Eco. 391—20-8-2021(Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research)

 

Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

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  1. Name: OBODOAGU SOMTOCHUKWU LILIAN
    Reg.No: 2018/242452
    Dept: Economics
    Course: Eco 391
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean.
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know .
    Research is composed of two syllables re and search. Re is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again
    Search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe.
    So research can be clearly defined as a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish s facts or principles. Although research have a broad definition by various authors or pundits. A broad definition of research is given by Martin Shuttle worth, he define research as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Thus research involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The main goal of research is the gathering and interpretation of information to answer questions.
    There are some basic concept of research
    Research undertaken many procedures, it is being done step by step
    (1)A research is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies
    (2)It uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability
    (3)A research must be unbiased and objective. It is when the three citeria mentioned above adhered ,enables the process to be called research. Therefore research involves the systematic search for knowledge or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish new facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories.
    Research involves
    R – rationale way of thinking
    E – expert/exhaustive treatment
    S. – search for solution
    E – exactness
    A. -adequate data and data , analytical analysis
    R. – relationship among facts, information
    C – careful recording, critical observations
    H – honestly; hardworking.

  2. MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI says:

    NAME: MBA COLLINS CHIDUMEBI
    REG. NO,: 2018/242336
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO. 391: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS

    Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.
    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    From the foregoing clarifications above, it is clear that research is a process for collecting, analyzing and interpreting information in order to provide answer(s) to a research question. But for a work to qualify as a research, it must be;
    ●Rigorous
    ●Systematic
    ●Valid and verifiable
    ●Empirical
    ●Critical
    ●Unbiased and Objective
    We will now examine each of these features below;
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    CRITICAL: The process or procedures for inquiry or investigation must be foolproof such that it will be able to withstand critical scrutiny.
    UNBIASED and OBJECTIVE: This means that each step undertaken by the researcher must be unbiased and every conclusion drawn without introducing sentiments or personal opinion.
    FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
    Research help to fulfill the following functions:
    I. Discovery and interpretation of facts
    II. Diagnosis of problems and their analysis
    III: Systemization of knowledge
    IV. Control over social phenomena
    V. Forecasting
    VI. Development planning
    VII. Social welfare

    After clearly analyzing what research entails according to research pundits, here is what research means to me;
    Research is any planned effort made in finding out solution to a problem or to revise old facts in the light of new information, utilizing scientific methods, processes or procedures to collect data, analyze data and interpret data in order to arrive at a relevant conclusion or provide a workable answer to a Research question.

  3. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847

    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It is the process of discovering new knowledge.
    Research is a studious inquiry or examination in that it involves critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, with its aim being the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”

  4. Olendi Nkiru precious says:

    Name ; Olendi Nkiru precious
    Reg No: 2018/243187
    department : Economic /psychology
    course : Eco 391(research method )
    Assignments (Research )

    RESEARCH METHODS

    ABSTRACT

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyse an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    INTRODUCTION

    Longman Dictionary of contemporary English .(1997) Research as a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas.

    According to The Merriam- (Webster online Dictionary). A studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or law.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    Research is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. it involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The characteristics of research

    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    purpose of research
    There are three main purposes:

    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    3. Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1. Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    2. Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    Research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    How is research used
    The primary purpose of research is to find answers to questions. Research allows us to find the right solutions to key issues in our communities by:
    providing facts that will help us to analyse the problem;
    testing the feasibility and the impact of programmes; and
    finding better solutions to the challenges.
    Here are some examples of questions that research will help to answer in community development work:
    Is it feasible to start a new project? For example, the Department of Agriculture may want to conduct a study on whether food gardens are sustainable in drought prone areas of our country.
    What impact has a project or programme had on a community? For example, a community based organisation may want to measure the impact of its environmental awareness programme in the local community.
    What other interventions are needed to improve on a situation? For example, a civic may have initiated a poverty alleviation programme that is not having the desired impact. It needs to find other ways of impacting on poverty.
    Research can play an important role in winning support for a programme or cause (sometimes called advocacy.) It helps make a case through strengthening arguments, providing information, and outlining cost benefits.
    Research can confirm what you were already sure of.
    Often people have firm beliefs about particular issues, but when they have to argue their case they lack reliable information to back up their beliefs. Research helps to clarify and strengthen beliefs especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others. Whilst research can confirm your views, it is important that the researcher remains open-minded and impartial even when the results fail to confirm your views.
    Research can give your views and arguments substance.
    Research produces hard facts that could support your arguments and beliefs.
    Research gives you new information.
    Research often throws up other facts which you may not have been aware of that helps to strengthen, or even change, your arguments and beliefs. These facts make it easier to plan programmes and ensure that interventions are effective.
    Research can show you what is most likely to address your issue successfully.
    Research may provide key information that will enable you to develop clear strategies.
    Research can provide you with anecdotes and examples to use.
    In addition to providing statistics, research provides you with real life experiences that are more convincing than statistics organised into graphs and tables. For example, parts of a research report on poverty in a rural community can deal with actual case studies that will have a great impact on readers.
    Research allows you to make cost-benefit arguments.
    Often people are convinced that a programme or project justifies high amounts of money being spent. Research can confirm if this is correct or suggest other ways for the money to be spent.

    Below are guidelines and steps for a general research process;
    Step 1: Identify and define the issue or question
    What is the issue?
    Why is it necessary to research this issue?
    What do we want to find out?
    What information/evidence already exists?
    This step assists in identifying the problem or issue that requires research. For example, South Africa has a high incidence of road death. Research already done shows that around 10,000 people are killed in road accidents each year. Now we need to find out what are the causes and impact of the high incidence of road deaths. We need to know what other facts and evidence already exist so that we can build on that.
    Step 2: Deciding direction by identifying a focus and refining the question
    What will be the aim and focus of the research?
    What questions need to be answered?
    In this step we set out the aims and objectives of the research. For example, the aim of the research may be to “assess the social and economic impact of road accidents on the South African population”. The aim of the research may provide a title for the research, i.e. “The causes of road accidents and the social and economic impact on the South African population”.
    A clear aim will make it easier to develop objectives for the research, for example:
    To investigate the causes of accidents in South Africa.
    To ascertain which geographical areas in South Africa experience the most road-accident deaths.
    To measure the social impacts of road-accidents on the South African population.
    To measure the economic impacts of road-accidents on South Africa.
    To make recommendations arising from the study to interested groups.
    The objectives will help you to decide which questions need answers. For example,
    “What are the three most common causes of road accidents?”
    Step 3: Organising the work plan to answer the questions
    What sort of information is needed to answer the questions? Where will it be found (sources)?
    What would be the best research methods to use?
    Who is best suited to do this research?
    What are the tasks and who will do what?
    When does the work need to be completed?
    This step entails organising the work and choosing the methods that will be used to conduct the research. A terms of reference (ToR) should be drawn up that that spells out the work needed. This is usually given to the researcher who must then prepare a proposal about how they will go about doing the research. A ToR usually has the following sections: background, research objectives, methodology to be used, resources to be used (people, money for travel, etc), and timeframes for completing the project (broken down into phases, e.g. when the fieldwork will be completed, when the report will be written).
    Step 4: Collecting information to help answer the question
    This step entails the actual collection of information. This may require fieldwork. The research example on “The causes of road accidents and the social and economic impact on the South African population” is a huge and difficult one that will require lots of resources. For example, 80,000 fieldworkers were employed to conduct the 2001 Census. In this case the fieldworkers were called enumerators.
    Other research may be conducted on a much smaller scale and may include a team of 5-10 people and the amount of resources required would be less.
    Step 5: organise the information collected and discard what is not needed
    This phase entails organising and analysing the information gathered in the previous step. To analyse means to make calculations, such as adding up the different responses so as to get a full picture of the situation. For example, after analysis it might be that 70% of those that were interviewed may have been driving over the speed limit of 120km/hr. The analysis may be in the form of tables, graphs, percentages, etc. Similarities may emerge. For example, the incidence of road deaths may be higher during rainy days. Similarly patterns may start to emerge. For example, the occurrence of drunken driving is higher during weekends and at the end of the month when people get paid.
    Step 6: Drawing conclusions
    This step entails discussing the findings and drawing conclusions.
    Findings are often in table, graph, numeric or percentage form. The discussion involves using words to describe the findings. The discussion section is where the researcher gives opinions based on the findings of the research. The researcher then draws conclusions and may make recommendations based on the findings. The conclusion may be that “Road deaths are mainly caused by drunk drivers, drunken pedestrians, un-roadworthy vehicles and poor driver behaviour. The main economic impact is on the productive workforce due to high death rate and the more than 100 000 economically active people who are disabled annually. Impact is most severe on individual families affected. “
    Step 7: Writing a research report
    The writing of a report is important as it leaves a body of evidence that can be used by politicians, planners, community organisations and future researchers. A report generally has six sections: introduction, literature review, methodology, research results, discussion, and conclusions and recommendations (for more information, see section 5 of this chapter).
    Step 8: Reflecting on and evaluating the work done
    This step entails reflection to decide on what action is needed and what steps should be taken to use the research effectively. This may include a plan for communicating the research results to community members and decision makers. More research may also be needed to answer new questions thrown up by the research done.

    Tools for analysing research
    Government, community based organisations and other stakeholders work to create a better life for all. These stakeholders are often confronted by issues that require new or further research. With a number of institutions of higher learning and other private and public organisations conducting research, it can be difficult to differentiate between “good” and “bad” research. Research often informs the decisions that are made. Poor research leads to poor decisions.
    This section provides some basic tools to help us understand research and the terminology and presentation used.
    Research documents are usually organised in a similar way:
    Firstly these documents contain an “abstract” which provides an clear summary of the document.
    This followed by an “introduction” that provides background information, the reason for the study and an overview of the work done.
    Often research reports will start with a review of existing information and analysis on the issue. In some types of research this is called a “literature review”.
    The report then deals with the “method” used in the study, including a description of the participants, the setting, the measures, and the procedures used to analyse data.
    This is followed by a “results” section in which the researcher describes the results.
    The next section of the document is the “discussion” that provides an interpretation of the results and the implications of the study.
    This is followed by “conclusions” and “recommendations”.
    Here are some questions that can be used to decide whether research findings are valid, relevant and useful.

    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

    References

    Whatisresearch?
    http://www.linguistics.byu.edu/faculty/henrichsenl/researchmethods/RM_1_01.html
    Unpublished paper “Research for a changing South Africa” PhD Student Noel Chellan – University of Kwazulu Natal – 2004
    How research is used?
    http://ctb.ku.edu/
    Different ways of doing research
    http://ctb.ku.edu/
    How do we do research?
    http://www.mcgrawhill.ca/school/subjects/history
    Tools to analyse research
    http://www.cldinternational.org/c/@5xc8y15ndk8Io/Pages/scienceP4.html
    http://www.cstl.syr.edu/fipse/TabBar/RevBar/REVBAR.HTM– section on Parts of a bar and line bar
    Important research terms
    http://www.helpforschools.com/ellkbase/forms/glossary_research.html
    http://www.b2bmrc.com/terms.htm

  5. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847

    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It is the process of discovering new knowledge.
    Research is a studious inquiry or examination in that it involves critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, with its aim being the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions and theories.
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”

  6. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847

    Scope of research is the WHAT (particular topoc or area) and HOW far (methodology) a person aims to study intensively.

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, while deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is a systematic, scientific, objective activity, which includes the collection of relevant information, and careful analysis of data, recording and reporting of valid conclusion, that may lead to creation of new knowledge, development of theory, principles, and generalization.

    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

  7. OGBUEFI EUGENE OGUEJIOFOR REG. NO. 2018/241873 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT says:

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    RESEARCH HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS

    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions.
    5. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    As a special adviser to mr. president, research means the following things to me
    1. My chief tool of analysis so as to enable me give the best advices to mr. president
    2. it serves as my main method of analyzing and drawing accurate conclusions on events, happenings and policies in the country.
    3. research will help me to advice the president on the best strategies to follow in tackling both home and abroad crisis.

    THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    C. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  8. OGBUEFI EUGENE OGUEJIOFOR REG. NO. 2018/241873 ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT says:

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon.

    RESEARCH HAS THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS

    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions.
    5. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    As a special adviser to mr. president, research means the following things to me
    1. My chief tool of analysis so as to enable me give the best advices to mr. president
    2. it serves as my main method of analyzing and drawing accurate conclusions on events, happenings and policies in the country.
    3. research will help me to advice the president on the best strategies to follow in tackling both home and abroad crisis.

    THERE ARE THREE MAIN PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    A. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    B. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    C. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  9. Name: Uwa Chioma Maryjane
    Reg no: 2018/241876
    Department: Economics Department.
    Email: chioma.uwa.241876@unn.edu.ng
    Assignment:
    Clearly and clinically analyze what research means to you, as a special adviser to Mr President;
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Research is conducted to:
    1)Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    2)To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    3)To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Research methods
    There are three major research methods and they include;
    1)Exploratory research: which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    2)Constructive research: which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    3)Empirical research: which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:
    Qualitative research: This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables.
    Quantitative research: This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive).
    Features of research
    The following are the basic features/ characteristics of research;
    1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.
    2. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
    3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
    4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive,
    and case study.
    5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
    6. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.
    7. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.
    After studying the concept of research defined by various academic scholars, research can be said to be a systematic procedure that entails the study of various phenomenon through various scientific processes to arrive at a valid conclusion.

  10. Name: Uwa Chioma Maryjane
    Reg no: 2018/241876
    Department: Economics Department.
    Email: chioma.uwa.241876@unn.edu.ng
    Assignment:
    Clearly and clinically analyze what research means to you, as a special adviser to Mr President;
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    Research is conducted to:
    1)Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    2)To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    3)To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Research methods
    There are three major research methods and they include;
    1)Exploratory research: which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    2)Constructive research: which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    3)Empirical research: which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:
    Qualitative research: This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables.
    Quantitative research: This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive).
    Features of research
    The following are the basic features/ characteristics of research;
    1. Empirical: Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.
    2. Logical: Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
    3. Cyclical: Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
    4. Analytical: Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive,
    and case study.
    5. Critical: Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
    6. Methodical: Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.
    7. Replicability: The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.
    After studying the concept of research defined by various academic scholars, research can be said to be a systematic procedure that entails the study of various phenomenon through various scientific processes to arrive at a valid conclusion.

  11. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMIC

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWERS :

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. In the Code of Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46.102(d)) pertaining to the protection of human subjects research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    Research can be done with human beings, animals, plants, other organisms and inorganic matter. When research is done with human beings and animals, it must follow specific rules about the treatment of humans and animals that have been created by the U.S. Federal Government. This ensures that humans and animals are treated with dignity and respect, and that the research causes minimal harm.

    No matter what topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    There are three main purposes of research :

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    II. What research means to me :

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

  12. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMIC

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWERS :

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. Research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    Research can be done with human beings, animals, plants, other organisms and inorganic matter. When research is done with human beings and animals, it must follow specific rules about the treatment of humans and animals that have been created by the U.S. Federal Government. This ensures that humans and animals are treated with dignity and respect, and that the research causes minimal harm.

    No matter what topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    There are three main purposes of research :

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    II. What research means to me :

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

  13. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMIC

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWERS :

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. Research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    Research can be done with human beings, animals, plants, other organisms and inorganic matter. When research is done with human beings and animals, it must follow specific rules about the treatment of humans and animals that have been created by the U.S. Federal Government. This ensures that humans and animals are treated with dignity and respect, and that the research causes minimal harm.

    No matter what topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used.

    The Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff
    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP
    the development of HDR training and courses
    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses
    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)

    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:

    scientific and technical information services
    general purpose or routine data collection
    standardisation and routine testing
    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)
    specialised routine medical care
    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright or licensing activities
    routine computer programming, systems work or software maintenance.

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    II. What research means to me :

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

  14. OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK says:

    NAME : OGENYI, CHUKWUEBUKA FREDERICK

    REG. NO : 2018/241864

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMIC

    EMAIL : ogenyichukwuebukafrederick@gmail.com

    COURSE : ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT :

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWERS :

    Research is a process to discover new knowledge. Research is defined as: “A systematic investigation (i.e., the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” The National Academy of Sciences states that the object of research is to “extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.” Research is different than other forms of discovering knowledge (like reading a book) because it uses a systematic process called the Scientific Method.

    The Scientific Method consists of observing the world around you and creating a hypothesis about relationships in the world. A hypothesis is an informed and educated prediction or explanation about something. Part of the research process involves testing the hypothesis, and then examining the results of these tests as they relate to both the hypothesis and the world around you. When a researcher forms a hypothesis, this acts like a map through the research study. It tells the researcher which factors are important to study and how they might be related to each other or caused by a manipulation that the researcher introduces (e.g. a program, treatment or change in the environment). With this map, the researcher can interpret the information he/she collects and can make sound conclusions about the results.

    Research can be done with human beings, animals, plants, other organisms and inorganic matter. When research is done with human beings and animals, it must follow specific rules about the treatment of humans and animals that have been created by the U.S. Federal Government. This ensures that humans and animals are treated with dignity and respect, and that the research causes minimal harm.

    No matter what topic is being studied, the value of the research depends on how well it is designed and done. Therefore, one of the most important considerations in doing good research is to follow the design or plan that is developed by an experienced researcher who is called the Principal Investigator (PI). The PI is in charge of all aspects of the research and creates what is called a protocol (the research plan) that all people doing the research must follow. By doing so, the PI and the public can be sure that the results of the research are real and useful to other scientists.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities.

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used.

    The Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff
    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP
    the development of HDR training and courses
    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses
    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)

    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:

    scientific and technical information services
    general purpose or routine data collection
    standardisation and routine testing
    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)
    specialised routine medical care
    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright or licensing activities
    routine computer programming, systems work or software maintenance.

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    II. What research means to me :

    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.

  15. Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu says:

    Name: Ezeozue Chinedum Success Lotachukwu

    Reg No: 2018/246452

    Email: Chineduezeozue@gmail.com

    1. In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits,
    clearly and clinically analyse the above statement:

    Searching it again and again means Re-search. Research is defined as human
    activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. The
    primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the
    development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge
    on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research
    can use the scientific method, but need not do so.1
    Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is regarded as a systematic efforts
    to gain new knowledge. The dictionary meaning of research is “a careful
    investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch
    of knowledge”. Definition of Research Research comprises defining and
    redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,
    organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions;
    and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
    formulating hypothesis.2
    M Stephenson and D Slesinger defined research in the Encyclopedia
    of Social Sciences as “The manupulation of things, concepts or symbols for the
    purpose of gerneralizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that
    knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”3
    “Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to
    questions” Systemactic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you
    will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order
    to get the most accurate results.
    Both quantitative and qualitative researchers would agree that not all
    quantitative research is well planned and well executed and it is observed that
    many questionnaires are hastily and poorly written; Some surveys have a 2%
    response rate; and some researchers use convenience rather than random samples.
    One approach to the problem of poor quantitative research is to use qualitative
    research.The qualitative researcher’s solution is to use qualitative methods, such
    as in-depth interviews of individual’s or even reporting the researcher’s own
    conscious experience. Some qualitative researchers use quantitative methods,
    some quantitative researchers use qualitative methods. Most quantitative
    researchers use qualitative methods as exploratory tools. For example, when
    trying to get a hypothesis for a study, the quantitative researcher probably will
    search the literature. Some researchers conduct a pilot study prior to the full
    length research. Such study may involve having one’s friends participate in the
    study and asking them about their impressions of the study. The pilot study may
    even involve having the researcher take the role of a participant.4
    There are substantial differences between the two methods. The
    differences stem primarily from the fact that qualitative methods are not objective.
    Consequently, the non-objective evidence that qualitative researchers consider
    “data” (themes that the investigator senses, the investigator’s subjective
    impressions, etc.) is not what quantitative researchers consider “data.” Given
    the strong tradition of objective methods in psychology and the success of
    quantitative methods in psychology, it is unlikely that qualitative methods will
    replace quantitative methods. 5
    Wilkinson T S had rightly pointed out in his book Methods and techniques of social research. He says The researcher is constantly concerned
    with researching the accepted conclusions of his field, i.e. the theories with
    differing levels fo gernerality and degrees of confirmation existing at a given
    point of time. He does this researching by probing for facts of the empirical
    world that confirm one or several predictions generated by his accepted conclusions, his acceptance, a consequence of his assumptions about the correctness of the existing theories.”6
    The research process involves the following steps. Though the step order may
    vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are
    usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
    · Formation of the topic
    · Hypothesis
    · Conceptual definitions
    · Operational definitions
    · Gathering of data
    · Analysis of data
    · Test, revising of hypothesis
    · Conclusion, literation if necessary.

    2. What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy:

    In my own understanding, i would say it means systematically carrying out investigations specifically on
    strategies that would support the presidential administration effectively.

    The General role of the Special Advisor to the President is to provide a full range of support to the President
    of Pathfinder to promote efficient delivery of services.. S/he works closely with the President providing her
    advice when needed and regular support to carry out her roles and responsibilities, working closely with the
    Executive Assistant. S/he promotes the organization’s image by representing the president internally and
    externally as needed; and provides liaison between the President and key executives, employees, field offices,
    other partners and the Board of Directors. S/he manages support to the Board of Directors and Board meetings,
    collaborating with other staff as needed. The Special Advisor maintains high standards of professionalism,
    discretion, diplomacy, judgment, customer service, efficiency, and operational excellence. In working closely
    with internal and external stakeholders, she/he deals with a wide range of highly sensitive issues under tight
    deadlines/pressures. This position requires a full understanding of the breadth and scope of Pathfinder
    International’s programmatic work.

    Others includes;
    Works closely with the President, and Sr. VP when necessary, to organize and coordinate major meetings, and/or senior staff meetings. Responsible for follow-up and meeting deadlines on assigned activities including Board of Directors’ meetings and Board committee meetings, senior staff and internal meetings, strategic projects, and external meetings.
    BOARD STAFFING. Serves as primary staff liaison to members of the Board of Directors and supports the ongoing improvement of Board governance practices. Working closely with the President, Chair of the Board and Committee Chairs, proposes Board meeting agendas, drafts materials, reviews all materials, and improves presentations for effective Board meetings. Prepares and supports the onboarding of new Directors. Manages the Board of Directors’ dedicated website. Performs other administrative duties for the Board and its Committees as needed.

    INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS: Reviews and implements a strategy to support the President’s vision to enhance internal communications at Pathfinder. Drafts President’s staff emails and talking points for internal meetings. Collaborates with relevant units, task forces and strategic initiatives (in 2016, this includes the Knowledge Management Task Force, Organizational Review and 360 Follow-up) to ensure a consistent approach.

    EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS: Under the direction of the President, coordinates the drafting by Pathfinder staff, of speeches and/or talking points for President’s speaking engagements. Provides review of materials written on behalf of the President such as annual reports, individual and donor correspondence, program overviews and narratives. REPRESENT AND SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT. Represents and supports the President internally and externally in meetings, committees, and phone calls when appropriate. May record, transcribe and distribute minutes or coordinate these tasks and coordinate follow-up actions. Contributes to the strategic prioritization of tasks, initiatives, and projects requiring the President’s participation. Provides strategic inputs in making decisions around the President’s external engagements and trips.

    SPECIAL PROJECTS: Handles inquiries and routine/complex responsibilities as delegated by the President, including special project management. Participates in or keeps track of the work of key task forces related to organization-wide initiatives which contribute to the President’s vision and functions

    EXPANDED LEADERSHIP TEAM: Serves as Secretariat of the ELT, a group comprised of Pathfinder senior managers. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS. Manages the budgets for the Office of the President and the Board of Directors, as well as occasional small grants for special projects. Provides overall office coordination and may supervise or coach more junior level assistants

    OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES: Contributes to maintaining and further augmenting the reputation of the President’s office through professional, friendly, timely, diplomatic, and respectful interactions internally and externally. Performs other duties as assigned including general clerical duties when needed

  16. Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam says:

    Name: Ogbuewu Cosmos Nnachetam
    Reg no. : 2018/243754
    Department: Economics

    The given definition that Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws enlightens the fact that research can be seen as an act which helps to Search for information, or knowledge; examination of facts or principles; it can also mean the means of seeking information to certain questions.
    The word RESEARCH has no precised definition as various researchers defined it according to their own perspectives like Creswell J.W (2008) analyzed that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue,
    Martin Shuttleworth (2008) stated Research is any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to Best and Khan (1998), Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possible control of events.
    From a popular japanese Anime called ‘NARUTO’, a character named “Orochimaru” defined research as any critical findings to a particular issue or subject matter in order to get an unknown answer so as to get stronger both physically and mentally.
    All these various definitions are accurate in their respective ways as their all centered on a Keyword; INVESTIGATION.
    To me, Research means the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

    Types of Research
    there are of two types: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

  17. Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy says:

    Name: Chris-Nwaije Ihuoma Nancy
    Reg No: 2018/241847

    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It is the process of discovering new knowledge.
    Research is a studious inquiry or examination in that it involves critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, with its aim being the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions and theories.
    Research is a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”

  18. Eze Uchechukwu says:

    Eco. 391 -20-8-2021 (online Discussion Quiz 1- the meaning and scope of Research)
    NAME:EZE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/241866
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 300L
    EMAIL: uchechukwu.eze.241866@unn.edu.ng
    QUESTION (s):
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER
    From the above and various definitions of research as offered by numerous research scholars. We realize that research demand a lot of hard work and careful scrutinizing of events, observations or problems with the ultimate aim of discovery, interpreting and on such basic findings being able to offer or proffer solution to issues.
    Research is not only limited to findings new facts, it also involves increasing, reviving and reforming of old ideas, or theories and practical application of such new or revived laws.
    As a special Adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy. Research means findings. It entails digging in for facts ,data, and information with the sole aim of answering research questions at hand
    Research is a direction – giving instruments of findings which involves, workable methods and procedures.
    Research is “ the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiments;, the search for knowledge through objectives and systematic methods of findings solutions to a problem” ( kothar,C. R Research methodology; methods and techniques India: New Age international publisher, 2006).
    Therefore, research involves the systemic search for knowledge, or any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories.
    There are requirements for conducting research:
    • Research Starts with posing a questions
    • Attempt to provide or proffer solutions to such questions
    •It must involves careful or systematic inquiry (examination)
    •Gathering of data, information and facts
    •Discovery of new information or relationship
    •Expand or verify the existing knowledge
    •controlled observations with the aim of Development of generalization, principles or theories.
    WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF RESEARCH?
    Scope of research can be can also be called ‘scope of the study’. It means the boundaries within which ones research project will be performed, that is the extent which the research area will be explored.

  19. Ibeawuchi Wisdom Ugochukwu 2018/241845 says:

    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination”; This points to the fact that research is an action, something that is done, which makes it a process. A process of inquiry or examination into discovering the unknown.

    “especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts”; research involves looking into, probing and exploring things that are yet to be discovered in other to acquire new knowledge to add to the stock of existing knowledge. It doesn’t stop here but also involves understanding these facts and knowledge either to solve problems that were not solvable or make decisions based on the new insights gotten from the phenomenon

    “revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”; Humans inquisitiveness into understand things have led into the formulation of theories that explain phenomenons, oneof the things Research does is break frontiers, it allows us to evaluate theories in light of the new knowledge acquired. Theories that didn’t give full information about events can be revised in the light of this new knowledge and can allow for better theories that provide a wholistic or larger perception about these events.

    In order to see this definition in full light an analogy would be drawn. The Covid-19 Pandemic is one phenomenon that affected lives around the whole, people died of the virus, various government issued lockdown to curb the spread and reduce infections rates as well as death rates. Prior to the pandemic not much was known about the Virus. As the Virus began to spread and lives were being lost. Medical Experts in every field began to carry out “studious enquiry and examination” into understanding the virus. Pfizer, Moderna, Astrazenica, Johnson and Johnson are few among thousands of institutions that carried out ” investigations and experimentations aimed at discovery and interpretation of this new Infection”. Because of this, these experts were able to know the incubation period for the virus for both asymptomatic and non asymptomatic patients. it brought about issuing guidelines for the public based on data from health officials. At the beginning of the pandemic theories were speculated and widespread about the nature of the virus, but as the research began to linger, new theories emerged and allowed for the “revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts”.

    What does Research mean to me as an Economics Student?

    I would define research as any activity that involves finding out what one doesn’t know. It is a syematic way or method of achieving new knowledge. It involves pulling resources for the main aim of innovation and advancement of the frontier of knowledge. Most times research occurs when certain unknown events act upon we humans, we probe and wonder an enquire to understand that unknown phenomenon.

    Before the Great Depression of the early late 1920’s – early 1930′, ideas of Classical economist like Adam Smith etc was prevalent, Classical economists believed in the market’s ability to be self-regulating through the invisible hand (the pricing mechanism of the market). The Classical Framework beloved that short run disruptions would be resolved in the long run and equilibrium would be achieved. There approach to economic problem was laissez-faire ( leave the market alone). But as the Depression hit and no explanation and solution about the deepening crises was brought forth by classical economist. John Maynard Keynes , renounced economist, started asking what short-run forces were causing the Depression and what society could do to counteract them. By taking this approach, he created the macroeconomic framework that focuses on short-run issues such as business cycles and how to stabilize output fluctuations. This led him to research and write his famous book ” THE GENERAL THEORY OF EMPLOYMENT, INTEREST, AND MONEY” where he outlined various new ways of thinking and new knowledge that did not exist at the time. He’s research into the Economy to uncover the unknown phenomenon ( Depression) led to a new body of knowledge.

    In conclusion, Research is the movement from the known to the unknown.

  20. Eze Chibuike Benjamin says:

    Eze Chibuike Benjamin
    2018/244287
    Economics/Education
    RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research

    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff

    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP

    the development of HDR training and courses

    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses

    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)
    What are the characteristics of research?

    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?

    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview

    Focus Groups

    Ethnographic studies

    Text Analysis

    Case Study

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.

    Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.

    Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.

    Act on your strategies

    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary

    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations

  21. Name: Ugwueze Martha Chioma
    Reg No:2018/247847
    Dept: Economics
    Course code:Eco 391
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean to you as speacial advicer to Mr President on research and strategy.

    What is Research? – Purpose of Research

    The purpose of research is to enhance society.By term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    What is Research
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.

    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:

    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.

    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.

    What is the Purpose of Research
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.

    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving..
    Characteristics of Research
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:

    (1)Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    (2)Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    (3)Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    (4)Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    (5)Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    (6)Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    (7)Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    (8)Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.
    Types of Research
    Research can be divided into two main types: basic research (also known as pure research) and applied research.

    Basic Research
    Basic research, also known as pure research, is an original investigation into the reasons behind a process, phenomenon or particular event. It focuses on generating knowledge around existing basic principles.

    Basic research is generally considered ‘non-commercial research’ because it does not focus on solving practical problems, and has no immediate benefit or ways it can be applied.

    For example, a researcher may try to investigate the molecular structure of a material for the purpose of understanding it’s behaviour better as it is not yet well understood.
    While basic research may not have direct applications, it usually provides new insights that can later be used in applied research.

    Applied Research
    Applied research investigates well-known theories and principles in order to enhance knowledge around a practical aim. Because of this, applied research focuses on solving real-life problems by deriving knowledge which has an immediate application.

    For example, a person may undertake applied research to investigate whether they can modify the molecular structure of a material for the purpose of making it strong enough to be used in aircraft construction.
    Methods of Research
    Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.

    Inductive research methods focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. Deductive research methods focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.

    Research definition
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative research is a method that enables non-numerical data collection through open-ended methods such as interviews, case studies and focus groups.

    It enables researchers to collect data on personal experiences, feelings or behaviours, as well as the reasons behind them. Because of this, qualitative research is often used in fields such as social science, psychology and philosophy and other areas where it is useful to know the connection between what has occurred and why it has occurred.

    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research is a method that collects and analyses numerical data through statistical analysis.

    It allows us to quantify variables, uncover relationships, and make generalisations across a larger population. As a result, quantitative research is often used in the natural and physical sciences such as engineering, biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, finance, and medical research, etc.

    What does Research Involve?
    Research often follows a systematic approach known as a Scientific Method, which is carried out using an hourglass model.

    A research project first starts with a problem statement, or rather, the research purpose for engaging in the study. This can take the form of the ‘scope of the study’ or ‘aims and objectives’ of your research topic.

    Subsequently, a literature review is carried out and a hypothesis is formed. The researcher then creates a research methodology and collects the data.

    The data is then analysed using various statistical methods and the null hypothesis is either accepted or rejected.

    In both cases, the study and its conclusion are officially written up as a report or research paper, and the researcher may also recommend lines of further questioning. The report or research paper is then shared with the wider research community, and the cycle begins all over again.

    Although these steps outline the overall research process, keep in mind that research projects are highly dynamic and are therefore considered an iterative process with continued refinements and not a series of fixed stage.
    Statistical Treatment of Data in Research
    Statistical Treatment of Data – Explained & Example
    Statistical treatment of data is essential for all researchers, regardless of whether you’re a biologist, computer scientist or psychologist.

  22. Nkachukwu Paul chukwuanugo says:

    Name: Nkachukwu Paul chukwuanugo
    Reg no: 2018/245112
    Dept: Combined Social Sciences
    (Economics and Political science)
    Course: Eco 391_Research methods in Economics.

    Online quiz one_ The meaning and scope of research.
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    •Etymology of the term research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    Research is conducted to…
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Forms of Research
    1. Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).
    2. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.
    3. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method.
    4. Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Processes of research;
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
    •Observations and formation of the topic
    •Hypothesis
    •Conceptual definition
    •Operational definition
    •Gathering of data
    •Analysis of data
    •Data Interpretation
    •Test, revising of hypothesis
    •Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Research is basically the process in which someone collects or gather bundles of information from different resources like literature review, interview, library approach, experiment, questionnaire, observation to reach on the facts and after all scrutiny, arrives at a valid conclusion.

  23. Ugochukwu Kosisochukwu Henry says:

    NAME : UGOCHUKWU KOSISOCHUKWU HENRY
    REG NO: 2018/250200
    DEPARTMENT: COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCES
    COURSE: ECO 391 (RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    COMBINATION: ECONOMICS/ SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

    QUESTION
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?

    Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods . Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations.One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments.
    Four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows:
    1) Description: Results of research can describe natural or social phenomenon, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education.
    2) Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In educational research, researchers have been engaged in:
    Acquiring knowledge about factors that predict students’ success in school and in the world of work
    Identifying students who are likely to be unsuccessful so that prevention programs can be instituted.
    3) Improvement: This type of research is mainly concerned with the effectiveness of intervention. The research approach include experimental design and evaluation research.
    4) Explanation: This type research subsumes the other three: if the researchers are able to explain an educational phenomenon, it means that they can describe, can predict its consequences, and know how to intervene to change those consequences.
    What are the purposes of research?
    1)Basic Research: The purpose of this research is to understand and explain, i.e. the research is interested in formulating and testing theoretical construct and propositions that ideally generalize across time and space. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    2)Applied Research: The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    3)Evaluation Research (summative and formative): Evaluation research studies the processes and outcomes aimed at attempted solution. The purpose of formative research is to improve human intervention within specific conditions, such as activities, time, and groups of people; the purpose of summative evaluation is to judge the effectiveness of a program, policy, or product.
    4)Action Research: Action research aims at solving specific problems within a program, organization, or community. It was described that design and data collection in action research tend to be more informal, and the people in the situation are directly involved in gathering information and studying themselves.
    Features of Research
    1)Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2)The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3)Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4)There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5)It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6)It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7)Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    Types of Research Methods
    A)Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1)One-to-one Interview
    2)Focus Groups
    3)Ethnographic studies
    4)Text Analysis
    5)Case Study
    B)Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1)Survey research
    2)Descriptive research
    3)Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  24. OBETA MAGRET UZOCHUKWU says:

    NAME: OBETA MAGRET UZOCHUKWU
    REG:2018/243669
    DEPT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (EDUCATION ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    ANSWER:
    Research can be defined as creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concept, methodologies and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    Research is also be seen as a human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matters.

    Research is a careful consideration of study regarding a particular problem using a scientific method.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1:The information must be accurate and correct.

    2: Knowledge and real-time data is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    3: For data to be accurate it must follow a systematic procedure.

    4:The analysis is based on intellectual.ie logical reasoning is involved.

    5:It is analytical and it uses all the available data so that there no ambiguity in inference.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    1: Qualitative method:It is associated with inductive approach which analyze an observed event.it is a methodologies of research that collect data by conversational method.
    2: Quantitative method:it is associated with deductive which verified the observed.it uses a systematic way of investing events.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH STUDIES

    1: Exploratory: exploratory studies are used to explore a group of question .the answer may not offer conclusion to the problem.it is understanding to help new problem area that haven’t been explored.

    2: Descriptive method: it focuses on expanding knowledge in current issue through a process of data collection.

    3: Explanatory method is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes I the existing standard procedures.
    WAYS OF CONDUCTING ACCURATE RESEARCH

    1: Identify the main issues and problem u observed and write sentence on each other.
    2: Keep track of the frequency with each of the main findings appears.
    3: Make a list of ur findings from most common to least.
    4: Evaluate a list of strength, weakness and threat that has been identified.
    5: Prepare conclusion and recommendation about your study.
    6:Act on your strategy.
    7:Look for back in the information and consider doing another inquiry if necessary.
    8: Plan to review the result and consider efficient method to analyze and dissect result for interpretation.

    • EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE says:

      NAME:: EZEA SOPULUCHUKWU LUKE

      REG NO:: 2018/251024

      DEPARTMENT:: ECONOMICS

      COURSE CODE::ECO 391

      COURSE TITTLE:: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1
      EMAIL:: sopuluchukwuluke@gmail.com
      ASSIGNMENT
      1Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

      Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

      Research is conducted with a purpose to:

      Identify potential and new customers
      Understand existing customers
      Set pragmatic goals
      Develop productive market strategies
      Address business challenges
      Put together a business expansion plan
      Identify new business opportunities

      What are the characteristics of research?
      Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
      The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
      Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
      There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
      It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
      It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
      Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

      2.Scope of research – Manu Melwin Joy
      1. Scope of research Research Methodology
      2. Prepared By Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations. Manu Melwin Joy Assistant Professor Ilahia School of Management Studies Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com
      3. Environmental Level 1. Technological innovations. 2. Competitors Analysis. 3. Industry fears. 4. New Market entry. 5. New product development Organizational Level 1. HRM. 2. Finance. 3. Production. 4. Organizational Effectiveness and Success. Marketing Level 1. Product. 2. Price. 3. Place. 4. Promotion. 5. Sales. 6. Customer. Scope of research
      4. Environmental level • Technological innovations: Research is conducted to know & adapt new technological innovations, developments in machinery, method, etc. used . For e.g., to know level of use of information technology e.g. Networking, Tally, SAP, etc. in the organization.
      5. Environmental level • Economical, Socio-Cultural, Natural, Political – Legal Environments : Research is also done to know the characteristics, complexity, dynamism of socio-Cultural, economical, political- legal, which ultimately gives the idea of the potential, feasibility, viability etc. of the market.

  25. ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY says:

    NAME : ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY
    REG. NO : 2018/242474
    DEPARTMENT : COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/political science)
    EMAIL : Ebubeilouba@gmail.com
    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT :
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, evision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy
    ANSWERS
    ANALYSIS OF THE TERM RESEARCH:
    By term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, .
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    The word RESEARCH has no precised definition as various researchers defined it according to their own perspectives like Creswell J.W (2008) analyzed that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue,
    Martin Shuttleworth (2008) stated Research is any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to Best and Khan (1998), Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting
    Purpose of Research:
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Characteristics of Research:
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    (1)Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    (2)Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    (3)Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    (4)Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    (5)Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    (6)Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    (7)Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    (8)Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.
    Types of Research:
    there are of two types: Quantitative and Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research.
    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy:
    Simply means thecreation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

  26. EBUBECHUKWU ILOUBA Stanley says:

    NAME : ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY
    REG. NO : 2018/242474
    DEPARTMENT : COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/political science)
    EMAIL : Ebubeilouba@gmail.com
    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT :
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, evision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy
    ANSWERS
    ANALYSIS OF THE TERM RESEARCH:
    By term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, .
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    The word RESEARCH has no precised definition as various researchers defined it according to their own perspectives like Creswell J.W (2008) analyzed that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue,
    Martin Shuttleworth (2008) stated Research is any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to Best and Khan (1998), Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting
    Purpose of Research:
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Characteristics of Research:
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    (1)Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    (2)Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    (3)Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    (4)Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    (5)Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    (6)Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    (7)Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    (8)Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.
    Types of Research:
    there are of two types: Quantitative and Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research.
    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Simply means thecreation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

  27. CHIGOZIE ONYEDIKACHUKWU GODSWILL 2018/241849 Economics Department says:

    INTERPRETATION OF THE ABOVE DEFINITION
    From the above definition given and others, it is well observed that Research adopts a systematic and scientific methods. Starting with “examination or inquiry” as used in the definition above depicts the acts of collection and observation of data or phenomenon of interest. As well as check for relationship between data. “Investigation or experimentation” following the collection and examination of data or phenomenon is examination. It can be said to be a scientific test in which one performs series of actions, controls some variables and observe their effects to learn something new. This process of examination is “aimed at discovery and interpretation of facts” or new things to add to the existing stock of knowledge. The facts are interpreted and revised exclusively to see if they are in line with the “accepted theories in the light of the new facts” or a “practical application of such new or revised law”, to ensure its validity.
    AS A SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY,
    Research is the process of making a detailed and systematic study on specific problem, issues and concerns that matters to the affairs of the country, through a series of scientific methods and process which ends up with getting new findings or further knowledge from the existing which can be used to solve problems. Research are specifically made for 3 purposes which are (a) To explore a set of problems or questions (b) To describe, explain and validate findings of a sample population. (c) Explanatory research. It is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

  28. EBUBECHUKWU Stanley ILOUBA says:

    NAME : ILOUBA EBUBECHUKWU STANLEY
    REG. NO : 2018/242474
    DEPARTMENT : COMBINED SOCIAL SCIENCE (ECONOMICS/political science)
    EMAIL : Ebubeilouba@gmail.com
    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT :
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, evision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy
    ANSWERS
    ANALYSIS OF THE TERM RESEARCH:
    By term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, .
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    The word RESEARCH has no precised definition as various researchers defined it according to their own perspectives like Creswell J.W (2008) analyzed that research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue,
    Martin Shuttleworth (2008) stated Research is any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    According to Best and Khan (1998), Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting
    Purpose of Research:
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Characteristics of Research:
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    (1)Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    (2)Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    (3)Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    (4)Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    (5)Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    (6)Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    (7)Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    (8)Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.
    Types of Research:
    there are of two types: Quantitative and Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research.
    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Simply means thecreation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

  29. Joseph Ruth Tochukwu says:

    JOSEPH RUTH TOCHUKWU
    2018/245132
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    ASSIGNMENT: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination, especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research is a “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. It is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field.
    Research is conducted to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework, To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners, To help generate questions for further inquiries. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question. Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable. Research can be about anything. To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable.
    The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

  30. Ezeilo Kanayochukwu Chimuanya (2018/242412) Dep:Economics major says:

    From Oxford dictionary it states that “Research is a  systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions”.
    Hampshire College states that “Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines”.
    Purposes aimed at research:
    1. For information gathering : it bring about different ideologies or opinions about a fact or understanding of the data.
    2. Project testing
    3. Theory testing: it bring about testing of theories or analysis of theories.
    To me the meaning of Research as a special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy is ;
    Research is a procedure of strategic understanding of the raw data in concern, in other to bring out the facts about the data which must be generally accepted.

  31. Okoye Adaezechukwu precious says:

    Name: Okoye Adaezechukwu precious
    Reg no: 2018/241831
    Dept: Economics
    Course title/code: Research methods in Economics (391)

    Assignment

    1.In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research is the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    It is also the diligent and systematic inquiry into a subjects in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications e.t.c

    Characteristics of Research.

    Keeping this in mind that research in any field of inquiry is undertaken to provide information to support decision-making in its respective area, the features includes:
    1.The research should focus on priority problems.
    2. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured procedure.
    3. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    4. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    5. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    6. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.

    Desirable Qualities of Research

    Good research is one that generates dependable data. Good quality research provides evidence that is robust, ethical, stands up to scrutiny and can be used to inform policy making. It should adhere to principles of professionalism, transparency, accountability and auditability.
    It is thus of crucial importance that research should be made acceptable to the audience for which research should possess some desirable qualities in terms of its;

    1.purpose,
    2. research process,
    3. research design,
    4. ethical issues,
    5. limitations,
    6. results or findings,
    7. conclusions,
    8. recommendations and
    9. the researcher’s experiences.

    7 REASONS WHY RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT

    Learning to conduct research is an integral part of learning about life.

    Why Is Research Important?
    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study. This article discusses the significance of research and the many reasons why it is important for everyone—not just students and scientists.

    Understanding that research is important might seem like a no-brainer, but many people avoid it like the plague. Yet, for those who like to learn, whether they are members of a research institution or not, conducting research is not just important—it’s imperative.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable.
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

  32. Owoh Anayo Jonathan says:

    NAME: OWOH ANAYO JONATHAN
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS
    EMAIL: owohaj@gmail.com
    REG NO: 2018/250325
    QUESTION:
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    ANSWERS:
    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something.
    The Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Research can also be defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    #Identify potential and new customers
    #Understand existing customers
    #Set pragmatic goals
    #Develop productive market strategies
    #Address business challenges
    #Put together a business expansion plan
    #Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    #Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    #The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    $Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    #There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    #It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    #It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    #Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    #Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    #Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    #Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.
    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1)Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    #One-to-one Interview
    #Focus Groups
    #Ethnographic studies
    #Text Analysis
    #Case Study
    2) Quantitative methods
    #Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    #Survey research
    #Descriptive research
    #Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights
    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    #Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    #Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    #Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    #Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been #identified in a SWOT analysis.
    #Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    #Act on your strategies
    #Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendation

  33. Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi says:

    Obiyo, Uchechukwu Ngozi
    2018/241841
    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    Like the word studious implies, research requires careful rigorous study. The aim of this study to enable a birthing of something new or rebirthing of something that had already been in existence through the formulation or reformulation of policies. These policies are principles adopted that would aid the creation or recreation of something. Also, the ‘accepted theories’ in the given definition implies that it is one thing to come up with theories and it is another thing for those theories to be accepted. So research deals with accepted theories that are in relation to current facts.

    As the Special Adviser on Research and Strategy to Mr. President, I’d say Research is a reoccurring phenomenon. It’s not something that is done once. Like the word implies, re-search means to search over and over again literally. Research isn’t done in isolation. Facts have to be gathered, tests have to be run to ensure the authencity of what is being formulated or reformulated. An example is the creation of automatic cars. Experiments were first of all carried out from the initial creation; manual cars. Then the researchers kept going through various investigations on how to change a manual car to automatic. After the thorough investigations, implementation would then begin. They would move from the theoretical aspect down to the practical aspect. Then they would test-run it. So from this example, it is shown that research doesn’t end in theories. It has to move to the practical aspect to ensure it is fit for the human world.
    It is through research that one can be able to discover what is missing in the country and how things can be created to fill up that gap. Research is used to solve problems in the society.

  34. ODO RUTH SOMTOCHI (2018/242445) says:

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?

    Research has been defined as a “systematic investigation, including research develop￾ments, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge”. It also aims to establish facts and reach new conclusions. The Cambridge English dictionary defines research as a “detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) informa￾tion or reach a (new) understanding”. However, research often goes beyond the subject, going from the sub-molecular level to the study of gigantic structures, in order to develop new ideas, confirm or reject old theories and search for hypotheses. The basic tenet of research includes the gathering of data, information and observations to advance our knowledge. The evolution of the human race and technological advancement seen over the last couple of decades is a di￾rect consequence of our increasing interest and dependence on research. While the human race is estimated to be 200,000 years old, most of our progress has occurred in the last 10.000 years. This advancement can be attributed to a better understanding of research methodologies.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH
    Medical research can be classified as:
    1. Basic (experimental)
    2. Clinical
    3. Epidemiological

    Medical research can also be “primary”, wherein data is gathered; or “secondary”, a process involving review or meta-analysis of the primary data. The primary research is a type of basic research, including experiments on animals or other models; biochemical, genetic, physiological, pharmacological, biotechnological, methodological and other investigations; population based studies or surveys and finally, development or improvement in analytical procedures. These primary studies generate the raw data required to make hypotheses or test￾re-test theories.
    Clinical research can be either “interventional (or experimental)” or “non-interven￾tional (or observational)”. Interventional studies are also called “clinical trials”. Here, human volunteers (also called participants) are subjected to a rigid standard protocol designed by the investigators.The clinical trial may compare an untested medical approach with a standard mode of practice, placebo or no intervention. The trial may also be a comparison of 2 arms of inter￾ventions already available. The ultimate aim of such research is to determine the safety and efficacy of the intervention.

  35. ERHIJAKPOR FLOURISH OGHENEOCHUKOME
    2018/242450
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

    QUESTION:
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER:
    The definition above establishes that research must involve a CAREFUL, CRITICAL and DILLIGENT search for facts. Mr. President, I have placed emphasis on the three adjectives above because they are essentials in determining what research is and what it is not.
    Therefore, any information seeking process which doesn’t involve carefulness, diligence and a critical approach cannot be referred to as research.
    From other definitions of research by scholars in diverse fields, I must say that the very essence of any research is to provide answers to questions to which their solutions have either not been found or need some sort of revision to fit into present day complexities.

    Mr. President, you have asked to know my view on what research is.

    It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our
    inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown.
    This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

    To me, research is a diligent pursuit of facts or truth about a subject matter with the help of critical study, careful observation and analytical tools in an attempt to extend, correct and verify knowledge, and as well provide solutions to problems.

  36. JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI says:

    JULIUS LOVETH OLACHI
    2018/242294
    juliusloveth2002@gmail.com

    QUESTION
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    ANSWER
    Mr. President, as you have cited in the question, Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary defines research as “studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown.

    Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Steiner and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
    define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”

    In my opinion therefore, research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. Of course, this is done through a critical range of systematic and organized processes.

    Though each research study has
    its own specific purpose, I like to think of research objectives as falling into a
    number of the following broad groupings:
    1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
    2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.
    3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is
    associated with something else.
    4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.

  37. Michael-Atu ifunanya says:

    Michael-Atu Ifunanya
    2018/243767
    Economics Education
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question. To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable. Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something.’
    An understanding of the research process is necessary to effectively carry out research and sequencing of the stages inherent in the process. These 8 stages in the research process are;
    Identifying the problem.
    Reviewing literature.
    Setting research questions, objectives, and hypotheses.
    Choosing the study design.
    Deciding on the sample design.
    Collecting data.
    Processing and analyzing data.
    Writing the report.
    To me research means the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

  38. Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara says:

    Ukwuma Ifunanya Clara
    2018/243088
    Department of Economics
    Assignment on Eco 391
    ANSWER
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities

    What are the characteristics of research?.
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  39. Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    2018/246412
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    ECO 391

    CRITICALLY ANALYZING the view that research could be seen as a studios inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    According to Oxford dictionary research is the systemic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous to research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis

    WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    Overview. Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the world. It focuses on creating and refuting or supporting theories that explain observed phenomena. Pure research is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world.

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and causal. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways. In the online survey world, mastery of all three can lead to sounder insights and greater quality information.

    TRULY! The above assertion is true, Research could be seen as a studios inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    As a special adviser to MR. President, my own definition of RESEARCH AND STRATEGY is:
    (1) Research is an enquiry for new knowledge
    (2) Research is finding solutions to problems
    (3) Research is Research leads to discovery, innovation, inventions etc.
    Research helps in decision making, to avoid errors, to be accurate.

  40. Okoye Chidimma Favour says:

    OKOYE CHIDIMMA FAVOUR
    2018/246412
    chidimmafs700@gmail.com
    ECONOMICS EDUCATION

    CRITICALLY ANALYZING the view that research could be seen as a studios inquiry or examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    According to Oxford dictionary research is the systemic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous to research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis

    WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    Overview. Basic research advances fundamental knowledge about the world. It focuses on creating and refuting or supporting theories that explain observed phenomena. Pure research is the source of most new scientific ideas and ways of thinking about the world.

    The main purposes of research are to inform action, gather evidence for theories, and contribute to developing knowledge in a field of study.

    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and causal. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways. In the online survey world, mastery of all three can lead to sounder insights and greater quality information.

    TRULY! The above assertion is true, Research could be seen as a studios inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    As a special adviser to MR. President, my own definition of RESEARCH is:
    (1) Research is an enquiry for new knowledge
    (2) Research is finding solutions to problems
    (3) Research is Research leads to discovery, innovation, inventions etc. Research helps in decision making, to avoid errors, to be accurate.

  41. OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI says:

    NAME: OGBONNAYA GERALDINE UGOCHI
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2018/241833
    LEVEL: 300L
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    QUESTION:
    CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYZE THE MEANING OF RESEARCH

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    DEFINITION: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    •Identify potential and new customers
    •Understand existing customers
    •Set pragmatic goals
    •Develop productive market strategies
    •Address business challenges
    •Put together a business expansion plan
    •Identify new business opportunities

    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH?
    The purpose of research is to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.

    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.

    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:

    •EXPLORATORY: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    •DESCRIPTIVE: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.

    •EXPLANATORY: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH?
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:

    •EMPIRICAL – Based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    •LOGICAL –Follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    •CYCLIC– Research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    •CONTROLLED– Vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    •HYPOTHESIS-BASED – The research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    •ANALYTICAL– Data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    •OBJECTIVE– Sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    •STATISTICAL TREATMENT – Statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS AND EXAMPLE
    Research methods for data collection fall into one of two categories: inductive methods or deductive methods.

    Inductive research methods focus on the analysis of an observation and are usually associated with qualitative research. Deductive research methods focus on the verification of an observation and are typically associated with quantitative research.

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH INCLUDE:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
    Quantitative research is a method that collects and analyses numerical data through statistical analysis. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH INCLUDE:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    •VALID – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •ACCURATE – free of errors and including required details.
    •RELIABLE – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •TIMELY – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •COMPLETE – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    8 TIPS FOR CONDUCTING ACCURATE RESEARCH
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

  42. Ogbaji Chukwudubem says:

    Name : Ogbaji Chukwudubem
    Reg No: 2018/250210
    department : Economics
    course : Eco 391
    Assignments (Research )

    Answer:
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    •Identify potential and new customers
    •Understand existing customers
    •Set pragmatic goals
    •Develop productive market strategies
    •Address business challenges
    •Put together a business expansion plan
    •Identify new business opportunities

    characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    ▪︎Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    ▪︎There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    ▪︎It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    ▪︎It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    ▪︎Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    •Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    •Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    •Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    ▪︎Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    a)One-to-one Interview
    b)Focus Groups
    c)Ethnographic studies
    d)Text Analysis
    e)Case Study

    ▪︎Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    a)Survey research
    b)Descriptive research
    c)Correlational research

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    •It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    •Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    •Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  43. Stephen Ifessy Precious says:

    Name: Stephen Ifessy Precious
    Reg no: 2018/244261
    Dept: Education Economics

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. According to Department of Education and Training.
    Your research resources can come from your experiences; print media, such as books, brochures, journals, magazines, newspapers, and books; and CD-ROMs and other electronic sources, such as the Internet and the World Wide Web. They may also come from interviews and surveys you or someone else designs. You may develop your own field research where you collect data through observation or experimentation. For example, before you interview your candidates for a study on adolescent girls, you may use library research to get some background information on adolescent girls and their current issues. You may also want to observe them in a school setting, noting certain behaviors, dress, or mannerisms, depending on your focus. You may also want to review other studies on adolescent girls to see how the studies were conducted and the data interpreted. You may even design a survey to collect firsthand information from the girls themselves or from their teachers.
    While carrying out research studies there are some characteristics to consider
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Realistic data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6.It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  44. Okafor Ifunanya Chioma says:

    Name: Okafor Ifunanya Chioma
    Reg number: 2018/241851
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment.
    Email:ifunanya.okafor.241851@unn.edu.ng

    Research can be defined in so many ways.
    1.Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.
    2. Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field.
    There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research. life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. 
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. 

    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    .Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. 

    The major steps in conducting research are:
    1.Identification of research problem
    2.Literature review
    3.Specifying the purpose of research
    4.Determining specific research questions
    5.Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    6.Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    7.Data collection
    8.Verifying data
    9.Analyzing and interpreting the data
    10.Reporting and evaluating research
    11.Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations.
    Why is Research important?
    It plays an important role in discovering new treatments, and making sure that we use existing treatments in the best possible ways. Research can find answers to things that are unknown, filling gaps in knowledge and changing the way that healthcare professionals work.
    It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness. It helps us succeed in business. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.

  45. ONYEUKWU OBIOMA EMMANUEL 2018/251514 says:

    Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon.
    Research is conducted through asking questions and choosing accurate methods to investigate the issue at hand. After collecting data, which are generally the answers to the questions framed, one can analyze these observations in order to draw accurate conclusion. For example, in regards to conducting market research on customers or on the market, thorough question tend to yield better analysis. These thorough research questions help in gathering insight on the brand perception and the product under study. They help in collecting thorough data with the use of surveys and questionnaire. One can then analyze the data to make appropriate decisions about their brand for example marketing strategy for the product.
    Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998).
    Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed.
    Deductive methods on the other hand verifys the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations.
    One thing that we have to pay attention to in research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments.
    Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows:
    Description:
    Results of research can describe natural or social phenomenon, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education.
    Prediction:
    Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In educational research, researchers have been engaged in:
    *Acquiring knowledge about factors that predict students’ success in school and in the world of work.
    *Identifying students who are likely to be unsuccessful so that prevention programs can be instituted.
    Improvement:
    This type of research is mainly concerned with the effectiveness of intervention. The research approach include experimental design and evaluation research.
    Explanation:
    This type research subsumes the other three: if the researchers are able to explain an educational phenomenon, it means that they can describe, can predict its consequences, and know how to intervene to change those consequences.
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH.
    Patton (1990) pointed out the importance of identifying the purpose in a research process. He classified four types of research based on different purposes:
    Basic Research:
    The purpose of this research is to understand and explain, i.e. the research is interested in formulating and testing theoretical construct and propositions that ideally generalize across time and space. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    Applied Research:
    The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    Evaluation Research (summative and formative): Evaluation research studies the processes and outcomes aimed at attempted solution. The purpose of formative research is to improve human intervention within specific conditions, such as activities, time, and groups of people; the purpose of summative evaluation is to judge the effectiveness of a program, policy, or product.
    Action Research: Action research aims at solving specific problems within a program, organization, or community. Patton (1990) described that design and data collection in action research tend to be more informal, and the people in the situation are directly involved in gathering information and studying themselves.
    RESEARCH PROCESS
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) described the following stages of conducting a research study:
    * Identify a significant research problem: in this stage, find out the research questions that are significant and feasible to study.
    * Prepare a research proposal: a research proposal usually consists of the sections including introductory, literature review, research design, research method, data analysis and protection of human subject section, and timeline.
    * Conduct a pilot study: the purpose is to develop and try out data-collection methods and other procedures.
    * Conduct a main study
    * Prepare a report
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) also explained that these five stages may overlap or occur in a different order depending the nature of the study. Qualitative studies which involve emergent research design may gather and analyze some data before developing the proposal, or a pilot study can be done before writing a research proposal or not at all.
    Anglin, Ross, and Morrison (1995) took a closer look at the stages of identifying a research problem and preparing the research proposal. They advised a sequence of planning steps:

    *Select a Topic
    Research requires commitment. As a researcher, you want to make sure you are doing something that you have a great interest in doing.

    *Identify the Research Problem
    Based on your own understanding and interest of the topic, think about what issues can be explored? Sometimes, a research problem cannot be immediately identified. But, through reviewing the existing literature and having continuous discourse with peers and scholars, the research problem will start take its shape.

    *Conduct a Literature Search
    Reviewing literature has two major purposes: one is to build up the researcher’s knowledge base of the topic under exploration for a deeper understanding, and the other is to ensure the significance of the research. The researcher needs to make sure how the research will be able to contribute to the knowledge in the related field compared with the existing research literature.

    *State the Research Question
    The research problem will evolve during your pursuing knowledge base through reviewing literature and discourse with peers and scholars. To specify what questions your research study want to answer helps to provide the basis of planning other parts of your study, e.g. the research design, the methods for data collection and analysis.

    *Questions about whether a certain instructional method or strategy improve a certain skill or learning outcome
    *Questions about whether a certain student characteristics have effects on a certain skill or learning outcome, or whether the characteristics interact with the instructional strategy or method to affect learning of a certain skill or cognitive process
    *Questions about whether two or more variables are related to each other? Those questions intend to use or control one variable to predict a future performance of a particular variable
    *Questions to generate a theory to describe certain patterns of interaction or process of an observed phenomenon
    *Questions about lived experience of research participants
    *Questions about the cultural patterns or social patterns in the classroom
    Ideas abstracted from Anglin, Ross, and Morrison (1995)

    *Determine the Research Design
    In the intention of the research study is to verify a causal relationship between certain variables, use an experimental design; if the intention of the research study is to find out how variables relate to one another, use a correlational design; if the intention of the research study is to describe and understand a particular social condition/pattern and meaning of a social experience, conduct a qualitative study.
    *Determine Methods.
    Three major elements in the research study need to be considered: participants, materials, and instruments.
    * Participants: It concerns whom to study. For experimental studies, the researcher needs to consider statistical sampling to make sure that sample is representative of the population, e.g. techniques of random sampling and stratified sampling. For qualitative research, purposeful sampling is the major principle. The selection of individuals, groups, or cases depends on how the characteristics, or properties of the individuals, groups, or cases will best inform the researcher with the focus of what is under investigation.
    *Materials and Instrumentation: For experimental research, operationalization of the variables is the focus, i.e. what are different treatment conditions, and how to measure the dependent variables. The researcher has to consider issues about the reliability (the consistency of the test), and validity (whether the test is testing what is meant to test) of the measurement. The design of the experimental conditions has taken the threats of the internal and external validity into account. The researcher wants to make sure that the establishing of the causal relationship is not influenced by other factors than the controlling factors, and the researcher needs to consider to what extent the results of the research can be generalized to the population beyond the sample under study.
    For qualitative research, the issues are the sources of data, where the researcher can find the information and what methods the researcher can use to get the information. Qualitative research usually focuses on the verbal information gathered from the interviews, observations, documents or cultural artifacts. The very distinctive feature about the qualitative research is that the researcher is part of the instrument. The recognition of this researcher’s subjective interpretation of the information yields the process of triangulation, which emphasizes use of multiple sources, methods, investigators, and theories to ensure the credibility of the research.
    Procedures: A procedural planning of how to get approval from IRB, how to get entry to research participants or to the field, how to implement the experimental treatment or to schedule observations and interviews, and how to prepare for write-up. A general outline of the process and a timeline will facilitate the research progress.

    *Identify Analysis Procedures
    Different research questions and different research designs entail different analysis method to take. Experimental design employs statistical analysis to give statistical descriptions of the groups in terms of different independent variables and dependent variables, and to determine the significance of the differences whether the dependent variables are caused by the independent variables. On the other hand, qualitative design employs semantic analysis to identify themes, categories, processes, and patterns of an observed phenomenon, and provides rich descriptions of the phenomenon in order to develop a deeper understanding of human systems.

  46. CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA says:

    Name: CHIMA PRINCE CHUKWUEMEKA
    Reg No: 2018/243755
    Email: chimaprince789@gmail.com

    ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 391 “RESEARCH METHODS 1”
    Research originates from the old french word “recerchier” that means to “search again”. It implicitly assumes that the previous search maybe was not exhaustive and complete and hence a repeated search is prompted. It is important to note that for a research to be conducted, there must be a problem and that’s why I can simply see research as the process of finding solutions to a problem.
    Furthermore research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. That is I can say is creation of new knowledge or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It is important to note that a good research produces theories and hypothesis and benefits any intellectual attempt to analyze facts and phenomena.
    Most times we feel that research has to do with academics alone. But there are two kinds of research:SCIENTIFIC AND NON SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.
    ✓Scientific: ACADEMIC RESEARCH & BUSINESS RESEARCH.
    ✓Non scientific: GUESS WORK, DIVINE KNOWLEDGE, MYSTICISM.
    The Non-scientific can be useful in understanding the world around us. To me I see research as something very helpful because :
    *It helps us to understand existing phenomena.
    *It helps us to Establish existence of economic relationship.
    *It helps to make predictions and form policy to tackle similar problems.
    *It helps in acceptance and rejection of hypothesis. It also helps in formulation of theories.
    It is worthy to note that scientific research is not what we do half harzardly. It follows different process which includes:
    √problem identification
    √choice of research topic
    √Literature review; It looks at seeing what other people have done to solve the problem identified.
    √ Formulate hypothesis towards solving the problem identified. It has to do with tentative statement you think is a solution which can be accepted or rejected.
    √ data collection and analysis. It aims to accept or reject the hypothesis.
    To me any research that don’t follow this process is not research. It can be seen as non research or non scientific research. How then can we know a research..
    * It is empirical. This is because analysis done can be verified.
    * It is replicable: If someone follows same process you follow, the person should be able to obtain same result.
    *It is systematic
    *It is theoretical: Every research in economics must be based on economic theory.
    *It lacks moral undertones: Your position don’t matter in research. There is nothing morality about research.
    *It is cummulative. On this every researcher is meant to make his or her own contribution. Hence the need for literature review.
    To me I see research as something sweet but there are some challenges in conducting research especially in our country. Some of the problems are;
    -Lack of records both from public and private sectors.
    -Lack of support from public and private sector.
    *Lack of adequate facilities esp light. A major problem in NIGERIA.
    I believe if these problems are solved the concept of research will be well appreciated in our country and among university students.

  47. IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS - 2018/242340 says:

    NAME: IBEZIM CHISOM PRECIOUS
    REG NO: 2018/242340
    DEPT: ECONOMICS

    Basically, this means that research is a continuous process that relies on the studious nature of asking new and complex questions. The answers we get from that process will also lead to additional question and lines of enquiry in any field. When individuals are faced with a research projects, they are usually trying to answer a question or solve a problem. Sometimes it seems like the easiest way to approach a project is to dive into it without really considering what we actually need to know. We also may think one quick search is enough, and that the results from that one effort is all that exist within our topic or question. But, in fact, research is a studious process that involves being devoted to the acquisition of knowledge from books, articles, data, etc. for the discovery of new knowledge or the modification of pre-existing knowledge. Discovery of new knowledge or improvement of pre-existing knowledge implies ‘uniqueness’ of research result. For one to arrive at this point of ‘uniqueness’ in research, one must painstakingly examine or study already existing knowledge (through books, articles, etc.) at each stage of the research process.
    Most discoveries and inventions in the world today stemmed from research. Individuals who have identified one problem or the other took a step further to investigate and carry out experiments to solve the problem or improve the situation. It is through research that these discoveries and inventions came to be.
    There are many laws and theories in the world today that are not always true because things have changed. Many theories from the 16th century might not correspond with the data generated in our contemporary societies. Through research, these theories can be properly examined and revised.
    Research helps us to apply the truths we have discovered or the laws or theories we have corrected. This is because after discovering a truth, the next question, depending on the situation, is: how can this truth be used? This calls for another research into the practical application of that particular truth. For example, when Newton’s law of gravity was developed in the 17th century, the law did not explain how useful or applicable it is to astrophysicists. Extensive research was need for the practical application of the law.
    Mr. President, before I define ‘research’ in my own words, I would like to highlight what research is not. Research is not:
    – a jumble of information
    – a bootless activity
    – an end itself
    – just a one-shot search for knowledge, etc.
    Research is an organized, goal-driven activity that involves the continuous search for truth, and nothing but the truth. This definition tells us that research is a coordinated activity and it involves a tireless investigation or search for the truth. The end in every research is to discover the truth.

  48. NNAMANI CHIDIMMA ESTHER says:

    NAME: NNAMANI CHIDIMMA ESTHER
    REG. NO.: 2018/243795
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    ECO. 361 RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I
    Online Discussion Quiz 1–The Meaning and Scope of Research
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    According to Warner (1981) Research is simply the process of finding out the solution to a problem. Therefore, the aim of every research is to find out the solution to a problem.
    Research is the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information in order to arrive at a solution to a research problem or to answer a research question. Research also seeks to revise old ideas or theories, so as to make improvements on them.
    A research work is not done haphazardly, there is a logical series of steps or processes or procedures that must be followed in a research work.
    A researcher in doing research work aims for the following:
    To understand existing phenomena
    To provide answers to unknown problems
    To make predictions or formulate theories to tackle similar problems
    To accept or reject a hypothesis
    To formulate theories to enrich the frontiers of knowledge
    RESEARCH PROCESSES
    In doing a research work, a researcher has to follow laid down processes or procedures, these includes:
    Problem identification
    Choice of research topic
    Literature review
    Hypothesis formulation
    Data collection and analysis
    In my own understanding, research means a process of carrying out an inquiry or investigation, using scientific methods or procedures in collecting, analyzing and interpreting data in order to provide a solution to a problem or provide answer to a research question.

  49. OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO. 2018/241820 says:

    NAME:- OKOYE ARTHUR-KINGSLEY KANAYO
    REG. NUMBER:- 2018/241820
    CODE:- ECO 391
    DEPARTMENT:- ECONOMICS

    ANSWER:
    There are varying definitions of research connoted by variations of authors and institutitions. Research as a concept and tool has been defined thus:-
         The Department of Education and Training elucidated on research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a vast notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. A branch of research could be referred to Applied research – which simply means an original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
         Another definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
        Furthermore, another definition of research was given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
         Notwithstanding, The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”.
          Basically, the fundamental purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.
      There are various forms of Research including:-
    ● Original Research or Primary Research
    ● Scientific Research
    ● Research in the humanities
    ● Artistic Research

    – Original Research:
    Original Research  is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject.
    – Scientific Research:
      Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. 
    – Research in the humanities:
       Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method.
    – Artistic Research
       Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.
      STEPS INVOLVED IN CARRYING OUT RESEARCH INCLUDES:-
    • Observation and formation of topics
    • Hypothesis
    • Conceptual definition
    • Operational definition
    • Gathering of data
    • Analysis of Data
    • Data interpretation
    • Test or revising of hypothesis
    • Conclusion or reiteration(if necessary)

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):
    • Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.

    • Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.

    • Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.

    RESEARCH DESIGN
    The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:ccc

    ● Qualitative research:-
        This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. Even our basic social media  posts are used for qualitative research. Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses.
    ●   Quantitative research:-
         This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive). Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism. 
          The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies.Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.
       In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
        Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.
       
    Non-empirical research
    Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research tends to seek solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on.

    A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects

        To me,  Research simply implies a careful and meticulous inquiry into a field, project, concept or myth with a motive through various steps to further broaden one’s past knowledge  or new outlook with a possibility that through the analysis, an assumption or theory is formulated.

  50. Obeta Princess Oluchi says:

    Name: Obeta Princess Oluchi
    Reg.No: 2018/242409
    Dept: Economics
    Answer to Assignment
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is aimed at;
    • Identify potential and new customers
    • Understand existing customers
    • Set pragmatic goals
    • Develop productive market strategies
    • Address business challenges
    • Put together a business expansion plan
    • Identify new business opportunities
    Characteristics of Research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy :the information must be accurate and correct. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    There are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  51. oyem lawrence ifechukwude says:

    Research is a meticulous systematic inquiry of a particular problem or phenomenon so as to arrive at a dependable solution. To carry out a research means to describe, analyze, explain, predict and control an observed phenomenon using a systematic approach. It is aimed at obtaining and interpreting of information to give solution to a problem. A good research must be valid, replicable, reliable, objective, and unbiased
    To carry out a good research, one must go through the following process:
    1. Identify the problem: For example, a in GDP.
    2. Choose a topic: For example, government impact on economic growth.
    3. Review the literature: one can consult other works relating to such a topic.
    4. Clearly defined terms and topics: This includes making hypothesis, preparing the research design and sampling.
    5. Data collection: This is the most important work in a research. Data can be collected in primary or secondary form.
    6. Analyze the data: The data collected is analyzed. This is the most technical job in a research.
    7. Hypothesis testing: Here, the hypothesis is tested or rejected.
    8. Interpretation and generalization. The data accepted is interpreted and generalized to form a theory.

  52. oyem lawrence ifechukwude 2018/241846 says:

    Research is a meticulous systematic inquiring of a particular problem or phenomenon so as to arrive at a dependable solution. To carry out a research means to describe, analyze, explain, predict and control an observed phenomenon using a systematic approach. It is aimed at obtaining and interpreting of information to give solution to a problem. A good research must be valid, replicable, reliable, objective, and unbiased
    To carry out a good research, one must go through the following process:
    1. Identify the problem: For example, a in GDP.
    2. Choose a topic: For example, government impact on economic growth.
    3. Review the literature: one can consult other works relating to such a topic.
    4. Clearly defined terms and topics: This includes making hypothesis, preparing the research design and sampling.
    5. Data collection: This is the most important work in a research. Data can be collected in primary or secondary form.
    6. Analyze the data: The data collected is analyzed. This is the most technical job in a research.
    7. Hypothesis testing: Here, the hypothesis is tested or rejected.
    8. Interpretation and generalization. The data accepted is interpreted and generalized to form a theory.

  53. Okonkwo chinaza favour says:

    Name: okonkwo chinaza favour
    Reg no: 2018/242315
    Dept : Economics

    QUESTION: Meaning and scope of research

    ANSWER
    Research is the careful and systematic study or analysis of a particular issue or problem to understand,explain and solve a problem. It is the most important tool for getting accurate knowledge on a specific issue. Research study must be systematic, empirical, clearly defined.

    SCOPE OF RESEARCH
    It refers to the extent to which research project will be explore or the elements that will be covered in the research study. Scope of research helps the researcher to stay in track when carrying out the research study . It also brings precision and objectivity to research work and makes research work practical and attainable.

    AS A POLICY MAKER AND A SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT
    Research is the best and most important tool I will use as a policy maker to draw an accurate and authentic result or knowledge on Economic phenomenon, issues,policy and topic to deliver a better advice to Mr President

  54. Nnadebe Jane Amarachi (2018/241863) says:

    NNADEBE JANE AMARACHI
    2018/241863
    amarachinnadebe@gmail.com

    There are a lot of definitions of research by various authors and writers. In view of the definition above and definitions of other scholars, I found out that the meaning and context of these definitions are the same.The difference between these definitions lies only in the way the author has undertaken research in his discipline. Investigation as a studious investigation and examination means that its investigates a subject, ideas or topic for a purpose. It might be an area that is little known or that is causing concern. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. It enables the researcher to extend knowledge or explore theory. It offers the opportunity to investigate an area of interest from a particular perspective. Research is expected to be rigorous and systematic as it leads to discovery, finding out, study, looking in depth, investigation, reaching new ideas/conclusions. The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Before we continue, let us check out definitions of research by various scholars and writers and see the similarities in meaning and context.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). “Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships”.

    According to Kothari (2006). “Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem”.

    D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”

    According to Payton (1979). “Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way”.

    Kerlinger (1873). “Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”.

    Martyn Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.”
    Code of federal regulation. “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”

    Clifford Woody “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.”

    Research is the discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. Some people refer to research as a movenent from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attainfull and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.
    The word “research” originated from the old French word “recerchier” meaning to search and search again. It literally implies repeating a search for something and implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete in the sense that there is still scope for improvement.

    OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH.
    1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).
    2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).
    3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies).
    4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1. Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    2. Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    3. Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    4. Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    5. Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    6. Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    7.Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    8.Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH
    The basic types of research are as follows;
    a. Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
    b. Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory.“Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.
    c. Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory.
    d. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e, phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind
    e. Some Other Types of Research: All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.
    In conclusion, as a special adviser to the president RESEARCH is a meticulous and careful enquiry to obtain new facts in any branch of knowledge using systematic approach.

  55. Nnadebe Jane Amarachi (2018/241863) says:

    NNADEBE JANE AMARACHI
    2018/241863
    amarachinnadebe@gmail.com

    There are various definitions of research by various authors and writers. In view of the definition above and definitions of other scholars, I found out that the meaning and context of these definitions are the same.The difference between these definitions lies only in the way the author has undertaken research in his discipline. Investigation as a studious investigation and examination means that its investigates a subject, ideas or topic for a purpose. It might be an area that is little known or that is causing concern. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. It enables the researcher to extend knowledge or explore theory. It offers the opportunity to investigate an area of interest from a particular perspective. Research is expected to be rigorous and systematic as it leads to discovery, finding out, study, looking in depth, investigation, reaching new ideas/conclusions. The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Before we continue, let us check out definitions of research by various scholars and writers and see the similarities in meaning and context.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). “Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships”.

    According to Kothari (2006). “Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem”.

    D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”

    According to Payton (1979). “Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way”.

    Kerlinger (1873). “Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”.

    Martyn Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.”

    Code of federal regulation. “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    Redman and Mary define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”

    Clifford Woody “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.”

    Research is the discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. Some people refer to research as a movement from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

    The word “research” originated from the old French word “recerchier” meaning to search and search again. It literally implies repeating a search for something and implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete in the sense that there is still scope for improvement.

    OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH.

    1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).
    2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).
    3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies).
    4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1. Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    2. Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    3. Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    4. Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    5. Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    6. Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    7.Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    8.Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH
    The basic types of research are as follows;

    a. Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

    b. Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory.“Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.

    c. Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory.

    d. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e, phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind

    e. Some Other Types of Research: All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.

    In conclusion, as a special adviser to the president RESEARCH is a meticulous and careful enquiry to obtain new facts in any branch of knowledge using systematic approach.

  56. Nnadebe Jane Amarachi (2018/241863) says:

    NNADEBE JANE AMARACHI
    2018/241863
    amarachinnadebe@gmail.com

    There are various definitions of research by various authors and writers. In view of the definition above and definitions of other scholars, I found out that the meaning and context of these definitions are the same.The difference between these definitions lies only in the way the author has undertaken research in his discipline. Investigation as a studious investigation and examination means that its investigates a subject, ideas or topic for a purpose. It might be an area that is little known or that is causing concern. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. It enables the researcher to extend knowledge or explore theory. It offers the opportunity to investigate an area of interest from a particular perspective. Research is expected to be rigorous and systematic as it leads to discovery, finding out, study, looking in depth, investigation, reaching new ideas/conclusions. The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Before we continue, let us check out definitions of research by various scholars and writers and see the similarities in meaning and context.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). “Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships”.

    According to Kothari (2006). “Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem”.

    D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”

    According to Payton (1979). “Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way”.

    Kerlinger (1873). “Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”.

    Martyn Shuttleworth – “In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.”
    Code of federal regulation. “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”

    Redman and Mary define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
    Clifford Woody “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.”
    Research is the discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known. Some people refer to research as a movenent from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

    The word “research” originated from the old French word “recerchier” meaning to search and search again. It literally implies repeating a search for something and implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete in the sense that there is still scope for improvement.

    OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH.

    1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).

    2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).

    3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies).

    4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1. Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.

    2. Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.

    3. Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.

    4. Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.

    5. Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.

    6. Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.

    7.Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.

    8.Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH
    The basic types of research are as follows;

    a. Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.

    b. Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory.“Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.

    c. Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory.

    D. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e, phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind

    e. Some Other Types of Research: All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.

    In conclusion, as a special adviser to the president RESEARCH is a meticulous and careful enquiry to obtain new facts in any branch of knowledge using systematic approach.

  57. Onyewuchi Gift Chinweotito: 2018/249784 says:

    The origin of Research dates back to the latin word “sciens” meaning to know. It consists of two words:
    “Re”- which means repeatedly or again and again
    Search- to get information or to find out.
    In clear terms Research means to find out about something repeatedly or again and again.
    However, the word Research has no definite or precise definition as various researchers have defined it from their points of view.
    Creswell J.W defined it as a process used for collection and analyzing of information to increase our understanding of a topic.
    Grinnel(1993) sees research as a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge which is generally applicable and acceptable.
    The main aims or objectives of making a Research are
    * For gathering of information to answer questions.
    * Interpretation of Information
    *Systemization of Knowledge
    *Forecasting
    *Development planning
    *Social welfare, amongst others.
    Research could be drafted; qualitatively or quantitatively.

    – Qualitative method; this is a method that involves the collection of data using conversational methods usually open-ended questions.
    Types of qualitative method:
    * Focus groups
    * Ethnographic Studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case study

    -Quantitative method:
    This deals with digits or numbers. It uses a systematic way to investigate events or data.
    Types:
    The major types of quantitative method of research are;
    *Survey Research
    *Descriptive method
    * Correlational method.

    The main purposes of making Research are:
    *Exploratory
    *Descriptive
    *Explanatory.

  58. Kalu Ezinne obiwe says:

    NAME : KALU EZINNE OBIWE
    REG. NUMBER : 2018/247194
    DEPARTMENT : SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION (ECONOMICS EDUCATION)
    EMAIL ADDRESS : kaluezinne007@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (1997) Research is a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas. Kothari (2006) defines research as a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem. Kerlinger (1873) Sees research as a systematic control, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    The term Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ Which means to know. Research consists of two syllables “re” and “search”. Re is a prefix which means again, anew or over again. Search is a verb which means to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe. So research can be clearly defined as a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts or principles.
    According to my own understanding I can say that research simply means the process of finding out solutions to a problem. From the above definition, I can say that there is no research without a problem. This is to say that the solutions to every problem is gotten from research.
    SUMMARY OF DEFINITIONS
    The term research involves the following;
    R – rationale way of thinking.
    E – expert/exhaustive treatment.
    S – search for solution.
    E – exactness.
    A – adequate date and data, analytical analysis.
    R – relationships among facts, information.
    C – careful recording, critical observations.
    H – honesty, hardwork.
    STAGIES OF RESEARCH PROCESS
    1. Selecting the research area.
    2. Formulating research aim, objectives and research questions or developing hypotheses.
    3. Conducting the literature review.
    4. Selecting methods of data collection.
    5. Collecting the primary data.
    6. Data analysis.
    7. Reaching conclusions.
    8. Completing the research.
    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    They are three main purpose of research and they include:
    1. Exploratory: researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. Exploratory is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: they are three primary purposes of descriptive studies which includes; describing, explaining, and validating the findings. Descriptive focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

    REFERENCES
    http://learningtz.blogspot.com/2017/03/meaning-of-research: Retrieved on 23/08/2021.
    https://research-methodology.net/research-methodology/research-process: Retrieved on 23/08/2021.
    https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/research/researchers/preparing_a_grant_application/dest_definition_of_research: Retrieved on 23/08/2021.

  59. Anike chilota Dominica says:

    Name: Anike Chilota Dominica
    Reg:2018/243070
    Course: Eco 391
    Dept: combined social science
    Combination: Economics and political science

    Question
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to mr president on research and strategy.

    Answer
    The term “research” consists of two words “Re” means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Paul Felix Lazarsfeld – the father of research surveys popularly know as the founder of modern research surveys.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails the collection of data , documentation of critical information and analysis and interpretation of the data/ information in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research can also be defined as the creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding.

    Sources of research
    *Non electronic source—books, brochures,journals, magazines and newspapers
    *electronic source—CD-ROMS and other electronic source such as internet and WWW( world wide wed)

    Types of research
    1. Quantitative research: refers to the numbers where data is collected based on numbers and a summary is taken from these numbers.
    2.Qualitative research:refers to non-numerical elements in research. It helps to form a better summary in terms of theories in the data
    3.Descriptive research: facts are considered in descriptive methods and surveys and case studies are done to clarify the fact.
    4.Analytical research:uses the facts that have been confirmed already to form the bases for the research and critical evaluation of the material is carried out in this method.
    5.Applied research: is action research where only one domain is considered and mostly the facts are generalized.
    6.Fundamental research: is the basic or pure research done to find out an element or a theory that has never been in the world yet.
    7.Exporatory research: are based on the theories and their explanation and it does not provide any conclusion research topic
    8.Conclusive research:aims at providing an answer to the research topic and has a proper design in methodology.
    9.surveys: it plays a main role in the research methodology it helps to collect a vast amount of real time data and helps in the research process
    10.case studies:are another method of research methodology where different cases are considered and the proper one for the research is select

    Characteristics of research
    1.Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories
    2.systematic-follows orderly and sequential procedure
    3.controlled -all variables except those that are tested/ experiment upon are kept constant
    4,employs hypothesis-guides the investigation process
    5.analytical-there is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation.

  60. Nwankwo chidubem pascal says:

    Name: Nwankwo chidubem pascal
    Reg no: 2018/245467
    Department: Economics

    Assignment: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answers:
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1.Identify potential and new customers
    2.Understand existing customers
    3.Set pragmatic goals
    4.Develop productive market strategies
    4.Address business challenges
    5.Put together a business expansion plan
    6.Identify new business opportunities
    What is the purpose of research?

    There are three main purposes:

    1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2.Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3.Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    1.Survey research
    2.Descriptive research
    3.Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    1.Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and mpartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    2.Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    3.Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    4.Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  61. NAME: Eze Nnenna Anthoniatta
    REG NO:2018/248095
    DEPARTMENT: Economics
    COURSE: Eco391 Development Economics

    A well renowned scholar would define research as as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    A general definition of research is being a systematic search for information in order to obtain a clear picture concerning the underlying problem. But I personally would define research as a process of identifying problem thoroughly, establishing an objective, collecting and analyzing the relevant data in order to determine the possible factors causing the problem.
    Research can be needed for a variety of things and variety of people to say the least. It’s need and uses exceedes a number which can be;

    • providing valuable information that guides manager and employees of an organization in their daily work for the organization which guides them to make an effective decision making which will benefit the organization in the long run.
    • Research, through a researcher interprets the results from the analyzed data and makes a through evaluation on the benefits and consequences for every possible solution.
    • The researcher also proposes certain recommendations for the next course of action to be taken by the manager. For instance, a research is required to identify the factors that cause the demand for Malaysian made cars to decline drastically in the past few years. The research undertaken for this specific case would be able to determine the factors that contribute to the decreasing demand for the car. From the result, the management could take certain corrective action to improve the demand, Applied research; which is carried out for the purpose of solving an existing problem.

    Aside the above need variations of research. Research is made applicable in a variety of fields like Business research; which helps the manager solve management problems through making effective decisions, Academic research; which helps students with their desertations, projects etc, Personal research; which can be done at a leisure.

    In conclusion, Research has its own value which A manager should identify and weigh the potential values or benefits from the research and compare with the expenditure they have to incur. Three questions would help managers make the right decision in this case. First, is the rate of return worth the investment? Second, will the information obtained from the research improves the quality of a decision? Third, is the proposed research the best alternative for the available fund?. These questions above are not only the value of research but it’s bases as well.

  62. Joseph chinonso Lucky 2018/241859 says:

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer.
    As a special adviser to the president, “Research” is composed of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    There are three main purposes:

    * Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    * Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    * Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  63. Stephen Faith Kuranen says:

    Name: Stephen Faith Kuranen
    Reg. no: 2018/242333
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyze what research means to you, as a special adviser to Mr President;
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. Research is a studious inquiry or examination especially aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event.

    Types of research methods.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    • Qualitative methods.
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    • Quantitative methods.
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data.
    Research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Research is a process of investigation example;
    An examination of a subject from different points of view. It’s not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting on it, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest you and following up on them. Research is the way you educate yourself.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1.Identify potential and new customers
    2. Understand existing customers
    3.Set pragmatic goals
    4. Develop productive market strategies
    5. Address business challenges
    6. Put together a business expansion plan
    7. Identify new business opportunities

    How to conduct an accurate research.
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. 2. Write a sentence describing each one.
    3. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    4. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    5. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    6. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    7. Act on your strategies
    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Lastly, research is empirical, reliable, replicable, systematic and analytical.

  64. Mbakwe Temple Alex says:

    Name: Mbakwe Temple Alex
    Reg No: 2018/242400
    Department: Economics
    Course Code: Eco 391

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean.

    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know .
    Research is composed of two syllables re and search. Re is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again
    Search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe.
    Also, Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.[1] It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.

    Characteristics of research?
    1 Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2 The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    3 Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4 There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. 5 Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6 It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    1 Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    2 Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    3 Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Types of research methods are explained below:

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:

    1 One-to-one Interview
    2 Focus Groups
    3 Ethnographic studies
    4 Text Analysis
    5 Case Study

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    It is essential to ensure that your researched data is:

    • Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    • Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    • Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    • Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    • Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  65. Eze Ugochukwu Ethel says:

    Name: Eze Ugochukwu Ethel
    Reg. no: 2018/245419
    Dept: Social Science Education ( Education Economics)
    Question
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Answer
    What is research?
    Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic. It is an investigation of finding solutions to scientific and social problems through objective and systematic analysis. It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. Here knowledge means information about matters. The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge. Research is done with the help of study, experiment, observation, analysis, comparison and reasoning. According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.Research is conducted to…Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework, assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners, and help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Objectives of Research
    The prime objectives of research are:
    1. To discover new facts
    2. To verify and test important facts
    3. To analyse an event or process or phenomenon to identify the cause and effect relationship
    4. To develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories to solve and understand scientific and nonsci- entific problems
    5. To find solutions to scientific, nonscientific and social problems and
    6. To overcome or solve the problems occurring in our every day life.
    Features of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    4. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    5. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    6. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

  66. Ugwu chidiebere loveth says:

    NAME: UGWU CHIDIEBERE LOVETH
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION AND ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242902
    EMAIL: ugwuchidiebereloveth1@gmail.com

    In view of the above statement and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits,clearly and clinically analyse the above statement:
    I can see Research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    With the above definitions of research I can say that research can also be seen as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    Identify potential and new customers understand existing customers,set pragmatic goals, develop productive market strategies, address business challenges, put together a business expansion plan,identify new business opportunities.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    . Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    . The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    . Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    . There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    . It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    . It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    .Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Cancer research has ‘Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,’ and ‘Baby Born with HIV Cured.’ Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like, ‘Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or HIV infections?’

    But all I’ve said so far is what research has done (sort of like saying baking leads to apple pie; it doesn’t really tell you anything other than the two are connected). To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable.

    PURPOSE OF FINDING RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Example of Research
    Research begins with an issue that comes from an observation. Let’s say I am walking down the street and I see two pigeons sitting at two different windows. I’m weird, so I’ll call the first pigeon Stu and the second pigeon Bill. When I walk past Stu the pigeon, I see him pecking at the glass.When I walk past Bill the pigeon, I see him just sitting there, chilling like pigeons do. So, I formulate a question: ‘Why is Stu the pigeon pecking at the glass, while Bill the pigeon does not?’ Next, I should do a little research into pigeons and why they might peck at things. This is background research to help me understand what I am looking for or at.
    Next, I have to figure out how to answer my question. There are many ways a question can be answered; most psychological studies use laboratory experiments or naturalistic studies, which will be explored in more in depth in another lesson.I plan on observing Stu and Bill every day I walk past them to answer my question. It isn’t the most elegant or accurate study, but it should give me an answer. I create a hypothesis, which is like creating a prediction of what I think is happening: that Stu is being fed while Bill is not.

  67. Onyemaechi Favour ozioma says:

    Onyemaechi Favour Ozioma
    2018/244292
    Edu/Economics
    Eco 361
    An Assignment:

    From the above definition and assertion, when research is seen as studious inquiry or examination, it point out that one want to know, wanting to know about a situation or phenomenon, studying to ascertain why the situation is like that and trying to know what to do to to improve it. Research are examined or tested to ascertain it’s validity.
    Research talks about investigation or experimentation, it means that in research data are not assumed but by experience, realistic situation not biased or sentimental during investigation and the purpose of investigation is to know the truth; this is used to draw conclusions either in form of solutions toward the concerned problem or in certain generalization of some theoretical formulation.
    According to P. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of social sciences define research as the manipulation of things, concept or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extent, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of art. Research is thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. This definition points out that the purpose of research is to extend the existing knowledge of a concept, improve on it and then correct some errors made, to verify knowledge is to ascertain the true nature of things.
    Through research hypothesis are created and verify based on facts or data collected and it has gone through steps it forms theories and that is why research is systematic, orderly, not half hazard.

    Purposes of research:
    1. One of the main purpose of research to find out the truth hidden and which had not been discovered yet. Research is all about discovering or open up something hidden.
    2. Research lead one to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. This research is called exploratory or formulative research studies that is creating an innovation.
    3. Research also helps to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation in a group, also called descriptive research.
    4. Research determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something, also called diagnostic research.
    5. Research also used to test hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables that is hypothesis_testing research studies.

    Reseach to my own understanding, research is an act of finding out about a phenomenon or to innovate new ideas that will lead to solutions of various phenomenon, either in health, education, economy.
    Research goes along way in minimizing human problems by creating solutions.
    Research can also defined as a process of searching for new ideas to built up a concept.

  68. Omeke Chinenye Joy says:

    Name: Omeke Chinenye Joy
    Reg. No: 2018/244290
    Department: Education Economics
    Discussion quiz on Research methods in economics (Eco 391)
    Answer
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    As a more formal definition of research, the following has been extracted from the Code of Federal Regulations:
    “Research is a systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”
    Simply put, research is the process of discovering new knowledge. This knowledge can be either the development of new concepts or the advancement of existing knowledge and theories, leading to a new understanding that was not previously known.
    Research is conducted to…
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Purpose of research
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    Characteristics of Research
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.
    However as a special adviser to Mr President and in my own understanding, I can say that research is the organized and systematic process of finding a solution to a problem. It involves a process of searching for answers to certain issues or phenomenon so as to find out solutions to the problems and to make improvements on already existing facts about the phenomenon. It also involves digging in for facts so as to provide solutions to research questions.

  69. Unadike Fabian Chinemezu says:

    Name: UNADIKE FABIAN CHIMEMEZU
    Reg No: 2018/249698
    Department: ECONOMICS
    Course Title: ECO 391
    Course Code: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy??

    ANSWER
    I think to do what is asked of Us as the Special Adviser to Mr President.,We should first know what Research is.
    In a Lay Man’s Language.,Research is the thing We do or the Actions we take when we want to find Something out.
    But as a Scholar.,we try to break it down one after the other.
    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”.,“Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something.
    So We can say that Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Steps of Conducting Research
    Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:
    – Identification of research problem
    – Literature review
    – Specifying the purpose of research
    – Determining specific research questions
    – Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses[31]
    – Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    – Data collection
    – Verifying data
    – Analyzing and interpreting the data
    – Reporting and evaluating research
    – Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations.
    The steps generally represent the overall process; however, they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.Most research begins with a general statement of the problem, or rather, the purpose for engaging in the study.[33] The literature review identifies flaws or holes in previous research which provides justification for the study. Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question.
    The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher(s) collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher(s) then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: starting with articulating findings and discussion of them, moving “up” to identification of a research problem that emerges in the findings and literature review. The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
    Rudolph Rummel says, “… no researcher should accept any one or two tests as definitive. It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.”
    Plato in Meno talks about an inherent difficulty, if not a paradox, of doing research that can be paraphrased in the following way, “If you know what you’re searching for, why do you search for it?! [i.e., you have already found it] If you don’t know what you’re searching for, what are you searching for?!

    What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    There are three main purposes of Research which are:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    There are two types of Research Method and they are:
    Quantitative Method and Qualitative Method
    – Quantitative methods:
    Quantitative methods deals with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    – Survey research
    – Descriptive research
    – Correlational research

    – Qualitative methods:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    – One-to-one Interview
    – Focus Groups
    – Ethnographic studies
    – Text Analysis
    – Case Study

    Research Ethics
    Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research. The management of research ethics is inconsistent across countries and there is no universally accepted approach to how it should be addressed.Informed consent is a key concept in research ethics.
    When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics and value (ethics). Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios.
    Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciences, information technology, biotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.

    Importance of Research
    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth.

    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.

    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.

    #4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.

    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    Etc

  70. Onuh Onyinye says:

    Name :Onuh Onyinye
    Reg no :2018 /241872
    Department :Economics department
    Email : onuhonyinye7@gmail.com

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    Research is an investigation into new fields or already known fields with a view of adding to the stock of already existing knowledge or the discovery of new facts. These new discoveries would be accepted, if the research was carried out, in line with already laid down research methodology.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data, documentation of critical information and analysis as well as interpretation of the data/information in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professionals fields and academic disciplines. For research to be accepted, it must be carried out in a methodological fashion. A research method is simply a technique for collecting data, it can involve a specific or a structured interview schedule, it could also involve a particular observation, whereby the researcher listens and watches others.

    Quality criteria for research :
    There are three most prominent criteria for the evaluation of the social research, they are Reliability, Replication, and Validity.

    Reliability : is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. The term is commonly used in relation to whether the measures that are devised for concepts in social sciences (such as poverty , racial prejudice, relationship quality, religious orthodoxy etc) are consistent.

    Replication : some researchers decide to replicate the findings of others, there are various reasons for doing so, such as a feeling that the original results do not match other existing evidence. The replicability of a research study is highly valued by many researchers working within the quantitative research tradition.

    Validity : This is concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that are generated from a piece of research, there are five main facets of validity, they include : measurement validity, internal validity, external validity, ecological validity and inferential validity.
    Stages in the research process are :

    1. Literature review : existing literature is an important element in all research, when we alight upon a topic or issue that interests us, we must read further to determine a number things which are important to our research. A literature review is also expected to be critical.

    2. Concepts and theories : concepts are the way we make sense of the social world, concepts include bureaucracy, power, status, charisma, etc. They are important to how we organize and signal to intended audiences of our research interests, they help us think about and be more disciplined about what we want to investigate. They can also be viewed as something we start out with and which represents key areas, around which data are collected.

    3. Research questions : this is a question that provides an explicit statement of what it is the researcher wants to find out about, it can be presented as a statement.

    4. Sampling cases : This includes that selection of ‘cases’ to cover objects, on or from which data will be collected, Time and cost issues always constrain the number of cases we can include in our research, so we must almost aways have to sample.

    5. Data collection : gathering data from the sample, so that the research question can be answered, methods of data collection include interviewing and questionnaires. Methods of data collection could be structured or unstructured.

    6. Data analysis : this is a stage that incorporates several elements, it could be taken to mean the application of statistical techniques to data that have been collected, before data can be analyzed, raw data has to first be managed, then transcribed before it is introduced to any data analysis computer software program.

    7. Writing up : the finest piece of research would be useless if it were not disseminated to others. We do research, so that it can be written up, there by allowing others to read what we have done and concluded.

  71. Ugwuoke Godwin Izuchukwu says:

    NAME: UGWUOKE GODWIN IZUCHUKWU
    REG NO: 2018/249529
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    The word “research” originated from the old French word “recerchier” meaning to search and search again. It literally implies repeating a search for something and implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete in the sense that there is still scope for improvement. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. It may be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic/area. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. Redman and Mory define research as “a systematized effort to gain new knowledge”. Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. Research is a scientific approach of answering a research question, solving a problem or generating new knowledge through a systematic and orderly collection, organization, and analysis of information with an ultimate goal of making the research useful in decision-making. Systematic research in any field of inquiry involves three basic operations-
    1. Data collection: It refers to observing, measuring, and recording information.
    2. Data analysis: It refers to arranging and organizing the collected data so that we may be able to find out what their significance is and generalize about them. 3. Report writing: It is an inseparable part and a final outcome of a research study. Its purpose is to convey information contained in it to the readers or audience

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question, the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon. This process has eight distinct characteristics. Research…
    1. Originates with a question or problem.
    2. Requires a clear articulation of a goal.
    3. Follows a specific plan of procedure.
    4. Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable sub-problems.
    5. Is guided by the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis.
    6. Accepts certain critical assumptions.
    7. Requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research.
    8. Is by its nature; cyclical.

    OBJECTIVES/ PURPOSES OF RESEARCH The principal objective or purpose of research in any field of inquiry is to add to what is known about the phenomenon under the investigation through the application of scientific methods. The purpose of research are the following-
    1. Exploration
    2 Description
    3. Causal Explanation
    4. Prediction

    Exploration: Exploration is finding out about some previously unexamined phenomenon. It is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the course of the study. Through exploration, researchers Develop concepts more clearly, Establish priorities, Develop operational definitions, Formulate research hypotheses and Improve the final research design. Explorative studies tend towards loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks.

    Description: Description refers to the data based information-gathering activities. The situations and events which are described through studies are referred to as descriptive studies. Descriptive studies try to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where and sometimes how. A descriptive study may be feasible in the following cases –
    What are the characteristics of the people who are involved in city crime? Are they young? Middle aged? Poor?
    Who are the potential buyers of the new product? Men or women? Urban people or rural people?

    Causal Exploration: An explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to establish cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It explains the reason for the phenomenon that describes study observed. Thus, if a researcher finds that communities having higher family size have higher child death, she/he is performing a descriptive study. If researcher is explaining why it is so and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationship, s/he is performing an explanatory study. Such studies are also called causal studies. Following examples fit to causal studies –
    Why people are involved in crime? Can we explain this as a consequence of present crisis in the job market? Or for lack of parental care?
    Will buyers be motivated to purchase the new product in a new container? Can attractive advertisement motivate them?

    Prediction: Prediction seeks to answer when and in what situations the event will occur, if it can be provided plausible explanation for the event in question. In addition to being able to explain an event after it has occurred, it will be able to predict when the event will occur.

  72. Obiajulu Olisaemeka Charles says:

    NAME: OBIAJULU OLISAEMEKA CHARLES
    REG NO: 2018/242803
    DEPT: ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE
    COURSE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions. It involves a systematic investigation including research development, testing and evaluation designed to develop or contribute to generializable knowledge
    The Merriam Webster online dictionary reviews research as a studious enquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Research is also seen as a systematic, exhaustive, and intensive investigation and study of a topic, often employing hypothesis and experimentation, to discover new knowledge, facts, theories, principles, and laws.
    Research comprises “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.” It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

    A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student’s research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.
    Ranganathan describes research to represent a critical and exhaustive investigation to discover new facts, to interpret them in the light of known ideas, theories and laws, to revive the current laws and theories in the light of the newly discovered facts to apply the conclusion to practical purpose.

    The substance of all these samples of definitions of research can be broadly summed up. To restate, the substantive phrases that stand out in all these definitions of research are that research is an activity as characterized below:

    An intellectual activity of a high order;
    An investigation of a phenomenon, event or activity;
    Aims to discover data and facts and their interpretations;
    To arrive at conclusions to formulate new theories and laws or revise the already established theories and laws;
    To communicate the results for peer review; and
    To be accepted or rejected before adding this new knowledge to the already existing general pool of knowledge.

    According to Rajendra Kumbhar the major steps in conducting research are:

    1. Identification and Formulation of Research Problem
    2. Preparing Research Design / Preparing Research Synopsis
    3. Selecting Sample
    4. Constructing Tools for Data Collection
    5. Data Collection
    6. Analysis and Interpretation of Data
    7. Writing Research Report

    According to Wikipedia the major steps in conducting research are:
    Identification of research problem
    Literature review
    Specifying the purpose of research
    Determining specific research questions
    Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    Data collection
    Verifying data
    Analyzing and interpreting the data
    Reporting and evaluating research
    Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations.

    Types of research by purpose:
    Exploratory Research
    Descriptive Research
    Explanatory Research

    There are some basic elements we need to employ before embarking on research, but here’s a few.
    The existing literature is an important element in all research. When we have alighted upon a topic that interests us, we must read further to determine a number of things.
    Concepts and theories in research: The ideas that drive the research process and that shred light on the interpretation of the resulting findings. These findings contribute to the ideas.
    Research questions.
    Sampling cases.
    Data collection.
    Data analysis. And writing up

    To my own reasoning and understanding, I will say research is founded on problem solving. To research is to search again which means one has already searched or inquired in that area.
    Research therefore is reviewing existing studies empirically and rigorously confirming hypothesis. It is a systematic process of finding answers to inquiry which is a question.

  73. ASOGWA OBIORA says:

    NAME: ASOGWA OBIORA
    REG NUMBER: 2018/242288
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    COURSE TITLE: RESEARCH METHOD IN ECONOMICS 1
    EMAIL: OBINNAMICHAEL100@YAHOO.COM
    ASSIGNMENT

    Kerlinger (1986, p.10) defined research as the systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of propositions about the presumed relationship about various phenomena.
    In view of all these definitions from the research pundits, I understand research to mean a systematic and the careful observation of a specific problem through the process of collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, of data as well as making recommendations that is capable of providing dependable solution to that particular problem. Research is a process that gives rise to an invention due to the fact that all inventions in the world are as a result research.
    We have two types of research. They are qualitative and quantitative research.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: This type of research focus on understanding of social phenomena through direct observation and communication with the participants.
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: This often relies on the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaire and surveys or by manipulating existing statistical data using computational techniques.
    The qualities of a good research are as follows:

    VALIDITY: This means that correct procedures have been applied to find answer to a problem.
    UNBIASED AND OBJECTIVE: This means that you have taken each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing your personal idiosyncrasy.
    RELIABILITY: This refers to the quality of measurement procedure provides repeatability and accuracy.
    When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answer to a question, you are implying that the process :
    (a) Is being undertaken within a framework of a set philosophies (approaches)
    (b) Uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliabil-ity.
    (c) Is designed to be unbiased and objective
    The steps in carrying out a research are as follows:
    IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM: In the world of research, there are numerous problems, but the re-searcher chooses a problem he wants to research on.
    CHOOSE A TOPIC: This will enable the researcher to solve a problem he has identified.
    LITERATURE REVIEW: Here, the researcher is required to look at different literature and see what other people have done, and see how he can add new knowledge to the existing knowledge. This is achieved through extensive literature review.
    HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION: This is a tentative statement which the researcher thinks can give a solution to the problem identified.
    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: the aim of data collection and analysis is to accept or reject the hypothesis formulated.
    In conclusion, a good research must involve the following features mentioned below:
    R- rationale way of thinking.
    E- expert/ exhaustive treatment.
    S- search for solution.
    E- exactness.
    A- Adequate date and data : analytical analysis.
    R- relationship among facts, information.
    C- careful recording and critical observations.
    H- honesty and hardworking.

  74. MELONE BENEDETTE CHINENYE REG NO: 2018/242196. DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION: EDUCATION ECONOMICS.. says:

    ANSWERS

    Research as a studious inquiry or examination,especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts,revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts or practical application of such new facts and practically application of such new facts and revised theories of law.

    YES! For me as a special Adviser to Mr President i will say that

    Research involves ones willingness, A quest to know more about a phenomenon and there by carrying out some methods and procedures of how to achieve this aim.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

    Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    These are some characteristics of research:

    (1) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    (2) The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    (3) Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    (4) There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    (5) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    (6) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    (7) Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  75. Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina says:

    Name: Ugwu Chikaodinaka Augustina
    Reg no: 2018/246451
    Department: Economics
    Course: Eco391

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?

    Answer
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    What research means to me;
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/ or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

    Types of Research
    Qualitative research: is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    -One-to-one Interview
    -Focus Groups
    -Ethnographic studies
    -Text Analysis
    -Case Study

    Quantitative methods: deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    -Survey research
    -Descriptive research
    -Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    Purpose of research
    There are three main purposes:
    1.Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2.Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3.Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Ways to conduct an accurate research
    1.Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2.Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3.Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4.Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5.Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6.Act on your strategies
    7.Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8.Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

  76. Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram says:

    Udeh Josephine Nkemakoram
    2018/241843
    Economics
    300 level
    Eco 391

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    STEPS IN RESEARCHING
    Step 1: Identify and develop your topic
    Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this is the very first step in writing a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly.
    Step 2 : Do a preliminary search for information
    Before beginning your research in earnest, do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough information out there for your needs and to set the context of your research.
    Step 3: Locate materials
    With the direction of your research now clear to you, you can begin locating material on your topic.
    Step 4: Evaluate your sources
    Step 5: Make notes
    Step 6: Write your paper
    Begin by organizing the information you have collected.
    Step 7: Cite your sources properly
    Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.
    Step 8: Proofread
    The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you have created.
    TYPES OF RESEARCHES
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data.
    Descriptive research
    Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research.
    As the special adviser on research and strategy to the Mr. president my duty is to organize carefully examined researches that would help in the governing of the country. The result from the researches could contribute in:
    The formulation if policies,
    The allocation of resources among states,
    Pinpointing the sources of problems in the country, in summary growing a better country.

  77. Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn says:

    Name: Ezeh Uchechukwu Evelyn
    Reg no: 2018/241821
    Department: Economics
    Course: RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS ( Eco 391 )

    Assignment
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications
    Research can also be defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    RESEARCH METHODS ARE BROADLY CLASSIFIED AS QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way. Qualitative research is enormously valuable because it allows us to truly learn the experience, values, and viewpoints of our publics. It also provides ample quotes to use as evidence or illustration in our strategy documents, and sometimes even results in slogans or fodder for use in public relations’ messages.
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon. When we speak of research in public relations, we are normally referring to primary research, such as public opinion studies based on surveys and polling. (The following lists quantitative research methods commonly employed in public relations.) Surveys are synonymous with public opinion polls, and are one example of quantitative research.
    RESEARCH HAS THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS
    1. Research Initiates Theory:
    2. Research Helps Recasting of Theory:
    3. Research Refocuses Theory:
    4. Research Helps in Clarifying Theory:

  78. Eze Naomi Onyinyechi says:

    Eze Naomi Onyinyechi
    2018/241870
    Economics Major 300l
    naomi.eze.241870@unn.edu
    ECO 391 Online Quiz 1

    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”. Also, The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something.

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    As a special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy, To me, Research means searching for the unknown, testing already proven theories, and bringing into light the past theories that can enable us make strategic plans and beneficial decisions for the economy and the nation at large.
    Research in any field or discipline,
    . Attempts to solve a research problem
    . Involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose
    . Is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence
    . Demands accurate observation and description
    . Employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis
    . Attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the methods employed

    The steps for conducting research varies depending on the researcher and the course of research, but a basic research takes the following steps:
    . Formation of the topic,
    · Hypothesis,
    · Conceptual definitions,
    · Operational definitions,
    · Gathering of data,
    · Analysis of data,
    · Testing
    · Conclusion.

  79. ABONYI AMAKA MARY says:

    NAME: ABONYI AMAKA MARY
    REG NO: 2018/241874
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    From the above definition, research could be seen as a well planned and detailed inquiry, especially in order to discover new information or relationship. It involves an extensive review on what other people have done in an attempt to expand and verify an existing knowledge that is, it is the creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts and understandings.
    Research has been defined by various authors and from their different definitions it could be noted that research is a systematic process that helps us find solution to a problem. Some of these definitions include;
    Research is a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic method of enquiry (Hardman and Hart, 1996).
    Research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge (Shuttleworth, Martin 2008).
    Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and verify the existing knowledge (Rummel, J Francis, 1964).
    As the special adviser on research and strategy, research could be seen as a very careful, well planned and detailed inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationship which involves an extensive literature review in an attempt to expand and verify an existing knowledge. It could also be seen as a systematic process of finding facts and solutions to a problem. Research is carried out to increase or contribute to our knowledge.
    Research is conducted for the following reasons;
    Provide answers to economic problems.
    Understand existing phenomenon.
    Accept or reject hypothesis.
    To make predictions.
    To formulate policies.

  80. Eze Naomi Onyinyechi says:

    Eze Naomi Onyinyechi
    2018/241870
    Economics Major 300l
    naomi.eze.241870@unn.edu
    ECO 391 Online Quiz 1

    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”. Also, The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something.

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    As a special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy, To me, Research means searching for the unknown, testing already proven theories, and bringing into light the past theories that can enable us make strategic plans and beneficial decisions for the economy and the nation at large.
    Research in any field or discipline,
    Attempts to solve a research problem
    Involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose
    Is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence
    Demands accurate observation and description
    Employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis
    Attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the methods employed

    The steps for conducting research varies depending on the researcher and the course of research, but a basic research takes the following steps:
    . Formation of the topic,
    · Hypothesis,
    · Conceptual definitions,
    · Operational definitions,
    · Gathering of data,
    · Analysis of data,
    · Testing
    · Conclusion.

  81. Eze Naomi Onyinyechi says:

    Eze Naomi Onyinyechi
    2018/241870
    Economics Major 300l
    naomi.eze.241870@unn.edu
    ECO 391 Online Quiz 1

    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”. Also, The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something.

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    As a special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy, To me, Research means searching for the unknown, testing already proven theories, and bringing into light the past theories that can enable us make strategic plans and beneficial decisions for the economy and the nation at large.
    Research in any field or discipline,
    Attempts to solve a research problem
    Involves gathering new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose
    Is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence
    Demands accurate observation and description
    Employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis
    Attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem and takes great pains to validate the methods employed

    The steps for conducting research varies depending on the researcher and the course of research, but a basic research takes the following steps:
    . Formation of the topic,
    · Hypothesis,
    · Conceptual definitions,
    · Operational definitions,
    · Gathering of data,
    · Analysis of data,
    · Testing
    · Drawing Conclusion.

  82. Ugochukwu ugonnaya Judith 2018/244297 says:

    Name: Ugochukwu Ugonnaya Judith
    Dept : social science education (education economics)
    Regno: 2018/244297

    What is research?
    To my understanding, Research is a diligent or careful search or inquiry or examination to seek or revise facts principles, theories, and applications. It’s a search after truth.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research..
    Characteristics of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observation and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequencial procedures.
    3. Controlled – all variable except those that are tested/ experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    5. Analytical – there is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no errors in their interpretation.
    6. Objective, unbiased, and logical – all findings are logically based on empiricism.
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – Data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Why Research Is Necessary
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    7. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

  83. Onyilo Joseph dominic says:

    Name: Onyilo Joseph Dominic
    Dept: education/ economic
    Reg no: 2018/250101
    Attempt
    The world in which we live is full of many unknowns and undiscovered facts. This has been the situation since the beginning of the world. Right from creation is therefore full of accounts of man’s attempt to probe into the unknown aspects of his environment. This is no doubt the circumstances of man’s existence that endowed him with natural tendency to be inquisitive – always trying to find answers to perplexing and unanswered questions.
    Research therefore can be defined as a systematic and objective investigation or activity to unravel and provide solutions to unknown phenomenona in the environment ( Nworgu, 2015). It is derived from the Latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know. Selltiz and others (1974) and African development foundation (1993) defined research as being concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge through the verification of hypothesis used to test theories. Ogunnyi (1992) defines it as a careful or diligent search, studious and critical enquiry and examination aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge. A comprehensive definition of research is coined by Shutteworth martin(2006)
    as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
    Thus the summary of the definition include;
    R= rationale way of thinking
    E= expert treatment
    S=search for solution
    E=exactness
    A= adequate date and data analytical analysis
    R=relationship among facts information
    C=careful recording critical observations
    H=honesty, hard work.
    From the above definitions the characteristics of research becomes;
    – it results must be valid
    -it must be reliable
    -it must follow some accepted procedures.
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The general aim of research is to seal into and unknown situation to advance knowledge.
    1.Data obtained through research enables us to understand existing phenomena. This implies a comprehensive search on what exists.
    2. It helps to determine or established the existence and extent of relationship between variables.
    3.It helps to provide answers to an unknown problems.
    4.It provide us with data for the purpose of extrapolation, forecasting and policy especially during the occurrence or expectation of reoccurrence of similar events.
    5.research provides the basis for rejection or acceptance of hypothesis or tentative claims made through deductive reasoning.
    6.It helps us to replicate knowledge or theories in order to enrich the school curriculum.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH
    There exist two broad types of research namely;
    – non scientific research and scientific research.
    The non scientific research refers to such research that are not patterned after known scientific procedures or methods eg speculation, mysticism, theology. While the scientific research as put forward by Truckman(1972) is a systematic, logical, reductive, replicable, empirical and transmittable activity.
    MY ADVICE As AN ADVISER To MR PRESIDENTon RESEARCH.
    Ideas per say rules the world, and for one to evolved new idea it demands critical, careful and objective inquiry into the unknown, this very act of inquiring into the unknown is termed ‘research’
    it is an objective quest for an answer to an in solved problems, it could be for any purpose worth searching for. For instance, a country with backward economic progress can research on it causes and solutions. Countries can also seak to know why some policy failure occur in the system and so many other problems. So therefore Mr. President, I advice research department should be given the needed attention and founded to enable our noble nation comes up with ideas that are instrumental in curving so many problems in the country. Problems such as unemployment, inflation, food scarcity, poor educational standard, frequent industrial actions etc .can be solved with proper research into it causes. To be at the frontier of development as a nation, such a nation must be a custodian of all knowledge that is worth while. For an example the developed nations of the world invests slots in research therefore coming up with ideas that propels new invention and investment which result to rapid development.
    Reference:
    African development foundation (1993) research
    Grant proposal Handbook USA: African
    Development foundation

    Nworgu B.G (1991) educational research. Basic
    issues and methodology, Ibadan: wisdom
    publisher.
    Oguniyi m (1992) understanding research in the
    social sciences. Nigeria: Auto century
    publishing company

  84. GWOM PAUL JACOB says:

    GWOM PAUL JACOB
    2018/243820
    ECONOMICS
    ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT
    WHAT IS THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH?
    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    For questions about ideas, experiences and meanings, or to study something that can’t be described numerically, collect qualitative data.
    If you want to develop a more mechanistic understanding of a topic, or your research involves hypothesis testing, collect quantitative data.
    Qualitative analysis is used to understand words, ideas, and experiences. You can use it to interpret data that was collected:
    From open-ended survey and interview questions, literature reviews, case studies, and other sources that use text rather than numbers.

    Using non-probability sampling methods.

    Qualitative analysis tends to be quite flexible and relies on the researcher’s judgement, so you have to reflect carefully on your choices and assumptions.

    Quantitative analysis methods
    Quantitative analysis uses numbers and statistics to understand frequencies, averages and correlations (in descriptive studies) or cause-and-effect relationships (in experiments).
    You can use quantitative analysis to interpret data that was collected either:
    During an experiment.
    Using probability sampling methods.
    Because the data is collected and analyzed in a statistically valid way, the results of study?

    THE SCOPE OF RESEARCH
    The scope of the study refers to the boundaries within which your research project will be performed; this is sometimes also called the scope of research. To define the scope of the study is to define all aspects that will be considered in your research project. It is also just as important to make clear what aspects will not be covered; i.e. what is outside of the scope of the study.

    What is the Scope of the Study?
    Answer:
    The scope of a study explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating.
    Basically, this means that you will have to define what the study is going to cover and what it is focusing on. Similarly, you also have to define what the study is not going to cover. This will come under the limitations. Generally, the scope of a research paper is followed by its limitations. 
    As a researcher, you have to be careful when you define your scope or area of focus. Remember that if you broaden the scope too much, you might not be able to do justice to the work or it might take a very long time to complete. Consider the feasibility of your work before you write down the scope. Again, if the scope is too narrow, the findings might not be generalizable.
    Typically, the information that you need to include in the scope would cover the following:
    1. General purpose of the study
    2. The population or sample that you are studying
    3. The duration of the study
    4. The topics or theories that you will discuss
    5. The geographical location covered in the study.

  85. Uzor Ngozi Nnenna says:

    NAME : UZOR NGOZI NNENNA

    REG. NO : 2018/251387

    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS

    EMAIL : nuzor000@gmail.com

    COURSE : ECO 391 ( RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS)
    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEAN.

    ANSWER;
    Research can be defined as the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective.

    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff
    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP
    the development of HDR training and courses
    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses
    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)
    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:

    scientific and technical information services
    general purpose or routine data collection
    standardisation and routine testing
    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)
    specialised routine medical care
    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright or licensing activities
    routine computer programming, systems work or software maintenance.

  86. Obodoike faith oluchi says:

    Name: Obodoike faith oluchi
    Reg No:20818/245387
    Department: Economics education
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course tittle: Research method in economics
    Assignment:The meaning and scope of Research
    ANSWER
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. This could include synthetic and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcome.
    Also RESEARCH is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    (a) Identify potential and new customers.
    (b) Understand existing customers.
    (c) Set pragmatic goals.
    (d) Develop productive market strategies
    (e) Address business challenges.
    (f) Put together a business expansion plan.
    (g) Identify new business opportunities.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    (1)Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data.

    (2)Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    (3)The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    (4)Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    (5) There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    (6) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    (7) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    (8)Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study.

    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

  87. OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY says:

    Eco. 391 -20-8-2021 (online Discussion Quiz 1- the meaning and scope of Research)
    NAME: OKELEKE CHINEMEMMA VICTORY
    REG NO: 2018/247843
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    LEVEL: 300L
    EMAIL: okelekevictory@yahoo.com

    QUESTION (s):
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!
    ANSWER
    As a special adviser to Mr. President, research means:
    Careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.
    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Cancer research has ‘Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,’ and ‘Baby Born with HIV Cured.’ Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like, ‘Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or HIV infections?’
    But all I’ve said so far is what research has done (sort of like saying baking leads to apple pie; it doesn’t really tell you anything other than the two are connected). To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable.
    Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something.’
    According Nwanna, research is findings solutions to problems. Research that do not follow laid down rules and method is no research.
    Research is divided into two: Scientific and Non scientific research. Scientific research follows a well fashioned procedures. It not done hazardly While Non scientific is not rule – governed, example of Non scientific research: Mysticism, that knowledge gain via magic; Guesswork and Divination, that is knowledge through revelation. Scientific research has profound features such: it is empirical: results can be verify; it is cumulative; it is systematic;
    There are various steps in carrying out research
    Step 1: problem identification
    Step 2: choice of research topic
    Step 3: literature review
    Step 4: Hypothesis formulation
    Step 5: Data collection and analysis
    Challenges in carrying out Research in Nigeria
    • lack of records ( both public and private sector)
    • poor corporation with public and private sector worker
    • problem of funding
    • Seeing research work as merely academic work
    • poor infrastructure base
    When talk of the scope of research we clinically mean the boundaries or areas of the study. It is the sphere within which your research work is channel to.

  88. AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI says:

    AGBO LOVETH AMARACHI
    REG NO: 2018/248 680
    DEPARTMENT: EDUCATION ECONOMICS

    ECO 391 quiz 1
    Research could be seen as a studios inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    QUESTION:
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definition offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    MY view:
    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination because it involves a careful study or examination of an observed phenomenon. It deals with investigation or experimentation of facts as it has to do with the investigation or testing (experimentation) of facts or observed phenomenon using a set of systematic procedure which include :
    1. Identification of a problem: for researcher to conduct a research, he must first identify a problem. In otherwords, if a problem is not identified, research will not take place. For example, a researcher can identify low level of foreign investors in Nigeria as an economic problem and decide to embark on research to know the possible cause and effect of it to Nigerian economy. Shortcomings or critics of existing economic theories can also be identified as a problem by a researcher which can make him to conduct a research.
    2. Choice of topic: when a problem has been identified, a researcher chooses a topic which will be used to embark on research to find answers to the identified problem For instance, if a researcher identified low level of foreign investors in Nigeria, he can choose ‘The causes and effect of low level of foreign investors in Nigeria’ as a research topic .
    3. Literature review: This has to do with reviewing or careful study of what other researchers has done on a research topic to know what they have contributed to knowledge of the research topic and shortcomings of their findings. A researcher takes this step to Know area to be focused on his research topic in order to contribute to knowledge gained that will be documented for that particular economic problem. Literature review is very important, it helps a researcher to avoid repeating exactly what another researcher has done without any contribution for improvement or addition of new idea on the topic.
    4. Formulation of Hypothesis: This means the formulation of a statement that will stand testing and can be accepted or rejected at the end of a research process.
    5. Data collection and Analysis: This refers to collection of data on the topic of research and analysis of such data to either accept or reject the hypothesis formulated thereby proffering solution to an identified problem.
    A researcher takes the above procedures to revise accepted theories or laws either to come up with new facts or to improve the existing theories or laws and to analyse how such new facts or revised theories can be practically applied in real world situation.

    WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO ME AS A SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR. PRESIDENT
    Research means a systematic study of an observed phenomenon with a view of testing a hypothesis formulated based on observed fact through collection of data and analysis to accept or reject the hypothesis in order to find solution or answer to a problem. In other words, research is a systematic study of an observed phenomenon to come up with new knowledge or to improve an existing knowledge. It is scientific and has peculiar features of being empirical, replicable, systematic, theoretical (based on economic theories), cumulative and lacks moral undertone.

  89. Joseph Ruth Tochukwu says:

    Joseph Ruth Tochukwu
    2018/245132
    Economics department

    Assignment: Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research is a “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. It is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field.
    Research is conducted to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework, To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners, To help generate questions for further inquiries. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question. Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable. Research can be about anything. To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. Research really begins with the right question, because your question must be answerable.
    The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

  90. Okpara Favour Amarachi says:

    Name ; Okpara Favour Amarachi
    Reg number ; 2018/248953
    Email address ; favouramy363@gmail.com

    “Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”
    From the above paragraph we can see that research is seen as a s”studious inquiry or examination” and an inquiry is the process of finding answers to questions. It provides a lens from which to explore the question. A paper, work of art, poster, presentation, field report, or one of many other possibilities can all be evidence of scholarly work while an examination is a detailed inspection or study.This studious inquiry or examination is aimed at generating new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    As the special adviser to Mr President on Research and strategy,I view research as research as the organised and systematic method of finding answers to questions.It is systematic because it is a process broken up into clear steps that lead to conclusions. Research is organised because there is a planned structure or method used to reach the conclusion. Research is only successful if we find answers, whether we like these answers or not.
    It is about collecting information that answers a question. Throughout this process the researcher has to ensure that information is gathered in a systematic and accurate manner.Information gathered must be cross-checked by using other sources and references, even when the researcher is convinced that the information already obtained provides a good answer to the question asked.Research methods include experiments,questionaires,surveys, participant and non-participant observation etc

    RESEARCH PROCESS
    The research process is a process of some consequent steps in which one step is linked to another step in the process. If changes are made in one step of the process, the researcher must review all other steps to ensure that changes have been reflected throughout the process.The research process begins when the investigation starts. It ends with the reporting of the research findings.

    BASIC STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS ;
    Step 1 – Defining the research problem; All research sets in a research problem definitely. Factual ignorance may be the research problem. We would simply intend to enrich our knowledge of social processes or institutions.
    Step 2 – Review of Literature ; that is to study the available research resources related to the problem. Keep in mind that how richer your literature is, the better your research will be.

    Step 3 – Formulating a hypothesis ; In this step, the researcher makes the problem precise. What the researcher intends to test? What is the relationship between variables? Specify your Independent & Dependent variables.Effective research work formulates a hypothesis in such a way that collected factual data will provide evidence that either supports or disproves them.
    Step 4 – Research design ; Research design decides how the research materials will be collected. One or more research methods, for example, experiment, survey, interview, etc are chosen depending on the research objectives. Research Design actually provides insights into “how” to conduct research using a particular Research Methodology. Basically, every researcher has a list of research questions that need to be assessed that can be done with research design.
    Step 5 – Carry out the research process ; While the research design is decided, then the researcher collects data, records information. The researcher proceeds with the research.When you collect data, you need to know the effective techniques of data collection in order to gather necessary and relevant information with regard to research.
    Step 6 – Preparing research results ; No matter what kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full of ideas that originated from your analysis. Ideally, you’ll write them down as they come to you. Now you need to convert the mass of those elements and ideas into a written text that makes sense to the reader and can do justice to your quest.
    Step 7 – Reporting research findings ; The final step of the research process outline is to report the research findings. Describe the significance of the research study. Work out how do they relate to the previous research findings. Usually, the research report published as a journal article or book. This is the last stage in terms of the individual research project. Mostly, a research report discusses questions that remained unanswered & suggests further research in the future in general.

  91. NAME: UGWUOKE CORNELIUS CHINEMEOGO
    REG NO: 2018/241852
    LEVEL: 300
    COURSE CODE:ECO391

    1. In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.”

    Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language defines research as“studious inquiry or examination, especially critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts, and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws.”

    According to the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Research is a systematic inquiry into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, etc.

    Busha in his publication Research Methods in Librarianship says that Research is “a systematic quest for knowledge that is characterized by disciplined enquiry. Efficient and effective approach to expand knowledge is the conduct of special, planned and structured investigations.”

    Ranganathan describes research to represent a critical and exhaustive investigation to discover new facts, to interpret them in the light of known ideas, theories and laws, to revive the current laws and theories in the light of the newly discovered facts to apply the conclusion to practical purpose.

    The substance of all these samples of definitions of research can be broadly summed up. To restate, the substantive phrases that stand out in all these definitions of research are that research is an activity as characterized below:

    • An intellectual activity of a high order;
    • An investigation of a phenomenon, event or activity;
    • Aims to discover data and facts and their interpretations;
    • To arrive at conclusions to formulate new theories and laws or revise the already established theories and laws;
    • To communicate the results for peer review; and
    • To be accepted or rejected before adding this new knowledge to the already existing general pool of knowledge.

    2. let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    The purpose of research to me is to inform action. Thus our study seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research is must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting. Furthermore, the results of our study have implications for policy and future project implementation.
    knowledge is the primary and powerful resource that can provide scope for material prosperity of a society. New knowledge can be acquired only with the pursuit of research to extend the frontiers of knowledge.
    One problem that often plagues progress in global health is the slow translation of research into practice. Often, a disconnect exists between those who conduct research and those who are positioned to implement the research findings. The underlying problem is that “the production of evidence is organized institutionally with highly centralized mechanisms, whereas the application of that science is highly decentralized. This social distance prevails because scientists are more oriented to the international audiences of other scientists for which they publish than to the needs of practitioners, policy makers, or the local public.”(1)
    Thus, as researchers, it is imperative to take steps to overcome this barrier. Thus having the required funds will help sustain our research activities which will help us find ways, methods and methodologies in solving our problems in the health sector.
    Importance of research

    #1. Research expands your knowledge base
    The most obvious reason to do research is that you’ll learn more. There’s always more to learn about a topic, even if you are already well-versed in it. If you aren’t, research allows you to build on any personal experience you have with the subject. The process of research opens up new opportunities for learning and growth in our country.
    #2. Research gives you the latest information
    Research encourages you to find the most recent information available. In certain fields, especially scientific ones, there’s always new information and discoveries being made. Staying updated prevents you from falling behind and giving info that’s inaccurate or doesn’t paint the whole picture. With the latest info, you’ll be better equipped to talk about a subject and build on ideas.
    #3. Research helps you know what you’re up against
    In business, you’ll have competition. Researching your competitors and what they’re up to helps you formulate your plans and strategies. You can figure out what sets you apart. In other types of research, like medicine, your research might identify diseases, classify symptoms, and come up with ways to tackle them. Even if your “enemy” isn’t an actual person or competitor, there’s always some kind of antagonist force or problem that research can help you deal with.
    #4. Research builds your credibility
    People will take what you have to say more seriously when they can tell you’re informed. Doing research gives you a solid foundation on which you can build your ideas and opinions. You can speak with confidence about what you know is accurate. When you’ve done the research, it’s much harder for someone to poke holes in what you’re saying. Your research should be focused on the best sources. If your “research” consists of opinions from non-experts, you won’t be very credible. When your research is good, though, people are more likely to pay attention.
    #5. Research helps you narrow your scope
    When you’re circling a topic for the first time, you might not be exactly sure where to start. Most of the time, the amount of work ahead of you is overwhelming. Whether you’re writing a paper or formulating a business plan, it’s important to narrow the scope at some point. Research helps you identify the most unique and/or important themes. You can choose the themes that fit best with the project and its goals.
    Take a short course on research
    • Understanding Research Methods (SOAS University of London)
    • How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (École Polytechnique)
    • Research for Impact (Oxfam)
    • Qualitative Research Methods: Conversational Interviewing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    #6. Research teaches you better discernment
    Doing a lot of research helps you sift through low-quality and high-quality information. The more research you do on a topic, the better you’ll get at discerning what’s accurate and what’s not. You’ll also get better at discerning the gray areas where information may be technically correct but used to draw questionable conclusions.
    #7. Research introduces you to new ideas
    You may already have opinions and ideas about a topic when you start researching. The more you research, the more viewpoints you’ll come across. This encourages you to entertain new ideas and perhaps take a closer look at yours. You might change your mind about something or, at least, figure out how to position your ideas as the best ones.
    #8. Research helps with problem-solving
    Whether it’s a personal or professional problem, it helps to look outside yourself for help. Depending on what the issue is, your research can focus on what others have done before. You might just need more information, so you can make an informed plan of attack and an informed decision. When you know you’ve collected good information, you’ll feel much more confident in your solution.
    #9. Research helps you reach people
    Research is used to help raise awareness of issues like climate change, racial discrimination, gender inequality, and more. Without hard facts, it’s very difficult to prove that climate change is getting worse or that gender inequality isn’t progressing as quickly as it should. The public needs to know what the facts are, so they have a clear idea of what “getting worse” or “not progressing” actually means. Research also entails going beyond the raw data and sharing real-life stories that have a more personal impact on people.
    #10. Research encourages curiosity
    Having curiosity and a love of learning take you far in life. Research opens you up to different opinions and new ideas. It also builds discerning and analytical skills. The research process rewards curiosity. When you’re committed to learning, you’re always in a place of growth. Curiosity is also good for your health. Studies show curiosity is associated with higher levels of positivity, better satisfaction with life, and lower anxiety.

  92. Ani Ozoemena Emmanuel 2018/248134 says:

    Research is a systematic attempt to provide answer to question (Tuckman 1999). It is also a devoted attempt of finding out that truth. Research is also a stadious inquiry or examination especially investigation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of fact, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of facts or practical application of such new theories or laws. To my own understanding, research is a careful and systematic attempt or study of a problem which includes collection, analysis and interpretation of data to offer solution to such problem.
    There some characteristics of research which are
    1:Rigorous
    2:Systematic
    3:Valid and verifiable
    4:Empirical
    5:Unbiased and Objective
    RIGOROUS: This means that the researcher must be thorough in ensuring that the steps followed to find answers are relevant and appropriate.
    SYSTEMATIC: This entail that the procedures taken in research follows a logical sequence. These procedures or steps cannot be taken in a haphazard way. Some steps must logically follow others, not precede them.
    VALID and VERIFIABLE: This means that a researcher’s conclusion based on his findings must be correct and can be verified by the researcher and others.
    EMPIRICAL: This means that every conclusion arrived at by the researcher must be based on solid evidence obtained from information collected from real-life observations.
    UNBIASED and OBJECTIVE: This means that each step undertaken by the researcher must be unbiased and every conclusion drawn without introducing sentiments or vested interest.

  93. Obodoike faith oluchi says:

    Name: obodoike faith oluchi
    Reg No :2018/245387
    Department: Economics education
    Course code:Eco 391
    Course tittle: Research method in economics
    Assignment: The meaning and scope of research

    ANSWER

    The term research consist of two words”,Re” and “search” .”Re”means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
    Research is defined as the Creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It simply means a search for facts, answer to question and solution to problems.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1 controlled
    2 Rigorous:by this meant that researcher must be scrupulous in ensuring that the procedures followed to find answers to question are relevant, appropriate and justify.
    3 Systematic:this implies that the procedures adopted to undertake an investigation follow a cartain logical sequence.
    4 Valid and verifiable: This implies that whatever you conclude on the basis of your finding is correct and can be verified by you and others.
    5 the research must be empirical
    6 Critical: critical scrutiny of the procedures used and the method employed is crucial to a research enquiry.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    Exploratory:As the name suggest, researcher conduct exploratory to explore a group of question.

    Descriptive:It focuses on expending knowledge on current issue through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population.

    Explanatory:causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific change in existing standing procedures.

  94. Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne says:

    Onyemalu Ogochukwu Maryanne
    2018/242424
    Eco 361
    Developmental Economics
    Assignment
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    Identify potential and new customer
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights
    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    Act on your strategies
    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

  95. ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA. REG NO: 2018/248582 says:

    ODOH, VICTOR CHUKWUEMEKA
    2018/248582
    ECONOMICS MAJOR
    300 LEVEL
    ECO391 ASSIGNMENT
    Dictionary meaning of Research
    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    “we are fighting meningitis by raising money for medical research”
    What is Research?
    1. careful or diligent search
    2. studious inquiry or examination
    especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws
    3. the collecting of information about a particular subject
    4. to search or investigate exhaustively
    Definition:
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.
    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study

    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    Act on your strategies
    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

  96. IKEGULU CHUKWUKASI DAVID says:

    Name: Ikegulu chukwukasi david
    Reg No: 2018/248743
    Department: ECONOMICS
    Course code: Eco 391

    In other to carefully analyse the above assertion, I divided the statement into three groups, one, two and three.
    GROUP 1: Research is a studious inquiry, examination, investigation or experimentation. These words in general talks about research  as looking into something (Crypto trading as a case study) studies are carried out in order to understand more about it, discover new ways of improving it, tackling It’s challenges and so on.
    The words EXAMINATION and INVESTIGATION, tells us that research has a procedure to it as pointed out by CRESWELL in his definition of Research “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyse information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”
    Creswell tells us in his definition that their should be a systematic means in the conduct of a Research.

    GROUP 2: Research has an aim which is the discovery of facts, interpretation of already existing facts and the revision of already accepted facts/theories, not just stopping there it seeks to interpret this new facts, thereby making it possible to understand.
    Lastly, it aims to look into already accepted theories, to know how best to improve and modify it.

    GROUP 3: Research has an overall aim which is the discover solution(s) to a  problem, through theories and their practical applications, because no research is complete till it is capable of solving the problem which it took on.
    Therefore if a researcher is capable of forming a hypothesis, accepting it, transforming such a hypothesis into a theory and it is proved to be true and accepted, but when it comes down to it’s practical application and it fails to excel, it can be said to be an incomplete research, looking at MOULEY’S definition of research would help us to understand my above criticism “Research is a process of arriving at a dependable solution to the problems through the planned and systematic collection, analyze and Interpretation of data” – MOULEY.
    What Research Means To Me:
    1. Research is the bedrock of development
    2. Research helps us to understand more about the unknown.
    In conclusion as the special adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy, Research can be seen as a careful and systematic process of investigation in order to proffer solutions to an undertaken problem.

    Reference:
    https://studymoose.com/meaning-of-research-according-to-different-authors-essay

  97. Chukwu Precious Ada says:

    Name: Chukwu Precious Ada
    Reg no: 2018/244278
    Dept: Economics education
    Course code: Eco 391
    Email address: Chukwuprecious09@gmail.com

    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.[3] The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):
    * Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer.

    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.

    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive). Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

    Features of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    5. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

    Summary
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    Reference

    1. OECD (2015). Frascati Manual. The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities. doi:10.1787/9789264239012-en. ISBN 978-9264238800.
    2. ^ “The Origins of Science”. Scientific American Frontiers.
    3. ^ a b c “Research”. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
    4. Feigenbaum, Edward A.; McCorduck, Pamela (1983). The fifth generation: Artificial intelligence and Japan’s computer challenge to the world. ISBN 978-0-201-11519-2.
    5. Kendal, Simon; Creen, Malcolm (2006-10-04). An Introduction to Knowledge Engineering. ISBN 978-1-84628-475-5.
    6. Russell, Stuart Jonathan; Norvig, Peter (1995). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. ISBN 0-13-103805-2.

  98. Chukwu Precious Ada says:

    NAME: CHUKWU PRECIOUS ADA
    REG NO: 2018/244278
    DEPT: ECONOMICS EDUCATION
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    EMAIL ADDRESS : Chukwuprecious09@gmail.com

    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.[3] The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):
    * Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer.

    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.

    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive). Statistics derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

    Features of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    5. Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

    Summary
    The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas. A research purpose is met through forming hypotheses, collecting data, analysing results, forming conclusions, implementing findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    Reference
    1. OECD (2015). Frascati Manual. The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities. doi:10.1787/9789264239012-en. ISBN 978-9264238800.
    2. ^ “The Origins of Science”. Scientific American Frontiers.
    3. ^ a b c “Research”. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
    4. Feigenbaum, Edward A.; McCorduck, Pamela (1983). The fifth generation: Artificial intelligence and Japan’s computer challenge to the world. ISBN 978-0-201-11519-2.
    5. Kendal, Simon; Creen, Malcolm (2006-10-04). An Introduction to Knowledge Engineering. ISBN 978-1-84628-475-5.
    6. Russell, Stuart Jonathan; Norvig, Peter (1995). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. ISBN 0-13-103805-2.

  99. AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA says:

    NAME: AGUBUZO SOMTOCHUKWU THELMA
    REG NO: 2018/242444
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT:
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    As stated in the question,
    Research could be seen as an investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts. It is also the revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Research basically means to investigate systematically. It is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue.
    The role of the Special Advisor to the President on research and strategy is to provide full support to the President on matters concerning research and also to give advice when needed.
    As a special adviser to the president on research and strategy,Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods.
    Researches are conducted for many reasons,some are:
    1. To evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    2. To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    3. To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    4. To guide and influence decision making process of a country.
    A research strategy is an overall plan for conducting a research study. While
    Research methods are ways of collecting and analyzing data. A research strategy guides a researcher in planning, executing, and monitoring the study. Thus, a research strategy offers high-level guidance, while a research method can be seen as technique or tool for performing a specific task.
    There are two main types of research methods:
    • Quantitative research method
    • Qualitative research method
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD:Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. This research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys etc., the results of which can be depicted in numerical form. Some examples of quantitative research are:
    •SURVEYS: Surveys are used to ask questions to a sample of respondents, using various types such as online polls, online surveys, paper questionnaires, web-intercept surveys, etc.It is the first step towards collecting data for any research.
    CORRELATION RESEARCH: Correlation research is conducted to establish a relationship between two closely-knit entities and how one impacts the other and what are the changes that are eventually observed.

    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD:
    Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods such as:
    •One on one interview:personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent.
    •Case study research: it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data.
    •Record keeping: This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source. 

  100. UGWU SERAH IZUNNA. says:

    NAME: UGWU SERAH IZUNNA.

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS.

    REG NUMBER: 2018/247399

    COURSE CODE: ECO 391
    Assignment..
    DISCUSS THE MEANING AND SCOPES OF RESEARCH.

    research is derived from the Latin word “sciens” meaning to know.
    The word research is composed of two syllables,
    RE and SEARCH..
    “RE” is a prefix meaning again, a new, or over again..while SEARCH is a verb ,meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try or to probe.
    Research has different meaning in several ways:
    Research means a careful, systematic study and investigation in the field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts or principles..
    Research is a careful inquiring or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify existing knowledge.

    According to Martin ShuttleWorth, the definition of research includes any gathering of knowledge that involves advancement of knowledge.
    Research involves a systematic investigations including research development, testing and evaluation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:

    professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research

    management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff

    the activities and training of HDR students enrolled at the HEP

    the development of HDR training and courses

    the supervision of students enrolled at the HEP and undertaking HDR training and courses

    research and experimental development into applications software, new programming languages and new operating systems (such R&D would normally meet the definition of research)

    Activities that do not support the conduct of research must be excluded, such as:

    scientific and technical information services

    general purpose or routine data collection

    standardisation and routine testing

    feasibility studies (except into research and experimental development projects)

    specialised routine medical care

    commercial, legal and administrative aspects of patenting, copyright
    Investigation involves the use of analytical tests and techniques which will expand knowledge base in any given field of human endeavour.

    R= Rationale way of thinking.
    E= Expert/exhaustive treatment.
    S= Search for solution
    E=Exactness.
    A= Adequate date and data
    R= Relationship among facts
    C=Careful recording
    H= Honesty, hardworking.

    Why do we carry out research?
    (1) To understand existing phenomena
    (2) research enables us to provide answer to unknown problems.
    (3)It helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    (4) It also helps us to formulate theories.
    RESEARCH PROCESS.
    THERE ARE DIFFERENT STAGES OF RESEARCH.
    (1) problem identification.
    (2) choice of research topic.
    (3) literatures review.
    (4) Hypothesis formulation

    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    there are two main types of research.
    (1) scientific research.
    (2) Non scientific research.

    Non scientific research is a type of research that has no scientific method,, it does not have any specified procedure or method.
    Eg: guess work, mysticism, divine revelation..

    Characteristics of scientific research:
    (1) it is empirical
    (2) it is replicable
    (3) it is systematic
    (4) it is theoretical.
    (5) it lacks moral undertone.
    (6) Scientific research is cumulative.
    (7) it is unbiased
    The scope of the study refers to the boundaries within which your research project will be performed; this is sometimes also called the scope of research. To define the scope of the study is to define all aspects that will be considered in your research project.

  101. IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR says:

    NAME: IBENYENWA JUSTICE JUNIOR
    REG NO:2018/245647
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391_ RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS

    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY
    ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    There are reasons for conducting research, below are some of them:
    1. To identify potential and new customers
    2. To understand existing customers
    3. To set pragmatic goals
    4. To develop productive market strategies
    5. To address business challenges
    6. To put together a business expansion plan
    7. To identify new business opportunities
    Characteristics of a good research?
    1. A good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis must be based on logical reasoning
    3. Real-time data and knowledge should be derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There should be an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.
    WE HAVE TWO TYPES OF RESEARCH
    Basic and Applied Research
    WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO ME
    As an Economist and the special adviser to Mr President, conducting an effective research will help me to be good adviser. Not advising him based on “hear say” or “guess work” but on tested theories using scientific methods and hypothesis testing.
    Research will also help me advise Mr President on better investments and projects to engage in and how it can benefit the entire nation. The problem our country and most nations are having is because of bad advisers who do not use research methods in carrying out their theories which will result in bad decisions made by the President, and this poor decisions will affect the nation badly. So this shows that effective research is key to building a progressive nation, so my job will be to make sure I carry out effective research to help Mr President make good decisions.

  102. Isiguzo Purity Ezinne says:

    Name: Isiguzo Purity Ezinne.
    Reg. No: 2018/242353
    Course code: Eco 391
    Email add: isipurity4real@gmail.com
    ANSWER
    The word Research is originally derived from the middle french word “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re”- meaning “again and again” + “cerchier” or sercher” meaning “search”.
    The Earliest use of the term was in 1577.
    According to the American Sociologist, Earl Robert Babbie, who is regarded as the first to give a definition of research, thus- “Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon”.
    Oguniyi (1992), defined Research as a careful, diligent search, studious and critical inquiry and examination aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge.
    Prof. Erik Eboh, gave the definition thus- “Research is the process of systematic enquiry by which we increase our knowledge of how things are, why things are the way they are, and how they can be improved”.
    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) defined Research as “A systematic investigation (i.e. the gathering and analysis of information) designed to develop or contribute to generalisable knowledge”.
    Research is also the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way, so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Purity (2021), defines Research as simply, the discovery of new facts and knowledge, aimed at solving problems.

    Noteworthy is the fact that many definitions of research by various research pundits abounds, but the similarity is in the need to seek or find solutions to problems using systematic and careful processes or methods, as there cannot be research without a problem- which could be a search for new knowledge.

    The Research process involves a sequence of cyclical procedures or steps according to which research is normally conducted. These processes includes-
    1) Problem identification.
    2) Choice of research topic.
    3) Literature review.
    4) Hypothesis formulation.
    5) Design of research methods.
    6) Data collection.
    7) Result analysis.
    8) Summarization of research results into “research conclusion(s)”.
    These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge, used in the implementation of findings into real-life applications and forming new research questions.

    Regarded as the Ultimate goal of research, is the need to improve our lives and enhance the society.
    The 3 main purposes of research are hereby stated thus-
    1) Exploratory/Information gathering- Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around the problem that has not yet been clearly defined.
    It involves discovering, uncovering and exploring, aimed at gaining a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem, inorder to conduct more in-depth research later on.

    2) Descriptive- descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population.
    It focuses on the “how” and “what” of research questions, and involves gathering information, describing and summarizing it.

    3) Explanatory/Theory testing- This type of research is also referred to as “Causal research”. It is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify, test and/or understand the cause-and-effect relationships.
    Explanatory research deals with the “why” of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.

    There are eight(8) core characteristics that all research projects should have, these are:
    1) Empirical- based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life experiments and observations.
    2) Logical- follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    3) Cyclic- research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    4) Controlled- Vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    5) Hypothesis-based- the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis.
    6) Analytical- data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability.
    7) Objective- sound judgement is used by researchers to ensure valid research findings.
    8) Statistical treatment- used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

    Research methods for data collection fall into two (2) main categories; the inductive research methods- which focus on the analysis of an observation, and are usually associated with qualitative research.
    While the other, the deductive research methods, focus on the verification of an observation, and it is usually quantitative in nature- collects and analyses numerical data.
    Research methods generally includes-
    1) Experiments.
    2) Surveys.
    3) Questionnaires.
    4) Interviews.
    5) Case study.
    6) Focus groups.
    7) Observational trials.
    8) Participants and non-participants observations.
    9) Studies using the Delphi method. e.t.c

    However, a good Researcher must possess the skills of Time management, Problem-solving, Note- taking, Attention to details and Information search.

    Conclusively, as the Special Adviser to Mr President, Research would serve to me as a tool to understanding the existing phenomena and economic variables. Also, in the establishment of economic relationships.

    Lastly, research would help me to provide answers to economic problems and to formulate effective economic policies towards the economic development of our dear nation, Nigeria.

  103. Agbo Peace Uchechukwu, Reg. No;2018/242343 says:

    NAME; AGBO PEACE UCHECHUKWU
    REG NO; 2018/242343
    DEPARTMENT; ECONOMICS

    Assignment Question;
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    Answer:
    Before i begin,the following are the guidelines or the things to bear in mind with regards to research;
    •The definition of research
    •The characteristics of research
    •The purpose of research
    •Types and examples of research
    •The 8 tips for conducting accurate research

    •What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    •Identify potential and new customers
    •Understand existing customers
    •Set pragmatic goals
    •Develop productive market strategies
    •Address business challenges
    •Put together a business expansion plan
    •Identify new business opportunities

    •What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    •What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    •Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    •Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    •Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.
    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    •Types of research methods and example;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    •Qualitative methods;
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study

    •Quantitative methods;
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    •Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    •Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    •Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    •Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    •Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    •The 8 tips for conducting accurate research;
    1. Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    2. Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    3. Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    4. Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    5. Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    6. Act on your strategies
    7. Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    8. Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.

    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.

    • Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu. says:

      Onyedekwe Henry Chinedu
      2018/242306
      Economics Department

      As the special adviser to Mr President on Research, a brief explanation of the term “research” is that research constitute search for an answer, meaning that in the process of research we are sourcing for an answer that is not known l before.

      It also involves the critical evaluation of this answer to see if it is in line with the required standards of information search as well as its level of correctness.

      Research must also include the application of these source findings into real world situations so as to examine its impact and deduce facts and theories which serves as a backing to the information or analysis gotten.

  104. NAME: Obiora Chidinma Jennifer
    REG NO:2018/241834
    E-MAIL:ceejay.nma@gmail.com
    COURSE CODE:ECO 361[Development Economics]
    The word research is derived from the middle French ”recherche” which means ”to go about seeking” the term itself being derived from the old French term ”recerchier” a compound word from ”re-”+”cerchier”, or ”sercher”,meaning ‘search’.
    Research is the ”creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection ,organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research [ as opposed to applied research] are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development [R&D] of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as” meta-research”.
    DEFINITION ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT SCHOLARS:
    -According to Waltz and Bansell [1981].Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    -According to Kothari [2006].Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    -According to Payton [1979].Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    -Kerlinger[1873].Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    DEFINITION ACCORDING TO THE SPECIAL ADVICER TO MR PRESIDENT: Research implies looking into a subject of interest. It also means observation, inquiry about a subject matter of interest.
    REFERENCES:
    – ^OECD [2015].Frascati Manual. The Measurement of scientific, Technological and innovation activities.doi:1787/9789264239012-en.ISBN 978-9264238800.
    – ^”The Origin of science” Scientific American Frontiers.
    – ^ Trochim, W.M.K,[2006]. Research Methods Knowledge Base.
    – Longman Dictionary of contemporary English [1997].
    – Merriam Webster Online Dictionary[1828].

  105. Eze joy Ozioma says:

    Name-Eze joy Ozioma
    Reg no-2018/242430
    Economics department

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    It is simply a way of looking for new information, new understanding, and new facts. A person who does research is called a researcher. … Research is often used for solving problems or increasing available knowledge. This can be done by testing theories and making observations.
    Research begins with an issue that comes from an observation. Let’s say I am walking down the street and I see two pigeons sitting at two different windows. I’m weird, so I’ll call the first pigeon Stu and the second pigeon Bill. When I walk past Stu the pigeon, I see him pecking at the glass.
    When I walk past Bill the pigeon, I see him just sitting there, chilling like pigeons do. So, I formulate a question: ‘Why is Stu the pigeon pecking at the glass, while Bill the pigeon does not?’ Next, I should do a little research into pigeons and why they might peck at things. This is background research to help me understand what I am looking for or at.
    Next, I have to figure out how to answer my question. There are many ways a question can be answered;
    Research methods are classified based on different criteria. They are a general category, nature of the study, the purpose of the study, and research design. Also, there are interviews and case studies based on research methodology. In some researches, more than two methods are combined while in some, very few methods are taken into account for the study.
    List of Types in Research Method
    Research methods are classified based on different criteria. They are a general category, nature of the study, the purpose of the study, and research design. Also, there are interviews and case studies based on research methodology. In some researches, more than two methods are combined while in some, very few methods are taken into account for the study.
    1. Quantitative Research
    As the name suggests, quantitative refers to the numbers where data is collected based on numbers, and a summary is taken from these numbers. Graphs help to quantify the results in quantitative research.
    2. Qualitative Research
    Qualitative refers to the non- numerical elements in the research. When the information or data cannot be grasped in terms of numbers, qualitative research comes for the rescue. Though not reliable as much as quantitative, qualitative research helps to form a better summary in terms of theories in the data.
    Based on the nature of the research,
    3. Descriptive Research
    Facts are considered in descriptive methods and surveys and case studies are done to clarify the facts. These help to determine and explain with examples, the facts, and they are not rejected.   Many variables can be used in descriptive research to explain the facts.
    4. Analytical Research
    Analytical research uses the facts that have been confirmed already to form the basis for the research and critical evaluation of the material is carried out in this method. Analytical methods make use of quantitative methods as well.
    5. Applied Research
    Applied research is action research where only one domain is considered and mostly the facts are generalized. Variables are considered constant and forecasting is done so that the methods can be found out easily in applied research. The technical language is used in the research and the summary is based on technical facts.
    6. Fundamental Research
    Fundamental research is the basic or pure research done to find out an element or a theory that has never been in the world yet. Several domains are connected and the aim is to find out how traditional things can be changed or something new can be developed. The summary is purely in common language and logical findings are applied in the research.
    Based on research design,
    7. Exploratory Research
    Exploratory studies are based on the theories and their explanation and it does not provide any conclusion for the research topic. The structure is not proper and the methods offer a flexible and investigative approach for the study. The hypothesis is not tested and the result will not be of much help to the outside world. The findings will be topic related that helps in improving the research more.
    8. Conclusive Research
    Conclusive Research aims at providing an answer to the research topic and has a proper design in the methodology. A well-designed structure helps in formulating and solving the hypotheses and give the results. The results will be generic and help the outside world. Researchers will have an inner pleasure to solve the problems and to help society in general.
    9. Surveys
    Not least considered, but Surveys play a main role in the research methodology. It helps to collect a vast amount of real-time data and helps in the research process. It is done at a low cost and can be done faster than any other method. Surveys can be done in both quantitative and qualitative methods. Always, quantitative surveys must be considered above qualitative surveys as they provide numerical outputs and the data is real. Surveys are mainly used in the business to know the demand for a product in the market and to forecast the production based on the results from the survey.
    10. Case Studies
    Case studies are another method of research methodology where different cases are considered and the proper one for the research is selected. Case studies help to form an idea of the research and helps in the foundation of the research. Various facts and theories can be considered from the case studies that help to form proper reviews about the research topic. Researchers can either make the topic general or specific according to the literature reviews from the studies. A proper understanding of the research can be made from the case study.
    Also, we have focus groups and research interviews to understand the research methods in a well-defined manner. Structured and unstructured methods can be followed by various methods.
    Advantages of using different Research Methodology
    Below are the advantages mentioned :
    * In a research, critical evaluation of the topic is important to analyze and verify the research. This helps the researcher to explore the research more effectively. Various methods in the research helps to explore the research from different perspectives and to analyze in a fact-driven manner.
    * Quantitative methods and surveys help to gain numerical outputs that help in all the research. Results can be formed easily without explaining much in the thesis with the help of numbers.

  106. Chidozie Julieth Chisom says:

    Name- CHIDOZIE JULIETH CHISOM
    Reg no-2018/250055
    Department- Education Economics
    Email- chidoziejulieth165@gmail.com

    In view of the above statement i can say that research aim at interpreting a fact through revision of already accepted existing theories and practically applying those existing theories , research can be carried out to examine the authenticity of an accepted theory.
    Research has been defined in many but similar way by many Researchers such as :
    Nwana (1981) defined research as a process of finding a solution to a problem. This is considered as the simplest definition of research ,he perceives research as just a process f finding solution to a problem.even though every research find a solution to a problem but this definition can not be generally accepted
    Clifford woody defined research as a careful enquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles a diligent investigation to ascertain something
    Clarke and Clarke sees research as a careful , systematic and objective investigation conducted to obtain valid facts,draw conclusions and established principles, regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge
    In view of the above definitions given by different researchers , research can be generally seen as an organised and systematic method of finding answers to a problem.research is a systematic way of analysing and finding a solution to a problem,it is systematic in the sense that it follows a concurrent method, research is considered empirical because it can be verified
    Looking at the definition given by Clarke and Clarke,i can say that every research is conducted for a purpose which is to establish principles regarding an identifiable problem in some field of knowledge, research tend to find solution to and already existing problems and to do that it has to follow a systematic step which are
    (1) problem identification
    (2) choosing a topic
    (3) Literature review
    (4) Hypothesis formulation
    (5) Data collection and analysis
    Every research ends in collecting a reliable data and analysing them.
    As the special adviser to the president in research and strategy
    I see research as a continuous investigation or enquiry ( it may be through questioning the public)carried out to arrive at a verifiable and reliable conclusion about an existing problem

  107. Ugwu chidera loveth says:

    NAME: Ugwu Chidera loveth.
    REG: 2018/241235
    DEPT: Economics Education

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with  qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Types of research methods
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research  is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually  open minded questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative  methods deal with numbers and measurable  forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO THE PRESIDENT, I WILL SAY THAT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH ARE AS FOLLOWS:
    1. Research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.

    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.

    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.

    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.

    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct.

     
    THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.

    There are three main purposes research which are as follows:

    EXPLORATORY: As the name suggests, researchers conduct  exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.

    DESCRIPTIVE: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research  describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.

    EXPLANATORY: Causal or explanatory research  is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form.

  108. Ezeugwu Sandra Adanna says:

    NAME: Ezeugwu Sandra Adanna
    REG NO: 2018/245872
    DEPARTMENT: Social Science Education (Economics/Education)
    COURSE CODE: ECO 291
    COURSE TITTLE: Research Method in Economics.
    adannasandra6@gmail.com
    ASSIGNMENT.

    Research has no accepted definition but has so many definitions.
    It has been defined by various authors and researchers. The word research is derived from the Latin word ‘Sciens’ meaning to know, and it is composed of two syllables, Re and Search. Re is a prefix meaning again or a new while Search is a verb meaning to examine closely or carefully or test and try
    Longman Dictionary of contemporary English .(1997) Research as a serious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test ideas.

    According to The Merriam- (Webster online Dictionary). A studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or law.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    There are three main purposes of research according to Earl Robert Babbie, and they include:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    As a special Adviser to Mr. President on research and strategy,I will encourage him to invest more on research because it also help in Economic development because it identify the useful tools for economic development
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. researches are very helpful because your mind/brain can go beyond the limits and with the help of researches old/faded studies of the past people can be replaced by a modern person that is very determined to research of something(very important to nation).
    Research as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or a problem using scientific methods. … There are several forms of research:
    1. scientific.
    2. Humanities.
    3. Artistic.
    4. Economics.
    5. social.
    6. Business.
    7. Marketing.
    8. Practitioner research.
    9. Life.
    10. Technological, etc.
    Much empirical and theoretical work emphasizes that research and development (R&D) is an important contributor to economic growth. R&D spending is likely to lead to growth through its positive effect on innovation and total factor productivity (TFP) (Romer, 1990; Lucas, 1988).

  109. ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE says:

    NAME: ANYANWU COLETTE CHINAZAEKPERE
    REG. NO: 2018/242442
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS (MAJOR)
    COURSE: ECO 391

    MEANING AND THE SCOPE OF RESEARCH

    ETYMOLOGY
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    DEFINITION
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.”

    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    FORMS OF RESEARCH
    Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.

    The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and usually established by means of peer review. Graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation.

    Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).

    Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.

    Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    STEPS ON CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

    Observations and formation of the topic: Consists of the subject area of one’s interest and following that subject area to conduct subject-related research. The subject area should not be randomly chosen since it requires reading a vast amount of literature on the topic to determine the gap in the literature the researcher intends to narrow. A keen interest in the chosen subject area is advisable. The research will have to be justified by linking its importance to already existing knowledge about the topic.
    Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.
    Conceptual definition: Description of a concept by relating it to other concepts.
    Operational definition: Details in regards to defining the variables and how they will be measured/assessed in the study.
    Gathering of data: Consists of identifying a population and selecting samples, gathering information from or about these samples by using specific research instruments. The instruments used for data collection must be valid and reliable.
    Analysis of data: Involves breaking down the individual pieces of data to draw conclusions about it.
    Data Interpretation: This can be represented through tables, figures, and pictures, and then described in words.
    Test, revising of hypothesis
    Conclusion, reiteration if necessary
    A common misconception is that a hypothesis will be proven (see, rather, null hypothesis). Generally, a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected (see falsifiability). However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true.

    A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. In this case, a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. Researchers can also use a null hypothesis, which states no relationship or difference between the independent or dependent variables.

    RESEARCH METHODS

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
    There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer:

    Qualitative research
    This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc. that is analyzed, and searching for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects. Qualitative research is often used as a method of exploratory research as a basis for later quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of social constructionism.
    Social media posts are used for qualitative research.

    Quantitative research
    This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey (or descriptive) derived from quantitative research can be used to establish the existence of associative or causal relationships between variables. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism.
    The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. These methods produce results that can be summarized, compared, and generalized to larger populations if the data are collected using proper sampling and data collection strategies. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest.

    If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments (this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment). If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.

    In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher(s) may collect primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.

    Mixed-method research, i.e. research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both primary and secondary data, is becoming more common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.

    Big data has brought big impacts on research methods so that now many researchers do not put much effort into data collection; furthermore, methods to analyze easily available huge amounts of data have also been developed.

    TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS
    1. Observatory Research Method
    2. Correlation Research Method

    Switching topics
    There have been indications that during the last decades scientists have switched between scientific topics more frequently.

    Non-empirical research
    Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach that involves the development of theory as opposed to using observation and experimentation. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source. This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach. Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science. Typically empirical research produces observations that need to be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain them, and in so doing generates empirically testable hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested empirically, giving more observations that may need further explanation; and so on. See Scientific method.

    A simple example of a non-empirical task is the prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated application of existing knowledge; another is the development of a business process in the form of a flow chart and texts where all the ingredients are from established knowledge. Much of cosmological research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics research does not rely on externally available data; rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical objects.

    RESEARCH ETHICS
    Research ethics is concerned with the moral issues that arise during or as a result of research activities, as well as the ethical conduct of researchers. Historically, the revelation of scandals such as Nazi human experimentation and the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to the realisation that clear measures are needed for the ethical governance of research to ensure that people, animals and environments are not unduly harmed in research. The management of research ethics is inconsistent across countries and there is no universally accepted approach to how it should be addressed.[46][47][48] Informed consent is a key concept in research ethics.

    When making ethical decisions, we may be guided by different things and philosophers commonly distinguish between approaches like deontology, consequentialism, virtue ethics and value (ethics). Regardless of approach, the application of ethical theory to specific controversial topics is known as applied ethics and research ethics can be viewed as a form of applied ethics because ethical theory is applied in real-world research scenarios.

    Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation. There may also be consequences for the environment, for society or for future generations that need to be considered. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research, the most notable Code being the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Research in other fields such as social sciences, information technology, biotechnology, or engineering may generate different types of ethical concerns to those in medical research.

    In countries such as Canada, mandatory research ethics training is required for students, professors and others who work in research.

    Nowadays, research ethics is commonly distinguished from matters of research integrity that includes issues such as scientific misconduct (e.g. fraud, fabrication of data or plagiarism).

  110. Kalu Melody Chinaza says:

    NAME: KALU MELODY CHINAZA
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    REG NUMBER: 2018/245127
    AN ASSIGNMENT ON ECO 391

    Research is simply the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is a process of investigation. An examination of a subject from different points of view. It’s not just a trip to the library, say UNN library, to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth.
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    1: Identify potential and new customers
    2: Understand existing customers
    3: Set pragmatic goals
    3: Develop productive market strategies
    4: Address business challenges
    5: Put together a business expansion plan
    6: Identify new business opportunities
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH
    1: Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2: The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3: Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4: There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5: It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6: It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7: Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of a good research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    RESEARCH PROCESSES
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) described the following stages of conducting a research study:

    1: Identify a significant research problem: in this stage, find out the research questions that are significant and feasible to study.
    2: Prepare a research proposal: a research proposal usually consists of the sections including introductory, literature review, research design, research method, data analysis and protection of human subject section, and timeline.
    3: Conduct a pilot study: the purpose is to develop and try out data-collection methods and other procedures.
    4: Conduct a main study
    5: Prepare a report
    Gall, Borg, and Gall (1996) also explained that these five stages may overlap or occur in a different order depending the nature of the study. Qualitative studies which involve emergent research design may gather and analyze some data before developing the proposal, or a pilot study can be done before writing a research proposal or not at all.
    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    1: One-to-one Interview
    2: Focus Groups
    3: Ethnographic studies
    4: Text Analysis
    5; Case Study

    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

  111. Ezeaku Anderson Esomchukwu says:

    Name : Ezeaku Anderson Esomchukwu
    Reg no: 2018/242413
    Dept. : Economics
    In view of the above definition and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy.
    Nworgu (1991) noted that research exists because man has always searched and will perhaps continue to search for facts yet unknown to him; for answers to questions yet unanswered. This search has always followed different forms and approaches through the ages and have always undergone series of changes from the earliest times to the present day; from the stage of haphazardness to the stage of mere speculation to that characterized by empiricism hence research has to do with an inquiry into the unknown; the search for solutions to problems or answers to questions; with critical process of asking and attempting to answer questions about the world; involving description, exploration
    prediction, explanation and action.
    From the foregoing definitions, research is a systematic and objective investigation or activity to unravel and provide solutions to unknown phenomena in the environment.

    As a special adviser to Mr president on research and strategy research has the following uses
    * Data obtained through research enables us understand existing phenomena. Understanding existing phenomena deals with a comprehensive search on what exist.
    * it enables researchers to establish the existence and extent of relationships between variables. In the society, many variables impact on others positively or negatively in varying degrees.
    * Research helps to provide answers to unknown problems. The society is dynamic and hence is confronted with a myriad of new problems from time to time.
    * Research provides us with data for extrapolation, forecasting and policy especially during the occurrence or expectation of re-occurrence of similar events.
    * Research provides the basis for acceptance or rejection of hypothesis or tentative claims made through deductive reasoning.
    * Research helps us to formulate or refine theories in order to enrich the school curriculum or frontiers of knowledge

  112. Eze Ngozi Josephine says:

    Name: Eze Ngozi Josephine
    Reg.no: 2018/241825
    Department: Economics
    Email: @josephinengozi2030@gmail.com

    Simply put, research is the investigation of available resources and knowledge, in a bid to provide unavailable resources and knowledge.
    It begins by asking the right questions and choosing appropriate methods to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    But more extensively; Research can be described as the production or formation of new knowledge and/or the use of already available knowledge in a new and innovative way so as to create new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include demystification and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods are carried out to analyze an observed event, while the deductive methods aim to verify the said observed event. Inductive approaches are generally in relation with quantitative research , and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    The scope of a research entails the area covered by that research and explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the study and also specifies the parameters within which the study will be operating. Scoping helps the researcher plan what steps need to be taken, refine the research objectives, determine the personnel and budgetary requirements, and note down essential areas to be covered, among others.

    Some characteristics of research are as follows:
    1. It should follow a systematic approach
    2. The analysis should be based on logical reasoning and involve both quantitative and qualitative methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

  113. Onwujiuba Obianuju Nnenna says:

    NAME: ONWUJIUBA OBIANUJU NNENNA
    REG NO: 2018/247080
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS/POLITICAL SCIENCE (CSS)
    ASSIGNMENT: CRITICALLY ANALYSE THE MEANING OF RESEARCH.
    Research can be seen the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It starts with an inquiry which means to ask questions with the view of getting to know that whi h one doesn’t know initially,though not all inquiries leads to research but for one to research he must start with questions of how?, why? and when? And these questions are what you refer to as an inquiry. Therefore research can also be viewed as a systematic way of collecting and interpreting answers to a said inquiry. Research in economics are based on economic theories and these research must follow a laid steps or model in order to be called a research. Randomly asking question about a hypothesis does not necessarily make it a research, for a work to be considered a research it must be replicable in the sense that one can be able to study and redo the research without necessarily being confused.
    There are two main types of research and they are scientific and non-scientific research. Still on explaining research I’ll define research as
    R-REVIEWING
    E-EXISTING
    S-STUDIES
    E-EMPIRICALLY
    A-AND
    R-RIGOROUSLY
    C-COMFIRMING
    H-HYPOTHESIS.

  114. OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration: 2018/242433 Economics department says:

    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT- RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    TOPIC: WHAT I UNDERSTAND BY RESEARCH.

    Anything that has to do with research is aimed at a particular goal, Creating, discovering or finding something new. Research is the bedrock of every innovation.
    I will be focusing basically my level of understanding of research to the definition of research giving by different people and institutions, the purpose of research, the types, scope, the sources and characteristics of research.
    UNDERSTANDING THE TERM RESEARCH
    Under this I will be discussing the definitions and scope of research.
    Research can be defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a new understanding (The Cambridge dictionary). I see research to be the scientific study of a certain phenomenon aimed at discovering something new through gathering and interpreting information to answer certain questions. It is defined as a group of methods used to create new knowledge or use the existing knowledge in newer creative ways in order to generate state of art concepts, methods, as well as understanding the existing theories in new light (Voxco).
    Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The oxford dictionary defines research as the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. The department of Education and training, western Sydney university, defines research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Research involves the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase one’s level of knowledge(Wikipedia). Travers(1969) described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. Leedy (1997) defines this research further to mean the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to leedy, Research is classified with, and what is NOT.
    Research can be one of the most interesting features of any degree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomy over what you learn. It is derived from the latin word, ‘Sciens’ meaning To know. The word, Research is composed of 2 syllables, ‘Re’ and ‘search’. It investigates hypothesis, suggests new interpretations of data or texts and poses new questions for future research to explore.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    There are basically two types of research; The scientific and non scientific research (Ogbuagbor 2021). Scientific research comprises of research that deals with scientific and empirical studies or enquiry to acquire or discover something new. The non scientific research deals with the search for without necessary using empirical. Knowledge gained from vision is a good example of this.
    BASIC RESEARCH: The primary aim of Basic Research is to improve knowledge generally, without any particular applied purpose in mind at the outset. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    APPLIED RESEARCH: is designed from the start to apply its findings to a particular situation. The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: The emphasis of Quantitative research is on collecting and analysing numerical data; it concentrates on measuring the scale, range, frequency etc. of phenomena. This type of research, although harder to design initially, is usually highly detailed and structured and results can be easily collated and presented statistically. According to leedy(1995), this research is an inquiry into social or human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables measured with numbers or figures and analyzed with statistical procedures in other to determine whether the predictive generalizations of the theory hold true.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research is more subjective in nature than quantitative research and involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject, e.g. values, attitudes, perceptions. Although this type of research can be easier to start, it can be often difficult to interpret and present the findings; the findings can also be challenged more easily. According to Babbie, 1998, Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed whereas deductive methods according to Babbie, verify hypothesized principles through observations.
    Other different types of research include Action research, case and field study research, correlational research, Descriptive or Normative survey, Ethnography, etc.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems
    3.) Provide solutions to problems
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    The major charcteristics of any research are objectivity, precision, design and verifiability.
    Objectivity: This explains that as researcher, you have to make deliberate efforts to eliminate all personal preferences.
    Precision: Research has to do with better understanding. When one conduct a good research and write the reports but a reader do not understanding does not understand what the person that carried out the research had done, it is as good as doing nothing or just a waste of time.
    Design: If you want to have a good research, you must have a very good and systematic design.
    Verifiability: When you conduct a research, you write your report without this you are not carrying out a research.
    In conclusion, Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand.

  115. OKPUZOR EMMANUEL CHIDERA. Registration number: 2018/242433. Economics department says:

    ECO 391 ASSIGNMENT- RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS 1

    TOPIC: WHAT I UNDERSTAND BY RESEARCH.

    Anything that has to do with research is aimed at a particular goal, Creating, discovering or finding something new. Research is the bedrock of every innovation.
    I will be focusing basically my level of understanding of research to the definition of research giving by different people and institutions, the purpose of research, the types, scope, the sources and characteristics of research.
    UNDERSTANDING THE TERM RESEARCH
    Under this I will be discussing the definitions and scope of research.
    Research can be defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a new understanding (The Cambridge dictionary). I see research to be the scientific study of a certain phenomenon aimed at discovering something new through gathering and interpreting information to answer certain questions. It is defined as a group of methods used to create new knowledge or use the existing knowledge in newer creative ways in order to generate state of art concepts, methods, as well as understanding the existing theories in new light (Voxco).
    Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. The oxford dictionary defines research as the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. The department of Education and training, western Sydney university, defines research as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. Research involves the creative and systematic work undertaken to increase one’s level of knowledge(Wikipedia). Travers(1969) described research as an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which human beings are concerned. Leedy (1997) defines this research further to mean the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. According to leedy, Research is classified with, and what is NOT.
    Research can be one of the most interesting features of any degree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomy over what you learn. It is derived from the latin word, ‘Sciens’ meaning To know. The word, Research is composed of 2 syllables, ‘Re’ and ‘search’. It investigates hypothesis, suggests new interpretations of data or texts and poses new questions for future research to explore.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH.
    There are basically two types of research; The scientific and non scientific research (Ogbuagbor 2021). Scientific research comprises of research that deals with scientific and empirical studies or enquiry to acquire or discover something new. The non scientific research deals with the search for without necessary using empirical. Knowledge gained from vision is a good example of this.
    BASIC RESEARCH: The primary aim of Basic Research is to improve knowledge generally, without any particular applied purpose in mind at the outset. This type of research takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation to give its contribution to knowledge. This research is more descriptive in nature exploring what, why and how questions.
    APPLIED RESEARCH: is designed from the start to apply its findings to a particular situation. The purpose of this research is to help people understand the nature of human problems so that human beings can more effectively control their environment. In other words, this type of research pursues potential solutions to human and societal problems. This research is more prescriptive in nature, focusing on how questions.
    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: The emphasis of Quantitative research is on collecting and analysing numerical data; it concentrates on measuring the scale, range, frequency etc. of phenomena. This type of research, although harder to design initially, is usually highly detailed and structured and results can be easily collated and presented statistically. According to leedy(1995), this research is an inquiry into social or human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables measured with numbers or figures and analyzed with statistical procedures in other to determine whether the predictive generalizations of the theory hold true.
    QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: Qualitative research is more subjective in nature than quantitative research and involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject, e.g. values, attitudes, perceptions. Although this type of research can be easier to start, it can be often difficult to interpret and present the findings; the findings can also be challenged more easily. According to Babbie, 1998, Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed whereas deductive methods according to Babbie, verify hypothesized principles through observations.
    Other different types of research include Action research, case and field study research, correlational research, Descriptive or Normative survey, Ethnography, etc.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    The purpose of every research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through the development of scientific theories, concepts and ideas as to inquire something new about something.
    According to Collis and hussey 2003, the purpose of research is to:
    1.) Review or synthesize existing knowledge
    2.) Investigate existing situations or problems
    3.) Provide solutions to problems
    4.) Explore and analyze more general issues
    5.) Construct or create new procedures or systems
    6.) Explain new phenomenon and to
    7.) Generate new knowledge.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    The major charcteristics of any research are objectivity, precision, design and verifiability.
    Objectivity: This explains that as researcher, you have to make deliberate efforts to eliminate all personal preferences.
    Precision: Research has to do with better understanding. When one conduct a good research and write the reports but a reader do not understanding does not understand what the person that carried out the research had done, it is as good as doing nothing or just a waste of time.
    Design: If you want to have a good research, you must have a very good and systematic design.
    Verifiability: When you conduct a research, you write your report without this you are not carrying out a research.
    In conclusion, Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. To research is to purposely and methodically search for new knowledge and practical solutions in the form of answers to questions formulated beforehand.

  116. Ezeamenyi chinonso ifesorochukwu says:

    NAME: EZEAMENYI CHINONSO IFESOROCHUKWU
    REG: 2018/251370
    DEPT: EDUCATION/ECONOMICS
    EMAIL ADDRESS: nonsofavour732@gmail.com
    What is Research?
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Research Is Conducted To…
    *Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    *To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    Most research can be divided into three different categories: exploratory, descriptive and causal. Each serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways.
    1: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH:
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research. When it comes to online surveys, the most common example of exploratory research takes place in the form of open-ended questions. Think of the exploratory questions in your survey as expanding your understanding of the people you are surveying. Text responses may not be statistically measureable, but they will give you richer quality information that can lead to the discovery of new initiatives or problems that should be addressed.
    2: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population. The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    3: CAUSAL RESEARCH:
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    *To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    *To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.

  117. ADEGBOLA SEUN SAMUEL says:

    NAME: ADEGBOLA SEUN SAMUEL
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    REG NO: 2018/241869
    EMAIL: adegbolaseun8@gmail.com

    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    • Identify potential and new customers
    • Understand existing customers
    • Set pragmatic goals
    • Develop productive market strategies
    • Address business challenges
    • Put together a business expansion plan
    • Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    1. Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    4. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    5. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    6. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    7. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:
    1. Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2. Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3. Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions. When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative. Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative method is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

  118. Orungbemi Timothy Anuoluwapo says:

    REG NO: 2018/241848
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    Research being a studious inquiry or examination means that it deals with a lot of academia curiosity, deep insightfulness, continuous probing and evaluation, and fact finding.
    According to the above definition, every research has a purpose or goal. Here, the goal is to discover, interpret facts, revise accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or revise theories or laws.
    Taking the above assertion one after the other, research as fact discovery or interpreting, deals with getting informations that have not been processed or giving details or reasons why something is, or not, or was, or would be. Fact discovery and interpreting are the beginning of research. When a fact is discovered(through research), it can only be made a theory or law through thorough or insightful finding or inquiry and examination(research).
    Research is also used to agree to facts or go against stated theories or laws. Research has been used by many scientists, be it in the social or pure sciences circles to agree or counter theories propounded. By countering, the scientist then makes out new theories or laws which must be backed up by his findings after thorough inquiry and examination giving birth to new facts backed by figures or hypothesis.
    Research is also used to further propound or revise a theory or law. By researching, the researcher finds reasons why a theory exists and expand this theory by adding his/her findings to further prove this theory true.
    Research must always have a statistical and scientific backing.

  119. ILEME OBINNA PATRICK says:

    REG NO: 2018/242297
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391(RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS I)

    Research being a studious inquiry means that it requires a lot of time to do, searching for new or existing information. It is something that is not to be rushed. It requires thorough inspection in order to determine their nature or condition of the topic in question.
    Now, we investigate, we ask questions like, “why this way and not the other?” We also seek for more information to enhance the little knowledge we may already have from the topic in question. By doing this, we discover new facts. That is, things that are true but we may just be knowing for the first time. It broadens our minds on things that we didn’t even have an idea of. When we get these facts, we compare them with other facts that we may have known and see their relationship. We compare these facts with theories or laws that have generally been accepted.
    Now, when we compare what we have obtained, we will now be able to practically apply these facts. That is, we will be able to use it in real life scenarios.

    Research to me is a systematic and careful process of obtaining facts in a clear state of mind. It is careful in the sense that we don’t just jump into conclusions. We search calmly and in a good state of mind so that we don’t end up mixing up what we have. Research to me requires a lot of hard work. Every little data we gather can be useful in obtaining the goal in which we set out to achieve. We are not to display a nonchalant attitude.

  120. Ofili beluchi joan says:

    NAME:OFILI BELUCHI JOAN
    DEPT:ECONOMICS MAJOR
    REG NO:2018/241862
    EMAIL:beluchijoan@gmail.com

    RESEARCH:
    Research is a careful search or inquiry or interrogation to seek facts principles, theories, and applications. It’s a search after truth.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research..
    Characteristics of Research
    1. Empirical – based on observation and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequencial procedures.
    3. Controlled – all variable except those that are tested/ experimented upon are kept constant.
    4. Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    5. Analytical – there is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no errors in their interpretation.
    6. Objective, unbiased, and logical – all findings are logically based on empiricism.
    7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods – Data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Why Research Is Necessary
    1. It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    2. It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    3. It helps us succeed in business.
    4. It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    5. It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    6. It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.

  121. Melody nweke chioma says:

    NAME: NWEKE MELODY CHIOMA
    REG:2018/243742
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    EMAIL:melodynweke@gmail
    ASSIGNMENT: CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY.

    Research could be seen as as creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concept, methodologies and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    Research is also be seen as a human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matters.

    Research is a careful consideration of study regarding a particular problem using a scientific method.

    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1:The information must be accurate and correct.

    2: Knowledge and real-time data is derived from actual observations in natural settings.

    3: For data to be accurate it must follow a systematic procedure.

    4:The analysis is based on intellectual.ie logical reasoning is involved.

    5:It is analytical and it uses all the available data so that there no ambiguity in inference.
    TYPES OF RESEARCH

    1: Qualitative method:It is associated with inductive approach which analyze an observed event.it is a methodologies of research that collect data by conversational method.
    2: Quantitative method:it is associated with deductive which verified the observed.it uses a systematic way of investing events.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH STUDIES

    a) Exploratory: exploratory studies are used to explore a group of question .the answer may not offer conclusion to the problem.it is understanding to help new problem area that haven’t been explored.

    b) Descriptive method: it focuses on expanding knowledge in current issue through a process of data collection.

    c)Explanatory method is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes I the existing standard procedures.

  122. Adigwe ifeoma Favour says:

    Name: Adigwe ifeoma Favour
    Reg no: 2018/241871
    Course code: Eco 391
    Department: Economics department

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    History of research
    The concept of research is as old as science, the concept of the intimate relationship between research and subsequent development, however, was not generally recognized until the 1950s.

    The founder of research
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld: The Father of Research Surveys.
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, popularly known as the founder of modern research surveys, made considerable contributions towards statistical survey analysis, panel methods, latent structure analysis and contextual analysis.

    What is the original name of Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.
    What is Research
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

    Forms of research
    1:Original research: Also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
    2:Scientific research: Is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).
    3:Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.
    4:Artistic research: Also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Types of Research
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.
    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    * To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    * To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.
    For example, a cereal brand owner wants to learn if they will receive more sales with their new cereal box design. Instead of conducting descriptive research by asking people whether they would be more likely to buy their cereal in its new box, they would set up an experiment in two separate stores. One will sell the cereal in only its original box and the other with the new box. Taking care to avoid any outside sources of bias, they would then measure the difference between sales based on the cereal packaging. Did the new packaging have any effect on the cereal sales? What was that effect?

    Research purpose
    1: Information gathering and/or
    a: Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    b:Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    2:Theory testing
    a:Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    b:Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios
    Examples of research studies with these different purposes can be found in this practice quiz.
    Data collection methods:
    1: Interviews.
    2: Questionnaires and surveys.
    3: Observations.
    4: Documents and records.
    5: Focus groups.
    6: Oral histories.

    Classification of Types of Research
    1:Theoretical Research.
    2:Applied Research.
    3:Exploratory Research.
    4:Descriptive Research.
    5:Explanatory Research.
    6:Qualitative Research.
    7:Quantitative Research.
    8:Experimental Research.

    Benefits of Research
    1. Research expands your knowledge base.
    2. Research gives you the latest information.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    4. Research builds your credibility.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas.
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.
    9:Research helps you reach people.
    10:Research encourages curiosity
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.

  123. Onah Amarachi Jane says:

    Name: Onah Amarachi Jane
    Reg no:2018/246265
    Dept: Economics
    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    Answers.
    Department of Education and Training defines research as follows:
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).

    i. Activities that support the conduct of research and therefore meet the definition of research include:
    ii Professional, technical, administrative or clerical support staff directly engaged in activities essential to the conduct of research
    iii.management of staff who are either directly engaged in the conduct of research or are providing professional, technical, administrative or clerical support or assistance to those staff.
    Features of Research
    a.Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    b. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    c. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    d.Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process.
    e.Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation.
    f.Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical.
    g.Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Types of Research.
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.

    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject.

    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    i. To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    ii.To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.

    Why Research Is Necessary and Valuable in Our Daily Lives
    i.It’s a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning.
    ii.It’s a means to understand issues and increase public awareness.
    iii. It helps us succeed in business.
    iv..It allows us to disprove lies and support truths.
    v.It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities.
    vi.It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information.
    vii. It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

  124. Name: Onyeabo Michael Chukwuebuka
    Reg No: 2018/248280
    Department: Economics

    Various definitions given by various authors and research pundits has shown that research is a careful and systematic approach of inquiring new knowledge or extending an existing knowledge. Research follows a laid down rules, that is why I said it is systematic approach and this has been reflected in various definitions.
    Furthermore, research is a critical process because Any research that cannot be replicable is no research at all.
    To me research is a systematic process of making inquiry either to make new discovery or to better understand an existing concept or phenomenon.
    Also various definitions has shown that there is no research without a problem. In this sense I can say that research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.

  125. Aneke Nelson maduakonam says:

    Name Aneke Nelson Maduakonam
    Reg. No 2018/242192
    Dept. Education Economics
    Gmail. Nelsonmadu80@gmail.com

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Answer
    When conducting research, scientists use the scientific method to collect measurable, empirical evidence in an experiment related to a hypothesis (often in the form of an if/then statement), the results aiming to support or contradict a theory.

    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge.

    According to The Merriam- (Webster online Dictionary). A studious inquiry or examination, especially; investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or law in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised theories or law.

    According to Waltz and Bansell (1981). Research is a systematic, formal, rigorous and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems or to discover and interpret new facts and relationships.

    According to Kothari (2006). Research is a pursuit of trust with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem.

    According to Payton (1979). Research is the process of looking for a specific question in an organized, objective, reliable way.

    Kerlinger (1873). Research is a systematic controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

    Research in my own understanding means the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to increase knowledge.

  126. UKWUEZE DESTINY AMARACHI says:

    Name: ukwueze Destiny Amarachi
    Reg no: 2018/242416
    DEP: Economics

    RESEARCH is the systematic collection, analysis,
    and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. … It is an art of scientific investigation.

    Research can also be an exhaustive investigation of a phenomenon with an objective
    of advancing knowledge “It is a systematic and objective attempt to study a problem for the purpose of deriving general principles” It is a systematic investigation to find solutions to a problem.

    The investigation is in most cases guided by the previously collected information. The men’s knowledge grows by studying what is already known and revising past knowledge in the light of new findings.
    Research include defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution, collecting, organizing,evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis

    Research is a careful detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    Types of research Empirical research, that involves observation of facts or interaction with people Library research, it is done in library situation Social research, it is a research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction. Scientific research, it is a building of knowledge through empirically verifiable facts. The term verifiable means “which can be checked by others for accuracy.

    Emphasis on empirical research It is a systematic and controlled research, i.e., the investigation is so ordered that investigators can have confidence in research outcomes. The investigation is empirical, i.e., subjective belief is checked against objective reality. It is a critical research Therefore the scientific method of research is the “building of a body of scientific knowledge through observation, experimentation, generalization and verification.

    Characteristics of a scientific research Verifiable evidence, i.e., factual observations that other observers can see and check. Accuracy., i.e., Describing what really exists. -It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions, either by exaggeration Precision, i.e. Making it as exact as necessary or giving number or measurement.

    Systematization, i.e., Attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Objectivity, i.e., being free from all biases and vested interests. -The observation is unaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible he has seen and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be.

    Recording, i. e. , noting down complete details as quickly as possible Recording, i.e., noting down complete details as quickly as possible. Researcher will not depend on the recalled facts but will analyze the problem, on the basis of the recorded data. Conclusions based on recalled unrecorded data are not trustworthy.

    Steps in scientific research Definition of a problem The problem is stated in terms of a particular theoretical framework and related to relevant findings of previous problem. Hypothesis related to the problem, using the previously accepted theoretical principles. Preparation of research design. Data collection.

    Data coding and cleansing Data analysis to determine if the hypothesis is verified or rejected The conclusions of the study are related to the original body of theory, which is modified in accordance with the new findings

    Some of the features of Research

    * Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.

    * Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.

    * Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.

    * Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process

    * Analytical – There is critical
    analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    Objective, Unbiased, &

    * Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical

    * Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.

    The scope of Research explains the extent to which the research area will be explored in the work and specifies the parameters within the study will be operating.
    The scope of the study refers to the boundaries within which your research project will be performed; this is sometimes also called the scope of research. To define the scope of the study is to define all aspects that will be considered in your research project. It is also just as important to make clear what aspects will not be covered; i.e. what is outside of the scope of the study.
    In order to write the scope of the study that you plan to perform, you must be clear on the research parameters that you will and won’t consider. These parameters usually consist of the sample size, the duration, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the methodology and any geographical or monetary constraints

    Typically, the information that you need to include in the scope would cover the following:

    1. General purpose of the study

    2. The population or sample that you are studying

    3. The duration of the study

    4. The topics or theories that you will discuss

    5. The geographical location covered in the study

  127. Ukachukwu Divine Amarachi - 2018/242426 says:

    UKACHUKWU DIVINE AMARACHI
    2018/242426
    ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
    24/08/2021
    ECO 391

    Assignment
    Research generally means inquire or search for knowledge. In fact the word “research” is synonymous with the following words: investigation, study, exploration, Inquiry, examination, experimentation, etc. It is defined as a process of systematic investigation or examination into and study of constituents and sources in order to discover, collect, interpret and establish facts, to revise accepted laws and theories in the light of new facts, or to apply new or revised theories or laws. Research is careful or diligent search; studious inquiry or examination (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015). It is indeed a journey into discovery of facts.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

    When do we call a research scientific? Any research endeavor is said to be scientific if

    • It is based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning;
    • It consists of systematic observations, measurement, and experimentation;
    • It relies on the application of the scientific methods and harnessing of curiosity;
    • It provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of nature;
    Characteristics of a Research
    1. The research should focus on priority problems.
    2. The research should be systematic. It emphasizes that a researcher should employ a structured
    procedure.
    3. The research should be logical. Without manipulating ideas logically, the scientific researcher cannot make much progress in any investigation.
    4. The research should be reductive. This means that the findings of one researcher should be made available to other researchers to prevent them from repeating the same research.
    5. The research should be replicable. This asserts that there should be scope to confirm the findings of previous research in a new environment and different settings with a new group of subjects or at a different point in time.
    6. The research should be generative. This is one of the valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.

    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea. This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it. An exploratory research project is an attempt to lay the groundwork that will lead to future studies or to determine if what is being observed might be explained by a currently existing theory. Most often, exploratory research lays the initial groundwork for future research.
    Descriptive Research
    Once the groundwork is established, the newly explored field needs more information. The next step is descriptive research, defined as attempts to explore and explain while providing additional information about a topic. This is where research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail, filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding. This is also where as much information is collected as possible instead of making guesses or elaborate models to predict the future – the ‘what’ and ‘how,’ rather than the ‘why.’

    Explanatory Research: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    As a special adviser to the President on research and strategy, Research simply means a search for knowledge.

  128. E-PATRICK DALOSAH says:

    NAME:E-PATRICK DALOSAH
    REG NO:2018/242457
    DEPARTMENT:ECONOMICS
    LEVEL:300

    FIRST PART
    Research defined
    We can define research as an activity of systematic enquiry that seeks answers to a
    problem.
    Research in our everyday lives
    We all encounter research in our daily lives. The results of research on many topics
    are presented to us in the form of newspaper articles, books, reports, and television
    programmes. For example, crime level figures are presented to us by television news
    reports and some topics, such as diet and health, are very popular with magazines as
    well as television programmes. Thus, through various media we have become
    accustomed to seeing, reading and hearing about research and although we may not
    be aware of it, we are used to making our own judgements about research findings.
    If we take the example of diet and health, many of us have taken into consideration
    information that has been presented on ‘healthy eating’ and have made our own
    choices about diet within the context of our own lives. We assess the information
    with which we are presented, form an opinion as to the validity and relevance of the
    research, and come to our own conclusions based on considerations such as:
     what we understand is the question or problem to be answered
     how the findings are presented
     why the research was conducted
     what we know about who conducted the research
     what other people think about the information
     how the research findings relate to us
    We may choose to ignore the information, we may decide we don’t understand what
    the findings mean, we may disagree, or we may agree with the findings and either
    adjust our eating habits or decide that the costs of adjustment are too high relative
    to the benefits. For some, because of their life circumstances, such as those suffering
    Research as a process
    Research can be seen as a series of linked activities moving from a beginning to an
    end. Research usually begins with the identification of a problem followed by
    formulation of research questions or objectives. Proceeding from this the researcher
    determines how best to answer these questions and so decides what information to
    collect, how it will be collected, and how it will be analysed in order to answer the
    research question.
    Described in this way the research process is given the impression of linearity, yet
    research investigation is often an iterative process whereby the process of
    conducting the research will give rise to new ideas which, in turn, feed back into the
    data collection and analysis stage. Decisions made early in the research process are
    often revisited in the light of new insights or practical problems encountered along
    the way.
    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    SECOND PART
    As special advisor to Mr president on research it Would be my duty to ensure the president is adequately and efficiently informed on issues and matters that pertain to research. Therefore it would be my duty to make known to the president the importance of research in such a manner that research would not be seen as a word or an activity this is confined to the education sector only, rather as an activity that is for everyone( unintentionally or intentionally) that is crucial to the growth, progress and development of our Nation.
    I would also advise the president to ensure that research institutes and researchers have adequate funds and an enabling environment to enable them carry out their work(research) adequately.
    I would also advise the president to enable researchers have access to so called “confidential files” in public and private institutions that may be crucial for their work because research is necessary for growth and such hindrance would obstruct research.
    It would also be my duty to ensure the president is duly updated on matters concerning research such as the emergence of “ground breaking” research or research that will be beneficial to the nation and will bolster economic prosperity.

  129. Nwakpa Ruth Nnenna. 2018/242402. Economics department says:

    Name: Nwakpa Ruth Nnenna Nnenna
    Reg No: 2018/242402
    Dept: Economics Department Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method.
    It is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    *Steps in conducting research:*
    1.Identification of research problem
    2.Literature review
    3.Specifying the purpose of research
    4.Determining specific research questions
    5.Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    6.Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    7.Data collection
    8. Verifying data
    9. Analyzing and interpreting the data
    10. Reporting and evaluating research
    11..Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

    The main characteristics for good quality research is listed below:

    1. It is based on the work of others.
    2. It can be replicated and doable .
    3. It is generalisable to other settings.
    4. It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory.
    5. It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature.
    6. It is incremental.

    *Types of Research*
    1. Applied research :Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.
    2. Theoretical research: Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.

    3. Exploratory research: It is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.

    4. Descriptive Research: The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.

    5. Correlational Research: The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.

    6. Explanatory research: It is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment.

  130. Ikechukwu ifechukwu Victor Reg no: 2018/248667 says:

    NAME: IKECHUKWU IFECHUKWU VICTOR
    REG NO: 2018/248667
    DEPT: ECONOMICS
    COURSE: ECO 391
    ASSIGNMENT.
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.
    ANSWER.
    What is Research: Definition, Methods, Types & Examples
    What is Research

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Types of research methods and examples
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    1. One-to-one Interview
    2. Focus Groups
    3. Ethnographic studies
    4. Text Analysis
    5. Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    1. Survey research
    2. Descriptive research
    3. Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights.

  131. Offor Chukwuebuka Donaldson says:

    Name: Offor Chukwuebuka Donaldson
    Reg no: 2018/246940
    Course code: Eco 391
    Department: Economics department

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy.

    History of research
    The concept of research is as old as science, the concept of the intimate relationship between research and subsequent development, however, was not generally recognized until the 1950s.

    The founder of research
    Paul Felix Lazarsfeld: The Father of Research Surveys.

    What is the original name of Research
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.
    What is Research
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

    Forms of research
    1:Original research: Also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to. In experimental work, it typically involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g., in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology, results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are typically some new (for example) mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not typically carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
    2:Scientific research: Is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching (these do not necessarily correlate).
    3:Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory.
    4:Artistic research: Also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Types of Research
    Exploratory research
    Exploratory research is an important part of any marketing or business strategy. Its focus is on the discovery of ideas and insights as opposed to collecting statistically accurate data. That is why exploratory research is best suited as the beginning of your total research plan. It is most commonly used for further defining company issues, areas for potential growth, alternative courses of action, and prioritizing areas that require statistical research.
    Descriptive research
    Descriptive research takes up the bulk of online surveying and is considered conclusive in nature due to its quantitative nature. Unlike exploratory research, descriptive research is preplanned and structured in design so the information collected can be statistically inferred on a population.
    The main idea behind using this type of research is to better define an opinion, attitude, or behaviour held by a group of people on a given subject. Consider your everyday multiple choice question. Since there are predefined categories a respondent must choose from, it is considered descriptive research. These questions will not give the unique insights on the issues like exploratory research would. Instead, grouping the responses into predetermined choices will provide statistically inferable data. This allows you to measure the significance of your results on the overall population you are studying, as well as the changes of your respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time.
    Causal research
    Like descriptive research, causal research is quantitative in nature as well as preplanned and structured in design. For this reason, it is also considered conclusive research. Causal research differs in its attempt to explain the cause and effect relationship between variables. This is opposed to the observational style of descriptive research, because it attempts to decipher whether a relationship is causal through experimentation. In the end, causal research will have two objectives:
    * To understand which variables are the cause and which variables are the effect.
    * To determine the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.
    For example, a cereal brand owner wants to learn if they will receive more sales with their new cereal box design. Instead of conducting descriptive research by asking people whether they would be more likely to buy their cereal in its new box, they would set up an experiment in two separate stores. One will sell the cereal in only its original box and the other with the new box. Taking care to avoid any outside sources of bias, they would then measure the difference between sales based on the cereal packaging. Did the new packaging have any effect on the cereal sales? What was that effect?

    Research purpose
    1: Information gathering and/or
    a: Exploratory: e.g., discovering, uncovering, exploring
    b:Descriptive: e.g., gathering info, describing, summarizing
    2:Theory testing
    a:Explanatory: e.g., testing and understanding causal relations
    b:Predictive: e.g., predicting what might happen in various scenarios
    Examples of research studies with these different purposes can be found in this practice quiz.
    Data collection methods:
    1: Interviews.
    2: Questionnaires and surveys.
    3: Observations.
    4: Documents and records.
    5: Focus groups.
    6: Oral histories.

    Classification of Types of Research
    1:Theoretical Research.
    2:Applied Research.
    3:Exploratory Research.
    4:Descriptive Research.
    5:Explanatory Research.
    6:Qualitative Research.
    7:Quantitative Research.
    8:Experimental Research.

    Benefits of Research
    1. Research expands your knowledge base.
    2. Research gives you the latest information.
    3. Research helps you know what you’re up against.
    4. Research builds your credibility.
    5. Research helps you narrow your scope.
    6. Research teaches you better discernment.
    7. Research introduces you to new ideas.
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.
    9:Research helps you reach people.
    10:Research encourages curiosity
    8:Research helps with problem-solving.

  132. Machi Chinedu Clement says:

    MACHI CHINEDU CLEMENT
    2018/242796
    ECONOMICS/SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY

    The term research consist of two words”,Re” and “search” .”Re”means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
    Research is defined as the Creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It simply means a search for facts, answer to question and solution to problems.
    The term research consist of two words”,Re” and “search” .”Re”means again and again and “search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
    Research is defined as the Creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. It simply means a search for facts, answer to question and solution to problems.

    PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

    Exploratory:As the name suggest, researcher conduct exploratory to explore a group of question.

    Descriptive:It focuses on expending knowledge on current issue through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population.

    Explanatory:causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific change in existing standing procedures.

  133. Ajuluchukwu joy says:

    Name: Ajuluchukwu Joy ifeoma
    Reg. no: 2018/241840
    Email: jlady3936@gmail.com

    From the assertion above and definitions offered by others.
    Research is a studious inquiry because it’s not done haphazardly, it follows a process. it is a pursuit that is aimed at achieving a solution to a problem.
    research is an attempt to improve knowledge on what we already know. it’s also a way of developing or discovering an improved knowledge about a phenomenon and it involves a systematic process of investigating a phenomenon.

    As an economic adviser to the Mr. president on research and strategy.
    Research simply means a search for facts, answers to questions and solution to problems.
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.
    Research is the organized and systematic method of finding answers to questions. it is a process broken up into steps that lead to conclusions, research is organised because there is planned structure or methods used to reach the conclusions.
    research allows us to find the right solutions to key issues in our communities by;
    * providing facts that will help us to analyse problem.
    * testing the feasibility and the impact of programs.
    * finding better solution to the challenges.
    research helps to clarify and strengthens belief especially in the face of opposition and doubt from others.

  134. Chinekezie Oluchi Faustina says:

    Name: Chinekezie Oluchi Faustina
    Reg no: 2018/249787
    Dept: Economics Major
    Course: Eco 391

    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”. It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    Research is conducted to…
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Forms of Research
    1. Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of research. This material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified).
    2. Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.
    3. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, and context can be social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method.
    4. Artistic research, also seen as ‘practice-based research’, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

    Processes of research;
    Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
    •Observations and formation of the topic
    •Hypothesis
    •Conceptual definition
    •Operational definition
    •Gathering of data
    •Analysis of data
    •Data Interpretation
    •Test, revising of hypothesis
    •Conclusion, reiteration if necessary

    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Research is basically the process in which someone collects or gather bundles of information from different resources like literature review, interview, library approach, experiment, questionnaire, observation to reach on the facts and after all scrutiny, arrives at a valid conclusion.

  135. Neboh chiziterem margeretrose says:

    esearch and strategy

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. Free
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:

    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured
    Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses.
    Time Early stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Later stages of decision making
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.
    Gather research insights
    8 tips for conducting accurate research
    Identify the main trends and issues, opportunities, and problems you observe. Write a sentence describing each one.
    Keep track of the frequency with which each of the main findings appears.
    Make a list of your findings from the most common to the least common.
    Evaluate a list of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that have been identified in a SWOT analysis.
    Prepare conclusions and recommendations about your study.
    Act on your strategies
    Look for gaps in the information, and consider doing additional inquiry if necessary
    Plan to review the results and consider efficient methods to analyze and dissect results for interpretation.
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendations.
    In conclusion, I define research as a systematic process of investigating, identifying and finding solutions to existing problems which can be replicable, cumulative and verifiable.

  136. Ignatius chisom immaculate says:

    Ignatius chisom immaculate
    2018/243793
    Economics
    Eco 391

    ASSIGNMENT:
    Research could be seen as a stuidious inquiry or examination; clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you

    Research could be seen asa studious inquiry or examination; especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws in the sense that it follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data we need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making obsercations or drawing conclusions.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data, documentation of critical information and analysis. It is a careful and organised study of gathering of infomation about a specific topic for example, research is a project where scientists try to find a cure for AIDS.
    Research has three main purposes;
    Exploratory: this is where researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions.
    Descriptive: it focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures.

  137. PETER EMMANUEL says:

    Name : Peter Emmanuel
    Department: Economics education
    Reg no: 2018/246577
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
    This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
    This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
    Features of Research
    1, Empirical – based on observations and experimentation on theories.
    2. Systematic – follows orderly and sequential procedure.
    3. Controlled – all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept constant.
    4 Employs hypothesis – guides the investigation process
    5 Analytical – There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their interpretation
    6 Objective, Unbiased, & Logical – all findings are logically based on empirical
    7 Employs quantitative or statistical methods – data are transformed into numerical measures and are treated statistically.
    Research to me as the special adviser to Mr president is a process or tools used to get information or more knowledge about something. I will also say that research is a tool used in finding solution to a given problem.
    Three Purposes of Research
    Social research can serve a variety of purposes. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description and explanation.
    Exploration involves familiarizing a researcher with a topic. Exploration satisfies the researcher’s curiosity and desire for improved understanding. Exploration tests the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study. Exploration helps develop the methods that will be used in a study.
    Description involves describing situations and events through scientific observation. Scientific descriptions are typically more accurate and precise than causal ones. For example, the U. S. Census uses descriptive social research in its examination of characteristics of the U. S. population.
    Explanation involves answering the questions of what, where, when, and how. Explanatory studies answer questions of why. For example, an explanatory analysis of the 2002 General Social Survey (GSS) data indicates that 38 percent of men and 30 percent of women said marijuana should be legalized, while 55 percent of liberals and 27 percent of conservatives said the same.

  138. Onah Munachimso Modester says:

    NAME: ONAH MUNACHIMSO MODESTER
    REG NO:2018/242421
    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS
    Research is derived from a latin word ‘sciens’ meaning to know .
    Research is composed of two syllables re and search. Re is a prefix meaning again,anew or over again,search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully to test and try or to probe.So research can be clearly defined as a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish s facts or principles.While research can be carried out by anyone and in any field, most research is usually done to broaden knowledge in the physical, biological, and social worlds. This can range from learning why certain materials behave the way they do, to asking why certain people are more resilient than others when faced with the same challenges.
    The use of ‘systematic investigation’ in the formal definition represents how research is normally conducted – a hypothesis is formed, appropriate research methods are designed, data is collected and analysed, and research results are summarised into one or more ‘research conclusions’. These research conclusions are then shared with the rest of the scientific community to add to the existing knowledge and serve as evidence to form additional questions that can be investigated. It is this cyclical process that enables scientific research to make continuous progress over the years; the true purpose of research.
    Research is conducted to…
    •Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    •To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    •To help generate questions for further inquiries.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1:The information must be accurate and correct.
    2: Knowledge and real-time data is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    3: For data to be accurate it must follow a systematic procedure.
    4:The analysis is based on intellectual.ie logical reasoning is involved.
    5:It is analytical and it uses all the available data so that there no ambiguity in inference.
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    The two types of research and their various examples
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    1. Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Types of qualitative methods include:
    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    2. Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    Types of quantitative methods include:
    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    What research means to me as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy?
    Research is primarily the process in which someone gathers bundles of information from different resources like literature review, interview, library approach, experiment, questionnaire, observation to reach on the facts and after all scrutiny, arrives at a valid conclusion.

  139. Udeze Obianuju Charity says:

    Udeze Obianuju Charity
    2018/244283
    Education Economics

    Question: the meaning and scope of research

    Answer: Research may be said to be a systematic study of a phenomenon in order to answer a question or solve a problem. It is systematic because the research work has procedure. To carry out a proper research, there are steps that ‘must’ be followed. The steps are to ensure the replicability of the research work by others. Some of these steps are: identify the problem, choose or decide the topic, search and study other literary works done on such topic if any, form your hypothesis, collect data, analyse data and finally accept or reject the hypothesis formulated.

    Now the scope of research simply describes or explains the extent of a research work. It deals with the areas that a research work is meant to cover. It is also the focus of a research. It may also be the question that the research is meant to answer.

  140. Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer says:

    Name:: Nwogwugwu Chisom Jennifer
    Reg number: 2018/245129
    Department: Economics
    Eco 391 Assignment.
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy.
    Answer
    TO MR PRESIDENT
    As your special adviser on research and strategy I will like to explore what research and strategy entails in my understanding.
    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. It is also the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to:
    1.) Identify potential and new customers
    2.) Understand existing customers
    3.) Set pragmatic goals
    4.) Develop productive market strategies
    5.) Address business challenges
    6.) Put together a business expansion plan
    7.) Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    1.) Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    2.) Analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    3.) Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    4.) It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    5.) It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    6.) Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes of research which includes:
    • Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    • Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    • Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Methods of Research
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative; both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    Qualitative methods:
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    Quantitative methods:
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    What is Strategy?
    A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process”.
    A strategy is all about integrating organizational activities and utilizing and allocating the scarce resources within the organizational environment so as to meet the present objectives. While planning a strategy it is essential to consider that decisions are not taken in a vaccum and that any act taken by a firm is likely to be met by a reaction from those affected, competitors, customers, employees or suppliers.
    Strategy can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of events and the need to take into consideration the likely or actual behavior of others. Strategy is the blueprint of decisions in an organization that shows its objectives and goals, reduces the key policies, and plans for achieving these goals, and defines the business the company is to carry on, the type of economic and human organization it wants to be, and the contribution it plans to make to its shareholders, customers and society at large.

  141. Mbah Chidimma Judith 2018/243101.department: Economic nd sociology says:

    Name:Mbah Chidimma Judith
    Reg no:2018/243101
    Dept: Economic nd sociology
    Topic: meaning and scope of research
    MEANING OF RESEARCH

    Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the scientific method. It’s the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school, where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.

    Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news. Cancer research has ‘Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,’ and ‘Baby Born with HIV Cured.’ Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like, ‘Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or HIV infections?’

    But all I’ve said so far is what research has done (sort of like saying baking leads to apple pie; it doesn’t really tell you anything other than the two are connected). To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your question musmt be answerable. Questions like, ‘How can I cure cancer?’ aren’t really answerable with a study. It’s too vague and not testable.

    Having a question creates an internal state of ‘I need to know something.’ To continue the baking example, this internal state of wanting something is like having a hankering for apple pie. Since you are reading this in a psychology section, we will put a psychological slant on this, and hopefully lose some of the baking metaphors.
    PURPOSE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH
    Psychological researchers want to learn and understand human behavior. It can be about how people think, how they feel, how they behave, or some combination of these issues. Research, and the understanding that follows, trickles down from the scientists and alters society. There is constant and competing research. For example, about what is the best way to punish and rehabilitate criminals (such as Zimbardo’s prison experiment), the best and worst ways to raise children (Bowlby and attachment, Spock and children), and how to treat the mentally ill (with too many to count).

    More specifically, psychological research is used to measure, describe, and categorize human behavior. This can result in understanding what might be called normal behavior. More interesting and more often researched are the abnormal behaviors, those that eventually become categorized and labeled with a diagnosis. A diagnosis is a constellation of common behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that occur together.

    For example, many people suffer from depression, and research has found that exercise, psychotropic medication, and therapy have reduced and sometimes eliminated the feelings of sadness, guilt, and worthlessness that come from
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESEARCH
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final
    THREE MAIN PURPOSE OF A RESEARCH
    No:1Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    No 2:_Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    no:3 -Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    EXERCISE
    Exercise
    You are a research associate working in a laboratory. Before giving you complex assignments, your supervisor wants to ensure that you understand the various steps involved in the research methodology. You are therefore given a very simple question to answer through research: “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    You will thus conduct the experiment using a coin at home. Most importantly, you will detail your experiment and findings in a report using proper research methodology. Your report should thus include:

    The research question,
    The hypothesis,
    The experiment itself, and
    The conclusion to your findings.
    Solution
    Although students will not all get the same results, an example of a report would include the following components:

    Research Question:
    “If one were to flip a coin 10 times, how many times would the coin land on the tails side?”

    Hypothesis:
    Based on basic statistical knowledge, there is an equal chance of a coin landing on either the heads or tails side. Therefore, 50% of the coin flips should result in tails, which works out to 5 out of the 10 coin tosses.

    Experiment:
    The following results were noted:

    Flip No. Result
    1 Heads
    2 Tails
    3 Heads
    4 Heads
    5 Tails
    6 Tails
    7 Heads
    8 Heads
    9 Tails
    10 Heads
    The following findings were noted:

    Result Heads Tails
    Number of occurrences 6 4
    Conclusion:
    Although there is an equal chance that each coin toss can result in either the ‘heads or tails side, the fact that the test is done at random for such a small population size suggests that the most probabilistic outcome (i.e. 5 tails occurrences) is not the only possible outcome.
    CONCLUSION
    Review your goals before making any conclusions about your research. Keep in mind how the process you have completed and the data you have gathered help answer your questions. Ask yourself if what your analysis revealed facilitates the identification of your conclusions and recommendation as

  142. Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian
    2018/248806
    Economics major
    Julietrecheal@gmail84.com

    As a special adviser to Mr.President,research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.lt is also a careful and a diligent search.So in order to find any solution to any problem concerning our country or any issue,we have to make some research to make a good end.

    AIMS/PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    Why do we carry out research?
    1.We carry out research to understand an existing phenomenon.
    2.Research enables us to understand the existence and extent of economics relationship.
    3.Research enables us to provide answers to a problem.
    4.Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies to economic problems.
    5.Research helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    6.It also helps us to formulate theory.

    RESEARCH PROCESS

    How do we conduct research
    For one to carry out research,one has to follow a lay down process or steps,these steps can be numbered in stages.

    Stage1: Problem stages identification.
    Stage 2: choice of topic,choose a topic that will enable you to solve the problem you
    have identified.
    Stage 3 Literature Review: The purpose of literature review is for you to contribute on
    the problem.
    Stage 4: Hypothesis Formulation, formulating a tentative statement of solutions to the
    problem.
    Stage 5: Data collection and Analysis.

    FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    1.It is empirical because the conclusions that are arrived at and solution gotten can be verified.
    2.It can be replicable.
    3.It is systematic.
    4.It is theoretical.
    5.It is cumulative and must make his own contributions.

    HOW TO GET THE CHOICE OF RESEARCH TOPIC
    Where and how can we get our topic ;
    1.Personal Experience
    2.Review of existing literature or study .
    3.Observation of impact on natural policies.
    4.Observation of trends in economic.
    5.Indigenous knowledge and practices.

    CHALLENGES/PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN NIGERIA
    1.Lack of public and private sector records.
    2.people perceive research as a mere academic research.
    3.Challenge of illiteracy.
    4.Lack of poor infrastructural base.
    5.Lack of cooperation from public and private sector distribution.
    6.Lack of funding and data collection.

  143. Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian says:

    Ochonwu Lotachi Vivian
    2018/248806
    Economics major
    Julietrecheal@gmail84.com

    As a special adviser to Mr.President,research is a systematic process of finding solution to a problem.lt is also a careful and a diligent search.So in order to find any solution to any problem concerning our country or any issue,we have to make some research to make a good end.

    AIMS/PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    Why do we carry out research?
    1.We carry out research to understand an existing phenomenon.
    2.Research enables us to understand the existence and extent of economics relationship.
    3.Research enables us to provide answers to a problem.
    4.Research enables us to make predictions and formulate policies to economic problems.
    5.Research helps us to accept or reject hypothesis.
    6.It also helps us to formulate theory.

    RESEARCH PROCESS

    How do we conduct research
    For one to carry out research,one has to follow a lay down process or steps,these steps can be numbered in stages.

    Stage1: Problem stages identification.
    Stage 2: choice of topic,choose a topic that will enable you to solve the problem you
    have identified.
    Stage 3 Literature Review: The purpose of literature review is for you to contribute on
    the problem.
    Stage 4: Hypothesis Formulation, formulating a tentative statement of solutions to the
    problem.
    Stage 5: Data collection and Analysis.

    FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

    1.It is empirical because the conclusions that are arrived at and solution gotten can be verified.
    2.It can be replicable.
    3.It is systematic.
    4.It is theoretical.
    5.It is cumulative and must make his own contributions.

    HOW TO GET THE CHOICE OF RESEARCH TOPIC

    Where and how can we get our topic ;
    1.Personal Experience
    2.Review of existing literature or study .
    3.Observation of impact on natural policies.
    4.Observation of trends in economic.
    5.Indigenous knowledge and practices.

    CHALLENGES/PROBLEMS OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN NIGERIA
    1.Lack of public and private sector records.
    2.people perceive research as a mere academic research.
    3.Challenge of illiteracy.
    4.Lack of poor infrastructural base.
    5.Lack of cooperation from public and private sector distribution.
    6.Lack of funding and data collection.

  144. Unegbu Charles Emeka says:

    Name: Unegbu Emeka Charles
    Reg No:2018/241829
    Dept. : Economics
    Course: Eco391

    Question Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer:
    Research is “creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge”.[1] It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

    The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research

    Etymology;
    Aristotle, (384–322 BC), one of the early figures in the development of the scientific method
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.

    Definitions
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws”

    Step in conducting Research;
    Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the method of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. The major steps in conducting research are:
    Identification of research problem
    Literature review
    Specifying the purpose of research
    Determining specific research questions
    Specification of a conceptual framework, sometimes including a set of hypotheses
    Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
    Data collection
    Verifying data
    Analyzing and interpreting the data
    Reporting and evaluating research
    Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations

    The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure):

    Exploratory research, which helps to identify and define a problem or question.
    Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
    Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.

  145. THEOPHILUS OKONKWO NWABUEZE says:

    Name: Okonkwo Theophilus Nwabueze
    Reg no: 2018/241839
    Dept.: Economics
    Course: Eco 391

    Question:Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.

    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    Answer: What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    1Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    2Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    3Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.

    Types of research methods and example
    what is research

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

  146. Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi says:

    Name: Nwajuagu Divine Ndubuisi
    Reg no: 2018/248278
    Email: nwajuagudivine22@gmail.com

    Research could be seen as a studious inquiry or examination; especially: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    In view of the above assertion and in the light of other definitions offered by various research pundits, clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and also let us know what research means to you as the Special Adviser to Mr. President on Research and Strategy!

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. It is one of the most effective ways of finding out solutions to problems. Research is a systematic enquiry that seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences and create new knowledge that is applicable.
    FEATURES OF RESEARCH
    There are a few things that make something to qualify as a research. Some of its features are:
    *Rigorous
    *Systematic
    *Valid and verifiable
    *Empirical
    *Critical
    *Unbiased and Objective
    *RIGOROUS: This entails a thorough examination of all details during the process of study.
    *SYSTEMATIC: By systematic we mean that the researcher must carry out his research step by step, accordingly, instead of carrying it out randomly.
    *VALID AND VERIFIABLE: This means that the results based on the findings from the research should be accurate and also must be subject to verification by other researchers.
    *EMPIRICAL: This means that the conclusions reached should be based on the results gotten from the research gotten from observations.
    *CRITICAL: This means that the researcher should be absolute in his research so that it would be able to resist critical examination.
    *UNBIASED AND OBJECTIVE: This means that every decision the researcher makes should not be made from personal opinion but on the objective of the research and the results.
    Based on this, to me research is about finding out more on a particular topic, it’s about expantiating the already available information on a topic using a systematic, organised and vigorous process to obtain the information.

  147. Ajah Favour says:

    Name: Ajah Favour Chinyere
    Reg No: 2018/241836
    Department:Economics
    Course code: Eco 391
    Course title:Research methods 1
    Email:favourajah91@gmail.com

    Assignment
    Clearly and clinically analyse the above statement and also let us know what research mean.

    The word Research is composed of two syllable re and search Re is a prefix meaning again.Search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully. Research is derived from the Latin word ‘sciens’ meaning time know.Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.

    When you say that you want to conduct a research study to find answers to a question, you are saying:
    * that the process is being conducted within a frame work of a set of philosophies.
    *using steps,techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability.
    *is designed to be unbiased and objective.

  148. Nnodim ugonna victor 2018/241867 says:

    Nnodim ugonna victor
    2018/241867
    Economics

    What does research mean to you as a special adviser
    Explain?
    Research defined by western Sydney university
    Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes
    The word research as it relates to economics..
    Established in 1947, Research in Economics is one of the oldest general-interest economics journals in the world and the main one among those based in Italy. The purpose of the journal is to select original theoretical and empirical articles that will have high impact on the debate in the social sciences; since 1947, it has published important research contributions on a wide range of topics.

    In other for economic decision to be carried out effective research has to be taken into account.
    Subsequent years worth of data has to be sorted through and possible patterns established and only then can a proper and conclusive decision be reached..
    Without research being carried out various financial and economic decision won’t have the reputation to uphold credible decisions.

    Basically as the adviser I would ensure proper research would be carried out before any economics decision is given out so as to ensure credibility and reliability of economic decision.

  149. Ugwuoke Victor chinweokwu says:

    NAME: UGWUOKE VICTOR CHINWEOKWU

    REG NO: 2017/249587

    COURSE CODE 391

    DEPARTMENT: ECONOMICS

    EMAIL: UGWUOKEVICTOR95@GMAIL.COM

    ASSIGNMENT QUESTION;

    CLEARLY AND CLINICALLY ANALYSE THE ABOVE STATEMENT AND ALSO LET US KNOW WHAT RESEARCH MEANS TO YOU AS THE SPECIAL ADVISER TO MR. PRESIDENT ON RESEARCH AND STRATEGY

    The term “Research” consists of two words, “Re” and “Search”. “Re” means again and again; and “Search” means to find out something. Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to a research problem through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data, information or facts. It is one of the most effective ways of solving problems.
    Research seeks to find explanations for unexplained events or occurrences, to clarify propositions or assertions, and to correct misconceived facts. Grinnell (1993) states that “Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable”.
    WHAT IS RESEARCH?
    Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
    For questions about ideas, experiences and meanings, or to study something that can’t be described numerically, collect qualitative data.
    If you want to develop a more mechanistic understanding of a topic, or your research involves hypothesis testing, collect quantitative data.
    THEIR ARE TWO TYPE OF RESEARCH
    (1) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
    (2) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
    (1)Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods such as:
    •One on one interview:personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent.
    •Case study research: it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data.
    •Record keeping: This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source.

    (2) METHOD:Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. This research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys etc., the results of which can be depicted in numerical form. Some examples of quantitative research are:
    •SURVEYS: Surveys are used to ask questions to a sample of respondents, using various types such as online polls, online surveys, paper questionnaires, web-intercept surveys, etc.It is the first step towards collecting data for any research.
    CORRELATION RESEARCH: Correlation research is conducted to establish a relationship between two closely-knit entities and how one impacts the other and what are the changes that are eventually observed.

  150. Nnamani Dorathy nchido 2018/245743 Economics major says:

    HOW THE WORD RESEARCH WAS DERIVED
    The word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’.[3] The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.[3]
    Definitions
    Research has been defined in a number of different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
    One definition of research is used by the OECD, “Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications.
    Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that “research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.
    The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as “studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by specific professional fields and academic disciplines.
    RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED TO
    Evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an interpretive framework.
    To assemble a body of substantive knowledge and findings for sharing them in appropriate manners.
    Help generate questions for further inquiries.
    Is be undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophers
    Uses procedure methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity or reliability.
    Is designed to be unbiased and objective
    TYPE OF RESEARCH
    Research is about using established methods to investigate a problem or question in detail with the aim of generating new knowledge about it.
    It is a vital tool for scientific advancement because it allows researchers to prove or refute hypotheses based on clearly defined parameters, environments and assumptions. Due to this, it enables us to confidently contribute to knowledge as it allows research to be verified and replicated.
    Knowing the types of research and what each of them focuses on will allow you to better plan your project, utilises the most appropriate methodologies and techniques and better communicate your findings to other researchers and supervisors.
    Classification of Types of Research
    There are various types of research that are classified according to their objective, depth of study, analysed data, time required to study the phenomenon and other factors. It’s important to note that a research project will not be limited to one type of research, but will likely use several.
    According to its Purpose
    Theoretical Research
    Theoretical research, also referred to as pure or basic research, focuses on generating knowledge, regardless of its practical application. Here, data collection is used to generate new general concepts for a better understanding of a particular field or to answer a theoretical research question.
    Results of this kind are usually oriented towards the formulation of theories and are usually based on documentary analysis, the development of mathematical formulas and the reflection of high-level researchers.
    For example, a philosophical dissertation, since the aim is to generate new approaches from existing data without considering how its findings can be applied or implemented in practice.
    Applied Research
    Here, the goal is to find strategies that can be used to address a specific research problem. Applied research draws on theory to generate practical scientific knowledge, and its use is very common in STEM fields such as engineering, computer science and medicine.
    This type of research is subdivided into two types:
    Technological applied research: looks towards improving efficiency in a particular productive sector through the improvement of processes or machinery related to said productive processes.
    Scientific applied research: has predictive purposes. Through this type of research design, we can measure certain variables to predict behaviours useful to the goods and services sector, such as consumption patterns and viability of commercial projects.
    For example, market research, because by examining consumption patterns, strategies can be developed for the development of new products and marketing campaigns, etc.
    Note: Applied research is usually based on knowledge or results obtained through theoretical research.
    In fact, it is common for research projects to first establish the theoretical framework both to define the field of study and to identify possible theories that could be tested or applied to solve the specific problem posed in the project.
    According to your Depth of Scope
    Exploratory Research
    Exploratory research is used for the preliminary investigation of a subject that is not yet well understood or sufficiently researched. It serves to establish a frame of reference and a hypothesis from which an in-depth study can be developed that will enable conclusive results to be generated.
    Because exploratory research is based on the study of little-studied phenomena, it relies less on theory and more on the collection of data to identify patterns that explain these phenomena.
    For example, an investigation of the role social media in the perception of self-image.
    Descriptive Research
    The primary objective of descriptive research is to define the characteristics of a particular phenomenon without necessarily investigating the causes that produce it.
    In this type of research, the researcher must take particular care not to intervene in the observed object or phenomenon, as its behaviour may change if an external factor is involved.
    For example, investigating how the public census of influential government officials differs between urban and non-urban areas.
    Explanatory Research
    Explanatory research is the most common type of research method and is responsible for establishing cause-and-effect relationships that allow generalisations to be extended to similar realities. It is closely related to descriptive research, although it provides additional information about the observed object and its interactions with the environment.
    For example, investigating the brittle behaviour of a specific material when under compressive load.
    Correlational Research
    The purpose of this type of scientific research is to identify the relationship between two or more variables. A correlational study aims to determine whether a variable changes, how much the other elements of the observed system change.
    According to the Type of Data Used
    Qualitative Research
    Qualitative methods are often used in the social sciences to collect, compare and interpret information, has a linguistic-semiotic basis and is used in techniques such as discourse analysis, interviews, surveys, records and participant observations.
    In order to use statistical methods to validate their results, the observations collected must be evaluated numerically. Qualitative research, however, tends to be subjective, since not all data can be fully controlled. Therefore, this type of research design is better suited to extracting meaning from an event or phenomenon (the ‘why’) than its cause (the ‘how’).
    For example, examining the effects of sleep deprivation on mood.
    Quantitative Research
    Quantitative research study delves into a phenomena through quantitative data collection and using mathematical, statistical and computer-aided tools to measure them. This allows generalised conclusions to be projected over time.
    For example, conducting a computer simulation on vehicle strike impacts to collect quantitative data.
    According to the Degree of Manipulation of Variables
    Experimental Research
    It is about designing or replicating a phenomenon whose variables are manipulated under strictly controlled conditions in order to identify or discover its effect on another independent variable or object. The phenomenon to be studied is measured through study and control groups, and according to the guidelines of the scientific method.
    For example, randomised controlled trial studies for measuring the effectiveness of new pharmaceutical drugs on human subjects.
    Non-Experimental Research
    Also known as an observational study, it focuses on the analysis of a phenomenon in its natural context. As such, the researcher does not intervene directly, but limits their involvement to measuring the variables required for the study. Due to its observational nature, it is often used in descriptive research.
    For example, a study on the effects of the use of certain chemical substances in a particular population group can be considered a non-experimental study.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
    It controls only some variables of the phenomenon under investigation and is therefore not entirely experimental. In this case, the study and the focus group cannot be randomly selected, but are chosen from existing groups or populations. This is to ensure the collected data is relevant and that the knowledge, perspectives and opinions of the population can be incorporated into the study.
    For example, assessing the effectiveness of an intervention measure in reducing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    According to the Type of Inference
    Deductive Investigation
    In this type of research, reality is explained by general laws that point to certain conclusions; conclusions are expected to be part of the premise of the research problem and considered correct if the premise is valid and the inductive method is applied correctly.
    Inductive Research
    In this type of research, knowledge is generated from an observation to achieve a generalisation. It is based on the collection of specific data to develop new theories.
    Hypothetical-Deductive Investigation
    It is based on observing reality to make a hypothesis, then use deduction to obtain a conclusion and finally verify or reject it through experience.
    According to the Time in Which it is Carried Out
    Longitudinal Study (also referred to as Diachronic Research)
    It is the monitoring of the same event, individual or group over a defined period of time. It aims to track changes in a number of variables and see how they evolve over time. It is often used in medical, psychological and social areas.
    For example, a cohort study that analyses changes in a particular indigenous population over a period of 15 years.
    Cross-Sectional Study (also referred to as Synchronous Research)
    Cross-sectional research design is used to observe phenomena, an individual or a group of research subjects at a given time.
    According to The Sources of Information
    Primary Research
    This fundamental research type is defined by the fact that the data is collected directly from the source, that is, it consists of primary, first-hand information.
    Secondary research
    Unlike primary research, secondary research is developed with information from secondary sources, which are generally based on scientific literature and other documents compiled by another researcher.
    According to How the Data is Obtained
    Documentary (cabinet)
    Documentary research, or secondary sources, is based on a systematic review of existing sources of information on a particular subject. This type of scientific research is commonly used when undertaking literature reviews or producing a case study.
    Field
    Field research study involves the direct collection of information at the location where the observed phenomenon occurs.
    From Laboratory
    Laboratory research is carried out in a controlled environment in order to isolate a dependent variable and establish its relationship with other variables through scientific methods.
    Mixed-Method: Documentary, Field and/or Laboratory
    Mixed research methodologies combine results from both secondary (documentary) sources and primary sources through field or laboratory research.

    WHAT IF AM USING INFORMATION THAT ALREADY EXITED
    If you are doing research that is limited to secondary analysis of data, records, or specimens that are either publicly available, de-identified, or otherwise impossible to be linked to personal identities, you may still need IRB approval to do your project. Sometimes a data use agreement between the researcher and the data custodian may still be required to verify that the researcher will not have access to identifying codes. This “de-linking” of data from personal identifiers allows the IRB to make this determination. Regardless, you should submit an IRB proposal so the IRB can determine whether your project needs IRB review, and if so, the type of review required.

    For specifics of what research should be reviewed by the IRB and the category of review required, see the flow chart and examples provided.
    RESEARCH INSTITUTE MR PRESIDENT SHOULD WORK WITH
    Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan
    Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIIRO), Oshodi, Lagos
    Institute of Agricultural Research & Extension Services, ABU, Zaria
    Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan
    Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies
    Medical research institutes in Nigeria‎
    National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control(Nafdac)
    Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology
    Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR)
    Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research
    Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)
    WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
    From weather forecasts to the discovery of antibiotics, researchers are constantly trying to find new ways to understand the world and how things work – with the ultimate goal of improving our lives.
    The purpose of research is therefore to find out what is known, what is not and what we can develop further. In this way, scientists can develop new theories, ideas and products that shape our society and our everyday lives.
    The purpose of research is to further understand the world and to learn how this knowledge can be applied to better everyday life. It is an integral part of problem solving.
    Although research can take many forms, there are three main purposes of research:
    Exploratory: Exploratory research is the first research to be conducted around a problem that has not yet been clearly defined. Exploration research therefore aims to gain a better understanding of the exact nature of the problem and not to provide a conclusive answer to the problem itself. This enables us to conduct more in-depth research later on.
    Descriptive: Descriptive research expands knowledge of a research problem or phenomenon by describing it according to its characteristics and population. Descriptive research focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘what’, but not on the ‘why’.
    Explanatory: Explanatory research, also referred to as casual research, is conducted to determine how variables interact, i.e. to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Explanatory research deals with the ‘why’ of research questions and is therefore often based on experiments.
    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    There are 8 core characteristics that all research projects should have. These are:
    Empirical – based on proven scientific methods derived from real-life observations and experiments.
    Logical – follows sequential procedures based on valid principles.
    Cyclic – research begins with a question and ends with a question, i.e. research should lead to a new line of questioning.
    Controlled – vigorous measures put into place to keep all variables constant, except those under investigation.
    Hypothesis-based – the research design generates data that sufficiently meets the research objectives and can prove or disprove the hypothesis. It makes the research study repeatable and gives credibility to the results.
    Analytical – data is generated, recorded and analysed using proven techniques to ensure high accuracy and repeatability while minimising potential errors and anomalies.
    Objective – sound judgement is used by the researcher to ensure that the research findings are valid.
    Statistical treatment – statistical treatment is used to transform the available data into something more meaningful from which knowledge can be gained.

  151. Akachukwu Christian Nonso says:

    Name :Akachukwu Christian Nonso
    Dept: Economics
    RegNo:2018/249531
    Eco 391 Assignment

    (1) critically and clinically analyze Research and how is it important to you as special adviser to the president on strategy and research?
    (Ans)

    Definition :
    Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research , and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    Research is conducted with a purpose to: (1) Identify potential and new customer. (2)understand existing customers.
    (3) Set pragmatic goals.
    (4)Develop productive market strategies.
    (5)Address business challenges.
    (6)Put together a business expansion plan.
    (7)Identify new business opportunities.
    Good research follows a systematic a approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.

    The characteristics of research includes the following :
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final results.
    The purpose of research include the
    Following :
    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted To understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:

    Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research
    Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured
    Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses.
    Time Early stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Later stages of decision making
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through survey and questionnaire.

    You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Type of research methods
    Includes the following :
    Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods.

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.

    It is essential to ensure that your data is:

    Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business Decision.
    As a special adviser to the president on strategy and research, the role of research to me is that :
    (1). research provides accurate and timely information on the behaviour, needs, attitudes, opinions and motivations of a population. Armed with this knowledge, businesses are able to develop products and services to meet the desires of the people and governments can tailor policies and programs to the needs of citizens. Also, important national statistics on social issues, television ratings, tourism movements, unemployment and so on can be reliably determined.

    (2).Market and social research provides accurate and timely information on the needs, attitudes and motivations of a population: It plays a vital social role, assisting our government and businesses to develop services, policies, and products that are responsive to an identified need.

    (3).It contributes to the nation economic wellbeing, by ensuring that organisational responses to these needs are relevant and properly targeted.

    (4).State and Federal government agencies, companies and non-government organisations – in fact, any organisation that needs to better understand the community, trends of any kind or its own customers will use research.

    (5).Research projects educate the response of decision makers to a range of important issues, including planning for major transport and infrastructure projects, responses to climate change, taxation policy and so many others.

  152. IFEANYI CHINWUBA INNOCENT says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT
    CLASS: 300 LVL
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    Answer
    Firstly, research given by the dictionary definition is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and research new conclusions.
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organisation and anaylsis of information to discover and interpret facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    USES OF RESEARCH
    *Identify potential and new customers.
    *Understand existing customers.
    *Set pragmatic goals.
    *Develop productive market strategies.
    *Address business challenges.
    *Put together a business expansion plan.
    *Identify new business opportunities.

    RESEARCH METHODS
    The following below are some research methods;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    *Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using
    conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    This method helps a researcher understand what
    participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    *Types of qualitative methods include:
    *One-to-one Interview
    *Focus Groups
    *Ethnographic studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case Study

    *Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and
    measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of
    investigating events or data. It answers questions to
    justify relationships with measurable variables to either
    explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    *Types of quantitative methods include:
    *Survey research
    *Descriptive research
    *Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    *Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    *Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    *Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    *Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    *Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    *Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    *The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    *Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    *There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    *It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    *It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    *Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    PURPOSES OF RESEARCH
    There are three main purposes:

    *Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct
    exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The
    answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the
    perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new
    problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This
    exploratory process lays the foundation for more
    conclusive data collection and analysis.
    *Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on
    current issues through a process of data collection.
    Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample
    population. Only one variable is required to conduct the
    study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies
    are describing, explaining, and validating the findings.
    For example, a study conducted to know if top-level
    management leaders in the 21st century possess the
    moral right to receive a considerable sum of money
    from the company profit.
    *Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is
    conducted to understand the impact of specific changes
    in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is
    the most popular form. For example, a study that is
    conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on
    customer loyalty.
    STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH
    STEP 1: Formulate your question
    STEP 2: Get background information
    STEP 3: Refine your search topic
    STEP 4: Consider your resource options
    STEP 5: Select the appropriate tool
    STEP 6: Use the tool
    STEP 7: Locate your materials
    STEP 8: Analyze your materials
    STEP 9: Organize and write
    STEP 10: Compose your bibliography.

  153. Chime Doris chinenye says:

    Chime Doris chinenye

    2018/250191

    Economics major

    The scope of research contains a search for understanding the physical, and sometimes psychological universe. This advances into applying scientific methods to refine the basic understanding and evolving new techniques to apply the facts that have been revealed and to create different techniques and materials. Some research is directed to creating new useful stuff, and some is just to understand how things can be created or even deconstructed. Lot of research is beneficial, and much is meaningless except for the sheer pleasure of understanding how things work. Engineering is the application of science and much research is synonymous with engineering.

    What is Research?
    Definition: Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.”
    Research is an essential and powerful tool is leading man towards progress. Without systematic research there would have been very little progress. John W. Best has rightly said “The secret of our cultural development has been research, pushing back the areas of ignorance by discovering new truths, which in turn, lead to better ways of doing things and better products”.

    Inductive research methods analyze an observed event, while deductive methods verify the observed event. Inductive approaches are associated with qualitative research, and deductive methods are more commonly associated with quantitative analysis.
    RESEARCH can also be defined as the systematic collection ,analysis ,and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem.

    It is an art of scientific investigation.

    According to Clifford Research comprises defining and redefining problems,formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,organizing and evaluating dat ; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and atlast carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fitthe formulating hypothesis.

    Research is conducted with a purpose to:

    Identify potential and new customers
    Understand existing customers
    Set pragmatic goals
    Develop productive market strategies
    Address business challenges
    Put together a business expansion plan
    Identify new business opportunities
    What are the characteristics of research?
    Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.

    What is the purpose of research?
    There are three main purposes:

    Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before.
    Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. Only one variable is required to conduct the study. The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit.
    Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. Running experiments is the most popular form. For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty.
    Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions.

    When it comes to customers and market studies, the more thorough your questions, the better the analysis. You get essential insights into brand perception and product needs by thoroughly collecting customer data through surveys and questionnaires. You can use this data to make smart decisions about your marketing strategies to position your business effectively.

    To be able to make sense of your research and get insights faster, it helps to use a research repository as a single source of truth in your organization and to manage your research data in one centralized repository.

    Types of research methods and example

    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.

    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.

    Qualitative methods

    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using conversational methods, usually open-ended questions. The responses collected are essentially non-numerical. This method helps a researcher understand what participants think and why they think in a particular way.

    Types of qualitative methods include:

    One-to-one Interview
    Focus Groups
    Ethnographic studies
    Text Analysis
    Case Study
    Quantitative methods

    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of investigating events or data. It answers questions to justify relationships with measurable variables to either explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.

    Types of quantitative methods include:

    Survey research
    Descriptive research
    Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    Description:RESEARCH is the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial / business organisation.

    Objectives of Research

    To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.

    To portraya ccurately the characteristicsof a particular individual,situation or a group.

    To determinethe frequencywith which something occurs or with which it isassociated with something else.

    To test a hypothesisof a casual relationship between variables.

    Motivation in Research

    Desire to get a research degree along with it sconsequential benefits.

    Desireto face the challenge in solvingthe unsolvedproblems.

    Desireto get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.

    Desire to be of service to society.

    Desireto get respectability.

    Applied vs.Fundamental:
    Applied research aims at finding a solutione to industrial/business organisation.

    Fundamental research is concerned with generalisations andvwith the formulation of a theory.
    Quantitative vs.Qualitative:
    Quantitative research is applicable to phenomenon that can be express edinterms of quantity.

    Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon ,i.e. ,phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind.
    Some other types of Research
    One time research
    Longitudinal research
    Historical research
    Conclusion oriented
    Decision oriented

    identify problem
    Literature review
    Development of working hypothesis
    Preparing there search design
    Determining Sample Design
    Collecting the data Execution of the project
    Analysisof the data Hypothesis testing
    Generalisation interpretation
    Reportwriting

  154. IFEANYI CHINWUBA INNOCENT says:

    NAME: CHINWUBA IFEANYI INNOCENT
    CLASS: 300 LVL
    DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS
    COURSE CODE: ECO 391

    ASSIGNMENT
    Clearly and clinically analyze the above statement and let us know what research means to you as the special adviser to Mr. President on Research and strategy!

    Answer
    Firstly, research given by the dictionary definition is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and research new conclusions.
    Research is a creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. It involves the collection, organisation and anaylsis of information to discover and interpret facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
    USES OF RESEARCH
    *Identify potential and new customers.
    *Understand existing customers.
    *Set pragmatic goals.
    *Develop productive market strategies.
    *Address business challenges.
    *Put together a business expansion plan.
    *Identify new business opportunities.

    RESEARCH METHODS
    The following below are some research methods;
    Research methods are broadly classified as Qualitative and Quantitative.
    Both methods have distinctive properties and data collection methods.
    *Qualitative methods
    Qualitative research is a method that collects data using
    conversational methods, usually open-ended questions.
    The responses collected are essentially non-numerical.
    This method helps a researcher understand what
    participants think and why they think in a particular way.
    *Types of qualitative methods include:
    *One-to-one Interview
    *Focus Groups
    *Ethnographic studies
    *Text Analysis
    *Case Study

    *Quantitative methods
    Quantitative methods deal with numbers and
    measurable forms. It uses a systematic way of
    investigating events or data. It answers questions to
    justify relationships with measurable variables to either
    explain, predict, or control a phenomenon.
    *Types of quantitative methods include:
    *Survey research
    *Descriptive research
    *Correlational research
    Remember, research is only valuable and useful when it is valid, accurate, and reliable. Incorrect results can lead to customer churn and a decrease in sales.
    It is essential to ensure that your data is:
    *Valid – founded, logical, rigorous, and impartial.
    *Accurate – free of errors and including required details.
    *Reliable – other people who investigate in the same way can produce similar results.
    *Timely – current and collected within an appropriate time frame.
    *Complete – includes all the data you need to support your business decisions.

    FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
    *Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions.
    *The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods.
    *Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings.
    *There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it.
    *It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities.
    *It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
    *Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
    PURPOS