.
    Preparing the research design
    After the formulation of problem and creating hypothesis for it, the research design is prepared by the researcher. It may draw the conceptual organisation of the problem. Any type of research design may be made depends on the nature and purpose of the study. This involves considering the research topic to selecting the appropriate tools to go about it.
    Sampling
    The researcher would need to design a sample. It is a plan for taking its respondents from a specific area.
    Data collection.
    Data collection is the most important work in researching. The collection of dara must be containing on facts which could be from; questionnaires, experiments, observations, interviews, review of literature, official and non official reports, library approach.
    Data analysis
    When data has been collected, it has to be analysed, which is a very technical job. Data analysis involves data processings like data editing, data coding, data classification, data tabulation, data presentation, data measurements. Data analysis also involves data expositions such as description, explanation, narration, conclusions/ findings, recommendations/ suggestions.
    Hypothesis testing
    Research data is then used to test the hypothesis. Are the hypothesis related to facts or not? To find the answer, the hypothesis testing is undertaken which may result in accepting or rejecting the hypothesis.
    Generalization and interpretation
    The acceptable hypothesis is what makes the process of generalization attainable and the formulation of theory. Interpretation is simply the theory the researcher has arrived at after data interpretation has been completed and hypothesis has been proven.
    Preparation of report
    A researcher would the have to prepare a report for which he has done his work. He should take note of the following points;
    Report design in primary stages;
    The report should carry a title, a brief introduction of the problem background followed by acknowledgement. There should be table of content, a graph or charts.
    Main text of the report;
    It should contain objectives, hypothesis, explanations, and methodology of the research. It should be divided into chapters and every chapter explaining the title in which summary of the title should be enlisted. The last sections would be clearly of conclusions to show the main theme of the study.
    Conclusion of the report
    After a SWOT analysis(analysing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and strenghts related to the topic) must have been conducted, the last step following the preparation of report is the closing of the report. It involves bibliography(a list of documents written with relevant to a particular subject containing citations, references, to a beneficial, appendix, index, maps, or charts.
    Research was stated in the question as a studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at discovering and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical of such new or revised theories or laws. This definition simply explains the processes involved in research. It summarises all the research processes.
    According to Leedy and Ormrod (2010) research is a systematic process of gathering, evaluating, and interpreting data to increase understanding of a phenomenon. The core of a research process is the problem, and the researcher must see the problem with unshakable clarity and state it in detailed and unambiguous terms.
    Furthermore, what is research according to Martyn Shuttleworth? Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic.
    A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods are used to analyze an observed event.
    Research is an organised series of activites to solve a problem, contribute to an already solved problem, acquire information about a topic or to prove a theory. Proper research methodology ensures we get the actual intention of performing a research in a straightforward and strategic manner.

  40. Avatar Nelson Favour says:

    NAME: NELSON FAVOUR OGECHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/245389
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: nelsonfavour38@gmail.com
    Eco. 391—20-8-2021(Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research)

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1. Identify potential and new customers
    2. Understand existing customers
    3. Set pragmatic goals
    4. Develop productive market strategies
    5. Address business challenges
    6. Put together a business expansion plan
    7. Identify new business opportunities

    What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory:
    As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive:
    It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory:
    Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example
    what is research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    1. Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    2. Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    1. Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    2. Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    3. Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    4. Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    5. Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights

    Eight tips for conducting accurate research
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

    The scope of a study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating.
    Basically, this means that you will have to define what the study is going to cover and what it is focusing on. Similarly, you also have to define what the study is not going to cover. This will come under the limitations. Generally, the scope of a research paper is followed by its limitations.
    As a researcher, you have to be careful when you define your scope or area of focus. Remember that if you broaden the scope too much, you might not be able to do justice to the work or it might take a very long time to complete. Consider the feasibility of your work before you write down the scope. Again, if the scope is too narrow, the findings might not be generalizable.
    Typically, the information that you need to include in the scope would cover the following:
    1. General purpose of the study
    2. The population or sample that you are studying
    3. The duration of the study
    4. The topics or theories that you will discuss
    5. The geographical location covered in the study
    To learn in depth how you can write an engaging Introduction section, check out this course designed exclusively for researchers.

    REFERENCE
    https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-research/
    https://www.editage.com/insights/how-do-i-present-scope-of-my-study

  41. Avatar Ikechukwu Mmesoma Maryann says:

    Name: Ikechukwu Mmesoma Maryann
    Reg no: 2018/241875
    ECONOMICS MAJOR
    ECO 391: Research Methodology

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER:

    Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (1996?) defines research as “studious inquiry or examination; esp: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”.
    The Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. It also encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors.
    According to its Purpose
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.
    According to your Depth of Scope
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.
    In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved.
    others are: explanatory and correlational research
    According to the Type of Data Used
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations.
    In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’).
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time.
    Other classifications include:
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables: which includes Non-Experimental Research, Quasi-Experimental Research,
    According to the Type of Inference: which include Deductive Investigation, Inductive Research, Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation.
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried Out: Longitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research), Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    According to The Sources of Information: Primary Research, Secondary research
    And others.
    REASONS FOR RESEARCH.
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

  42. Avatar Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem REG NO: 2018/241844 says:

    Name : Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem
    REG NO. 2018/241844
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    Answers
    Research could be defined as inquiry or examination.
    A Special Adviser to the President is a supporting role in the executive arm of the Government of Nigeria, whose duty is to assist the President of Nigeria in the performance of his functions. Special Advisers are appointed by the President with confirmation by the National Assembly, but the President can dismiss them at will, and their appointment ceases once the President ceases to hold office.
    The number of Special Advisers that a President can appoint and their remuneration and allowances is determined by law or by resolution of the National Assembly.
    Now as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy i am in charge of analyzing the difference between current and planned behavior/performance of the economy.
    I will be involved in identifying the market trends that their country can capitalize on. I will help the president make better economic decisions.
    I will use various analytical software(s) and technologies to organize the nation’s economic data and perform real-time analytics.
    I will also be involved in preparing presentation reports for the president and communicating the analytical reports.

  43. Avatar Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem REG NO: 2018/241844 says:

    Name : Nduka Olisazoba Chiebuniem
    REG NO. 2018/241844
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    Answers
    Research could be defined as inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the finding out and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws with consideration of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    A Special Adviser to the President is a supporting role in the executive arm of the Government of Nigeria, whose duty is to assist the President of Nigeria in the performance of his functions. Special Advisers are appointed by the President with confirmation by the National Assembly, but the President can dismiss them at will, and their appointment ceases once the President ceases to hold office.
    The number of Special Advisers that a President can appoint and their remuneration and allowances is determined by law or by resolution of the National Assembly.
    Now as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy i am in charge of analyzing the difference between current and planned behavior/performance of the economy.
    I will be involved in identifying the market trends that their country can capitalize on. I will help the president make better economic decisions.
    I will use various analytical software(s) and technologies to organize the nation’s economic data and perform real-time analytics.
    I will also be involved in preparing presentation reports for the president and communicating the analytical reports.

  44. Avatar Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel says:

    Name: Ik-Ukennaya Ezekiel
    Department: Economics
    Reg no:2018/249 788
    Email:ezekielikukennaya4@gmail.com

    There are various definitions of research presented by various scholars and authors. In general, research is a way of thinking and finding answers to the questions that come into your mind. In our day-to-day life, we formulate several question in our mind. We want to get answers for these questions. Some of these questions can be answered easily without any need of scientific scrutiny. While there are also some questions that need to be answered in a logical manner.

    According to
    Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.

    Another definition of research is given by Creswell who states that – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    From my own perspective research is examination to seek or revise facts to find the reasons and answer to unanswered questions.Questions and problems leads to research process,the questions Why? What? And how? Pushes researchers to seek answers which is the solution to the above problems(how? Why? What? When? Etc).
    The word Re means again & again and search means to seek .In other words research is simply and attempt to find something again and again till answers are found.

    From the various research definitions given by scholars and what I understand as research, we can say the process that is called research should have the following features:

    1.the process should follow valid and verifiable tools, techniques and procedures

    2.It should follow a scientific procedure i.e formulation of hypothesis, creation of theories etc

    3.the process follows the logical and sequential procedures that are established by the academic discipline in which you are conducting research.
    The process to be followed

    4. Research comprises “creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    2. Research introduces you to new ideas:
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.

    3. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.

    4.Research encourages curiosity:
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

  45. Avatar Ezeorah Mariagoretti Ukamaka says:

    NAME::Ezeorah Mariagoretti Ukamaka
    REG NO: 2018/244494
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMIC EDUCATION
    EMAIL: mariagorettiukamakaezeorah@gmail.com

    QUESTION:
    .Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER.
    ****Analysing the Above Definition.
    Critically Analysing Research from the Above Definition Research is an investigation of a phenomenon, event or activity;Aims to discover data and facts and their interpretations;To arrive at conclusions to formulate new theories and laws or revise the already established theories and laws;To communicate the results for peer review; and To be accepted or rejected before adding this new knowledge to the already existing general pool of knowledge.

    *******In view of other definition of research by Research Experts.
    *According toKerlinger 1973;. Research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical preposition about the presumed relation among natural phenomena.
    *Waltz and Bausell 1981; Research is a systematic formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solution to problem or to discover and interpret new facts and relationship.
    * Martyn shuttleworth; He explains the word Research in the broadest Sense,The definition of research includes any gathering of facts, data and information for the Advancement of knowledge.
    * John.W.Best……Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observation that may lead to the Development of generalizations,principles, theories and concepts, resulting in prediction for seeing and possibly ultimate control of event.
    *Clarke ana clarke.. Research is a careful, systematic and objective investigation,conducted to obtain valid facts,draw conclusion and established principles regarding an identificable problem is some field of knowledge.
    *Ranganathan describes research to represent a critical and exhaustive investigation to discover new facts, to interpret them in the light of known ideas, theories and laws, to revive the current laws and theories in the light of the newly discovered facts to apply the conclusion to practical purpose..
    **** Self Definition Of Research.
    I understand Research as a Creative work,intensive investigation to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.

  46. Avatar Olayiwola Nurudeen Akanni says:

    Name: Olayiwola Nurudeen Akanni
    Reg No: 2018/246563
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 391
    Assignment
    Question: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    Answer
    Research: Definition, Characteristics, Goals, Approaches
    Definition: Research is an original and systematic investigation undertaken to increase existing knowledge and understanding of the unknown to establish facts and principles. Some people consider research as a voyage of discovery of new knowledge.
    It comprises the creation of ideas and the generation of new knowledge that leads to new and improved insights and the development of new materials, devices, products, and processes. It should have the potentials to produce results that are sufficiently relevant to increase and synthesize existing knowledge or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
    The word ‘research’ perhaps originates from the old French word “recerchier” that meant to ‘search again.’ It implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete, and hence a repeated search is called for.
    The word ‘research’ perhaps originates from the old French word “recerchier” that meant to ‘search again.’ It implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete, and hence a repeated search is called for.
    In practice, the term ‘research’ refers to a scientific process of generating an unexplored horizon of knowledge, aiming at discovering or establishing facts, solving a problem, and reaching a decision. Keeping the above points in view, we arrive at the following definition of research:
    In another word, Research is a scientific approach of answering a research question, solving a research problem, or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of data with the ultimate goal of making the findings of research useful in decision-making.
    When do we call a research scientific? Any research endeavor is said to be scientific if
    1. It is based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning;
    2. It consists of systematic observations, measurement, and experimentation;
    3. It relies on the application of the scientific methods and harnessing of curiosity;
    4. It provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of nature;
    5. It makes practical applications possible; and
    6. It ensures adequate analysis of data employing rigorous statistical techniques.
    The chief characteristic which distinguishes the scientific method from other methods of acquiring knowledge is that scientists seek to let reality speak for itself, supporting a theory when a theory’s predictions are confirmed and challenging a theory when its predictions prove false.
    Scientific research has multidimensional functions, characteristics, and objectives.
    Keeping these issues in view, we assert that research in any field or discipline:
    Attempts to solve a research problem;
    Involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose;
    1. Is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence;
    2. Demands accurate observation and description;
    3. Employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis;
    4. Attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the methods employed;
    5. Is a deliberate and unhurried activity that is directional but often refines the problem or questions as the research progresses.
    Characteristics of Research
    Keeping this in mind that research in any field of inquiry is undertaken to provide information to support decision-making in its respective area, we summarize some desirable characteristics of research:

    1. The research should focus on priority problems.
    2. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    3. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    4. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    5. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    6. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
    7. The research should be action-oriented. In other words, it should be aimed at reaching a solution leading to the implementation of its findings.
    8. The research should follow an integrated multidisciplinary approach, i.e., research approaches from more than one discipline are needed.
    9. The research should be participatory, involving all parties concerned (from policymakers down to community members) at all stages of the study.
    10. The research must be relatively simple, timely, and time-bound, employing a comparatively simple design.
    11. The research must be as much cost-effective as possible.
    12. The results of the research should be presented in formats most useful for administrators, decision-makers, business managers, or the community members.
    3 Basic Operations of Research
    Scientific research in any field of inquiry involves three basic operations:
    1. Data collection;
    2. Data analysis;
    3. Report writing.

    1. Data collection refers to observing, measuring, and recording data or information.
    2. Data analysis, on the other hand, refers to arranging and organizing the collected data so that we may be able to find out what their significance is and generalize about them.
    3. Report writing is the ultimate step of the study. Its purpose is to convey the information contained in it to the readers or audience.

    If you note down, for example, the reading habit of newspapers of a group of residents in a community, that would be your data collection.

    If you then divide these residents, say, into three categories, ‘regular,’ ‘occasional’ and ‘never,’ you have performed a simple data analysis. Your findings may now be presented in a report form.

    A reader of your report comes to know what percentage of the community people never read any newspaper and so on.

    Here are some examples that demonstrate what research is:

    A farmer is planting two varieties of jute side by side to compare yields;
    A sociologist is examining the causes and consequences of divorce;
    An economist is looking at the interdependence of inflation and foreign direct investment;
    A physician is experimenting with the effects of multiple uses of disposable insulin syringes in hospital;
    A business enterprise is examining the effects of advertisement of their products on the volume of sales;
    An economist is doing a cost-benefit analysis of reducing the sales tax on essential commodities;
    The Bangladesh Bank is closely observing and monitoring the performance of nationalized and private banks;
    Based on some prior information, Bank Management is planning to open new counters for female customers.
    Supermarket Management is assessing the satisfaction level of the customers in their products.
    In the above examples, all are doing research, whether the instrument is an electronic microscope, hospital records, a microcomputer, a questionnaire, or a checklist.
    Research Motivation – What makes one motivated to do research?
    A person may be motivated to undertake research activities because;
    1. He might have genuine interest and curiosity in the existing body of knowledge and understanding of the problem;
    2. He is looking for answers to questions which remained unanswered so far and trying to unfold the truth;
    3. The existing tools and techniques accessible to him, and others may need modification and change to suit the current needs.
    One might research ensuring
    Better livelihood;
    Better career development;
    Higher position, prestige, and dignity in the society;
    Academic achievement leading to higher degrees;
    Self-gratification.
    At the individual level, the results of the research are used by many:
    A villager is drinking water from an arsenic-free tube-well;
    A rural woman is giving more green vegetable to her child than before;
    A cigarette smoker is actively considering to quit smoking;
    An old man is jogging for cardiovascular fitness;
    A sociologist is using newly suggested tools and techniques in poverty measurement.
    The above activities are all outcomes of the research.
    All involved in the above processes are being benefited from the results of research. There is hardly any action in everyday life that does not depend upon previous research.
    Research in any field of inquiry provides us with the knowledge and skills we need to solve the problems and meet the challenges of a fast-paced decision-making environment.
    Desirable Qualities of Research
    Good research is one that generates dependable data. It is conducted by professionals and can be used reliably for decision making.
    It is thus of crucial importance that research should be made acceptable to the audience for which research should possess some desirable qualities in terms of its;
    purpose,
    research process,
    research design,
    ethical issues,
    limitations,
    results or findings,
    conclusions,
    recommendations and
    the researcher’s experiences.
    We enumerate below a few qualities that good research should possess.
    Purpose clearly defined
    Good research must have its purposes clearly and unambiguously defined.
    The problem involved or the decision to be made should be sharply delineated as clearly as possible to demonstrate the credibility of the research.
    Research process detailed
    The research procedures used should be described in sufficient detail to permit other researchers to repeat the research at a later date.
    Failure to do so makes it difficult or impossible to estimate the validity and reliability of the results. This weakens the confidence of the readers.
    Any recommendations made from such research justifiably get little attention from the policymakers and implementation.
    Research design planned
    The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible.
    In doing so, care must be taken so that the representativeness of the sample is ensured, and relevant literature has been thoroughly searched, experimental controls, whenever necessary, have been followed, the personal bias in selecting and recording data have been minimized.
    Ethical issues considered
    A research design should always safeguard against causing mental and physical harm not only to the participants but also to those who belong to their organizations.
    Careful consideration must also be given to research situations when there is a possibility for exploitation, invasion of privacy, and loss of dignity of all those who are involved in the study.
    Limitations revealed
    The researcher should report with complete honesty and frankness any flaws in procedural design; he followed and provided estimates of their effects on the findings.
    This enhances the confidence of the readers and finally makes the report acceptable to the audience. One can legitimately question the value of research where no limitations are reported.
    Adequate analysis ensured
    Adequate analysis reveals the significance of the data and helps the researcher to check the reliability and validity of his estimates.
    Data should, therefore, be analyzed with proper statistical rigor to assist the researcher in reaching firm conclusions.
    When statistical methods have been employed, the probability of error should be estimated, and criteria of statistical significance applied.
    Findings unambiguously presented
    The presentation of the results should be comprehensive, easily understood by the readers, and organized so that the readers can readily locate the critical and central findings.
    Conclusions and recommendations justified.
    Proper research always specifies the conditions under which the research conclusions seem to be valid.
    It is therefore of importance that any conclusions drawn and recommendations made should be solely based on the findings of the study.
    No inferences or generalizations should be made beyond the data. If this were not followed, the objectivity of the research would tend to decrease, resulting in confidence in the findings.
    The researcher’s experiences reflected.
    The research report should contain information about the qualification of the researchers.
    If the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research, and is a person of integrity, his report is likely to be highly valued. The policymakers feel confident in implementing the recommendation made in such reports.
    Goals of Research
    The primary goal or purpose of research in any field of inquiry; is to add to what is known about the phenomenon under investigation through the application of scientific methods.
    Though each research has its own specific goals, yet we may enumerate the following 4 broad goals of scientific research:
    Exploration.
    Description.
    Causal explanation.
    Prediction.
    The link between the 4 goals of research and the questions raised in reaching these goals.
    Goals/purposes Types of questions
    Exploration
    What is the full nature of the problem or phenomenon?
    What is going on?
    What factors are related to the problem?
    Description
    How prevalent is the problem?
    What are the characteristics of the problem?
    What is the process by which the problem is experienced?
    Explanation
    What are the underlying causes of the problem?
    What do the occurrences of the problem mean?
    Why does the problem exist?
    Prediction
    If problem X occurs, will problem K follow?
    Can the occurrence of the problem be controlled?
    Does an intervention result in the intended effect?
    Let’s try to understand the 4 goals of the research.

    Exploration and Explorative Research
    Exploration is finding out about some previously unexamined phenomenon. In other words, an explorative study structures and identifies new problems.

    The explorative study aims at gaining familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.

    Exploration is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they meet during their study.

    Through exploration, researchers attempt to

    Develop concepts more clearly;
    Establish priorities among several alternatives;
    Develop operational definitions of variables;
    Formulate research hypotheses and sharpen research objectives;
    Improve the methodology and modify (if needed) research design.
    Exploration is achieved through what we call exploratory research.

    The end of an explorative study comes when the researchers are convinced that they have established the major dimensions of the research task.

    Description and Descriptive Research
    Many research activities consist of gathering information on some topic of interest. The description refers to these data-based information-gathering activities. Descriptive studies portray precisely the characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group.

    Here we attempt to describe situations and events through studies, which we refer to as descriptive research.

    Such research is undertaken when much is known about the problem under investigation.

    Descriptive studies try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, and sometimes how.

    Such research studies may involve the collection of data and the creation of distribution of the number of times the researcher observes a single event or characteristic, known as a research variable.

    A descriptive study may also involve the interaction of two or more variables and attempts to observe if there is any relationship between the variables under investigation.

    Research that examines such a relationship is sometimes called correlational study. It is correlational because it attempts to relate (i.e., co-relate) two or more variables.

    A descriptive study may be feasible to answer the questions of the following types:

    What are the characteristics of the people who are involved in city crime? Are they young? Middle-aged? Poor? Muslim? Educated?
    Who are the potential buyers of the new product? Men or women? Urban people or rural people?
    Are rural women more likely to marry earlier than their urban counterparts?
    Does previous experience help an employee to get a higher initial salary?
    Although the data description in descriptive research is factual, accurate, and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation.
    Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.
    In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. In sum, descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied.
    But there are always restrictions on that. All research must have an impact on the lives of the people around us.
    For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the people of a community falls under descriptive research.
    But the readers of the research will have the hunch to know why this has happened, and what to do to prevent that disease so that more people will live a healthy life.
    It dictates that we need a causal explanation of the situation under reference and hence a causal study vis-a-vis causal research.
    Causal Explanation and Causal Research
    Explanation reveals why and how something happens.
    An explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It explains the reason for the phenomenon that the descriptive study observed.
    Thus if a researcher finds that communities having larger family size have higher child death or that smoking is correlated with lung cancer, he is performing a descriptive study.
    If he is explaining why it is so and tries to establish a cause-and-effect relationship, he is performing explanatory research or causal research. The researcher uses theories or at-least hypotheses to account for the factors that caused a certain phenomenon to occur.
    Look at the following examples that fit causal studies:
    Why are people involved in crime? Can we explain this as a consequence of the present crisis in the job market or for lack of parental care?
    Will the buyers be motivated to purchase the new product in a new container? Can an attractive advertisement motivate them to buy a new product?
    Why has the share market shown steepest ever fall in stock prices? Is it because of IMF’s warnings and prescriptions on the commercial banks’ exposure to the stock market or because of an abundant increase in the supply of new shares?
    Prediction and Predictive Research
    Prediction seeks to answer: when and in what situations the event will occur, if we can provide a plausible explanation for the event in question.
    The precise nature of the relationship between explanation and prediction, however, has been a subject of debate.
    One view is that explanation and prediction are the same phenomena except that prediction precedes the event while the explanation takes place after the event has occurred.
    Another view is that explanation and prediction are fundamentally different processes.
    We need not be concerned with this debate here but can simply state that in addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, we would also be able to predict when the event will occur.
    Research Approaches
    4 research approaches
    There are two main approaches to doing research.
    The first is the basic approach, which mostly pertains to academic research. Many people view this as pure research or fundamental research.
    The research implemented through the second approach is variously known as applied research, action research, operations research, or a contract research approach.
    Also, the third category of research, called evaluative research, is of importance in many applications. All these approaches have different purposes which influence the nature of the respective research.
    Lastly, precautions in research are required for thorough research.
    So, 4 research approaches are;
    Basic Research.
    Applied Research.
    Evaluative Research.
    Precautions in Research.
    Areas of Research
    The most important fields of research, among others, are;
    Social Research.
    Health Research.
    Population Research.
    Business Research.
    Marketing Research.
    Agricultural Research.
    Biomedical Research.
    Clinical Research.
    Outcomes Research.
    Internet Research.
    Archival Research.
    Empirical Research.
    Legal Research.
    Education Research.
    Engineering Research.
    Historical Research.
    Precautions in Research
    Whether a researcher is doing applied or basic research or research of any other form, he or she must take necessary precautions to ensure that the research he or she is doing is relevant, timely, efficient, accurate, and ethical.
    The research is considered relevant if it anticipates the kinds of information that will be required by decision-makers, scientists, or policymakers.
    Timely research is completed in time to influence decisions.
    Research is efficient when it is of the best quality for the minimum expenditure, and the study is appropriate to the research context.
    Research is considered accurate or valid when the interpretation can account for both consistencies and inconsistencies in the data.
    Research is ethical when it can promote trust, exercise care, ensure standards, and protect the rights of the participants in the research process.

  47. Avatar Ogbonna Loveth Nnedinso says:

    Name: OGBONNA LOVETH NNEDINSO
    Reg.No: 2018/248354
    Dept: COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES
    Combination: ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE
    Course: Eco 391
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean.
    ANSWER
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know . It has been defined by various authors and researchers.
    Research is composed of two syllables re and search. Re is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again, Research is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe. It is a systematic study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles. The main goal is gathering and interpreting information to answer questions (Hullegard, Mood, and Morow 1996).
    Research is a systematic way of providing answers raised at the level of inquiry.
    R= Reviewing
    E=Existing
    S= Studies
    E= Empirically
    A= And
    R= Rigorously
    C= Confirming
    H= Hypothesis
    That is Reviewing existing studies Empirically and Rigorously confirming hypothesis.
    The Research process involves a sequence of cyclical procedures or logical procedures. These processes includes-
    1) Problem identification.
    2) Choice of research topic.
    3) Literature review.
    4) Hypothesis formulation.
    5) Design of research methods.
    6) Data collection.
    7) Result analysis.
    8) Summarization of research results into “research conclusion(s)”.
    Types of research methods and example;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    •Qualitative methods;
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    •Quantitative methods;
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    •Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    •Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    •The 8 tips for conducting accurate research;
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

  48. Avatar Nwigbo blessing Chiamaka says:

    NWIGBO BLESSING CHIAMAKA.
    2018/245390.
    blessingmartha232@gmail.com.
    Education/Economics.
    25th August.

    INTRODUCTION.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:
    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff
    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP
    the development of HDR training and courses
    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses
    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research).
    WHAT’S THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    CONCLUSION
    Bedrock of every Innovation is research, it is a careful study of phenomenon to establish facts , it’s also a system of investigating the establish facts. Research it’s a pursuit of truth with the help of study observation, comparison and experiments.

    References.
    Westernsydney.edu.au.
    Https// http://www.questionpro.com.

  49. Avatar Ezema Samuel Nnamdi says:

    Ezema Samuel Nnamdi
    REG.NO. 2018/249458
    ECONOMICS.

    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real life applications and forming new research questions.

    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.

    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:

    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge.

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds.
    This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘ systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted- a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed , data is collected and analyzed, and research results are summarized into one or more research conclusions.
    These research conclusions are then shared with rest of the scientific community to add to the existing questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    What is the Purpose of Research
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

  50. Avatar Oyibe Ebere Izuinya. 2018/245131 says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA

    REG. NUMBER: 2018/245131

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS).

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as a special advicer to Mr president on research and strategy!
    Answers.

    Research is a two syllabic word which comprises of : “re” and “search”.
    “Re” means again and again while “search” means to examine something carefully or closely.
    Research is a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge usually undertaken to establish a principle or facts.
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    INDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHODS analyze an observed event, while
    DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHODS verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research in businesses is conducted with a purpose to:
    i. Identifying potential and new customers
    ii. Understanding existing customers
    iii. Setting pragmatic goals
    iv. Developing productive market strategies
    v. Addressing business challenges
    vi. Putting together a business expansion plan
    vii Identifying new business opportunities

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH.
    i. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    ii. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    iii. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    iv. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    v. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    vi. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    There are three main purposes of research. They are:
    i. To explore,
    ii. To describe,
    iii. To explain.
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research methods are broadly classified as:
    I. Qualitative research methods, and
    ii. Quantitative research methods
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study

    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS:
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    As a special advicer to Mr president,
    Research would mean to me a process of finding out the solutions to a problem.
    Research would mean an objective, systematic, controlled and critical activity, planned and directed towards discovery and development of dependable knowledge.
    I would encourage the Mr president to encourage researchers by providing infrastructural base such as:
    Good road network,
    Electricity,
    Security, etc.
    Also private and public sectors should always keep records of their activities and those records should be made accessible to researchers.
    Again, the masses should be educated on the importance of research as it will enable them to always provide the right information whenever they are confronted by researchers so as to make the data collection process to be easy for researchers and also make the data collected to be valid so that when replicated, will give the same results.
    With all these, researchers would be encouraged to engage in new findings that will help to solve economic problems and as well improve the well-being of people and the economy as a whole.

  51. Avatar Ezenwa chibuzo franklin says:

    NAME: EZENWA CHIBUZO FRANKLIN
    REG NO:2018/242324
    DEPT:ECONOMICS/EDUCATION
    EMAIL: chibuzofranklin20@gmail.com
    An assignment : RESEARCH
    What is research,?
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    What is Research: Definition, Methods, Types & Examples
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities

    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  52. Avatar Nweke Chelsea Kenechi. 2018/243075 Department of Combined Social Sciences ( Economics and Psychology ) 300 level Eco 391 says:

    Nweke Chelsea Kenechi
    2018/243075
    Department of Combined Social Sciences (Economics and Psychology)
    300 level
    Eco 391
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws. In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research can be said to be the process of studying is Romania or its subject over and over again to get new information facts or to reach new conclusion. Research are carried out in order to get more information about the phenomenon or to solve a problem. It is the scientific systematic method of acquiring knowledge.

    Different scholars definition of the term research.
    According to Walt and bansel 1981 research is said to be a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solution to problems or to discover and interpret new fact.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    Research can be used to shed more light on new facts and ensure accuracy of past theory. We have the basic research which is they said to gather general knowledge is something specific and we have the applied research which is the research for the purpose of solving problems. Researchers used as the basis of knowledge.
    Research as a concept can be defined as the process we use to learn new things. It is the search for knowledge it’s also a systematic investigation on new fact and the solving of new and existing problems.
    Research can be used to observe and control population, to figure out what are the causes of our underdevelopment and profer possible solutions.
    In general can be used to understand economic problems such as unemployment, poverty, overpopulation, depression, recession, inflation etc as well as provide more reliable solutions to help solve these economic problems gearing the economy towards development.

  53. Avatar Ibukun Bamiduro says:

    Name: Bamiduro Ibukun Obianuju
    Reg No: 2018/243749
    Department: Economics
    Eco391: Research Methods In Economics
    Email: ibukun.maya@gmail.com

    Question
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    Given the above assertion and the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer

    What is research?

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way to generate new concepts. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Research can also be defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.

    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    As an adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy, research to me can be seen in this way;

    Would help me to thoroughly understand the question for better analysis, get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting data through surveys and questionnaires, and make smart decisions about my strategies to advise Mr. President well.

    Research involves inductive and deductive methods

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1) Develop productive techniques
    2) Address business challenges or that of the country
    3) Identify new business openings that can help the country

    Characteristics of research

    1) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data.
    2) There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    3) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no obscurity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The data must be accurate and correct.

    Purpose of research

    1) Exploratory

    Researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    2) Descriptive

    It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describes the behavior of a sample population. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.

    3) Explanatory

    explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

  54. Avatar Onyemelukwe Chinenye Favour says:

    Name: Onyemelukwe Chinenye Favour
    Reg. Number: 2018/241854
    Dept.: Economics

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data, documentation of critical information and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research simply put is a study carried out to find out the solution to a certain problem.

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    The above definition goes to show that research involves;
    a. A careful, well-planned and diligent study to establish facts and solve a problem.
    b. Finding out new things
    c. Synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new conclusions.
    d. The use of research discoveries
    e. Data collection
    f. Interpretation, explanation in clear, lucid language with facts not emotions.
    g. There are ethics guiding research.

    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”.

    The major steps in conducting Research include:
    i. Identification of research problem
    ii. Literature review
    iii. Specifying the purpose of research
    iv. Determining specific research questions
    v. Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    vi. Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    vii. Data collection
    viii. Verifying data
    ix. Analyzing and interpreting the data
    x. Reporting and evaluating research
    xi. Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations.

    Relevance of Research to a Nation’s Development

    With sufficient research funding (private and government agencies), the scientific advancement will help to eliminate poverty and improve home grown economic development, hence, improve the quality of life.
    Research and development generated by higher education, more than anything else, contributes to the rise and expansion of the world knowledge economy.
    Research will help the government of a nation notice sectors of the economy that needs its attention and areas to improve on so it doesn’t operate blind.
    Research creates knowledge and development designs and builds prototypes to prove their feasibility. Engineering then converts these prototypes into products or services that can be offered to the marketplace or into processes that can be used to produce commercial products and services. This will help the tech industry of a nation.
    The main aim of research is gaining knowledge so that we can build our nation very well. We have need to connect research with nation development to build society, polity and economy for the removal of poverty, unemployment, inequality, etc

  55. Avatar Umeh Chinaza Lucy says:

    Name: Umeh Chinaza Lucy
    Reg number:2018/246901
    Dept:Social science (Education/Economics)
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course title: Research methods in economics 1
    Email:umehlucy37@gmail.com
    Assignment
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Meaning Of Research According To Different scholars
    From the above definition and the different definitions given by various pundit/ scholar on research which according to Clarke and Clarke is a careful, systematic and objective investigation conducted to obtain valid facts, draw conclusions and established principles regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge to John .W. Best Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, theories and concepts, resulting in prediction for seeing and possibly ultimate control of events. Clifford Woody said that Research is a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something.
    Mouley explained research as a process of arriving at dependable solution to the problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary explained it as a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Waltz and Bausell, 1981 said research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships. Payton 1979 explained research as a process of looking for a specific answer to a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.
    Kerlinger, 1973 said research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
    Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Kothari, 2006.
    Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Payton (1979).27 Mar 2017. From the various definition given by various scholar i can say that from all the definition given that research demand alot of careful scrutinizing of events , observations or problems with the aim of discovering, interpreting and finding Solution to issues and it is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. It can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work. Some of the common aims for conducting research studies are to:
    _Diagnose diseases and health problems
    _Prevent the development or recurrence of disease and reduce the number of people who become ill
    _Treat illness to improve survival rates or increase the number of people who are cured
    _Improve the quality of life for people living with illness
    And as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy I can say that research is a process of carrying an investigation to find answers to a question in an organized and reliable way which in turn helps with problem solving and introduces us to new ideas.
    Importance of Studying Research
    Research is important because it gives direction to deal with a specific problem. Whether the problem is thoroughly solved or not is not the forte of the research work. Accumulating amicable and all the possible solutions hypothetically are in itself considered a commendable achievement.
    -Research expands your knowledge base.
    -Research gives you the latest information.
    -Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    – Research builds your credibility.
    -Research encourages curiosity.
    – Research helps you narrow your scope.
    -Research teaches you better discernment.
    -Research helps you reach people.

    Types of Research
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.
    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated. Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.

    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question. Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers. For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine. This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    -Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    -Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects. For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated. Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it. In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved. For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.
    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment. For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.
    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.
    Qualitative research
    methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations. In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’). For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time. For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data.
    Types of Research Methodology
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object. The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method. For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects.
    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context. As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study. Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research. For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non-experimental study.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental. In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations. This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study. For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    According to the Type of Inference
    Deductive Investigation
    In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly.
    Inductive Research
    In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalisation. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories.
    Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation
    It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion and finally verify or reject it through experience.
    Descriptive Research Design
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried OutLongitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research) It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time. It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time. It is often used in medical, psychological and social areas. For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
    Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time.
    According to The Sources of Information
    Primary Research
    This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.
    Secondary research
    Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.
    Action Research Methods according to How the Data is Obtained
    Documentary (cabinet)
    Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.
    Field
    Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.
    From Laboratory
    Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.
    Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory
    Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research.

  56. Avatar ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR)
    COURSE: ECO 391
    EMAIL: colettechinazaekpere@gmail.com
    LEVEL: 300L

    MEANING AND THE SCOPE OF RESEARCH

    ETYMOLOGY
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    DEFINITION
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    FORMS OF RESEARCH
    Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.

    The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review. Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.

    Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).

    Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.

    Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    STEPS ON CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

    Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject-related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
    Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
    Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
    Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
    Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
    Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it.
    Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words.
    Test, revising of hypothesis
    Conclusion, reiteration if necessary
    A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, null hypothesis). Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.

    A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.

    RESEARCH METHODS

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:

    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects. Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.

    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive) derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

    If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment). If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.

    In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.

    Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.

    Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS
    1. Observatory Research Method
    2. Correlation Research Method

    Switching topics
    There have been indications that during the last decades scientists have switched between scientific topics more frequently.

    Non-empirical research
    Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on. See Scientific method.

    A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

    RESEARCH ETHICS
    Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research. The management of research ethics is inconsistent across countries and there is no universally accepted approach to how it should be addressed.[46][47][48] Informed consent is a key concept in research ethics.

    When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics and value (ethics). Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios.

    Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciences, information technology, biotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.

    In countries such as Canada, mandatory research ethics training is required for students, professors and others who work in research.

    Nowadays, research ethics is commonly distinguished from matters of research integrity that includes issues such as scientific misconduct (e.g. fraud, fabrication of data or plagiarism).

  57. Avatar Onyekwelu Collins Obinna says:

    Name: Onyekwelu Collins Obinna

    Reg no: 2018/251026

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    A research strategy is an overall plan for conducting a research study. A research strategy guides a researcher in planning, executing, and monitoring the study. Thus, a research strategy offers high-level guidance, while a research method can be seen as a technique or tool for performing a specific task. Researchers have since centuries used research methods for supporting the creation of reliable knowledge based on empirical evidence and logical arguments.
    Generally, research is the organised and systematic method of finding answers to questions. It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not. The primary purpose of research is to find answers to questions. Research allows us to find the right solutions to key issues in our communities by:
    providing facts that will help us to analyse the problem; testing the feasibility and the impact of programmes; and finding better solutions to the challenges.
    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and casual/explanatory. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways.

    1. Exploratory: Here, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    2. Descriptive: This concentrates on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describes the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.

    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

    Research does the following:

    1. Research can confirm what you were already sure of :-
    Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others. Whilst research can confirm your views, it is important that the researcher remains open-minded and impartial even when the results fail to confirm your views.
    Research can give your views and arguments substance.

    2. Research produces hard facts that could support your arguments and beliefs :-
    Research gives you new information. Research often throws up other facts which you may not have been aware of that helps to strengthen, or even change, your arguments and beliefs. These facts make it easier to plan programmes and ensure that interventions are effective. Research can show you what is most likely to address your issue successfully.

    3. Research may provide key information that will enable you to develop clear strategies :-
    Research can provide you with anecdotes and examples to use. In addition to providing statistics, research provides you with real life experiences that are more convincing than statistics organised into graphs and tables. For example, parts of a research report on poverty in a rural community can deal with actual case studies that will have a great impact on readers.

    4. Research allows you to make cost-benefit arguments :-
    Often people are convinced that a programme or project justifies high amounts of money being spent. Research can confirm if this is correct or suggest other ways for the money to be spent.

  58. Avatar Umeh Chinaza Lucy says:

    Name: Umeh Chinaza Lucy
    Reg number:2018/246901
    Dept:Social science (Education/Economics)
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course title: Research methods in economics 1
    Email:umehlucy37@gmail.com
    Assignment
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Meaning Of Research According To Different scholars
    From the above definition and the different definitions given by various pundit/ scholar on research which according to Clarke and Clarke is a careful, systematic and objective investigation conducted to obtain valid facts, draw conclusions and established principles regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge to John .W. Best Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, theories and concepts, resulting in prediction for seeing and possibly ultimate control of events. Clifford Woody said that Research is a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something.
    Mouley explained research as a process of arriving at dependable solution to the problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary explained it as a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Waltz and Bausell, 1981 said research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships. Payton 1979 explained research as a process of looking for a specific answer to a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.
    Kerlinger, 1973 said research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
    Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Kothari, 2006.
    Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Payton (1979).27 Mar 2017. From the various definition given by various scholar i can say that from all the definition given that research demand alot of careful scrutinizing of events , observations or problems with the aim of discovering, interpreting and finding Solution to issues and it is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. It can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work. Some of the common aims for conducting research studies are to:
    _Diagnose diseases and health problems
    _Prevent the development or recurrence of disease and reduce the number of people who become ill
    _Treat illness to improve survival rates or increase the number of people who are cured
    _Improve the quality of life for people living with illness
    And as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy I can say that research is a process of carrying an investigation to find answers to a question in an organized and reliable way which in turn helps with problem solving and introduces us to new ideas.
    Importance of Studying Research
    Research is important because it gives direction to deal with a specific problem. Whether the problem is thoroughly solved or not is not the forte of the research work. Accumulating amicable and all the possible solutions hypothetically are in itself considered a commendable achievement.
    -Research expands your knowledge base.
    -Research gives you the latest information.
    -Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    – Research builds your credibility.
    -Research encourages curiosity.
    – Research helps you narrow your scope.
    -Research teaches you better discernment.
    -Research helps you reach people.

    Types of Research
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.
    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated. Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.

    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question. Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers. For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine. This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    -Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    -Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects. For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated. Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it. In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved. For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.
    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment. For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.
    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.
    Qualitative research
    methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations. In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’). For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time. For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data.
    Types of Research Methodology
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object. The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method. For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects.
    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context. As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study. Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research. For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non-experimental study.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental. In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations. This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study. For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    According to the Type of Inference
    Deductive Investigation
    In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly.
    Inductive Research
    In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalisation. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories.
    Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation
    It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion and finally verify or reject it through experience.
    Descriptive Research Design
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried OutLongitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research) It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time. It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time. It is often used in medical, psychological and social areas. For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
    Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time.
    According to The Sources of Information
    Primary Research
    This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.
    Secondary research
    Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.
    Action Research Methods according to How the Data is Obtained
    Documentary (cabinet)
    Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.
    Field
    Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.
    From Laboratory
    Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.
    Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory
    Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research.

  59. Avatar ohai sonia chukwukanma says:

    • Eco. 391 -20-8-2021 (online Discussion Quiz 1- the meaning and scope of Research
    • Name; ohai Sonia chukwukanma
    • Reg No; 2014/193996
    • Dept: Economics
    • Email ohaisonia@gmail.com
    • QUESTIONS:
    • Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    • In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    • ANSWER
    • Research in Economics, formerly Ricerche Economiche, is one of Italy’s oldest and most prestigious economics journals. It publishes selected original research papers in all areas of economics, both theoretical and applied, and related fields. Papers submitted are processed by one of the Associate Editors, who cover an extremely broad range of research areas in Economics in order to maintain the general-purpose nature of the journal whilst enforcing high-quality standards. Research in Economics welcomes survey articles and short notes. The journal also has a tradition of publishing special issues. Some recent special issues have been: Interactive Epistemology in Dynamic Games (1999); Policies to Foster Human Capital (2000); International Comparison of Household Savings Behaviour: a Study of Life-cycle Savings in Seven Countries (2001), and Logic and the Foundations of the Theory of Games and Decisions (2003). All these features make Research in Economics appealing to well-established economists as well as to junior economists approaching the publication process in the international arena. Research involves the following:
    • Introduction: Pose an interesting question or problem.
    • Literature Review: Survey the literature on your topic.
    • Methods/Data: Formulate your hypothesis and describe your data.
    • Results: Present your results with the help of graphs and charts.
    • Discussion: Critique your method and/or discuss any policy implications
    • RESEARCH include these various types of research w(historic, sociological, and economic), that are cognitive in nature, may be added applied research, the object of which is to define accounting concepts, principles, and procedures. Research aims to define a theoretical framework for accounting practice and is, to a greater or lesser extent, linked to the work of the standardization bodies. In contrast to the preceding types of research, it is described as normative .
    Finally, Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

  60. Avatar Umeh Chinaza Lucy says:

    Name: Umeh Chinaza Lucy
    Reg number:2018/246901
    Dept:Social science (Education/Economics)
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course title: Research methods in economics 1
    Email:umehlucy37@gmail.com
    Assignment
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Meaning Of Research According To Different scholars.
    From the above definition and the different definitions given by various pundit/ scholar on research which according to Clarke and Clarke is a careful, systematic and objective investigation conducted to obtain valid facts, draw conclusions and established principles regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge to John .W. Best Research is a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, theories and concepts, resulting in prediction for seeing and possibly ultimate control of events. Clifford Woody said that Research is a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something.
    Mouley explained research as a process of arriving at dependable solution to the problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary explained it as a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Waltz and Bausell, 1981 said research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships. Payton 1979 explained research as a process of looking for a specific answer to a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.
    Kerlinger, 1973 said research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
    Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment; the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Kothari, 2006.
    Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem according to Payton (1979).27 Mar 2017. From the various definition given by various scholar i can say that from all the definition given that research demand alot of careful scrutinizing of events , observations or problems with the aim of discovering, interpreting and finding Solution to issues and it is essential to find out which treatments work better for patients. It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. It can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work. Some of the common aims for conducting research studies are to:
    _Diagnose diseases and health problems
    _Prevent the development or recurrence of disease and reduce the number of people who become ill
    _Treat illness to improve survival rates or increase the number of people who are cured
    _Improve the quality of life for people living with illness
    And as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy I can say that research is a process of carrying an investigation to find answers to a question in an organized and reliable way which in turn helps with problem solving and introduces us to new ideas.
    Importance of Studying Research
    Research is important because it gives direction to deal with a specific problem. Whether the problem is thoroughly solved or not is not the forte of the research work. Accumulating amicable and all the possible solutions hypothetically are in itself considered a commendable achievement.
    -Research expands your knowledge base.
    -Research gives you the latest information.
    -Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    – Research builds your credibility.
    -Research encourages curiosity.
    – Research helps you narrow your scope.
    -Research teaches you better discernment.
    -Research helps you reach people.

    Types of Research
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.
    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated. Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.

    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question. Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers. For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine. This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    -Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    -Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects. For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated. Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it. In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved. For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.
    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment. For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.
    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.
    Qualitative research
    methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations. In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’). For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time. For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data.
    Types of Research Methodology
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object. The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method. For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects.
    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context. As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study. Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research. For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non-experimental study.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental. In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations. This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study. For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    According to the Type of Inference
    Deductive Investigation
    In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly.
    Inductive Research
    In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalisation. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories.
    Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation
    It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion and finally verify or reject it through experience.
    Descriptive Research Design
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried OutLongitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research) It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time. It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time. It is often used in medical, psychological and social areas. For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
    Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time.
    According to The Sources of Information
    Primary Research
    This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.
    Secondary research
    Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.
    Action Research Methods according to How the Data is Obtained
    Documentary (cabinet)
    Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.
    Field
    Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.
    From Laboratory
    Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.
    Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory
    Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research.

  61. Avatar ONWE, IRENE EBERE says:

    NAME:ONWE, IRENE EBERE
    REG NO: 2018/242201
    EMAIL: Irene.onwe.242201@unn.edu.ng
    DEPT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    ASSIGNMENT:Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    ANSWER:
    Research has been defined by various authors in different ways. It always begins with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to find answers to questions through the application of systematic and scientific methods. Thus, research is the systematic approach towards purposeful investigation.Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth, “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions. But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be systematic, controlled, rigorous, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical.

    In view of the above assertion and as the special adviser to Mr President, Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. Research can also be defined as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

  62. Avatar Mbah Chidimma Judith 2018/243101.department: Economic nd sociology says:

    Name:Mbah Chidimma Judith
    Reg no:2018/243101
    Dept: Economic nd sociology
    Topic: meaning and scope of research
    MEANING OF RESEARCH

    Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Cancer research has ‘Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,’ and ‘Baby Born with HIV Cured.’ Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like, ‘Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or HIV infections?’

    But all I’ve said so far is what research has done (sort of like saying baking leads to apple pie; it doesn’t really tell you anything other than the two are connected). To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable.

    Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something.’ To continue the baking example, this internal state of wanting something is like having a hankering for apple pie. Since you are reading this in a psychology section, we will put a psychological slant on this, and hopefully lose some of the baking metaphors.
    PURPOSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
    Psychological researchers want to learn and understand human behavior. It can be about how people think, how they feel, how they behave, or some combination of these issues. Research, and the understanding that follows, trickles down from the scientists and alters society. There is constant and competing research. For example, about what is the best way to punish and rehabilitate criminals (such as Zimbardo’s prison experiment), the best and worst ways to raise children (Bowlby and attachment, Spock and children), and how to treat the mentally ill (with too many to count).

    More specifically, psychological research is used to measure, describe, and categorize human behavior. This can result in understanding what might be called normal behavior. More interesting and more often researched are the abnormal behaviors, those that eventually become categorized and labeled with a diagnosis. A diagnosis is a constellation of common behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that occur together.

    For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final
    THREE MAIN PURPOSE OF A RESEARCH
    No:1Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    No 2:_Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    no:3 -Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    EXERCISE
    Exercise
    You are a research associate working in a laboratory. Before giving you complex assignments, your supervisor wants to ensure that you understand the various steps involved in the research methodology. You are therefore given a very simple question to answer through research: “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    You will thus conduct the experiment using a coin at home. Most importantly, you will detail your experiment and findings in a report using proper research methodology. Your report should thus include:

    The research question,
    The hypothesis,
    The experiment itself, and
    The conclusion to your findings.
    Solution
    Although students will not all get the same results, an example of a report would include the following components:

    Research Question:
    “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    Hypothesis:
    Based on basic statistical knowledge, there is an equal chance of a coin landing on either the heads or tails side. Therefore, 50% of the coin flips should result in tails, which works out to 5 out of the 10 coin tosses.

    Experiment:
    The following results were noted:

    Flip No. Result
    1 Heads
    2 Tails
    3 Heads
    4 Heads
    5 Tails
    6 Tails
    7 Heads
    8 Heads
    9 Tails
    10 Heads
    The following findings were noted:

    Result Heads Tails
    Number of occurrences 6 4
    Conclusion:
    Although there is an equal chance that each coin toss can result in either the ‘heads or tails side, the fact that the test is done at random for such a small population size suggests that the most probabilistic outcome (i.e. 5 tails occurrences) is not the only possible outcome.
    CONCLUSION
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations

  63. Avatar Roland Ifeanyi Godwin says:

    Name:Roland Ifeanyi Godwin
    Reg no: 2018/241822
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco 391(Research methods in economics)
    QUESTION
    As the special adviser to the president what do you understand by Research?
    Research has been defined by various authors and reserchers
    Firstly C
    According to (hyllegard,Mood and morrow,1996) the main goal of research is the gathering and interpreting of information to answer questions.
    Research is a habit of questioning what you do,and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service.
    As the adviser to the president research will be seen as steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue, it involves systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalize knowledge. It include three basic steps
    1.pose a question
    2.collect data to answer the questions
    3.present answers to the questions.
    (Croswell,J.W. 2008)

  64. Avatar Obeleze Christiantus Ifeanyi says:

    Name: Obeleze Christiantus Ifeanyi
    Reg no: 2018/242407
    Dept: Economics
    Email: obelezechristiantus@gmail.com
    Assignment
    clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.[29] The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:[30]

    Identification of research problem
    Literature review
    Specifying the purpose of research
    Determining specific research questions
    Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses[31]
    Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    Data collection
    Verifying data
    Analyzing and interpreting the data
    Reporting and evaluating research
    Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations
    The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.[32] Most research begins with a general statement of the problem, or rather, the purpose for engaging in the study.[33] The literature review identifies flaws or holes in previous research which provides justification for the study. Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher(s) collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher(s) then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: starting with articulating findings and discussion of them, moving “up” to identification of a research problem that emerges in the findings and literature review. The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):
    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:
    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.[citation needed] Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses.[citation needed] Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.
    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive). Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.[citation needed] These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.
    If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment).[citation needed] If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.
    In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
    Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.

  65. Avatar Joseph chioma Mercy says:

    Name: Joseph Chioma Mercy
    Reg. No. 2018/242205
    Dept. Education /Economics

    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”
    The above definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase knowledge, properly understand some theories and interpret them. It also helps to know how and when to apply the a given theory.
    To my understanding, Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from depression.
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.
    Research is also used to…
    • Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    • To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    • To help generate questions for further inquiries

  66. Avatar OCHEME CHRISTIANA ENE says:

    REG NO: 2018/249273
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination, especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to yeas the special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy.

      Research is defined as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It can also be defined as a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon, it involves inductive and deductive methods. Research is concerned with a purpose to
    . Identity potential and new customers
    . Understand existing customers
    . Set pragmatic goals
    . development productive market strategies
    . Address business challenges
    . Put together a business expansion plan
    . Identify new business opportunities

    Research is a careful study of a subject  in order to discover new facts or information about it. It involves spending a lot of time studying /reading to find something that was hidden or that you did not expect to find. It also involves getting more valid information about something, examining accepted facts or theories for more clarification.

    It  is also  the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

  67. Avatar Nwoko Nnamdi Netochukwu 2018/245660 says:

    Meaning and Concept of Research
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of
    critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with
    suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is conducted to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework; to
    assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners;
    and to generate questions for further inquiries.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge,
    including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to
    devise new applications.” It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to
    increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
    In simple words research is work that involves studying something and trying to discover facts
    about it.
    Definition of Research
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in
    order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and
    the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a
    process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic
    or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and
    present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or
    examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and
    interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical
    application of such new or revised theories or laws”
    Characteristics of Research
    1. A systematic approach must be followed for accurate data. Rules and procedures are an
    integral part of the process that set the objective. Researchers need to practice ethics and
    a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. Research is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive
    methods.
    3. The data or knowledge that is derived is in real time from actual observations in natural
    settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies
    associated with it.
    5. Research creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more
    opportunities for research.
    6. Research is analytical in nature. It makes use of all the available data so that there is no
    ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most important aspects of research. The information that is
    obtained should be accurate and true to its nature. For example, laboratories provide a
    controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the
    calibrations of instruments or tools, and the final result of the experiment.

  68. Avatar Mbah Chisom Mary says:

    NAME: Mbah Chisom Mary
    DEPARTMENT: Social Science Education
    REG NO: 2018/244295
    EMAIL: chisommary111@gmail.com
    ANSWERS
    So many people have defined the meaning of research as well. According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English. (1997) defined Research as a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas. Also, Waltz and Bansell (1981). Viewed research as a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.
    From the above assertions it can be deduce that research is the critical and careful study of existing truth or phenomenon as well as finding of answers and solution to new discoveries. It also includes the modification of known or alrey existing information or phenomenon and the putting into use the discovered One. That is, substituting into use the discovered.
    In my own understanding, research is the activity of seeking and analyzing information inorder to solve a problem through the findings of the unknown or existing facts. Research is carried out in order to figure the causes, effects and benefits of new ideas, theories,laws, products etc or to improve existing facts or ideas basically to provide solutions to a problem. Research is inevitable in human existence.
    Research is important for so many reasons which includes; to build your credibility, it helps one to be precise,it equally gives one the current information,it introduces one to the new ideas and most importantly research helps with problem solving.

  69. Avatar onyibor chinedu says:

    Eco. 391 -20-8-2021 (online Discussion Quiz 1- the meaning and scope of Research)
    NAME: ONYIBOR CHINEDU
    REG NO: 2018/248795
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL:300L
    Email:onyiborchinedu@gmail.com
    QUESTIONS:
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    ANSWER
    As a special adviser to Mr. President, research means:
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of
    critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with
    suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is conducted to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework; to
    assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners;
    and to generate questions for further inquiries.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge,
    including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to
    devise new applications.” It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to
    increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
    In simple words research is work that involves studying something and trying to discover facts
    about it.
    Definition of Research
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in
    order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and
    the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a
    process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic
    or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and
    present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or
    examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and
    interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

  70. Avatar Ezeh Chukwuemeka Kingsley says:

    Name : Ezeh Chukwuemeka Kingsley
    Reg number: 2018/248271
    Department: Economics
    Topic: Research ;The Meaning and Scope of Research

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    trol the observed phenomenon.

    RESEARCH HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS

    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions.
    5. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    As a special adviser to mr. president, research means the following things to me
    1. My chief tool of analysis so as to enable me give the best advices to mr. president
    2. it serves as my main method of analyzing and drawing accurate conclusions on events, happenings and policies in the country.
    3. research will help me to advice the president on the best strategies to follow in tackling both home and abroad crisis.

    THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory

  71. Avatar Uweh ifeanyi Shedrack says:

    Name: uweh ifeanyi Shedrack
    Reg no: 2018/241857
    Email: uwehifeanyi@gmail.com
    Eco major
    Assignment:Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Characteristics of research –
    1. Research is based on the scientific method.
    2. Helps in answering various pertinent questions.
    3. It is an organized, planned and patient investigation or a critical enquiry.
    4. It has logical roots, helping to establish facts or principles.
    Limitations of research –
    1. Problems of collection of data and conceptualization may occur.
    2. Repetition problems.
    3. Outdated and insufficient information system may cause problems.
    4. Sometimes lack of resources becomes an obstacle.
    5. Nonavailability of trained researchers.
    6. Absence of code of conduct.
    CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH
    Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we can classify researchstudies by its purposes into the following categories:
    1. Exploratory or Formulative Research :Studies with a purpose of gaining familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it, often in order to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop hypotheses are known as Exploratory or Formulative research studies.
    .2 Descriptive Research:The research studies which are intended to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular situation or a group or individual are termed as descriptive research.The chief purpose of these studies is to describe reality. Descriptive researches, for example, might deal with such questions as, What are people’s attitudes toward development? What is the extent of child labour ? Or, how many people avail the services of the primary health centres?
    3. Diagnostic Research:Diagnostic studies are concerned with determining the frequency with whichsomething occurs or with which it is associated with something else. That is, thesestudies are concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables areassociated, e.g., do more rural people vote for a particular political party than theurban people? Are students with public school background better placed in jobsthan those who had not had this background ?
    4. Evaluative Research :Evaluative research focuses on evaluation or monitoring of programmes/services todetermine whether and to what extent they achieve their goals and whether theydo so in the least costly and most expeditious fashion. Evaluation research can also determine whether a programme has unintended consequences that are either

  72. Avatar Ekpe Esther Chidinma says:

    Name: Ekpe Esther Chidinma
    Reg. Number:2018/250324
    Department: Economic

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship and expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    The main goal of research is the gathering and interpreting of information to answer questions.

    The different between research and non research is activity is: in the way we find answers.

    The process must meet certain requirements to be called research. We can identify the requirements by examining some definition of research.
    # Philosophies means approaches e.g qualitative, quantitative and the academic disciplines in which you have been trained.
    # Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to questions.
    # Reliability to refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
    # Unbiased and objectives means that you have taken each steps in an unbiased manner and draw each conclusion in the best of your ability and without introducing your own vested interests.

  73. Avatar ASADU FRANCISCA SOMTOCHUKWU says:

    Name: Asadu Francisca Somtochukwu

    Reg No: 2018/241230

    Dept: Education/Economics

    Course: Eco 391

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-cerchier” or “sercher” meaning ‘search’.

    DEFINITION: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1. Identify potential and new customers
    2. Understand existing customers
    3. Set pragmatic goals
    4. Develop productive market strategies
    5. Address business challenges
    6. Put together a business expansion plan
    7. Identify new business opportunities

    WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH?
    There are three main purposes:
    1. EXPLORATORY: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    2. DESCRIPTIVE: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    3. EXPLANATORY: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  74. Avatar Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    Udeze Obianuju Charity
    2018/244283
    Education Economics

    Question: what is the meaning and scope of research.

    Answer: Research in my understanding is a careful and a systematic analysis of a phenomenon in order to discover new things or modify old ones. It is usually systematic so that others can also carry out the same research and get the same result at the end. Every research must be replicable for it to be valid.

    The scope of research simply tells us of the extent or the area that a research work must cover. This helps the researcher to be focused on those areas of such a research.

  75. Avatar ONYEZOR JESSICA says:

    NAME: ONYEZOR JESSICA NGOZICHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/249716

    Research is the creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. First, fact transferal is not research. Consider a typical high school research project. The teacher assigns a “research project” on some topic. The students went to the library, checked out several books, and might have copied several pertinent pages from the book. The typical student organized collected information and wrote up the “research report”. What these students did is information gathering and organization; it is nothing more or nothing less. No doubt the student went through some motions associated with research. But finding fact and fact transferal alone is not research. Transfer of information from one source, namely books and pertinent pages, to another source, is nothing more than fact transferal, but not research. A second misconception about research is that research is related to laboratory research (for example, in chemistry or biology in the natural sciences). When people hear term the “research”, they often conjure up this image. But research is not limited to certain fields of study; it is characterized by the methods used.
    Research is a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

  76. Avatar Okoli Chibuzor Divinelove says:

    Name: Okoli Chibuzor Divinelove
    Reg no; 2018/249713
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    Answers
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Its involves inductive and deductive methods.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1. Identify potential and new customers
    2. Understand existing customers
    3. Set pragmatic goals
    4. Develop productive market strategies
    5. Address business challenges
    6. Put together a business expansion plan
    7. Identify new business opportunities
    Characteristics
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    Types of research methods
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    1. Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    2. Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data.
    8 tips of conducting accurate research

    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

  77. Avatar Folarin Gift says:

    Name:Folarin gift funmilayo
    Reg no:2018/241234
    Department: Economics Education
    Course:Eco 391(Research methods in economics)
    QUESTION
    As the special adviser to president what do you understand by Research?

    Firstly , I will list out various definitions of research
    According to Rummel , J Francis 1964 research is careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge.
    Research is a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic method of enquiry.(Drew, Hard man, and Hart, 1996.)
    Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observation that may lead to the development of generalization, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possible control of event. (Best and Kahn, 1998).
    My understanding of research is a careful study of a new phenomenon.

  78. Avatar Ifiegbu Ononuju Julie says:

    NAME:. Ifiegbu Ononuju Julie
    REG NO: 2017/245848(3/4)
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION.
    EMAIL:. juliexfib@gmail.com

    QUESTION;

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!1

    ANSWER:.
    * In analysing from the above definition :
    The analysis from the above definition, it simply means RESEARCH is:
    *An intellectual activity of a high order;
    *An investigation of a phenomenon, event or activity;
    *Aims to discover data and facts and their interpretations;
    *To arrive at conclusions to formulate new theories and laws or revise the already established theories and laws;
    *To communicate the results for peer review; and
    *To be accepted or rejected before adding this new knowledge to the already existing general pool of knowledge.

    ****In throwing more light to Definitions about research.
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

    *One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    *Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    *According to the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Research is a systematic inquiry into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, etc.

    *Busha in his publication Research Methods in Librarianship says that Research is “a systematic quest for knowledge that is characterized by disciplined enquiry. Efficient and effective approach to expand knowledge is the conduct of special, planned and structured investigations.”

    *Ranganathan describes research to represent a critical and exhaustive investigation to discover new facts, to interpret them in the light of known ideas, theories and laws, to revive the current laws and theories in the light of the newly discovered facts to apply the conclusion to practical purpose.

    *** Coming to my own definition of research.
    I understand research is a creative activities that can lead to new knowledge, improve one’sability to solve problems, result in new theory.
    Research is a process of careful inquiry leading to the discovery of new information.

  79. Avatar Eze Amarachi Ruth says:

    Name: Eze Amarachi Ruth
    Reg no: 2018/248529
    Department: Economics

    What is Research?

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    Research is conducted to…Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Types of research
    There are two main types of research.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

  80. Avatar OKONKWO CHISOM JUDITH says:

    NAME: OKONKWO CHISOM JUDITH
    REG NO:2018/243044
    DEPT :CSS_ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY
    COURSE CODE:ECO 391
    LEVEL:300LEVEL
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean to you as speacial advicer to Mr President on research and strategy.

    What is Research? – Purpose of Research

    The purpose of research is to enhance society.By term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    What is Research
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.
    As a special adviser and according to Code of Federal Regulations:

    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    What is the purpose of research?

    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview

    Focus Groups

    Ethnographic studies

    Text Analysis

    Case Study

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

  81. Avatar Oyibe Ebere Izuinya. 2018/245131 says:

    NAME: OYIBE, EBERE IZUINYA
    REG. NUMBER: 2018/245131
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS).
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as a special advicer to Mr president on research and strategy!
    Answers.
    Research is a two syllabic word which comprises of : “re” and “search”.
    “Re” means again and again while “search” means to examine something carefully or closely.
    Research is a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge usually undertaken to establish a principle or facts.
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    INDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHODS analyze an observed event, while
    DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH METHODS verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research in businesses is conducted with a purpose to:
    i. Identifying potential and new customers
    ii. Understanding existing customers
    iii. Setting pragmatic goals
    iv. Developing productive market strategies
    v. Addressing business challenges
    vi. Putting together a business expansion plan
    vii Identifying new business opportunities
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH.
    i. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    ii. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    iii. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    iv. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    v. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    vi. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    There are three main purposes of research. They are:
    i. To explore,
    ii. To describe,
    iii. To explain.
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.
    CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research methods are broadly classified as:
    I. Qualitative research methods, and
    ii. Quantitative research methods
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS:

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS:

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    As a special advicer to Mr president,
    Research would mean to me a process of finding out the solutions to a problem.
    Research would mean an objective, systematic, controlled and critical activity, planned and directed towards discovery and development of dependable knowledge.
    I would encourage the Mr president to encourage researchers by providing infrastructural base such as:
    Good road network,
    Electricity,
    Security, etc.
    Also private and public sectors should always keep records of their activities and those records should be made accessible to researchers.
    Again, the masses should be educated on the importance of research as it will enable them to always provide the right information whenever they are confronted by researchers so as to make the data collection process to be easy for researchers and also make the data collected to be valid so that when replicated, will give the same results.

  82. Avatar Osike Solomon Ugochukwu says:

    Name : Osike Solomon Ugochukwu
    Reg. No. 2018/242458
    Department: Economics
    course code: Eco 391

    Answer

    Research is a careful enquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship and to expand and to verify the existing knowledge. Research is also a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic way of making inquiry.

    Qualities of good research

    1. It must have a set of philosophies.
    2. It must be valid.
    3. It must be reliable.
    4. Above all, it must be unbiased .

    Research is a scientific and disciplined enquiry in an orderly process involving:

    * Recognition and identification of a topic to be studied ” problem”.
    *Description and execution of procedures on a collection of information “method”.
    *Objective data analysis.
    * Statement of finding or “research”.

    Research involves reasonings, they are:

    *Inductive Reasoning: This is the act of developing generalization from a limited number of specific observations or experiences. It is highly dependent on the number and representativeness of the specific observations used to make generalization.

    *Deductive Reasoning: This involves developing specific predictions from general principles, observations or experiences. It is dependent on the term of the generalizations used as a basis for its logic.

    Importance of Research.

    1. Explanation: It is used to explain why things are what they are and the way they are.
    2. Predictive: Research is used to access a situation and from it, predict what could happen in future.
    3. Monitoring: Many decisions made must be monitored to ensure that goals are being obtained.
    4. Discovery/ improved new situation.
    5. Hypothesis Testing.
    6. Control.

    In view of what I’ve written above, I believe that I have stated what research means to me
    as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

  83. Avatar BENJAMIN GIFT IHUNANYA. 2018/241855 says:

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Deducing from the above definition , research is the close observation of existing phenomenon through the analysis of newly discovered facts in view of contemporary problems.
    Research as been defined by so many scholars . Some of the definitions include ; Research is a systematic way of asking questions ; a systematic method of inquiry (Drew, Hardman and Hart 1996). A broader definition of research was given by Martin Shuttleworth who defined research as the gathering of data , information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Personally, Research is a systematic examination of the truth through the collection , analysis and interpretation of data to solve new or existing problems.

  84. Avatar Kalu Divine Oluchi. says:

    Name: Kalu Divine Oluchi
    Reg No: 2018/249490
    Course Code: Eco 391
    Question: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer:

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?

    1: careful or diligent search
    2: studious inquiry or examination
    especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws
    3: the collecting of information about a particular subject

    According to Leedy and Ormrod (2010) research is a systematic process of gathering, evaluating, and interpreting data to increase understanding of a phenomenon. The core of a research process is the problem, and the researcher must see the problem with unshakable clarity and state it in detailed and unambiguous terms.
    Also Know, what is research according to Martyn Shuttleworth? Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Thereof, what is research according to?
    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods are used to analyze an observed event.

    So therefore as the special adviser to the president on research and strategy, research is seen as an inquiry or the collection of knowledge to understand the inner workings of a nation. As the special advisor, facts are being discovered and are implemented into making the nation or country a better place, that is, using the knowledge earned from research as a strategy to uplift the economy.

  85. Avatar Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice says:

    Name: Nzenwa Ngozi Beatrice
    Reg No: 2018/249548
    Department: Social Science Education
    Unit: Education and Economics
    Email: paulbeatrice3417@gmail.com

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    From my own perspectives, research can simply be defined as a process of finding out new facts,making enquiry about the unknown in other to find solutions or improve on the existing findings.

  86. Avatar Ubechu Agatha Chidinma says:

    Ubechu Agatha Chidinma
    2018/242441
    Economics
    dinmagatha@gmail.com

    THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH

    Research is the systematic analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or dove a problem.
    It is an art of scientific investigation.
    According to Clifford, research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis, collecting, organizing and formulating; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last testing the conclusions to see whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

    OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

    To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.
    To gain familiarity of a phenomenon.
    To achieve insights.
    To determine the frequency of something.

    MOTIVATION OF RESEARCH

    Desire to face the challenge of unsolved problems.
    Being of service to the society.
    Being respectable.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    Descriptive research: includes surveys and fact findings
    enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of description is description of the state of affairs as it exist at present. The researchers had no control over the variables.

    Analytical research: researcher has to use facts and information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the materials.

    Applied research aim at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing an individual or society.

    Fundamental research is aim at general formulation of theories.

    Quantitative research: is applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in quantity.

    Qualitative research: phenomena relating to quality or kind. The aim is to discover the underlying motives of human.

    Conceptual research: it is normally used by developers or thinkers to develop new concepts or existing ones.

    Empirical research: relies on experience or observation alone. It is data based research coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.

    Why write research scope?
    There are many reasons why defining the scope of your study is so important. It has importance for you and for the readers as well. Therefore, you should write it in a very clear, precise, and to the point manner.

    It provides boundaries to your research and helps you keep on track during the research. You do not wander from one point to another rather you limit yourself to the scope of your study.
    Also, it gives depth to your research question because you stay with in the limit of it. And makes it easy for you to narrow own your research topic, off course, this is very important for your research.
    Research is a work of clarity and objectivity. And, it brings objectivity and precision to your research.
    Once you finish your study you can evaluate your study on the basis of your defined scope. You can check whether you achieved your goals or not.

  87. Avatar IFEOMA FEECHI says:

    Name: Ifeoma Feechi Favour
    Reg. Number: 2018/242455
    Department: Economics
    QUESTION
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!.
    ANSWER
    A
    Research is the systematic investigation into the study of materials and sources in a order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    In view of the statement cited in the question, we can see that research is a studious enquiry or examination meaning that it involves studies and tests of knowledge especially digging in for more information and experimenting (trying out) to be determined. It is not just something done carelessly,it requires time, resources and energy to study and comprehend.
    The major objective of research is to discover and explicitly explain facts, that is, research is carried out to majorly discover a new fact and to throw more light on an already existing theory; this is done to ensure that the theory is still relevant in the contemporary time. To revise laws in the light of new facts and to apply these laws/theories to solve a problem and to benefit mankind.
    B
    As the special advise to Mr President on Research and Strategy:
    Research is an organized systematic inquiry that creates new knowledge or uses an already existing knowledge in a creative way so as to generate new understandings.
    To research means to inquire, investigate, scrutinize, experiment, explore, probe and analyze do as to solve a problem.

  88. Avatar Amarachi says:

    Chinedu Chiamaka Helen
    2018/250394
    Economics/Psychology
    Eco 391 discussion quiz
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    According to the western Sydney University journal,Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    In QuestionPro,Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    As special advicer to the president on Research and strategy, Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    -Identify potential and new business opportunities for the nation to invest into
    -Understand existing markets and derive ways to improve services and increase returns.
    -Set pragmatic goals involving advanced education for citizens to improve their qualifications for job opportunities in the economy.
    -Develop productive market strategies
    -Address business challenges
    -Put together a business expansion plan in order to create room for increased employment of the ever growing labour force.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    -Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of the total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining economic issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.

    –Descriptive Research
    Descriptive research is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.

    Explanatory Research: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    -Research can confirm the authenticity of previously acquired data: Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others. Whilst research can confirm your views, it is important that the researcher remains open-minded and impartial even when the results fail to confirm your views.Research can give your views and arguments substance as it produces hard facts that could support your arguments and beliefs.

    -Research brings about new information:
    Research often throws up other hidden facts which that helps to strengthen, or even change, arguments and beliefs. These facts make it easier to plan programmes and ensure that interventions are effective.

    -.Research may provide key information that will enables the nation to develop clear strategies.

    -In addition to providing statistics, research provides real life experiences that are more convincing than statistics organised into graphs and tables. For example, parts of a research report on poverty in a rural community can deal with actual case studies that will have a great impact on readers.

    -Research allows for cost-benefit arguments:
    Often people are convinced that a programme or project justifies high amounts of money being spent. Research can confirm if this is correct or suggest other ways for the money to be spent.

  89. Avatar Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer says:

    Name:: Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer
    Reg number: 2018/245129
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment.
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy.
    Answer
    TO MR PRESIDENT
    As your special adviser on research and strategy I will like to explore what research and strategy entails in my understanding.
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It is also the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1.) Identify potential and new customers
    2.) Understand existing customers
    3.) Set pragmatic goals
    4.) Develop productive market strategies
    5.) Address business challenges
    6.) Put together a business expansion plan
    7.) Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    1.) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2.) Analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3.) Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    4.) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    5.) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    6.) Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes of research which includes:
    • Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    • Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    • Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Methods of Research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative; both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Quantitative methods:
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    What is Strategy?
    A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process”.
    A strategy is all about integrating organizational activities and utilizing and allocating the scarce resources within the organizational environment so as to meet the present objectives. While planning a strategy it is essential to consider that decisions are not taken in a vaccum and that any act taken by a firm is likely to be met by a reaction from those affected, competitors, customers, employees or suppliers.
    Strategy can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of events and the need to take into consideration the likely or actual behavior of others. Strategy is the blueprint of decisions in an organization that shows its objectives and goals, reduces the key policies, and plans for achieving these goals, and defines the business the company is to carry on, the type of economic and human organization it wants to be, and the contribution it plans to make to its shareholders, customers and society at large.

  90. Avatar Ben Unegbu Isochukwu says:

    Name:- Unegbu Ben Isochukwu
    Reg number:- 2016/235317
    Gmail address:- benisochukwu@gmail.com

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know.
    A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttle worth, he define research as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Thus research involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The main goal of research is the gathering and interpretation of information to answer questions.
    There are some basic concept of research
    Research undertaken many procedures, it is being done step by step
    (1)A research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies
    (2)It uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability
    (3)A research must be unbiased and objective. It is when the three citeria mentioned above adhered ,enables the process to be called research. Therefore research involves the systematic search for knowledge or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish new facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories.

    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.

    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    CRITICAL: The process or procedures for inquiry or investigation must be foolproof such that it will be able to withstand critical scrutiny.
    FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research help to fulfill the following functions:
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

  91. Avatar Unegbu Ben Isochukwu says:

    Name:- Unegbu Ben Isochukwu
    Reg number:- 2016/235317
    Gmail address:- benisochukwu@gmail.com

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know.
    A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttle worth, he define research as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Thus research involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The main goal of research is the gathering and interpretation of information to answer questions.
    There are some basic concept of research
    Research undertaken many procedures, it is being done step by step
    (1)A research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies
    (2)It uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability
    (3)A research must be unbiased and objective. It is when the three citeria mentioned above adhered ,enables the process to be called research. Therefore research involves the systematic search for knowledge or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish new facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories.

    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.

    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    CRITICAL: The process or procedures for inquiry or investigation must be foolproof such that it will be able to withstand critical scrutiny.
    FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research help to fulfill the following functions:
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

  92. Avatar Chiamaka says:

    Chinedu Chiamaka Helen
    2018/250394
    Economics/Psychology
    Eco 391 discussion quiz
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    According to the western Sydney University journal,Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    In QuestionPro,Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    As special advicer to the president on Research and strategy, Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    -Identify potential and new business opportunities for the nation to invest into
    -Understand existing markets and derive ways to improve services and increase returns.
    -Set pragmatic goals involving advanced education for citizens to improve their qualifications for job opportunities in the economy.
    -Develop productive market strategies
    -Address business challenges
    -Put together a business expansion plan in order to create room for increased employment of the ever growing labour force.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    -Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of the total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining economic issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.

    –Descriptive Research
    Descriptive research is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.

    Explanatory Research: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

    IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

    -Research can confirm the authenticity of previously acquired data: Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others. Whilst research can confirm your views, it is important that the researcher remains open-minded and impartial even when the results fail to confirm your views.Research can give your views and arguments substance as it produces hard facts that could support your arguments and beliefs.

    -Research brings about new information:
    Research often throws up other hidden facts which that helps to strengthen, or even change, arguments and beliefs. These facts make it easier to plan programmes and ensure that interventions are effective.

    -.Research may provide key information that will enables the nation to develop clear strategies.

    -In addition to providing statistics, research provides real life experiences that are more convincing than statistics organised into graphs and tables. For example, parts of a research report on poverty in a rural community can deal with actual case studies that will have a great impact on readers.

    -Research allows for cost-benefit arguments:
    Often people are convinced that a programme or project justifies high amounts of money being spent. Research can confirm if this is correct or suggest other ways for the money to be spent.

  93. Avatar OBETTA. CHISOM GRACE. REG NO:2018/242216 says:

    Name:. OBETTA Chisom Grace
    Reg no: 2018/242216
    Dep: Education Economics
    Course: meaning and scope of research (Eco 391).
    Date: 25 August,2021

    INTRODUCTION. The word research is derived from a middle french word “ rechercher “ which means to go about seeking , it is a compound word from re + cercher or sercher meaning ….search. Paul Felix Lazarsfed is known as the father of modern research survey ,he made considerable considerations towards statistical survey analysis panel methods ,laten structure analysis and contextual analysis . researching he definition of Research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Meaning of research
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    “Research could be seen as a studious enquiry or examination especially investigation or experiment aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts ,revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”
    As asserted above , it is quite obvious the main purpose of research is to find answers to a question . research allows us to finding the right and best solution to issues around us by providing facts that will help us to assay a problem and testing the feasibility and the impact of programs and finding better solution to the challenges .
    Moreover ,. Research begins with an issue that comes from an observation. Let’s say I am walking down the street and I see two
    pigeons sitting at two different windows. I’m weird, so I’ll call the first pigeon moa and the second pigeon Bill. When I walk past moa the pigeon, I see him pecking at the glass.
    When I walk past Bill the pigeon, I see him just sitting there, chilling like pigeons do. So, I formulate a question: ‘Why is moa the pigeon pecking at the glass, while Bill the pigeon does not?’ Next, I should do a little research into pigeons and why they might peck at things. This is background research to help me understand what I am looking for or at.
    Next, I have to figure out how to answer my question. There are many ways a question can be answered; most psychological studies use laboratory experiments or naturalistic studies, which will be explored in more in depth in another lesson.
    I plan on observing moa and Bill every day I walk past them to answer my question. It isn’t the most elegant or accurate study, but it should give me an answer. I create a hypothesis, which is like creating a prediction of what I think is happening: that moa is being fed while Bill is not.
    Research tends to find a solution to an unknown or confusing phenomenon.
    As a special adviser to Mr President on research and strategies : I see research as a …systematically arranged protocols, carefully directed towards discovering a solution to a challenging situation with the main aim of changing it.a careful research if well carried out could be a solution to the Economic problems we encounter today in our society.
    References
    http://www.sterisjay.edu.au.
    http://www.westarsydney.edu.au.
    http://www.sogo survey.com/blog/pael.
    www. Google .com.

  94. Avatar Ubochioma Favour Ugomma says:

    Name: Ubochioma Favour Ugomma
    Reg.no: 2018/245392
    Dept: Economics education
    Email: princessfavluv@gmail.com
    Course: Eco 391(Research methods in economics)

    QUESTION
    AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO THE PRESIDENT WHAT DO I UNDERSTAND BY RESEARCH?

    Firstly, I mustn’t fail to list out various definitions of research by other scholars as these definitions serve as a guide to knowing what research truly is..
    According to Dr Ogbuabor, he said various persons gave different definitions to what research is.
    Wanda 1981 defined research as the process of finding out solution to a problem meaning there cannot be a research without a problem.
    Oguniyi 1992 said research is a careful and diligent search, studios and critical enquiry aimed at discovering and interpreting new knowledge..

    Having seen these definitions I can boldly say that research may be defined as the quest to know more about something, understand it, if it’s a problem profer possible solutions to it for the betterment of our lives, society, community and country as a whole..
    It is a systematic process that follows guided stages which must be followed.. these stages include:
    1.Problem identification
    2. Choice of desired topic.
    3. Literature review(look at what others have done in an attempt to solve the problem)
    4.Hypothesis formulation(formulate atentative statement which can serve as a solution to the problem), and lastly,
    5. Data collection and analysis..
    For ones research to be accurate, it must go through these stages. Any research that cannot be replicated is no research..
    Research can be scientific and unscientific. Non scientific research does not have a clearly defined procedure or method while scientific research is systematic, clearly defined and produced verifiable results.. scientific research must be replicable, empirical, systematic, theoretical , lacks moral undertone and is commulative..

  95. Avatar Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness says:

    Molokwu Chiamaka Goodness
    2018/242393
    Economics

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    Research could also be categorized into two namely: Scientific and non-scientific.

    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH?
    There are three main purposes of research which includes;
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  96. Avatar Aneke Hannah Chimuaya says:

    Name: Aneke Hannah Chimuaya
    Reg. No: 2018/242453
    Dept: Economics
    Email: aneke.chimuaya.242453@unn.edu.ng
    With the ever increase to strengthen people’s interest and the need for a better society, Governments are displaying increasing interests in stronger connections between research, policy, strategy and practice. However, this tendencies mist be understood as part of the dynamics of government and politics as well as organizations and establishments. Political dynamics presents government with unique challenges to decision making as a result of diverse, inconsistence and unpredictable events. This has made research of growing importance in both public and private polices and has impacted primarily through the larger society and political processes.

    Research can be defined as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular problem using scientific methods. It is a systematic inquiry to explain observed phenomenon. Research involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase the understanding of a topic or issue.
    Research methods involve Inductive and Deductive methods. Inductive research method analyze an observed event. Inductive approach is concerned with qualitative research. Deductive method is associated with quantitative research.
    Research is aimed at;
    1.Exploring : As a researcher, conducting research helps you explore and ask question about a particular problem at this point in time not all questions concerning a problem is being answered. Exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive : Description focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describes the behavior of a sample population that is, only one variable is required to conduct the variable. The primary purposes of descriptive research are; describing, explaining and validating the findings of your work.
    3. Explanatory: After expanding knowledge about the findings of your work, you run experiments which is a very common form of research.
    The Benefits of research in an organization, establishment and government can never be over emphasized. Below are some benefits of Research ;
    1) Research expands your knowledge: as a researcher one of the most important thing about research is to learn more. There’s always a lot to learn about a topic. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth. that is, in the process of learning, you can find something new.
    2) Research helps with problem solving: The help of research helps you solve a particular problem whether you are a professional or not. Research helps you focus on what others have done before and also add something new from your discovery to find a solution to a particular problem.
    3) Research helps you to meet new people: Research in this case entails going beyond raw data and sharing real life stories that have a more personal impact on people. For instance, issues like climate change, gender inequality, racial discrimination are real life experiences that involves meeting people to share their experience.
    4) Research helps you narrow your scope: When you’re working on a topic the first time, you might not be sure on where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work is overwhelming when formulating a business plan, it is important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps to identify most important feature or theme, you can choose the theme that best fits the project or goal.

    Having highlighted the prones of Research, it is important to
    note that; it is of utmost benefit to carry out a research and gather information about a particular problem after applying methods required for the investigation and being able to draw out a reasonable conclusion on how to solve a problem.

  97. Avatar Nwosu Sochima Anne says:

    NAME:Nwosu Sochima Anne
    REG NO:2018/242291
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO391: Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    In simple words,research means a way of looking for new information, new understanding and new facts. It is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is often used for solving problems or increasing available knowledge. This can be done by testing theories and making observations Research usually prefers to be systematic, organised, and objective.
    Research can also mean the use of existing knowledge in new, innovative and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    A research should be exploratory(thoroughly examined), descriptive( serving or seeking to describe), explanatory(brutally explained) and applicable.
    Why conduct research? To understand a phenomenon, situation, or behavior under study. To test existing theories and to develop new theories on the basis of existing ones. To answer different questions of “how”, “what”, “which”, “when” and “why” about a phenomenon, behavior, or situation.
    Now what research means to me as a special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy.
    To me, research means having a desired topic or drive to find out or investigate something because you do not need it to be biased. Then having a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation, Conceptual and operational definition comes in ie what the concept is and how to measure it, gathering even bit of information I can about the desired topic then inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling the data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making for Mr president and finally putting it to test in order to achieve a permanent solution to any economic problem, economic and private projects and investments.

  98. Avatar Iheukwumere Chinedu Kingsley. Economics/Political science. 2018/243099 says:

    Research can be defined or referred to as the formulation of new inquiries based on existing informations in other to create new knowledge or broaden the horizon of knowledge the initial enquiry entailed.
    It must be noted that every research question is a product of a researched problem. Hence the very word’Research’ when properly examined, would be made up of two words which are ‘Re’ which means’to go over something again’ and the word ‘Search’ which means’to browse through something within a horizon or context.

    In my opinion, i see research to be a word which has its meaning within the confines of itself, which is the meaning of the word : RESEARCH——- Reviewing Existing Scientific Empirical Analytical Records for Checking Hypothesis.

    Research can be seen as the bedrock of scientific advancement and improvements because its procedures gives scientists and researchers the needed framework to perform further enquiry which enables them to either deny or affirm an hypothesis which is a tentative answer to a research question. The following practices should be encouraged in the activities of research:
    The clerical official, technical know-how and administrative support provided by staffs in the essential activities of research and the utilisation human and capital resources before, during and after the course of the research activities.

    Types of Research

    According to its Purpose
    Applied Research
    Applied research takes its tenants from theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and it is commonly used in fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine. This type of research is further divided into two, namely: Technological applied research and Scientific applied research.

    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research is a research type that narrows its focus on generating knowledge, irrespective of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question. It is also referred to as pure or basic research.

    According to your Depth of Scope
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used in the initial investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.

    Descriptive Research
    The fundamental objective of descriptive research is to describe the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.

    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most universally known and used type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities.

    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change

    According to the type of data being used:
    Qualitative methods are mostly used in the social sciences to collect, compare, analyse and interpret information which has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations.

    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research studies deeply in into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time.

    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strongly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object.

    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context.

    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental.
    There are also several other types of research types or kinds.

  99. Avatar EZECHUKWU RITA CHIOMA says:

    NAME: EZECHUKWU RITA CHIOMA
    REG NUMBER: 2018/250327
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO 391: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    ONLINE DISCUSSION QUIZ 1—Meaning and scope of research.

    The concept ” research” originates from middle french word, ” recherche”, which means to go about seeking . Research comprises of two words, “Re” and ” search”. Re means again and again, search means to find out something.
    According to Wikipedia, research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English. (1997), defines research as a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas.
    Kothari(2006), defined research, as a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.
    Kerlinger(1873), defined research, as a systematic controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical prepositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena .
    Waltz and Bansell (1981), defined research as a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.
    In the light of the etymological meaning of the concept, ” Research” and it’s definition by different pundits, some mentioned above;
    Research can be said to be a diligent search for solution to a problem which leads to discovery of new fact, or better understanding of existing fact. Thus, research exist due to existence of problems which has no end. A research can be said to be a research when;
    1. It tends to solve a problem
    2. It adds to existing stock of knowledge
    3. It is systematic
    4. It’s results can be verified ( empirical), and
    5. It is replicable
    In summary, I understand research to be a diligent and careful activity done to critically evaluate a problem, through structured investigation which brings about solution or better understanding to the problem or lead on to new insight. Problems does not seem to have an end, hence research is a continuous process. There is always a problem to be solved, a theory to be understood and many facts to be either proved or disproved.

  100. Avatar OMEJE NNABUIKE GERALD 2018/242440 says:

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?

    According to the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    John W. Creswell, states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon.

    As a special adviser to Mr President, Research is the creation of new knowledge or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts or things, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.

    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated.

    Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.

    Characteristics of research
    Features of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    5. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically

    Why conduct research?
    To understand a phenomenon, situation, or behavior under study. To test existing theories and to develop new theories on the basis of existing ones. To answer different questions of “how”, “what”, “which”, “when” and “why” about a phenomenon, behavior, or situation.

    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.

    According to its Purpose
    i. Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.

    Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers.

    For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.

    ii. Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.

    This type of research is subdivided into two types:

    Technological applied research
    Scientific applied research

    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.

  101. Avatar CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT 2018/242447. says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT
    CLASS: 300 LVL
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    Answer
    Firstly, research given by the dictionary definition is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and research new conclusions.
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organisation and anaylsis of information to discover and interpret facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    USES OF RESEARCH
    *Identify potential and new customers.
    *Understand existing customers.
    *Set pragmatic goals.
    *Develop productive market strategies.
    *Address business challenges.
    *Put together a business expansion plan.
    *Identify new business opportunities.

    RESEARCH METHODS
    The following below are some research methods;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    *Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using
    conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    This method helps a researcher understand what
    participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    *Types of qualitative methods include:
    *One-to-one Interview
    *Focus Groups
    *Ethnographic studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case Study

    *Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and
    measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of
    investigating events or data. It answers questions to
    justify relationships with measurable variables to either
    explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    *Types of quantitative methods include:
    *Survey research
    *Descriptive research
    *Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    *Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    *Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    *Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    *Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    *Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    *Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    *The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    *Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    *There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    *It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    *It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    *Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    *Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct
    exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The
    answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the
    perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new
    problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This
    exploratory process lays the foundation for more
    conclusive data collection and analysis.
    *Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on
    current issues through a process of data collection.
    Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample
    population. Only one variable is required to conduct the
    study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies
    are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    For example, a study conducted to know if top-level
    management leaders in the 21st century possess the
    moral right to receive a considerable sum of money
    from the company profit.
    *Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is
    conducted to understand the impact of specific changes
    in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is
    the most popular form. For example, a study that is
    conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on
    customer loyalty.
    STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    STEP 1: Formulate your question
    STEP 2: Get background information
    STEP 3: Refine your search topic
    STEP 4: Consider your resource options
    STEP 5: Select the appropriate tool
    STEP 6: Use the tool
    STEP 7: Locate your materials
    STEP 8: Analyze your materials
    STEP 9: Organize and write
    STEP 10: Compose your bibliography.

  102. Avatar Anyanta Minah Ngozi says:

    NAME:ANYANTA MINAH NGOZI
    DEPARTMENT: COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY)
    REG NO: 2018/249540
    COURSE: ECO 391
    Email: ngozianyanta10@gmail.com
    QUESTION: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    MY ANSWER:
    With respect to the above assertion and for proper understanding, it is however necessary to succinctly explain the above definition bit by bit.
    Firstly, Research according to Merriam Webster Online Dictionary could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws. This means that Research is a gradual, intensive process or an act of inquisitiveness and carefully examining a particular phenomenon, especially investigation or practical experimentation which involves considering the possible causes, effects, past reviews, strategic planning and scientifically investigating the given phenomenon through the process of problem definition, formulation of hypothesis, collection of data and it analysis which is directly aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts which is yet to be approved or assigned a level of truism to an extent after being interpreted with the sole aim of being accepted or rejected through the revision of the proposed theories or laws in the view of getting new facts or the practical application of such new or revised theories or law to gain more knowledge.
    It is therefore important to note that every Research is carried out with the intention of getting answers, information, results, and possible solution to a given phenomenon.
    Therefore, in line with Kothari, C.R. Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison, and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.
    According to my own understanding, Research could be defined as a careful step by step inquiry or a comprehensive study of a given hypothesis, or a systematic enquiry about a particular phenomenon to gain more knowledge, discover the truth, to accept or rejected hypothesis, to improve on a given ideology or to verify an existing fact.
    There are basically two different types of Research. These includes the Scientific and Non_ Scientific Research.
    The scientific type of Research follows a scientific and systematic define process in finding solutions to a given theory. These strategy or processes includes Problem Definition, Hypothesis formulation etc while the Non scientific research lacks moral undertone and is based on Guess work and mysticism.
    The Scientific Research is more preferably used and is generally acceptable because of it validity, replicability, verifiability, falsifiability etc.
    There are different steps involved in carrying out research; As earlier mentioned, these involves the following
    1. Problem Definition
    2. Choice of Research work
    3. Literature Review
    4. Formulation of Hypothesis
    5. Hypothesis Evaluation
    6. Data Collection and Analysis
    7. Accepting or Rejecting of Hypothesis etc.
    The purpose of Carrying out a given Research includes:
    1. To Gain more knowledge
    2. Comparing two or more Economic policies
    3. Improving one’s ability
    4. For personal reasons which is probably for Monetary purposes.
    Some of the Problems or shortcomings faced on the course of Carrying out a certain research includes
    1. Availability of needed Resources e.g Power supply and Subscription etc.
    2. Time frame allocated
    3. Cost of Carrying out the Research
    4. Data Availability
    5. Societal Norms, customs and culture for example. Carrying out a given Research in a place which it is forbidden.

  103. Avatar IFEANYI CHINWUBA INNOCENT says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT
    CLASS: 300 LVL
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    Answer
    Firstly, research given by the dictionary definition is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and research new conclusions.
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organisation and anaylsis of information to discover and interpret facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    USES OF RESEARCH
    *Identify potential and new customers.
    *Understand existing customers.
    *Set pragmatic goals.
    *Develop productive market strategies.
    *Address business challenges.
    *Put together a business expansion plan.
    *Identify new business opportunities.

    RESEARCH METHODS
    The following below are some research methods;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    *Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using
    conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    This method helps a researcher understand what
    participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    *Types of qualitative methods include:
    *One-to-one Interview
    *Focus Groups
    *Ethnographic studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case Study

    *Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and
    measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of
    investigating events or data. It answers questions to
    justify relationships with measurable variables to either
    explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    *Types of quantitative methods include:
    *Survey research
    *Descriptive research
    *Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    *Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    *Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    *Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    *Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    *Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    *Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    *The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    *Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    *There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    *It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    *It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    *Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    *Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct
    exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The
    answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the
    perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new
    problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This
    exploratory process lays the foundation for more
    conclusive data collection and analysis.
    *Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on
    current issues through a process of data collection.
    Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample
    population. Only one variable is required to conduct the
    study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies
    are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    For example, a study conducted to know if top-level
    management leaders in the 21st century possess the
    moral right to receive a considerable sum of money
    from the company profit.
    *Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is
    conducted to understand the impact of specific changes
    in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is
    the most popular form. For example, a study that is
    conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on
    customer loyalty.
    STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    STEP 1: Formulate your question
    STEP 2: Get background information
    STEP 3: Refine your search topic
    STEP 4: Consider your resource options
    STEP 5: Select the appropriate tool
    STEP 6: Use the tool
    STEP 7: Locate your materials
    STEP 8: Analyze your materials
    STEP 9: Organize and write
    STEP 10: Compose your bibliography.

  104. Avatar Chime Doris chinenye says:

    Chime Doris chinenye

    2018/250191

    Economics major

    The scope of research contains a search for understanding the physical, and sometimes psychological universe. This advances into applying scientific methods to refine the basic understanding and evolving new techniques to apply the facts that have been revealed and to create different techniques and materials. Some research is directed to creating new useful stuff, and some is just to understand how things can be created or even deconstructed. Lot of research is beneficial, and much is meaningless except for the sheer pleasure of understanding how things work. Engineering is the application of science and much research is synonymous with engineering.

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Research is an essential and powerful tool is leading man towards progress. Without systematic research there would have been very little progress. John W. Best has rightly said “The secret of our cultural development has been research, pushing back the areas of ignorance by discovering new truths, which in turn, lead to better ways of doing things and better products”.

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    RESEARCH can also be defined as the systematic collection ,analysis ,and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem.

    It is an art of scientific investigation.

    According to Clifford Research comprises defining and redefining problems,formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,organizing and evaluating dat ; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and atlast carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fitthe formulating hypothesis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    Description:RESEARCH is the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial / business organisation.

    Objectives of Research

    To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.

    To portraya ccurately the characteristicsof a particular individual,situation or a group.

    To determinethe frequencywith which something occurs or with which it isassociated with something else.

    To test a hypothesisof a casual relationship between variables.

    Motivation in Research

    Desire to get a research degree along with it sconsequential benefits.

    Desireto face the challenge in solvingthe unsolvedproblems.

    Desireto get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.

    Desire to be of service to society.

    Desireto get respectability.

    Applied vs.Fundamental:
    Applied research aims at finding a solutione to industrial/business organisation.

    Fundamental research is concerned with generalisations andvwith the formulation of a theory.
    Quantitative vs.Qualitative:
    Quantitative research is applicable to phenomenon that can be express edinterms of quantity.

    Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon ,i.e. ,phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind.
    Some other types of Research
    One time research
    Longitudinal research
    Historical research
    Conclusion oriented
    Decision oriented

    identify problem
    Literature review
    Development of working hypothesis
    Preparing there search design
    Determining Sample Design
    Collecting the data Execution of the project
    Analysisof the data Hypothesis testing
    Generalisation interpretation
    Reportwriting

  105. Avatar IFEANYI CHINWUBA INNOCENT says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT
    CLASS: 300 LVL
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    Answer
    Firstly, research given by the dictionary definition is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and research new conclusions.
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organisation and anaylsis of information to discover and interpret facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    USES OF RESEARCH
    *Identify potential and new customers.
    *Understand existing customers.
    *Set pragmatic goals.
    *Develop productive market strategies.
    *Address business challenges.
    *Put together a business expansion plan.
    *Identify new business opportunities.

    RESEARCH METHODS
    The following below are some research methods;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    *Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using
    conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    This method helps a researcher understand what
    participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    *Types of qualitative methods include:
    *One-to-one Interview
    *Focus Groups
    *Ethnographic studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case Study

    *Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and
    measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of
    investigating events or data. It answers questions to
    justify relationships with measurable variables to either
    explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    *Types of quantitative methods include:
    *Survey research
    *Descriptive research
    *Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    *Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    *Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    *Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    *Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    *Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    *Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    *The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    *Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    *There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    *It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    *It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    *Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    *Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct
    exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The
    answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the
    perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new
    problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This
    exploratory process lays the foundation for more
    conclusive data collection and analysis.
    *Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on
    current issues through a process of data collection.
    Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample
    population. Only one variable is required to conduct the
    study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies
    are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    For example, a study conducted to know if top-level
    management leaders in the 21st century possess the
    moral right to receive a considerable sum of money
    from the company profit.
    *Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is
    conducted to understand the impact of specific changes
    in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is
    the most popular form. For example, a study that is
    conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on
    customer loyalty.
    STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    STEP 1: Formulate your question
    STEP 2: Get background information
    STEP 3: Refine your search topic
    STEP 4: Consider your resource options
    STEP 5: Select the appropriate tool
    STEP 6: Use the tool
    STEP 7: Locate your materials
    STEP 8: Analyze your materials
    STEP 9: Organize and write
    STEP 10: Compose your bibliography.

  106. Avatar Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Name :Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept: Economics
    RegNo:2018/249531
    Eco 391 Assignment

    (1) critically and clinically analyze Research and how is it important to you as special adviser to the president on strategy and research?
    (Ans)

    Definition :
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research , and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to: (1) Identify potential and new customer. (2)understand existing customers.
    (3) Set pragmatic goals.
    (4)Develop productive market strategies.
    (5)Address business challenges.
    (6)Put together a business expansion plan.
    (7)Identify new business opportunities.
    Good research follows a systematic a approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    The characteristics of research includes the following :
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final results.
    The purpose of research include the
    Following :
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted To understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:

    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured
    Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses.
    Time Early stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Later stages of decision making
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through survey and questionnaire.

    You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Type of research methods
    Includes the following :
    Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods.

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business Decision.
    As a special adviser to the president on strategy and research, the role of research to me is that :
    (1). research provides accurate and timely information on the behaviour, needs, attitudes, opinions and motivations of a population. Armed with this knowledge, businesses are able to develop products and services to meet the desires of the people and governments can tailor policies and programs to the needs of citizens. Also, important national statistics on social issues, television ratings, tourism movements, unemployment and so on can be reliably determined.

    (2).Market and social research provides accurate and timely information on the needs, attitudes and motivations of a population: It plays a vital social role, assisting our government and businesses to develop services, policies, and products that are responsive to an identified need.

    (3).It contributes to the nation economic wellbeing, by ensuring that organisational responses to these needs are relevant and properly targeted.

    (4).State and Federal government agencies, companies and non-government organisations – in fact, any organisation that needs to better understand the community, trends of any kind or its own customers will use research.

    (5).Research projects educate the response of decision makers to a range of important issues, including planning for major transport and infrastructure projects, responses to climate change, taxation policy and so many others.

  107. Avatar Nnamani Dorathy nchido 2018/245743 Economics major says:

    HOW THE WORD RESEARCH WAS DERIVED
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.[3] The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.[3]
    Definitions
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED TO
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    Help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Is be undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers
    Uses procedure methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity or reliability.
    Is designed to be unbiased and objective
    TYPE OF RESEARCH
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.
    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated.
    Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.
    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.
    According to its Purpose
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.
    Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers.
    For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.
    This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects.
    For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    According to your Depth of Scope
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.
    Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.
    For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.
    In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved.
    For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.
    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment.
    For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.
    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.
    According to the Type of Data Used
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations.
    In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’).
    For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time.
    For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data.
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object. The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method.
    For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects.
    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context. As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study. Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research.
    For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non-experimental study.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental. In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations. This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study.
    For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    According to the Type of Inference
    Deductive Investigation
    In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly.
    Inductive Research
    In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalisation. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories.
    Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation
    It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion and finally verify or reject it through experience.
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried Out
    Longitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research)
    It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time. It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time. It is often used in medical, psychological and social areas.
    For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
    Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time.
    According to The Sources of Information
    Primary Research
    This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.
    Secondary research
    Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.
    According to How the Data is Obtained
    Documentary (cabinet)
    Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.
    Field
    Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.
    From Laboratory
    Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.
    Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory
    Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research.

    WHAT IF AM USING INFORMATION THAT ALREADY EXITED
    If you are doing research that is limited to secondary analysis of data, records, or specimens that are either publicly available, de-identified, or otherwise impossible to be linked to personal identities, you may still need IRB approval to do your project. Sometimes a data use agreement between the researcher and the data custodian may still be required to verify that the researcher will not have access to identifying codes. This “de-linking” of data from personal identifiers allows the IRB to make this determination. Regardless, you should submit an IRB proposal so the IRB can determine whether your project needs IRB review, and if so, the type of review required.

    For specifics of what research should be reviewed by the IRB and the category of review required, see the flow chart and examples provided.
    RESEARCH INSTITUTE MR PRESIDENT SHOULD WORK WITH
    Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan
    Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIIRO), Oshodi, Lagos
    Institute of Agricultural Research & Extension Services, ABU, Zaria
    Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan
    Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies
    Medical research institutes in Nigeria‎
    National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control(Nafdac)
    Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology
    Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR)
    Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research
    Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)
    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

  108. Avatar Ugwuoke Victor chinweokwu says:

    NAME: UGWUOKE VICTOR CHINWEOKWU

    REG NO: 2017/249587

    COURSE CODE 391

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    EMAIL: UGWUOKEVICTOR95@GMAIL.COM

    ASSIGNMENT QUESTION;

    CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR. PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.
    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    For questions about ideas, experiences and meanings, or to study something that can’t be described numerically, collect qualitative data.
    If you want to develop a more mechanistic understanding of a topic, or your research involves hypothesis testing, collect quantitative data.
    THEIR ARE TWO TYPE OF RESEARCH
    (1) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
    (2) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
    (1)Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods such as:
    •One on one interview:personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent.
    •Case study research: it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data.
    •Record keeping: This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source.

    (2) METHOD:Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. This research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys etc., the results of which can be depicted in numerical form. Some examples of quantitative research are:
    •SURVEYS: Surveys are used to ask questions to a sample of respondents, using various types such as online polls, online surveys, paper questionnaires, web-intercept surveys, etc.It is the first step towards collecting data for any research.
    CORRELATION RESEARCH: Correlation research is conducted to establish a relationship between two closely-knit entities and how one impacts the other and what are the changes that are eventually observed.

  109. Avatar Nnodim ugonna victor 2018/241867 says:

    Nnodim ugonna victor
    2018/241867
    Economics

    What does research mean to you as a special adviser
    Explain?
    Research defined by western Sydney university
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes
    The word research as it relates to economics..
    Established in 1947, Research in Economics is one of the oldest general-interest economics journals in the world and the main one among those based in Italy. The purpose of the journal is to select original theoretical and empirical articles that will have high impact on the debate in the social sciences; since 1947, it has published important research contributions on a wide range of topics.

    In other for economic decision to be carried out effective research has to be taken into account.
    Subsequent years worth of data has to be sorted through and possible patterns established and only then can a proper and conclusive decision be reached..
    Without research being carried out various financial and economic decision won’t have the reputation to uphold credible decisions.

    Basically as the adviser I would ensure proper research would be carried out before any economics decision is given out so as to ensure credibility and reliability of economic decision.

  110. Avatar Ajah Favour says:

    Name: Ajah Favour Chinyere
    Reg No: 2018/241836
    Department:Economics
    Course code: Eco 391
    Course title:Research methods 1
    Email:favourajah91@gmail.com

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean.

    The word Research is composed of two syllable re and search Re is a prefix meaning again.Search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully. Research is derived from the Latin word ‘sciens’ meaning time know.Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    When you say that you want to conduct a research study to find answers to a question, you are saying:
    * that the process is being conducted within a frame work of a set of philosophies.
    *using steps,techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability.
    *is designed to be unbiased and objective.

  111. Avatar Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi says:

    Name: Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi
    Reg no: 2018/248278
    Email: nwajuagudivine22@gmail.com

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. It is one of the most effective ways of finding out solutions to problems. Research is a systematic enquiry that seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences and create new knowledge that is applicable.
    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    There are a few things that make something to qualify as a research. Some of its features are:
    *Rigorous
    *Systematic
    *Valid and verifiable
    *Empirical
    *Critical
    *Unbiased and Objective
    *RIGOROUS: This entails a thorough examination of all details during the process of study.
    *SYSTEMATIC: By systematic we mean that the researcher must carry out his research step by step, accordingly, instead of carrying it out randomly.
    *VALID AND VERIFIABLE: This means that the results based on the findings from the research should be accurate and also must be subject to verification by other researchers.
    *EMPIRICAL: This means that the conclusions reached should be based on the results gotten from the research gotten from observations.
    *CRITICAL: This means that the researcher should be absolute in his research so that it would be able to resist critical examination.
    *UNBIASED AND OBJECTIVE: This means that every decision the researcher makes should not be made from personal opinion but on the objective of the research and the results.
    Based on this, to me research is about finding out more on a particular topic, it’s about expantiating the already available information on a topic using a systematic, organised and vigorous process to obtain the information.

  112. Avatar THEOPHILUS OKONKWO NWABUEZE says:

    Name: Okonkwo Theophilus Nwabueze
    Reg no: 2018/241839
    Dept.: Economics
    Course: Eco 391

    Question:Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer: What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    1Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Types of research methods and example
    what is research

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  113. Avatar Unegbu Charles Emeka says:

    Name: Unegbu Emeka Charles
    Reg No:2018/241829
    Dept. : Economics
    Course: Eco391

    Question Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer:
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.[1] It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research

    Etymology;
    Aristotle, (384–322 BC), one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    Definitions
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    Step in conducting Research;
    Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:
    Identification of research problem
    Literature review
    Specifying the purpose of research
    Determining specific research questions
    Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    Data collection
    Verifying data
    Analyzing and interpreting the data
    Reporting and evaluating research
    Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.

  114. Avatar Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian
    2018/248806
    Economics major
    Julietrecheal@gmail84.com

    As a special adviser to Mr.President,research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.lt is also a careful and a diligent search.So in order to find any solution to any problem concerning our country or any issue,we have to make some research to make a good end.

    AIMS/PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    Why do we carry out research?
    1.We carry out research to understand an existing phenomenon.
    2.Research enables us to understand the existence and extent of economics relationship.
    3.Research enables us to provide answers to a problem.
    4.Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies to economic problems.
    5.Research helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    6.It also helps us to formulate theory.

    RESEARCH PROCESS

    How do we conduct research
    For one to carry out research,one has to follow a lay down process or steps,these steps can be numbered in stages.

    Stage1: Problem stages identification.
    Stage 2: choice of topic,choose a topic that will enable you to solve the problem you
    have identified.
    Stage 3 Literature Review: The purpose of literature review is for you to contribute on
    the problem.
    Stage 4: Hypothesis Formulation, formulating a tentative statement of solutions to the
    problem.
    Stage 5: Data collection and Analysis.

    FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1.It is empirical because the conclusions that are arrived at and solution gotten can be verified.
    2.It can be replicable.
    3.It is systematic.
    4.It is theoretical.
    5.It is cumulative and must make his own contributions.

    HOW TO GET THE CHOICE OF RESEARCH TOPIC

    Where and how can we get our topic ;
    1.Personal Experience
    2.Review of existing literature or study .
    3.Observation of impact on natural policies.
    4.Observation of trends in economic.
    5.Indigenous knowledge and practices.

    CHALLENGES/PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN NIGERIA
    1.Lack of public and private sector records.
    2.people perceive research as a mere academic research.
    3.Challenge of illiteracy.
    4.Lack of poor infrastructural base.
    5.Lack of cooperation from public and private sector distribution.
    6.Lack of funding and data collection.

  115. Avatar Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian
    2018/248806
    Economics major
    Julietrecheal@gmail84.com

    As a special adviser to Mr.President,research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.lt is also a careful and a diligent search.So in order to find any solution to any problem concerning our country or any issue,we have to make some research to make a good end.

    AIMS/PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    Why do we carry out research?
    1.We carry out research to understand an existing phenomenon.
    2.Research enables us to understand the existence and extent of economics relationship.
    3.Research enables us to provide answers to a problem.
    4.Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies to economic problems.
    5.Research helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    6.It also helps us to formulate theory.

    RESEARCH PROCESS

    How do we conduct research
    For one to carry out research,one has to follow a lay down process or steps,these steps can be numbered in stages.

    Stage1: Problem stages identification.
    Stage 2: choice of topic,choose a topic that will enable you to solve the problem you
    have identified.
    Stage 3 Literature Review: The purpose of literature review is for you to contribute on
    the problem.
    Stage 4: Hypothesis Formulation, formulating a tentative statement of solutions to the
    problem.
    Stage 5: Data collection and Analysis.

    FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1.It is empirical because the conclusions that are arrived at and solution gotten can be verified.
    2.It can be replicable.
    3.It is systematic.
    4.It is theoretical.
    5.It is cumulative and must make his own contributions.

    HOW TO GET THE CHOICE OF RESEARCH TOPIC
    Where and how can we get our topic ;
    1.Personal Experience
    2.Review of existing literature or study .
    3.Observation of impact on natural policies.
    4.Observation of trends in economic.
    5.Indigenous knowledge and practices.

    CHALLENGES/PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN NIGERIA
    1.Lack of public and private sector records.
    2.people perceive research as a mere academic research.
    3.Challenge of illiteracy.
    4.Lack of poor infrastructural base.
    5.Lack of cooperation from public and private sector distribution.
    6.Lack of funding and data collection.

  116. Avatar Mbah Chidimma Judith 2018/243101.department: Economic nd sociology says:

    Name:Mbah Chidimma Judith
    Reg no:2018/243101
    Dept: Economic nd sociology
    Topic: meaning and scope of research
    MEANING OF RESEARCH

    Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Cancer research has ‘Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,’ and ‘Baby Born with HIV Cured.’ Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like, ‘Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or HIV infections?’

    But all I’ve said so far is what research has done (sort of like saying baking leads to apple pie; it doesn’t really tell you anything other than the two are connected). To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question musmt be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable.

    Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something.’ To continue the baking example, this internal state of wanting something is like having a hankering for apple pie. Since you are reading this in a psychology section, we will put a psychological slant on this, and hopefully lose some of the baking metaphors.
    PURPOSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
    Psychological researchers want to learn and understand human behavior. It can be about how people think, how they feel, how they behave, or some combination of these issues. Research, and the understanding that follows, trickles down from the scientists and alters society. There is constant and competing research. For example, about what is the best way to punish and rehabilitate criminals (such as Zimbardo’s prison experiment), the best and worst ways to raise children (Bowlby and attachment, Spock and children), and how to treat the mentally ill (with too many to count).

    More specifically, psychological research is used to measure, describe, and categorize human behavior. This can result in understanding what might be called normal behavior. More interesting and more often researched are the abnormal behaviors, those that eventually become categorized and labeled with a diagnosis. A diagnosis is a constellation of common behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that occur together.

    For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final
    THREE MAIN PURPOSE OF A RESEARCH
    No:1Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    No 2:_Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    no:3 -Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    EXERCISE
    Exercise
    You are a research associate working in a laboratory. Before giving you complex assignments, your supervisor wants to ensure that you understand the various steps involved in the research methodology. You are therefore given a very simple question to answer through research: “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    You will thus conduct the experiment using a coin at home. Most importantly, you will detail your experiment and findings in a report using proper research methodology. Your report should thus include:

    The research question,
    The hypothesis,
    The experiment itself, and
    The conclusion to your findings.
    Solution
    Although students will not all get the same results, an example of a report would include the following components:

    Research Question:
    “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    Hypothesis:
    Based on basic statistical knowledge, there is an equal chance of a coin landing on either the heads or tails side. Therefore, 50% of the coin flips should result in tails, which works out to 5 out of the 10 coin tosses.

    Experiment:
    The following results were noted:

    Flip No. Result
    1 Heads
    2 Tails
    3 Heads
    4 Heads
    5 Tails
    6 Tails
    7 Heads
    8 Heads
    9 Tails
    10 Heads
    The following findings were noted:

    Result Heads Tails
    Number of occurrences 6 4
    Conclusion:
    Although there is an equal chance that each coin toss can result in either the ‘heads or tails side, the fact that the test is done at random for such a small population size suggests that the most probabilistic outcome (i.e. 5 tails occurrences) is not the only possible outcome.
    CONCLUSION
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendation as

  117. Avatar Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer says:

    Name:: Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer
    Reg number: 2018/245129
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment.
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy.
    Answer
    TO MR PRESIDENT
    As your special adviser on research and strategy I will like to explore what research and strategy entails in my understanding.
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It is also the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1.) Identify potential and new customers
    2.) Understand existing customers
    3.) Set pragmatic goals
    4.) Develop productive market strategies
    5.) Address business challenges
    6.) Put together a business expansion plan
    7.) Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    1.) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2.) Analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3.) Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    4.) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    5.) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    6.) Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes of research which includes:
    • Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    • Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    • Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Methods of Research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative; both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Quantitative methods:
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    What is Strategy?
    A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process”.
    A strategy is all about integrating organizational activities and utilizing and allocating the scarce resources within the organizational environment so as to meet the present objectives. While planning a strategy it is essential to consider that decisions are not taken in a vaccum and that any act taken by a firm is likely to be met by a reaction from those affected, competitors, customers, employees or suppliers.
    Strategy can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of events and the need to take into consideration the likely or actual behavior of others. Strategy is the blueprint of decisions in an organization that shows its objectives and goals, reduces the key policies, and plans for achieving these goals, and defines the business the company is to carry on, the type of economic and human organization it wants to be, and the contribution it plans to make to its shareholders, customers and society at large.

  118. Avatar Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    Udeze Obianuju Charity
    2018/244283
    Education Economics

    Question: the meaning and scope of research

    Answer: Research may be said to be a systematic study of a phenomenon in order to answer a question or solve a problem. It is systematic because the research work has procedure. To carry out a proper research, there are steps that ‘must’ be followed. The steps are to ensure the replicability of the research work by others. Some of these steps are: identify the problem, choose or decide the topic, search and study other literary works done on such topic if any, form your hypothesis, collect data, analyse data and finally accept or reject the hypothesis formulated.

    Now the scope of research simply describes or explains the extent of a research work. It deals with the areas that a research work is meant to cover. It is also the focus of a research. It may also be the question that the research is meant to answer.

  119. Avatar Onah Munachimso Modester says:

    NAME: ONAH MUNACHIMSO MODESTER
    REG NO:2018/242421
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know .
    Research is composed of two syllables re and search. Re is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again,search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe.So research can be clearly defined as a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish s facts or principles.While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.
    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    Research is conducted to…
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1:The information must be accurate and correct.
    2: Knowledge and real-time data is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    3: For data to be accurate it must follow a systematic procedure.
    4:The analysis is based on intellectual.ie logical reasoning is involved.
    5:It is analytical and it uses all the available data so that there no ambiguity in inference.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    The two types of research and their various examples
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1. Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    2. Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Research is primarily the process in which someone gathers bundles of information from different resources like literature review, interview, library approach, experiment, questionnaire, observation to reach on the facts and after all scrutiny, arrives at a valid conclusion.

  120. Avatar PETER EMMANUEL says:

    Name : Peter Emmanuel
    Department: Economics education
    Reg no: 2018/246577
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Features of Research
    1, Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    4 Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    5 Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    6 Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    7 Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Research to me as the special adviser to Mr president is a process or tools used to get information or more knowledge about something. I will also say that research is a tool used in finding solution to a given problem.
    Three Purposes of Research
    Social research can serve a variety of purposes. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description and explanation.
    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.
    Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.
    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same.

  121. Avatar Ignatius chisom immaculate says:

    Ignatius chisom immaculate
    2018/243793
    Economics
    Eco 391

    ASSIGNMENT:
    Research could be seen as a stuidious inquiry or examination; clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you

    Research could be seen asa studious inquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws in the sense that it follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data we need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making obsercations or drawing conclusions.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data, documentation of critical information and analysis. It is a careful and organised study of gathering of infomation about a specific topic for example, research is a project where scientists try to find a cure for AIDS.
    Research has three main purposes;
    Exploratory: this is where researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions.
    Descriptive: it focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

  122. Avatar Neboh chiziterem margeretrose says:

    esearch and strategy

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. Free
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:

    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured
    Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses.
    Time Early stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Later stages of decision making
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights
    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    Act on your strategies
    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.
    In conclusion, I define research as a systematic process of investigating, identifying and finding solutions to existing problems which can be replicable, cumulative and verifiable.

  123. Avatar Chinekezie Oluchi Faustina says:

    Name: Chinekezie Oluchi Faustina
    Reg no: 2018/249787
    Dept: Economics Major
    Course: Eco 391

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    Research is conducted to…
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Forms of Research
    1. Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).
    2. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.
    3. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method.
    4. Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Processes of research;
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
    •Observations and formation of the topic
    •Hypothesis
    •Conceptual definition
    •Operational definition
    •Gathering of data
    •Analysis of data
    •Data Interpretation
    •Test, revising of hypothesis
    •Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Research is basically the process in which someone collects or gather bundles of information from different resources like literature review, interview, library approach, experiment, questionnaire, observation to reach on the facts and after all scrutiny, arrives at a valid conclusion.

  124. Avatar Ajuluchukwu joy says:

    Name: Ajuluchukwu Joy ifeoma
    Reg. no: 2018/241840
    Email: jlady3936@gmail.com

    From the assertion above and definitions offered by others.
    Research is a studious inquiry because it’s not done haphazardly, it follows a process. it is a pursuit that is aimed at achieving a solution to a problem.
    research is an attempt to improve knowledge on what we already know. it’s also a way of developing or discovering an improved knowledge about a phenomenon and it involves a systematic process of investigating a phenomenon.

    As an economic adviser to the Mr. president on research and strategy.
    Research simply means a search for facts, answers to questions and solution to problems.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Research is the organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions. it is a process broken up into steps that lead to conclusions, research is organised because there is planned structure or methods used to reach the conclusions.
    research allows us to find the right solutions to key issues in our communities by;
    * providing facts that will help us to analyse problem.
    * testing the feasibility and the impact of programs.
    * finding better solution to the challenges.
    research helps to clarify and strengthens belief especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others.

  125. Avatar Machi Chinedu Clement says:

    MACHI CHINEDU CLEMENT
    2018/242796
    ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

    The term research consist of two words”,Re” and “search” .”Re”means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
    Research is defined as the Creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It simply means a search for facts, answer to question and solution to problems.
    The term research consist of two words”,Re” and “search” .”Re”means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
    Research is defined as the Creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It simply means a search for facts, answer to question and solution to problems.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

    Exploratory:As the name suggest, researcher conduct exploratory to explore a group of question.

    Descriptive:It focuses on expending knowledge on current issue through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population.

    Explanatory:causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific change in existing standing procedures.

  126. Avatar Offor Chukwuebuka Donaldson says:

    Name: Offor Chukwuebuka Donaldson
    Reg no: 2018/246940
    Course code: Eco 391
    Department: Economics department

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    History of research
    The concept of research is as old as science, the concept of the intimate relationship between research and subsequent development, however, was not generally recognized until the 1950s.

    The founder of research
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld: The Father of Research Surveys.

    What is the original name of Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.
    What is Research
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Forms of research
    1:Original research: Also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
    2:Scientific research: Is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).
    3:Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.
    4:Artistic research: Also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Types of Research
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.
    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    * To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    * To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.
    For example, a cereal brand owner wants to learn if they will receive more sales with their new cereal box design. Instead of conducting descriptive research by asking people whether they would be more likely to buy their cereal in its new box, they would set up an experiment in two separate stores. One will sell the cereal in only its original box and the other with the new box. Taking care to avoid any outside sources of bias, they would then measure the difference between sales based on the cereal packaging. Did the new packaging have any effect on the cereal sales? What was that effect?

    Research purpose
    1: Information gathering and/or
    a: Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    b:Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    2:Theory testing
    a:Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    b:Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios
    Examples of research studies with these different purposes can be found in this practice quiz.
    Data collection methods:
    1: Interviews.
    2: Questionnaires and surveys.
    3: Observations.
    4: Documents and records.
    5: Focus groups.
    6: Oral histories.

    Classification of Types of Research
    1:Theoretical Research.
    2:Applied Research.
    3:Exploratory Research.
    4:Descriptive Research.
    5:Explanatory Research.
    6:Qualitative Research.
    7:Quantitative Research.
    8:Experimental Research.

    Benefits of Research
    1. Research expands your knowledge base.
    2. Research gives you the latest information.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    4. Research builds your credibility.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas.
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.
    9:Research helps you reach people.
    10:Research encourages curiosity
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.

  127. Avatar Ikechukwu ifechukwu Victor Reg no: 2018/248667 says:

    NAME: IKECHUKWU IFECHUKWU VICTOR
    REG NO: 2018/248667
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT.
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    ANSWER.
    What is Research: Definition, Methods, Types & Examples
    What is Research

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Types of research methods and examples
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights.

  128. Avatar Nwakpa Ruth Nnenna. 2018/242402. Economics department says:

    Name: Nwakpa Ruth Nnenna Nnenna
    Reg No: 2018/242402
    Dept: Economics Department Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method.
    It is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    *Steps in conducting research:*
    1.Identification of research problem
    2.Literature review
    3.Specifying the purpose of research
    4.Determining specific research questions
    5.Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    6.Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    7.Data collection
    8. Verifying data
    9. Analyzing and interpreting the data
    10. Reporting and evaluating research
    11..Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

    The main characteristics for good quality research is listed below:

    1. It is based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    6. It is incremental.

    *Types of Research*
    1. Applied research :Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.
    2. Theoretical research: Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.

    3. Exploratory research: It is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.

    4. Descriptive Research: The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.

    5. Correlational Research: The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.

    6. Explanatory research: It is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment.

  129. Avatar E-PATRICK DALOSAH says:

    NAME:E-PATRICK DALOSAH
    REG NO:2018/242457
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    LEVEL:300

    FIRST PART
    Research defined
    We can define research as an activity of systematic enquiry that seeks answers to a
    problem.
    Research in our everyday lives
    We all encounter research in our daily lives. The results of research on many topics
    are presented to us in the form of newspaper articles, books, reports, and television
    programmes. For example, crime level figures are presented to us by television news
    reports and some topics, such as diet and health, are very popular with magazines as
    well as television programmes. Thus, through various media we have become
    accustomed to seeing, reading and hearing about research and although we may not
    be aware of it, we are used to making our own judgements about research findings.
    If we take the example of diet and health, many of us have taken into consideration
    information that has been presented on ‘healthy eating’ and have made our own
    choices about diet within the context of our own lives. We assess the information
    with which we are presented, form an opinion as to the validity and relevance of the
    research, and come to our own conclusions based on considerations such as:
     what we understand is the question or problem to be answered
     how the findings are presented
     why the research was conducted
     what we know about who conducted the research
     what other people think about the information
     how the research findings relate to us
    We may choose to ignore the information, we may decide we don’t understand what
    the findings mean, we may disagree, or we may agree with the findings and either
    adjust our eating habits or decide that the costs of adjustment are too high relative
    to the benefits. For some, because of their life circumstances, such as those suffering
    Research as a process
    Research can be seen as a series of linked activities moving from a beginning to an
    end. Research usually begins with the identification of a problem followed by
    formulation of research questions or objectives. Proceeding from this the researcher
    determines how best to answer these questions and so decides what information to
    collect, how it will be collected, and how it will be analysed in order to answer the
    research question.
    Described in this way the research process is given the impression of linearity, yet
    research investigation is often an iterative process whereby the process of
    conducting the research will give rise to new ideas which, in turn, feed back into the
    data collection and analysis stage. Decisions made early in the research process are
    often revisited in the light of new insights or practical problems encountered along
    the way.
    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    SECOND PART
    As special advisor to Mr president on research it Would be my duty to ensure the president is adequately and efficiently informed on issues and matters that pertain to research. Therefore it would be my duty to make known to the president the importance of research in such a manner that research would not be seen as a word or an activity this is confined to the education sector only, rather as an activity that is for everyone( unintentionally or intentionally) that is crucial to the growth, progress and development of our Nation.
    I would also advise the president to ensure that research institutes and researchers have adequate funds and an enabling environment to enable them carry out their work(research) adequately.
    I would also advise the president to enable researchers have access to so called “confidential files” in public and private institutions that may be crucial for their work because research is necessary for growth and such hindrance would obstruct research.
    It would also be my duty to ensure the president is duly updated on matters concerning research such as the emergence of “ground breaking” research or research that will be beneficial to the nation and will bolster economic prosperity.

  130. Avatar Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi - 2018/242426 says:

    UKACHUKWU DIVINE AMARACHI
    2018/242426
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    24/08/2021
    ECO 391

    Assignment
    Research generally means inquire or search for knowledge. In fact the word “research” is synonymous with the following words: investigation, study, exploration, Inquiry, examination, experimentation, etc. It is defined as a process of systematic investigation or examination into and study of constituents and sources in order to discover, collect, interpret and establish facts, to revise accepted laws and theories in the light of new facts, or to apply new or revised theories or laws. Research is careful or diligent search; studious inquiry or examination (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015). It is indeed a journey into discovery of facts.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

    When do we call a research scientific? Any research endeavor is said to be scientific if

    • It is based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning;
    • It consists of systematic observations, measurement, and experimentation;
    • It relies on the application of the scientific methods and harnessing of curiosity;
    • It provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of nature;
    Characteristics of a Research
    1. The research should focus on priority problems.
    2. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured
    procedure.
    3. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    4. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    5. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    6. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.

    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it. An exploratory research project is an attempt to lay the groundwork that will lead to future studies or to determine if what is being observed might be explained by a currently existing theory. Most often, exploratory research lays the initial groundwork for future research.
    Descriptive Research
    Once the groundwork is established, the newly explored field needs more information. The next step is descriptive research, defined as attempts to explore and explain while providing additional information about a topic. This is where research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail, filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding. This is also where as much information is collected as possible instead of making guesses or elaborate models to predict the future – the ‘what’ and ‘how,’ rather than the ‘why.’

    Explanatory Research: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    As a special adviser to the President on research and strategy, Research simply means a search for knowledge.

  131. Avatar UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    Name: ukwueze Destiny Amarachi
    Reg no: 2018/242416
    DEP: Economics

    RESEARCH is the systematic collection, analysis,
    and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. … It is an art of scientific investigation.

    Research can also be an exhaustive investigation of a phenomenon with an objective
    of advancing knowledge “It is a systematic and objective attempt to study a problem for the purpose of deriving general principles” It is a systematic investigation to find solutions to a problem.

    The investigation is in most cases guided by the previously collected information. The men’s knowledge grows by studying what is already known and revising past knowledge in the light of new findings.
    Research include defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution, collecting, organizing,evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis

    Research is a careful detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    Types of research Empirical research, that involves observation of facts or interaction with people Library research, it is done in library situation Social research, it is a research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction. Scientific research, it is a building of knowledge through empirically verifiable facts. The term verifiable means “which can be checked by others for accuracy.

    Emphasis on empirical research It is a systematic and controlled research, i.e., the investigation is so ordered that investigators can have confidence in research outcomes. The investigation is empirical, i.e., subjective belief is checked against objective reality. It is a critical research Therefore the scientific method of research is the “building of a body of scientific knowledge through observation, experimentation, generalization and verification.

    Characteristics of a scientific research Verifiable evidence, i.e., factual observations that other observers can see and check. Accuracy., i.e., Describing what really exists. -It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions, either by exaggeration Precision, i.e. Making it as exact as necessary or giving number or measurement.

    Systematization, i.e., Attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Objectivity, i.e., being free from all biases and vested interests. -The observation is unaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible he has seen and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be.

    Recording, i. e. , noting down complete details as quickly as possible Recording, i.e., noting down complete details as quickly as possible. Researcher will not depend on the recalled facts but will analyze the problem, on the basis of the recorded data. Conclusions based on recalled unrecorded data are not trustworthy.

    Steps in scientific research Definition of a problem The problem is stated in terms of a particular theoretical framework and related to relevant findings of previous problem. Hypothesis related to the problem, using the previously accepted theoretical principles. Preparation of research design. Data collection.

    Data coding and cleansing Data analysis to determine if the hypothesis is verified or rejected The conclusions of the study are related to the original body of theory, which is modified in accordance with the new findings

    Some of the features of Research

    * Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.

    * Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.

    * Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.

    * Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process

    * Analytical – There is critical
    analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    Objective, Unbiased, &

    * Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical

    * Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

    The scope of Research explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating.
    The scope of the study refers to the boundaries within which your research project will be performed; this is sometimes also called the scope of research. To define the scope of the study is to define all aspects that will be considered in your research project. It is also just as important to make clear what aspects will not be covered; i.e. what is outside of the scope of the study.
    In order to write the scope of the study that you plan to perform, you must be clear on the research parameters that you will and won’t consider. These parameters usually consist of the sample size, the duration, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the methodology and any geographical or monetary constraints

    Typically, the information that you need to include in the scope would cover the following:

    1. General purpose of the study

    2. The population or sample that you are studying

    3. The duration of the study

    4. The topics or theories that you will discuss

    5. The geographical location covered in the study

  132. Avatar Aneke Nelson maduakonam says:

    Name Aneke Nelson Maduakonam
    Reg. No 2018/242192
    Dept. Education Economics
    Gmail. Nelsonmadu80@gmail.com

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Answer
    When conducting research, scientists use the scientific method to collect measurable, empirical evidence in an experiment related to a hypothesis (often in the form of an if/then statement), the results aiming to support or contradict a theory.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge.

    According to The Merriam- (Webster online Dictionary). A studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or law.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    Research in my own understanding means the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to increase knowledge.

  133. Name: Onyeabo Michael Chukwuebuka
    Reg No: 2018/248280
    Department: Economics

    Various definitions given by various authors and research pundits has shown that research is a careful and systematic approach of inquiring new knowledge or extending an existing knowledge. Research follows a laid down rules, that is why I said it is systematic approach and this has been reflected in various definitions.
    Furthermore, research is a critical process because Any research that cannot be replicable is no research at all.
    To me research is a systematic process of making inquiry either to make new discovery or to better understand an existing concept or phenomenon.
    Also various definitions has shown that there is no research without a problem. In this sense I can say that research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.

  134. Avatar Onah Amarachi Jane says:

    Name: Onah Amarachi Jane
    Reg no:2018/246265
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    Answers.
    Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    i. Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:
    ii Professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    iii.management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff.
    Features of Research
    a.Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    b. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    c. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    d.Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    e.Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation.
    f.Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    g.Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Types of Research.
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.

    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject.

    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    i. To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    ii.To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    i.It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    ii.It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    iii. It helps us succeed in business.
    iv..It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    v.It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    vi.It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    vii. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

  135. Avatar Adigwe ifeoma Favour says:

    Name: Adigwe ifeoma Favour
    Reg no: 2018/241871
    Course code: Eco 391
    Department: Economics department

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    History of research
    The concept of research is as old as science, the concept of the intimate relationship between research and subsequent development, however, was not generally recognized until the 1950s.

    The founder of research
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld: The Father of Research Surveys.
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, popularly known as the founder of modern research surveys, made considerable contributions towards statistical survey analysis, panel methods, latent structure analysis and contextual analysis.

    What is the original name of Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.
    What is Research
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Forms of research
    1:Original research: Also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
    2:Scientific research: Is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).
    3:Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.
    4:Artistic research: Also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Types of Research
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.
    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    * To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    * To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.
    For example, a cereal brand owner wants to learn if they will receive more sales with their new cereal box design. Instead of conducting descriptive research by asking people whether they would be more likely to buy their cereal in its new box, they would set up an experiment in two separate stores. One will sell the cereal in only its original box and the other with the new box. Taking care to avoid any outside sources of bias, they would then measure the difference between sales based on the cereal packaging. Did the new packaging have any effect on the cereal sales? What was that effect?

    Research purpose
    1: Information gathering and/or
    a: Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    b:Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    2:Theory testing
    a:Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    b:Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios
    Examples of research studies with these different purposes can be found in this practice quiz.
    Data collection methods:
    1: Interviews.
    2: Questionnaires and surveys.
    3: Observations.
    4: Documents and records.
    5: Focus groups.
    6: Oral histories.

    Classification of Types of Research
    1:Theoretical Research.
    2:Applied Research.
    3:Exploratory Research.
    4:Descriptive Research.
    5:Explanatory Research.
    6:Qualitative Research.
    7:Quantitative Research.
    8:Experimental Research.

    Benefits of Research
    1. Research expands your knowledge base.
    2. Research gives you the latest information.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    4. Research builds your credibility.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas.
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.
    9:Research helps you reach people.
    10:Research encourages curiosity
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.

  136. Avatar Melody nweke chioma says:

    NAME: NWEKE MELODY CHIOMA
    REG:2018/243742
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    EMAIL:melodynweke@gmail
    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    Research could be seen as as creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concept, methodologies and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    Research is also be seen as a human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matters.

    Research is a careful consideration of study regarding a particular problem using a scientific method.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1:The information must be accurate and correct.

    2: Knowledge and real-time data is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    3: For data to be accurate it must follow a systematic procedure.

    4:The analysis is based on intellectual.ie logical reasoning is involved.

    5:It is analytical and it uses all the available data so that there no ambiguity in inference.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    1: Qualitative method:It is associated with inductive approach which analyze an observed event.it is a methodologies of research that collect data by conversational method.
    2: Quantitative method:it is associated with deductive which verified the observed.it uses a systematic way of investing events.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH STUDIES

    a) Exploratory: exploratory studies are used to explore a group of question .the answer may not offer conclusion to the problem.it is understanding to help new problem area that haven’t been explored.

    b) Descriptive method: it focuses on expanding knowledge in current issue through a process of data collection.

    c)Explanatory method is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes I the existing standard procedures.

  137. Avatar Ofili beluchi joan says:

    NAME:OFILI BELUCHI JOAN
    DEPT:ECONOMICS MAJOR
    REG NO:2018/241862
    EMAIL:beluchijoan@gmail.com

    RESEARCH:
    Research is a careful search or inquiry or interrogation to seek facts principles, theories, and applications. It’s a search after truth.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research..
    Characteristics of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observation and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequencial procedures.
    3. Controlled – all variable except those that are tested/ experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    5. Analytical – there is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no errors in their interpretation.
    6. Objective, unbiased, and logical – all findings are logically based on empiricism.
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – Data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Why Research Is Necessary
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

  138. Avatar ILEME OBINNA PATRICK says:

    REG NO: 2018/242297
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    Research being a studious inquiry means that it requires a lot of time to do, searching for new or existing information. It is something that is not to be rushed. It requires thorough inspection in order to determine their nature or condition of the topic in question.
    Now, we investigate, we ask questions like, “why this way and not the other?” We also seek for more information to enhance the little knowledge we may already have from the topic in question. By doing this, we discover new facts. That is, things that are true but we may just be knowing for the first time. It broadens our minds on things that we didn’t even have an idea of. When we get these facts, we compare them with other facts that we may have known and see their relationship. We compare these facts with theories or laws that have generally been accepted.
    Now, when we compare what we have obtained, we will now be able to practically apply these facts. That is, we will be able to use it in real life scenarios.

    Research to me is a systematic and careful process of obtaining facts in a clear state of mind. It is careful in the sense that we don’t just jump into conclusions. We search calmly and in a good state of mind so that we don’t end up mixing up what we have. Research to me requires a lot of hard work. Every little data we gather can be useful in obtaining the goal in which we set out to achieve. We are not to display a nonchalant attitude.

  139. Avatar Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo says:

    REG NO: 2018/241848
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    Research being a studious inquiry or examination means that it deals with a lot of academia curiosity, deep insightfulness, continuous probing and evaluation, and fact finding.
    According to the above definition, every research has a purpose or goal. Here, the goal is to discover, interpret facts, revise accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or revise theories or laws.
    Taking the above assertion one after the other, research as fact discovery or interpreting, deals with getting informations that have not been processed or giving details or reasons why something is, or not, or was, or would be. Fact discovery and interpreting are the beginning of research. When a fact is discovered(through research), it can only be made a theory or law through thorough or insightful finding or inquiry and examination(research).
    Research is also used to agree to facts or go against stated theories or laws. Research has been used by many scientists, be it in the social or pure sciences circles to agree or counter theories propounded. By countering, the scientist then makes out new theories or laws which must be backed up by his findings after thorough inquiry and examination giving birth to new facts backed by figures or hypothesis.
    Research is also used to further propound or revise a theory or law. By researching, the researcher finds reasons why a theory exists and expand this theory by adding his/her findings to further prove this theory true.
    Research must always have a statistical and scientific backing.

  140. Avatar ADEGBOLA SEUN SAMUEL says:

    NAME: ADEGBOLA SEUN SAMUEL
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/241869
    EMAIL: adegbolaseun8@gmail.com

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    • Identify potential and new customers
    • Understand existing customers
    • Set pragmatic goals
    • Develop productive market strategies
    • Address business challenges
    • Put together a business expansion plan
    • Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions. When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative. Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative method is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

  141. Avatar Ezeamenyi chinonso ifesorochukwu says:

    NAME: EZEAMENYI CHINONSO IFESOROCHUKWU
    REG: 2018/251370
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    EMAIL ADDRESS: nonsofavour732@gmail.com
    What is Research?
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research Is Conducted To…
    *Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    *To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and causal. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways.
    1: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH:
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research. When it comes to online surveys, the most common example of exploratory research takes place in the form of open-ended questions. Think of the exploratory questions in your survey as expanding your understanding of the people you are surveying. Text responses may not be statistically measureable, but they will give you richer quality information that can lead to the discovery of new initiatives or problems that should be addressed.
    2: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population. The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    3: CAUSAL RESEARCH:
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    *To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    *To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.

  142. Avatar OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT- RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    TOPIC: WHAT I UNDERSTAND BY RESEARCH.

    Anything that has to do with research is aimed at a particular goal, Creating, discovering or finding something new. Research is the bedrock of every innovation.
    I will be focusing basically my level of understanding of research to the definition of research giving by different people and institutions, the purpose of research, the types, scope, the sources and characteristics of research.
    UNDERSTANDING THE TERM RESEARCH
    Under this I will be discussing the definitions and scope of research.
    Research can be defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a new understanding (The Cambridge dictionary). I see research to be the scientific study of a certain phenomenon aimed at discovering something new through gathering and interpreting information to answer certain questions. It is defined as a group of methods used to create new knowledge or use the existing knowledge in newer creative ways in order to generate state of art concepts, methods, as well as understanding the existing theories in new light (Voxco).
    Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The oxford dictionary defines research as the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. The department of Education and training, western Sydney university, defines research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Research involves the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase one’s level of knowledge(Wikipedia). Travers(1969) described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. Leedy (1997) defines this research further to mean the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to leedy, Research is classified with, and what is NOT.
    Research can be one of the most interesting features of any degree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomy over what you learn. It is derived from the latin word, ‘Sciens’ meaning To know. The word, Research is composed of 2 syllables, ‘Re’ and ‘search’. It investigates hypothesis, suggests new interpretations of data or texts and poses new questions for future research to explore.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    There are basically two types of research; The scientific and non scientific research (Ogbuagbor 2021). Scientific research comprises of research that deals with scientific and empirical studies or enquiry to acquire or discover something new. The non scientific research deals with the search for without necessary using empirical. Knowledge gained from vision is a good example of this.
    BASIC RESEARCH: The primary aim of Basic Research is to improve knowledge generally, without any particular applied purpose in mind at the outset. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    APPLIED RESEARCH: is designed from the start to apply its findings to a particular situation. The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: The emphasis of Quantitative research is on collecting and analysing numerical data; it concentrates on measuring the scale, range, frequency etc. of phenomena. This type of research, although harder to design initially, is usually highly detailed and structured and results can be easily collated and presented statistically. According to leedy(1995), this research is an inquiry into social or human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables measured with numbers or figures and analyzed with statistical procedures in other to determine whether the predictive generalizations of the theory hold true.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research is more subjective in nature than quantitative research and involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject, e.g. values, attitudes, perceptions. Although this type of research can be easier to start, it can be often difficult to interpret and present the findings; the findings can also be challenged more easily. According to Babbie, 1998, Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed whereas deductive methods according to Babbie, verify hypothesized principles through observations.
    Other different types of research include Action research, case and field study research, correlational research, Descriptive or Normative survey, Ethnography, etc.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems
    3.) Provide solutions to problems
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    The major charcteristics of any research are objectivity, precision, design and verifiability.
    Objectivity: This explains that as researcher, you have to make deliberate efforts to eliminate all personal preferences.
    Precision: Research has to do with better understanding. When one conduct a good research and write the reports but a reader do not understanding does not understand what the person that carried out the research had done, it is as good as doing nothing or just a waste of time.
    Design: If you want to have a good research, you must have a very good and systematic design.
    Verifiability: When you conduct a research, you write your report without this you are not carrying out a research.
    In conclusion, Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand.

  143. Avatar OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration: 2018/242433 Economics department says:

    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT- RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    TOPIC: WHAT I UNDERSTAND BY RESEARCH.

    Anything that has to do with research is aimed at a particular goal, Creating, discovering or finding something new. Research is the bedrock of every innovation.
    I will be focusing basically my level of understanding of research to the definition of research giving by different people and institutions, the purpose of research, the types, scope, the sources and characteristics of research.
    UNDERSTANDING THE TERM RESEARCH
    Under this I will be discussing the definitions and scope of research.
    Research can be defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a new understanding (The Cambridge dictionary). I see research to be the scientific study of a certain phenomenon aimed at discovering something new through gathering and interpreting information to answer certain questions. It is defined as a group of methods used to create new knowledge or use the existing knowledge in newer creative ways in order to generate state of art concepts, methods, as well as understanding the existing theories in new light (Voxco).
    Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The oxford dictionary defines research as the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. The department of Education and training, western Sydney university, defines research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Research involves the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase one’s level of knowledge(Wikipedia). Travers(1969) described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. Leedy (1997) defines this research further to mean the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to leedy, Research is classified with, and what is NOT.
    Research can be one of the most interesting features of any degree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomy over what you learn. It is derived from the latin word, ‘Sciens’ meaning To know. The word, Research is composed of 2 syllables, ‘Re’ and ‘search’. It investigates hypothesis, suggests new interpretations of data or texts and poses new questions for future research to explore.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    There are basically two types of research; The scientific and non scientific research (Ogbuagbor 2021). Scientific research comprises of research that deals with scientific and empirical studies or enquiry to acquire or discover something new. The non scientific research deals with the search for without necessary using empirical. Knowledge gained from vision is a good example of this.
    BASIC RESEARCH: The primary aim of Basic Research is to improve knowledge generally, without any particular applied purpose in mind at the outset. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    APPLIED RESEARCH: is designed from the start to apply its findings to a particular situation. The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: The emphasis of Quantitative research is on collecting and analysing numerical data; it concentrates on measuring the scale, range, frequency etc. of phenomena. This type of research, although harder to design initially, is usually highly detailed and structured and results can be easily collated and presented statistically. According to leedy(1995), this research is an inquiry into social or human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables measured with numbers or figures and analyzed with statistical procedures in other to determine whether the predictive generalizations of the theory hold true.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research is more subjective in nature than quantitative research and involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject, e.g. values, attitudes, perceptions. Although this type of research can be easier to start, it can be often difficult to interpret and present the findings; the findings can also be challenged more easily. According to Babbie, 1998, Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed whereas deductive methods according to Babbie, verify hypothesized principles through observations.
    Other different types of research include Action research, case and field study research, correlational research, Descriptive or Normative survey, Ethnography, etc.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems
    3.) Provide solutions to problems
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    The major charcteristics of any research are objectivity, precision, design and verifiability.
    Objectivity: This explains that as researcher, you have to make deliberate efforts to eliminate all personal preferences.
    Precision: Research has to do with better understanding. When one conduct a good research and write the reports but a reader do not understanding does not understand what the person that carried out the research had done, it is as good as doing nothing or just a waste of time.
    Design: If you want to have a good research, you must have a very good and systematic design.
    Verifiability: When you conduct a research, you write your report without this you are not carrying out a research.
    In conclusion, Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand.

  144. Avatar Onwujiuba Obianuju Nnenna says:

    NAME: ONWUJIUBA OBIANUJU NNENNA
    REG NO: 2018/247080
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE (CSS)
    ASSIGNMENT: CRITICALLY ANALYSE THE MEANING OF RESEARCH.
    Research can be seen the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It starts with an inquiry which means to ask questions with the view of getting to know that whi h one doesn’t know initially,though not all inquiries leads to research but for one to research he must start with questions of how?, why? and when? And these questions are what you refer to as an inquiry. Therefore research can also be viewed as a systematic way of collecting and interpreting answers to a said inquiry. Research in economics are based on economic theories and these research must follow a laid steps or model in order to be called a research. Randomly asking question about a hypothesis does not necessarily make it a research, for a work to be considered a research it must be replicable in the sense that one can be able to study and redo the research without necessarily being confused.
    There are two main types of research and they are scientific and non-scientific research. Still on explaining research I’ll define research as
    R-REVIEWING
    E-EXISTING
    S-STUDIES
    E-EMPIRICALLY
    A-AND
    R-RIGOROUSLY
    C-COMFIRMING
    H-HYPOTHESIS.

  145. Avatar Eze Ngozi Josephine says:

    Name: Eze Ngozi Josephine
    Reg.no: 2018/241825
    Department: Economics
    Email: @josephinengozi2030@gmail.com

    Simply put, research is the investigation of available resources and knowledge, in a bid to provide unavailable resources and knowledge.
    It begins by asking the right questions and choosing appropriate methods to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    But more extensively; Research can be described as the production or formation of new knowledge and/or the use of already available knowledge in a new and innovative way so as to create new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include demystification and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods are carried out to analyze an observed event, while the deductive methods aim to verify the said observed event. Inductive approaches are generally in relation with quantitative research , and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    The scope of a research entails the area covered by that research and explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the study and also specifies the parameters within which the study will be operating. Scoping helps the researcher plan what steps need to be taken, refine the research objectives, determine the personnel and budgetary requirements, and note down essential areas to be covered, among others.

    Some characteristics of research are as follows:
    1. It should follow a systematic approach
    2. The analysis should be based on logical reasoning and involve both quantitative and qualitative methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  146. Avatar Ezeaku Anderson Esomchukwu says:

    Name : Ezeaku Anderson Esomchukwu
    Reg no: 2018/242413
    Dept. : Economics
    In view of the above definition and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy.
    Nworgu (1991) noted that research exists because man has always searched and will perhaps continue to search for facts yet unknown to him; for answers to questions yet unanswered. This search has always followed different forms and approaches through the ages and have always undergone series of changes from the earliest times to the present day; from the stage of haphazardness to the stage of mere speculation to that characterized by empiricism hence research has to do with an inquiry into the unknown; the search for solutions to problems or answers to questions; with critical process of asking and attempting to answer questions about the world; involving description, exploration
    prediction, explanation and action.
    From the foregoing definitions, research is a systematic and objective investigation or activity to unravel and provide solutions to unknown phenomena in the environment.

    As a special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy research has the following uses
    * Data obtained through research enables us understand existing phenomena. Understanding existing phenomena deals with a comprehensive search on what exist.
    * it enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationships between variables. In the society, many variables impact on others positively or negatively in varying degrees.
    * Research helps to provide answers to unknown problems. The society is dynamic and hence is confronted with a myriad of new problems from time to time.
    * Research provides us with data for extrapolation, forecasting and policy especially during the occurrence or expectation of re-occurrence of similar events.
    * Research provides the basis for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims made through deductive reasoning.
    * Research helps us to formulate or refine theories in order to enrich the school curriculum or frontiers of knowledge

  147. Avatar Kalu Melody Chinaza says:

    NAME: KALU MELODY CHINAZA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/245127
    AN ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 391

    Research is simply the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is a process of investigation. An examination of a subject from different points of view. It’s not just a trip to the library, say UNN library, to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth.
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1: Identify potential and new customers
    2: Understand existing customers
    3: Set pragmatic goals
    3: Develop productive market strategies
    4: Address business challenges
    5: Put together a business expansion plan
    6: Identify new business opportunities
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH
    1: Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2: The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3: Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4: There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5: It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6: It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7: Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of a good research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    RESEARCH PROCESSES
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) described the following stages of conducting a research study:

    1: Identify a significant research problem: in this stage, find out the research questions that are significant and feasible to study.
    2: Prepare a research proposal: a research proposal usually consists of the sections including introductory, literature review, research design, research method, data analysis and protection of human subject section, and timeline.
    3: Conduct a pilot study: the purpose is to develop and try out data-collection methods and other procedures.
    4: Conduct a main study
    5: Prepare a report
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) also explained that these five stages may overlap or occur in a different order depending the nature of the study. Qualitative studies which involve emergent research design may gather and analyze some data before developing the proposal, or a pilot study can be done before writing a research proposal or not at all.
    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    1: One-to-one Interview
    2: Focus Groups
    3: Ethnographic studies
    4: Text Analysis
    5; Case Study

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

  148. Avatar ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR)
    COURSE: ECO 391

    MEANING AND THE SCOPE OF RESEARCH

    ETYMOLOGY
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    DEFINITION
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    FORMS OF RESEARCH
    Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.

    The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review. Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.

    Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).

    Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.

    Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    STEPS ON CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

    Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject-related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
    Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
    Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
    Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
    Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
    Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it.
    Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words.
    Test, revising of hypothesis
    Conclusion, reiteration if necessary
    A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, null hypothesis). Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.

    A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.

    RESEARCH METHODS

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:

    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects. Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.

    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive) derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

    If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment). If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.

    In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.

    Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.

    Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS
    1. Observatory Research Method
    2. Correlation Research Method

    Switching topics
    There have been indications that during the last decades scientists have switched between scientific topics more frequently.

    Non-empirical research
    Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on. See Scientific method.

    A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

    RESEARCH ETHICS
    Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research. The management of research ethics is inconsistent across countries and there is no universally accepted approach to how it should be addressed.[46][47][48] Informed consent is a key concept in research ethics.

    When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics and value (ethics). Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios.

    Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciences, information technology, biotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.

    In countries such as Canada, mandatory research ethics training is required for students, professors and others who work in research.

    Nowadays, research ethics is commonly distinguished from matters of research integrity that includes issues such as scientific misconduct (e.g. fraud, fabrication of data or plagiarism).

  149. Avatar Ezeugwu Sandra Adanna says:

    NAME: Ezeugwu Sandra Adanna
    REG NO: 2018/245872
    DEPARTMENT: Social Science Education (Economics/Education)
    COURSE CODE: ECO 291
    COURSE TITTLE: Research Method in Economics.
    adannasandra6@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT.

    Research has no accepted definition but has so many definitions.
    It has been defined by various authors and researchers. The word research is derived from the Latin word ‘Sciens’ meaning to know, and it is composed of two syllables, Re and Search. Re is a prefix meaning again or a new while Search is a verb meaning to examine closely or carefully or test and try
    Longman Dictionary of contemporary English .(1997) Research as a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas.

    According to The Merriam- (Webster online Dictionary). A studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or law.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    There are three main purposes of research according to Earl Robert Babbie, and they include:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    As a special Adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy,I will encourage him to invest more on research because it also help in Economic development because it identify the useful tools for economic development
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. researches are very helpful because your mind/brain can go beyond the limits and with the help of researches old/faded studies of the past people can be replaced by a modern person that is very determined to research of something(very important to nation).
    Research as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or a problem using scientific methods. … There are several forms of research:
    1. scientific.
    2. Humanities.
    3. Artistic.
    4. Economics.
    5. social.
    6. Business.
    7. Marketing.
    8. Practitioner research.
    9. Life.
    10. Technological, etc.
    Much empirical and theoretical work emphasizes that research and development (R&D) is an important contributor to economic growth. R&D spending is likely to lead to growth through its positive effect on innovation and total factor productivity (TFP) (Romer, 1990; Lucas, 1988).

  150. Avatar Ugwu chidera loveth says:

    NAME: Ugwu Chidera loveth.
    REG: 2018/241235
    DEPT: Economics Education

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with  qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Types of research methods
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research  is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually  open minded questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative  methods deal with numbers and measurable  forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO THE PRESIDENT, I WILL SAY THAT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH ARE AS FOLLOWS:
    1. Research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.

     
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.

    There are three main purposes research which are as follows:

    EXPLORATORY: As the name suggests, researchers conduct  exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    DESCRIPTIVE: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research  describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    EXPLANATORY: Causal or explanatory research  is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

  151. Avatar Chidozie Julieth Chisom says:

    Name- CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    Reg no-2018/250055
    Department- Education Economics
    Email- chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    In view of the above statement i can say that research aim at interpreting a fact through revision of already accepted existing theories and practically applying those existing theories , research can be carried out to examine the authenticity of an accepted theory.
    Research has been defined in many but similar way by many Researchers such as :
    Nwana (1981) defined research as a process of finding a solution to a problem. This is considered as the simplest definition of research ,he perceives research as just a process f finding solution to a problem.even though every research find a solution to a problem but this definition can not be generally accepted
    Clifford woody defined research as a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles a diligent investigation to ascertain something
    Clarke and Clarke sees research as a careful , systematic and objective investigation conducted to obtain valid facts,draw conclusions and established principles, regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge
    In view of the above definitions given by different researchers , research can be generally seen as an organised and systematic method of finding answers to a problem.research is a systematic way of analysing and finding a solution to a problem,it is systematic in the sense that it follows a concurrent method, research is considered empirical because it can be verified
    Looking at the definition given by Clarke and Clarke,i can say that every research is conducted for a purpose which is to establish principles regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge, research tend to find solution to and already existing problems and to do that it has to follow a systematic step which are
    (1) problem identification
    (2) choosing a topic
    (3) Literature review
    (4) Hypothesis formulation
    (5) Data collection and analysis
    Every research ends in collecting a reliable data and analysing them.
    As the special adviser to the president in research and strategy
    I see research as a continuous investigation or enquiry ( it may be through questioning the public)carried out to arrive at a verifiable and reliable conclusion about an existing problem

  152. Avatar Eze joy Ozioma says:

    Name-Eze joy Ozioma
    Reg no-2018/242430
    Economics department

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    It is simply a way of looking for new information, new understanding, and new facts. A person who does research is called a researcher. … Research is often used for solving problems or increasing available knowledge. This can be done by testing theories and making observations.
    Research begins with an issue that comes from an observation. Let’s say I am walking down the street and I see two pigeons sitting at two different windows. I’m weird, so I’ll call the first pigeon Stu and the second pigeon Bill. When I walk past Stu the pigeon, I see him pecking at the glass.
    When I walk past Bill the pigeon, I see him just sitting there, chilling like pigeons do. So, I formulate a question: ‘Why is Stu the pigeon pecking at the glass, while Bill the pigeon does not?’ Next, I should do a little research into pigeons and why they might peck at things. This is background research to help me understand what I am looking for or at.
    Next, I have to figure out how to answer my question. There are many ways a question can be answered;
    Research methods are classified based on different criteria. They are a general category, nature of the study, the purpose of the study, and research design. Also, there are interviews and case studies based on research methodology. In some researches, more than two methods are combined while in some, very few methods are taken into account for the study.
    List of Types in Research Method
    Research methods are classified based on different criteria. They are a general category, nature of the study, the purpose of the study, and research design. Also, there are interviews and case studies based on research methodology. In some researches, more than two methods are combined while in some, very few methods are taken into account for the study.
    1. Quantitative Research
    As the name suggests, quantitative refers to the numbers where data is collected based on numbers, and a summary is taken from these numbers. Graphs help to quantify the results in quantitative research.
    2. Qualitative Research
    Qualitative refers to the non- numerical elements in the research. When the information or data cannot be grasped in terms of numbers, qualitative research comes for the rescue. Though not reliable as much as quantitative, qualitative research helps to form a better summary in terms of theories in the data.
    Based on the nature of the research,
    3. Descriptive Research
    Facts are considered in descriptive methods and surveys and case studies are done to clarify the facts. These help to determine and explain with examples, the facts, and they are not rejected.   Many variables can be used in descriptive research to explain the facts.
    4. Analytical Research
    Analytical research uses the facts that have been confirmed already to form the basis for the research and critical evaluation of the material is carried out in this method. Analytical methods make use of quantitative methods as well.
    5. Applied Research
    Applied research is action research where only one domain is considered and mostly the facts are generalized. Variables are considered constant and forecasting is done so that the methods can be found out easily in applied research. The technical language is used in the research and the summary is based on technical facts.
    6. Fundamental Research
    Fundamental research is the basic or pure research done to find out an element or a theory that has never been in the world yet. Several domains are connected and the aim is to find out how traditional things can be changed or something new can be developed. The summary is purely in common language and logical findings are applied in the research.
    Based on research design,
    7. Exploratory Research
    Exploratory studies are based on the theories and their explanation and it does not provide any conclusion for the research topic. The structure is not proper and the methods offer a flexible and investigative approach for the study. The hypothesis is not tested and the result will not be of much help to the outside world. The findings will be topic related that helps in improving the research more.
    8. Conclusive Research
    Conclusive Research aims at providing an answer to the research topic and has a proper design in the methodology. A well-designed structure helps in formulating and solving the hypotheses and give the results. The results will be generic and help the outside world. Researchers will have an inner pleasure to solve the problems and to help society in general.
    9. Surveys
    Not least considered, but Surveys play a main role in the research methodology. It helps to collect a vast amount of real-time data and helps in the research process. It is done at a low cost and can be done faster than any other method. Surveys can be done in both quantitative and qualitative methods. Always, quantitative surveys must be considered above qualitative surveys as they provide numerical outputs and the data is real. Surveys are mainly used in the business to know the demand for a product in the market and to forecast the production based on the results from the survey.
    10. Case Studies
    Case studies are another method of research methodology where different cases are considered and the proper one for the research is selected. Case studies help to form an idea of the research and helps in the foundation of the research. Various facts and theories can be considered from the case studies that help to form proper reviews about the research topic. Researchers can either make the topic general or specific according to the literature reviews from the studies. A proper understanding of the research can be made from the case study.
    Also, we have focus groups and research interviews to understand the research methods in a well-defined manner. Structured and unstructured methods can be followed by various methods.
    Advantages of using different Research Methodology
    Below are the advantages mentioned :
    * In a research, critical evaluation of the topic is important to analyze and verify the research. This helps the researcher to explore the research more effectively. Various methods in the research helps to explore the research from different perspectives and to analyze in a fact-driven manner.
    * Quantitative methods and surveys help to gain numerical outputs that help in all the research. Results can be formed easily without explaining much in the thesis with the help of numbers.

  153. NAME: Obiora Chidinma Jennifer
    REG NO:2018/241834
    E-MAIL:ceejay.nma@gmail.com
    COURSE CODE:ECO 361[Development Economics]
    The word research is derived from the middle French ”recherche” which means ”to go about seeking” the term itself being derived from the old French term ”recerchier” a compound word from ”re-”+”cerchier”, or ”sercher”,meaning ‘search’.
    Research is the ”creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection ,organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research [ as opposed to applied research] are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development [R&D] of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as” meta-research”.
    DEFINITION ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT SCHOLARS:
    -According to Waltz and Bansell [1981].Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    -According to Kothari [2006].Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    -According to Payton [1979].Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    -Kerlinger[1873].Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    DEFINITION ACCORDING TO THE SPECIAL ADVICER TO MR PRESIDENT: Research implies looking into a subject of interest. It also means observation, inquiry about a subject matter of interest.
    REFERENCES:
    – ^OECD [2015].Frascati Manual. The Measurement of scientific, Technological and innovation activities.doi:1787/9789264239012-en.ISBN 978-9264238800.
    – ^”The Origin of science” Scientific American Frontiers.
    – ^ Trochim, W.M.K,[2006]. Research Methods Knowledge Base.
    – Longman Dictionary of contemporary English [1997].
    – Merriam Webster Online Dictionary[1828].

  154. Avatar Agbo Peace Uchechukwu, Reg. No;2018/242343 says:

    NAME; AGBO PEACE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO; 2018/242343
    DEPARTMENT; ECONOMICS

    Assignment Question;
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    Answer:
    Before i begin,the following are the guidelines or the things to bear in mind with regards to research;
    •The definition of research
    •The characteristics of research
    •The purpose of research
    •Types and examples of research
    •The 8 tips for conducting accurate research

    •What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    •Identify potential and new customers
    •Understand existing customers
    •Set pragmatic goals
    •Develop productive market strategies
    •Address business challenges
    •Put together a business expansion plan
    •Identify new business opportunities

    •What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    •What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    •Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    •Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    •Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    •Types of research methods and example;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    •Qualitative methods;
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    •Quantitative methods;
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    •Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    •Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    •The 8 tips for conducting accurate research;
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

    • Avatar Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. says:

      Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu
      2018/242306
      Economics Department

      As the special adviser to Mr President on Research, a brief explanation of the term “research” is that research constitute search for an answer, meaning that in the process of research we are sourcing for an answer that is not known l before.

      It also involves the critical evaluation of this answer to see if it is in line with the required standards of information search as well as its level of correctness.

      Research must also include the application of these source findings into real world situations so as to examine its impact and deduce facts and theories which serves as a backing to the information or analysis gotten.

  155. Avatar Isiguzo Purity Ezinne says:

    Name: Isiguzo Purity Ezinne.
    Reg. No: 2018/242353
    Course code: Eco 391
    Email add: isipurity4real@gmail.com
    ANSWER
    The word Research is originally derived from the middle french word “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re”- meaning “again and again” + “cerchier” or sercher” meaning “search”.
    The Earliest use of the term was in 1577.
    According to the American Sociologist, Earl Robert Babbie, who is regarded as the first to give a definition of research, thus- “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon”.
    Oguniyi (1992), defined Research as a careful, diligent search, studious and critical inquiry and examination aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge.
    Prof. Erik Eboh, gave the definition thus- “Research is the process of systematic enquiry by which we increase our knowledge of how things are, why things are the way they are, and how they can be improved”.
    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) defined Research as “A systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”.
    Research is also the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way, so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Purity (2021), defines Research as simply, the discovery of new facts and knowledge, aimed at solving problems.

    Noteworthy is the fact that many definitions of research by various research pundits abounds, but the similarity is in the need to seek or find solutions to problems using systematic and careful processes or methods, as there cannot be research without a problem- which could be a search for new knowledge.

    The Research process involves a sequence of cyclical procedures or steps according to which research is normally conducted. These processes includes-
    1) Problem identification.
    2) Choice of research topic.
    3) Literature review.
    4) Hypothesis formulation.
    5) Design of research methods.
    6) Data collection.
    7) Result analysis.
    8) Summarization of research results into “research conclusion(s)”.
    These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge, used in the implementation of findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    Regarded as the Ultimate goal of research, is the need to improve our lives and enhance the society.
    The 3 main purposes of research are hereby stated thus-
    1) Exploratory/Information gathering- Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around the problem that has not yet been clearly defined.
    It involves discovering, uncovering and exploring, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem, inorder to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2) Descriptive- descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population.
    It focuses on the “how” and “what” of research questions, and involves gathering information, describing and summarizing it.

    3) Explanatory/Theory testing- This type of research is also referred to as “Causal research”. It is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify, test and/or understand the cause-and-effect relationships.
    Explanatory research deals with the “why” of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    There are eight(8) core characteristics that all research projects should have, these are:
    1) Empirical- based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life experiments and observations.
    2) Logical- follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    3) Cyclic- research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    4) Controlled- Vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    5) Hypothesis-based- the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis.
    6) Analytical- data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability.
    7) Objective- sound judgement is used by researchers to ensure valid research findings.
    8) Statistical treatment- used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    Research methods for data collection fall into two (2) main categories; the inductive research methods- which focus on the analysis of an observation, and are usually associated with qualitative research.
    While the other, the deductive research methods, focus on the verification of an observation, and it is usually quantitative in nature- collects and analyses numerical data.
    Research methods generally includes-
    1) Experiments.
    2) Surveys.
    3) Questionnaires.
    4) Interviews.
    5) Case study.
    6) Focus groups.
    7) Observational trials.
    8) Participants and non-participants observations.
    9) Studies using the Delphi method. e.t.c

    However, a good Researcher must possess the skills of Time management, Problem-solving, Note- taking, Attention to details and Information search.

    Conclusively, as the Special Adviser to Mr President, Research would serve to me as a tool to understanding the existing phenomena and economic variables. Also, in the establishment of economic relationships.

    Lastly, research would help me to provide answers to economic problems and to formulate effective economic policies towards the economic development of our dear nation, Nigeria.

  156. Avatar IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR says:

    NAME: IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR
    REG NO:2018/245647
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391_ RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY
    ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    There are reasons for conducting research, below are some of them:
    1. To identify potential and new customers
    2. To understand existing customers
    3. To set pragmatic goals
    4. To develop productive market strategies
    5. To address business challenges
    6. To put together a business expansion plan
    7. To identify new business opportunities
    Characteristics of a good research?
    1. A good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis must be based on logical reasoning
    3. Real-time data and knowledge should be derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There should be an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.
    WE HAVE TWO TYPES OF RESEARCH
    Basic and Applied Research
    WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO ME
    As an Economist and the special adviser to Mr President, conducting an effective research will help me to be good adviser. Not advising him based on “hear say” or “guess work” but on tested theories using scientific methods and hypothesis testing.
    Research will also help me advise Mr President on better investments and projects to engage in and how it can benefit the entire nation. The problem our country and most nations are having is because of bad advisers who do not use research methods in carrying out their theories which will result in bad decisions made by the President, and this poor decisions will affect the nation badly. So this shows that effective research is key to building a progressive nation, so my job will be to make sure I carry out effective research to help Mr President make good decisions.

  157. Avatar UGWU SERAH IZUNNA. says:

    NAME: UGWU SERAH IZUNNA.

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.

    REG NUMBER: 2018/247399

    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    Assignment..
    DISCUSS THE MEANING AND SCOPES OF RESEARCH.

    research is derived from the Latin word “sciens” meaning to know.
    The word research is composed of two syllables,
    RE and SEARCH..
    “RE” is a prefix meaning again, a new, or over again..while SEARCH is a verb ,meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try or to probe.
    Research has different meaning in several ways:
    Research means a careful, systematic study and investigation in the field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts or principles..
    Research is a careful inquiring or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify existing knowledge.

    According to Martin ShuttleWorth, the definition of research includes any gathering of knowledge that involves advancement of knowledge.
    Research involves a systematic investigations including research development, testing and evaluation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research

    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff

    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP

    the development of HDR training and courses

    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses

    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)

    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:

    scientific and technical information services

    general purpose or routine data collection

    standardisation and routine testing

    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)

    specialised routine medical care

    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright
    Investigation involves the use of analytical tests and techniques which will expand knowledge base in any given field of human endeavour.

    R= Rationale way of thinking.
    E= Expert/exhaustive treatment.
    S= Search for solution
    E=Exactness.
    A= Adequate date and data
    R= Relationship among facts
    C=Careful recording
    H= Honesty, hardworking.

    Why do we carry out research?
    (1) To understand existing phenomena
    (2) research enables us to provide answer to unknown problems.
    (3)It helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    (4) It also helps us to formulate theories.
    RESEARCH PROCESS.
    THERE ARE DIFFERENT STAGES OF RESEARCH.
    (1) problem identification.
    (2) choice of research topic.
    (3) literatures review.
    (4) Hypothesis formulation

    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    there are two main types of research.
    (1) scientific research.
    (2) Non scientific research.

    Non scientific research is a type of research that has no scientific method,, it does not have any specified procedure or method.
    Eg: guess work, mysticism, divine revelation..

    Characteristics of scientific research:
    (1) it is empirical
    (2) it is replicable
    (3) it is systematic
    (4) it is theoretical.
    (5) it lacks moral undertone.
    (6) Scientific research is cumulative.
    (7) it is unbiased
    The scope of the study refers to the boundaries within which your research project will be performed; this is sometimes also called the scope of research. To define the scope of the study is to define all aspects that will be considered in your research project.

  158. Avatar AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA says:

    NAME: AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA
    REG NO: 2018/242444
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT:
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    As stated in the question,
    Research could be seen as an investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts. It is also the revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Research basically means to investigate systematically. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue.
    The role of the Special Advisor to the President on research and strategy is to provide full support to the President on matters concerning research and also to give advice when needed.
    As a special adviser to the president on research and strategy,Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.
    Researches are conducted for many reasons,some are:
    1. To evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    2. To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    3. To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    4. To guide and influence decision making process of a country.
    A research strategy is an overall plan for conducting a research study. While
    Research methods are ways of collecting and analyzing data. A research strategy guides a researcher in planning, executing, and monitoring the study. Thus, a research strategy offers high-level gui